List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor
The Bureau of International Labor Affairs (ILAB) maintains a list of goods and their source countries which it has reason to believe are produced by child labor or forced labor in violation of international standards, as required under the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act (TVPRA) of 2005 and subsequent reauthorizations. The List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor comprises 159 goods from 78 countries and areas, as of September 28, 2022.
ILAB maintains the List primarily to raise public awareness about forced labor and child labor around the world and to promote efforts to combat them; it is not intended to be punitive, but rather to serve as a catalyst for more strategic and focused coordination and collaboration among those working to address these problems.
Publication of the List has resulted in new opportunities for ILAB to engage with foreign governments to combat forced labor and child labor. It is also a valuable resource for researchers, advocacy organizations and companies wishing to carry out risk assessments and engage in due diligence on labor rights in their supply chains.
The countries on the List span every region of the world. The most common agricultural goods listed are sugarcane, cotton, coffee, tobacco, cattle, rice, and fish. In the manufacturing sector, bricks, garments, textiles, footwear, carpets, and fireworks appear most frequently. In mined or quarried goods, gold, coal and diamonds are most common.
ILAB published the initial TVPRA List in 2009 and updated it annually through 2014, following a set of procedural guidelines that were the product of an intensive public consultation process. ILAB now updates and publishes the List every other year, pursuant to changes in the law.
On May 15, 2020, ILAB's Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking published Procedural Guidelines for the development and maintenance of the List of Goods from countries produced by child labor or forced labor in violation of international standards.
There are reports that adults are forced to work in the production of coffee in Brazil. According to media reports and NGOs, cases of forced labor within the coffee sector are a recurring problem. A large number of these violations occur in the state of Minas Gerais, which is responsible for about 70 percent of the coffee produced in the country. There are more than 100,000 coffee plantations in Minas Gerais, with an estimated 245,000 workers, most working informally, thus increasing the probability of their exploitation. Sources indicate that forced labor in coffee is widespread in this state. Intermediaries, called gatos, recruit workers from poorer neighboring states, and often lie about working conditions, wages, hours, and the quality of living conditions. According to investigations, workers face up to 15-hour workdays, and often receive sub-minimum wage payments. Reports also indicate that a number of workers face precarious and unsanitary housing accommodations with no access to potable water, and a lack of proper bathroom and cooking facilities. Some workers report finding themselves in a debt spiral because they owe money to the plantation owners for food, their journey to the plantation, and even the equipment they must use during the harvest. These debts incurred hinder the workers’ ability to leave the coffee plantations. A number of workers also report fear of punishment for complaining about the poor conditions, or for speaking to outside sources about their work and living conditions. Some workers have had their working papers or identity papers confiscated by their employer.
|Child Labor, Forced Labor|
There are reports that children ages 5 to 17 cultivate coffee in Costa Rica. Based on an analysis by international organizations of the Government of Costa Rica’s National Household Survey (ENAHO) 2011, published in 2015, 8.8 percent of child laborers in the country, or approximately 1,422 children ages 5-14, were in child labor in coffee production in Costa Rica. The ENAHO 2011 counts as child labor all work performed by a child below age 15. In addition, the analysis indicates that 5.2 percent of working adolescents ages 15 to 17, or 1,625 adolescents, were also engaged in coffee production. The analysis noted that 78 percent of children and adolescents in child labor in Costa Rica work with their families. Although more recent national surveys have shown a 65 percent decrease in the number of children ages 12 to 17 working in agriculture from 13,866 in 2011 to 4,853 in 2015, these surveys do not provide the number of children in child labor in the coffee sector. Data from the 2016 ENAHO, which included a child labor module, is expected to be released in early 2017.
There are reports that children ages 14-17 and younger in Côte d'Ivoire are forced to work on coffee plantations. Based on a research study, thousands of children are involved in this type of labor. Some children are forcibly recruited, or recruited through deceptive means, and transported to coffee plantations in Côte d'Ivoire from nearby countries including Benin, Mali, Togo, and Burkina Faso. These children are sold to traffickers. Other children leave their home countries or communities voluntarily, but end up in situations where they are not paid and have no means to return home. Some children are forced to work for three or four years before receiving payment or returning home. Others are forced to work, even if sick, and prevented from leaving the plantations through threat of physical violence, withheld payments, or denial of food.
|Child Labor, Forced Labor|
|Dominican Republic||Child Labor|
|El Salvador||Child Labor|
|Sierra Leone||Child Labor|
There are reports that children ages 5 to 17 in Vietnam cultivate coffee. The results of the Government of Vietnam’s National Child Labor Survey 2012, published in 2014, show that an estimated 34,131 child laborers grow coffee. Approximately 36.7 percent, or 12,526, of these child laborers are under 15 years old, which is the minimum age for employment in Vietnam. Of the estimated 34,131 child laborers who grow coffee, 9.2 percent are 5-11 years old, 27.5 percent are 12-14 years old, and 63.3 percent are 15-17 years old. The survey considers a child to be engaged in child labor if the child is working an excessive number of hours per week for his or her age, or if the child is engaged in work that is prohibited for underage employees according to national legislation.