Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Tanzania

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Tanzania

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Minimal Advancement – Efforts Made but Continued Policy that Delayed Advancement

In 2016, the United Republic of Tanzania made a minimal advancement to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. While the Government, in coordination with the ILO, published a National Child Labor Survey and established a National Plan of Action to End Violence Against Women and Children, Tanzania is receiving this assessment because it continued to implement a policy that delayed advancement in eliminating the worst forms of child labor. Since 1984, the Government has regulated access to secondary education through the Primary School Leaving Exam (PSLE). Students who do not pass the exam do not have an opportunity to re-take the exam. As a result, students must drop out and do not have the opportunity to continue their education. As students in Tanzania and Zanzibar complete primary education at the average age of 14, children in Zanzibar who do not pass the exam can find themselves both out of formal education and still below the minimum age for work, which is 15 in Zanzibar, leaving such children at increased risk of child labor. While the Government has expressed its intention to phase out the exam by 2021, it has yet to initiate efforts or make preparations to do so. Children also engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in mining, quarrying, and domestic work. Other gaps remain in the laws, including the regulation of children’s engagement in illicit activities or domestic work, although the Government has coordination mechanisms to monitor child labor and implement child protection activities.

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Children engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in mining, quarrying, and domestic work.(1-6) As part of the USDOL-funded project, Global Research on Child Labor Measurement and Policy Development, Tanzania published a National Child Labor Survey, noting that 94.1 percent of working children are engaged in agriculture.(6) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Mainland Tanzania.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

29.3 (3,573,467)

Working children by sector

 

 

Agriculture

 

94.1

Industry

 

1.0

Services

 

4.9

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

74.3

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

24.6

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

73.7

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2014, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(7)
Source for all other data: Tanzania Mainland National Child Labour Survey.(6)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Ploughing, weeding, harvesting, and processing crops in the cultivation of coffee, sisal, tea, tobacco, and cloves (1, 3, 4, 8-10)

Seaweed farming (1, 11, 12)

Production of sugarcane† (4)

Livestock herding, including tending cattle (3, 5, 13)

Fishing, including for Nile perch (5, 6, 8, 12, 14)

Industry

Quarrying† stone and breaking rocks to produce gravel (1, 3-6, 11, 14, 15)

Mining,† including gold and tanzanite, and using mercury (3-6, 8, 12, 16-20)

Manufacturing,† activities unknown (4, 8, 12, 21)

Construction,† including digging, drilling, carrying bricks,† bricklaying, and assisting masons (3, 4, 12, 22)

Services

Domestic work,† including child care,† cooking, and washing† (3, 6, 23, 24)

Garbage collecting† (8)

Street work, including vending,† shoe shining, petty business, and scavenging† (3, 8, 25)

Work as barmaids† (26)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking or work in the tourism industry (3, 5, 8, 12, 27)

Forced begging (5, 25)

Forced labor in domestic work, agriculture, mining, fishing, commercial trading, quarrying, shining shoes, pushing carts, and working in factories and bars, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (5, 27-30)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Tanzania is a source, transit, and destination country for child trafficking for forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation. Child trafficking is often facilitated by victims’ family members, friends, or intermediaries promising assistance or employment.(5, 28, 30, 31) Impoverished rural children and those orphaned by HIV/AIDS are particularly vulnerable.(31, 32) Girls are often trafficked for domestic servitude or commercial sexual exploitation, including along the Kenya border and in tourist areas.(5, 28, 29) Children from Burundi and Kenya are trafficked to Tanzania for mining, domestic work, and agricultural labor; however, most children are trafficked internally.(5, 33)

Despite a recent policy shift to institute tuition-free primary education, which has increased enrollment rates by 36.7 percent compared to last year, families must still pay for books, uniforms, and school lunches. In an effort to mitigate overcrowding issues, the Government launched a nationwide effort to furnish sufficient desks for newly enrolled students.(34-37)

Tanzania has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Tanzania’s legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Related Entity

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Mainland

No

14

Article 5 of the Employment and Labor Relations Act; Article 77 of the Law of the Child Act (38, 39)

Zanzibar

No

15

Article 6 of the Zanzibar Employment Act; Articles 2 and 98 of the Zanzibar Children’s Act (40, 41)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Mainland

Yes

18

Article 5 of the Employment and Labor Relations Act; Article 82 of the Law of the Child Act (38, 39)

Zanzibar

Yes

18

Articles 8 and 9 of the Zanzibar Employment Act; Article 100 of the Zanzibar Children’s Act (40, 41)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Mainland

Yes

 

Article 5 of the Employment and Labor Relations Act; Article 82 of the Law of the Child Act; List of Hazardous Child Labor (4, 38, 39)

Zanzibar

Yes

 

Articles 8 and 9 of the Zanzibar Employment Act; Article 100 of the Zanzibar Children’s Act (40, 41)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Mainland

Yes

 

Article 25 of the Constitution; Article 80 of the Law of the Child Act; Article 6 of the Employment and Labor Relations Act; Article 4 of The Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act (38, 39, 42, 43)

Zanzibar

Yes

 

Article 7 of the Zanzibar Employment Act; Article 102 of the Zanzibar Children’s Act (40, 41)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Mainland

Yes

 

Article 4 of the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act (43)

Zanzibar

Yes

 

Articles 6 and 7 of the Zanzibar Employment Act; Article 106 of the Zanzibar Children’s Act (40, 41)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Mainland

Yes

 

Article 138.2.b of the Sexual Offences Special Provisions Act; Article 4 of the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act (43, 44)

Zanzibar

Yes

 

Article 155 of the Penal Code of Zanzibar; Article 110 of the Zanzibar Children’s Act (40, 45)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Mainland

No

 

 

Zanzibar

Yes

 

Article 7.2.c of the Zanzibar Employment Act (41)

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

 

 

 

 

State Compulsory

 

N/A*

 

 

State Voluntary

 

Yes

18

Article 29 of the National Defense Act (46)

Non-state Compulsory

 

No

 

 

Compulsory Education Age

 

Yes

14

Article 35 of the National Education Act (34)

Free Public Education

 

No

 

 

* No conscription (46)

Mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar have separate laws and regulations governing child labor because child labor laws are not union matters according to Tanzania’s Constitution.(1, 42) For example, Mainland Tanzania’s law does not explicitly prohibit child domestic work. Although the Zanzibar Children’s Act sets the minimum age for work at 15, it does not specify whether its protections cover children engaged in domestic work.(38, 40, 41) Likewise, Mainland Tanzania does not clearly provide penalties for using children for illicit activities, including in the production and trafficking of drugs. Zanzibar prohibits the use of children for illicit activities, including the production and trafficking of drugs.(40, 41) In addition, the types of hazardous work prohibited for children do not cover fishing and agriculture tasks in the production of tobacco, cloves, coffee, sisal, and tea.(4, 38-41)

Tanzania does not have a law requiring free public education, but it does have an education policy that provides for free education. A policy change in 2016 translated into lower costs for primary and secondary education.(33, 47-49) The Government regulates access to secondary education through the Primary School Leaving Exam (PSLE); students who do not pass the exam do not have an opportunity to re-take the exam, and must drop out of school. As students complete primary education at the average age of 14, children in Zanzibar who do not pass the exam can find themselves both out of formal education and still below the minimum age for work, which is 15 in Zanzibar, leaving such children at increased risk of child labor; nevertheless, exact numbers for children affected in Zanzibar are unavailable.(50, 51) Human rights groups have reported that since 2012, at least 1.5 million children nationwide have been unable to continue their education, and although the Government has expressed its intention to phase out the exam by 2021, it has yet to initiate efforts or make preparations to do so.(50, 51)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor law and criminal law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available.

Table 5. Key Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Minister of State in the Prime Minister’s Office for Policy, Parliamentary Affairs, Labor, Employment, Youth, and the Disabled (Mainland)

Enforce child labor laws.(1) Assigns area labor officers to each region to respond to reports of child labor violations, issue noncompliance orders, and report incidents to police and the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare.(1) Through its Labor Administration and Inspection Section, provide legal guidance upon request, disseminate information to employers and employees on their rights and obligations, and help area offices conduct labor inspections.(33)

Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, Elders, and Children (Mainland)

Enforce child protection laws and regulations, enforce health and social welfare policies, employ officers to monitor child labor at the district and village levels, and report findings to the President's Office Regional Administration and Local Government (PMORALG).(2, 16) Promote community development, gender equality, and children’s rights by formulating policies, strategies, and guidelines, in collaboration with stakeholders.(33)

Ministry of Empowerment, Adults, Youth, Women and Children (Zanzibar)

Ensure compliance with child protection and child labor laws, including inspections, through its Child Protection Unit.(33) Following a merger with the Ministry of Labor, Economic Empowerment and Cooperatives, investigate child labor cases reported by the police and refer cases to social welfare officers.(50)

Ministry of Health (Zanzibar)

Enforce anti-trafficking laws, including cases of child trafficking.(33)

Tanzania Police Force

Investigate cases of child labor and other forms of child endangerment reported to police stations; in some cases, refer the cases to labor officers or seek assistance of social welfare officers and the Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions for legal actions. Includes a Human Trafficking desk and Gender and Children’s desks to handle cases pertaining to children.(28, 33, 52, 53)

Ministry of Home Affairs (Mainland)

Enforce anti-trafficking laws, including child trafficking, and laws prohibiting commercial sexual exploitation of children and the use of children in illicit activities. Chair the Anti-Trafficking Committee.(33)

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, labor law enforcement agencies in Tanzania took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

Related Entity

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Mainland

Unknown

Unknown (33)

Zanzibar

Unknown

Unknown (33)

Number of Labor Inspectors

Mainland

Unknown

120 (33)

Zanzibar

Unknown

5 (33)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Mainland

No (8)

Unknown (33)

Zanzibar

Unknown (8)

Unknown (33)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Mainland and Zanzibar

Unknown

Unknown (33)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Mainland

Unknown (54)

Yes (33)

Zanzibar

Unknown

Unknown (33)

Refresher Courses Provided

Mainland

No (8)

Unknown (33)

Zanzibar

Unknown (8)

Unknown (33)

Number of Labor Inspections

Mainland

1,754‡ (8)

1,200 (33)

Zanzibar

Unknown (8)

228 (33)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Mainland and Zanzibar

Unknown (8)

1,228 (33)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Mainland and Zanzibar

Unknown (8)

200 (33)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Mainland

Unknown

Unknown (33)

Zanzibar

Unknown

Unknown (33)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Mainland and Zanzibar

Unknown

10 (33)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

Mainland and Zanzibar

Unknown

0 (33)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Mainland and Zanzibar

Unknown

Yes (33)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Mainland and Zanzibar

Unknown

Yes (33)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Mainland

Yes (8)

Yes (33)

Zanzibar

Unknown

Unknown (33)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Mainland and Zanzibar

Unknown (8)

Yes (33)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Mainland and Zanzibar

Yes (8)

Yes (33)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Mainland and Zanzibar

Unknown

Yes (33)

‡ Data are from January 1, 2015 to June 30, 2015.

Despite regulations dictating that one or more labor officers be assigned to each region, research was unable to determine whether each region had a dedicated labor officer during the reporting period.(55) The number of labor inspectors is insufficient for the size of Tanzania’s workforce, which includes over 26 million workers. According to the ILO’s recommendation of 1 inspector for every 40,000 workers in less developed economies, Tanzania should employ roughly 674 inspectors.(56, 57)

Through the WEKEZA project, 61 mainland labor officers received training during the reporting period.(33) The Government provided incomplete data on inspections; however, in previous years, inspections on the mainland were carried out in sectors such as agriculture, mining, domestic work, hotels, trade, industry and commerce, construction, and fishing.(3) Figures on labor inspectorate funding are unavailable; however, NGOs commented that child labor inspections could benefit from additional funding and inspections.(33) Complaint and referral mechanisms have been reported to lack investigative and enforcement capacity.(8, 12, 33)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in Tanzania took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

Related Entity

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

 

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Mainland and Zanzibar

Yes (8)

Unknown (33)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Mainland

Yes (8)

Yes (33)

Zanzibar

Unknown

Unknown (33)

Refresher Courses Provided

Mainland and Zanzibar

Unknown (8)

Unknown (33)

Number of Investigations

Mainland

Unknown (8)

Unknown (33)

Zanzibar

Unknown (8)

Unknown (33)

Number of Violations Found

Mainland

Unknown

10 (33)

Zanzibar

Unknown

Unknown (33)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Mainland

Unknown (8)

Unknown (33)

Zanzibar

Unknown (8)

Unknown (33)

Number of Convictions

Mainland

Unknown (8)

Unknown (33)

Zanzibar

Unknown (8)

Unknown (33)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Mainland and Zanzibar

Yes (31)

Yes (33)

 

Mainland Tanzania’s Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions reported 10 violations that resulted in penalties imposed; the 10 violators received warnings.(33) The Government has made efforts to sanction recruiting agencies outside of the country, prosecute offenders, and prevent known perpetrators from entering the country, but the number of efforts related to child-specific violations remains unknown.(58, 59)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Anti-Trafficking Committee and Secretariat

Promote, define, and coordinate policy to prevent human trafficking through engagement with local NGOs.(28, 31, 43, 50) Chaired by the Ministry of Home Affairs, includes representatives from the Prime Minister’s Office for Policy, Parliamentary Affairs, Labor, Employment, Youth, and the Disabled.(55) In 2016, received a budget of roughly $45,000 for the third consecutive year.(60, 61)

National Education Task Force on Child Labor (NETFCL)

Review education sector policies and existing laws, regulations, and strategies related to children’s issues, including the National Action Plan. Review existing curriculum and programs, identify gaps, and suggest strategies to resolve barriers to education access related to child labor.(8, 62)

Zanzibar Child Labor Steering Committee

Coordinate various implementing agencies responsible for child labor and provide policy guidance on the Zanzibar National Action Plan to Combat Child Labor.(33) Chaired by Zanzibar’s Ministry of Empowerment, Adults, Youth, Women and Children.(55)

National Protection Steering Committee†

Provide overall policy guidance and coordination at both the national and local level of the National Action Plan to End Violence Against Women and Children (NPA-VAWC) through the merger of the National Inter-Sectoral Coordination Committee and the Multi-Sector Task Force on Violence Against Children.(50, 53) Operate the NPA-VAWC National Protection Technical Committee (NPTC) and Thematic Working Groups (TWGs) at the national level; merge pre-existing committees at the regional and district levels, focusing on violence prevention and response, including the Child Labor Committees, the Gender Based Violence (GBV) Committees, District Child Protection Teams (DCPTs) and Most Vulnerable Children Committees (MVCCs).(33, 53)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

In 2016, the Government established a unified coordinating structure to address child labor issues through the implementation of the National Action Plan to End Violence Against Women and Children (NPA-VAWC) that is both multi-sectoral and cross-jurisdictional.(33, 53) However, while funding requirements are provided in the plan, it is not yet clear whether the funding has been allocated in the national budget for NPA-VAWC.(8, 33)

The Government has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor‡

Policy

Description

National Action Plan to End Violence Against Women and Children (2017–2022)†

Prevent and respond to all forms of violence against women and children through comprehensive multi-sectoral collaboration at all levels; combining eight national action plans together.(53) Details responsible agencies and addresses multiple challenges including education and poverty reduction.(33)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.
‡ The Government had other policies which may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor.(2, 33, 50, 63)

The National Action Plan to End Violence Against Women and Children replaced the National Action Plan for the Elimination of Child Labor and the National Costed Plan of Action for Most Vulnerable Children II.(33) In 2016, the Anti-Trafficking Secretariat began preliminary discussions to draft a new National Action Plan on Anti-Trafficking set to begin in 2018.(55, 61) The Government has not included child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the Primary Education Development Plan III.(47)

In 2016, the Government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor‡

Program

Description

USDOL-Funded Projects to Address Child Labor

WEKEZA Project (2012–2017), a $10 million project implemented by the International Rescue Committee; Global Research on Child Labor Measurement and Policy Development (2013–2017), implemented in 10 countries by the ILO; and Expanding the Evidence Base and Reinforcing Policy Research for Scaling Up and Accelerating Action Against Child Labor (2010–2017), implemented in seven countries by the ILO.(64-66) For additional information about USDOL’s work, please visit our web site.

Supporting the Establishment of Assistance and Referral Mechanisms for Child Victims of Trafficking in Tanzania (2013–2016)

$1.4 million EU/UNDAF-funded project, implemented by the IOM to enhance coordination mechanisms among key actors to protect, assist, and refer child victims of trafficking in Tanzania, and to reduce the risks of re-trafficking for these children.(67) In 2016, held a two-day dissemination workshop to launch standard operating procedures to protect, assist, and refer trafficked children, including safe family reunification guidelines for child victims of trafficking.(68)

Promoting Sustainable Practices to Eradicate Child Labor in Tobacco (PROSPER) Platform for Unity and Sustainability (PROSPER+) (2016–2017)

$837,592 continuation project to reduce child labor in tobacco-growing areas using four approaches: (a) develop advocacy to foster social and political change; (b) support coordination to convert policy into action; (c) support increase of decent work for youth and combat hazardous work in tobacco; and (d) put in place activities in tobacco-growing regions to expand access to quality education and economic opportunities. Implementing partners are Winrock International, Tanzania Association of Women Leaders in Agriculture and the Environment, and the Tabora Development Foundation Trust.(33, 69) In 2016, conducted an evaluation of the previous PROSPER project.(33)

Terre des Hommes-Funded Projects

Funds three projects that are extensions of previous projects.(33) (a) Ending the Worst Forms of Child Labor in Artisanal Gold Mines in Kahama (2016–2017), a $146,000 project implemented by Rafiki Social Development Organization to remove, counsel, provide employment training, form child rights clubs, and provide training for government officials at multiple levels.(33, 54) (b) Protecting Children from CSEC in the Mara Region (2016–2017), a $84,000 project implemented by Watoto Wapinge Ukimwi with the District Child Protection Team and the Police Gender and Children’s Desk in Musoma. In 2016, identified 50 girl victims, enrolled them in schools, and provided shelter for 13 girls.(33) (c) End Exploitation and Trafficking of Child Domestic Workers in Mwanza (2016–2017), a $270,000 project implemented by KIWOHEDE that removes and trains child domestic workers, establishes child domestic worker committees, empowers children, and refers violations to local authorities.(33, 54)

Eradicating the Worst Forms of Labor in the Eight Mining Wards of the Geita District, Phase 2 (2015–2018)

$1.1 million EU-funded, 3-year project implemented by Plan International Tanzania that enhances social protection mechanisms for communities to prevent child labor and improve awareness of child labor among children, parents, and mining employers near mining areas in Chato, Geita, and Nywangwale.(18, 70) In 2016, the project promoted safe spaces by forming 28 Junior Councils, comprising 1,040 children, to enhance children’s rights and increase protection against child labor and violence.(50)

Tanzania Social Action Fund Conditional Cash Transfer Program (TASAF CCT), Phase III (2012–2018)†

Government-funded conditional cash transfer program that provides financial assistance to vulnerable populations, including children.(71, 72) USDOL-funded study, implemented by the WEKEZA project, reported increased school enrollment and reduced forced child migration and child labor as a result of TASAF-CCT.(2, 73) In 2016, extended TASAF-CCT into 2018 and completed nine rounds of payments to beneficiaries.(50)

Decent Work Country Program (DWCP)

ILO-supported program that identifies four objectives of decent work: (a) create jobs; (b) guarantee rights at work; (c) extend social protection; and (d) promote social dialog. Outcomes include improved operational environment for the elimination of child labor and its worst forms.(33, 74) In 2016, DWCP II received a review, and a preliminary workshop on DWCP II design indicated that partners intend to maintain activities in all four areas of the DWCP I agenda.(33)

Achieving Reduction of Child Labor in Support of Education (ARISE)

Joint initiative of the ILO, Japan Tobacco International, and Winrock International to end child labor in tobacco through education. Operates in three districts in Tabora Region: Kaliua, Urambo, and Uyui.(75, 76) In 2016, assessed gaps, challenges, and strategies.(10, 77)

† Program is funded by the Government of Tanzania.
‡ The Government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms.(33)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Tanzania (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that minimum age protections apply to children engaged in domestic work.

2013 – 2016

Criminally prohibit the use of children in illicit activities, particularly in the production and trafficking of drugs.

2012 – 2016

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under 18 by non-state armed groups.

2016

Ensure that the hazardous occupations and activities prohibited for children are comprehensive.

2016

Establish by law a free basic public education.

2015 – 2016

Enforcement

Increase the number of labor inspectors to meet ILO recommendation and ensure that a dedicated labor officer is appointed to each region, and publish this information.

2013 – 2016

Publish information for mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar on child labor inspection mechanisms and elimination activities, such as labor inspectorate funding, authorization to assess penalties, trainings provided, and child labor violations found.

2011 – 2016

Provide sufficient resources to conduct child labor inspections.

2013 – 2016

Ensure that reporting and referral mechanisms are effective.

2014 – 2016

Publish information on enforcement efforts to combat the worst forms of child labor, including whether trainings were provided, investigations conducted, violations found, prosecutions initiated, and criminal convictions executed on mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar.

2012 – 2016

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into existing Government policies.

2011 – 2016

Take steps to eliminate the Primary School Leaving Exam as a barrier to education.

2016

Social Programs

Address barriers to education, including prohibitive costs, such as books, school meals, or uniforms.

2010 – 2016

1.         U.S. Embassy- Dar es Salaam. reporting, January 17, 2014.

2.         International Rescue Committee. WEKEZA Project. Technical Progress Report. New York; October 2013.

3.         Government of Tanzania. The Brief on Update Information on Child Labour in Tanzania. Dar es Salaam; March 4, 2014. [Source on file].

4.         Government of Tanzania. List of Hazards. Dar es Salaam; 2013. [Source on file].

5.         U.S. Department of State. "Tanzania," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016. Washington, DC; June 30, 2016; https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2016/258875.htm.

6.         ILO, and Government of Tanzania. Tanzania Mainland National Child Labor Survey 2014. Geneva; February 2016. http://www.ilo.org/ipec/Informationresources/WCMS_IPEC_PUB_28475/lang--en/index.htm.

7.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). [Accessed December 16, 2016]; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary education. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. The calculation includes all new entrants to the last grade (regardless of age). Therefore, the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

8.         U.S. Embassy- Dar es Salaam. reporting January 19, 2016.

9.         Yussuf, I. "Clove Production Records Success Despite Challenges." Tanzania Daily News, Dar es Salaam, June 29, 2016. http://allafrica.com/stories/201606290468.html.

10.       ILO-IPEC, and Government of Tanzania. Rapid Assessment on Child Labour in Tobacco Growing Communities in Tabora Region, Tanzania. Geneva; 2016. http://www.ilo.org/addisababa/countries-covered/tanzania/WCMS_517519/lang--en/index.htm.

11.       Yusuf, I. "Child Labour May Need Another Definition in Zanzibar." Tanzania Daily News, Dar es Salaam, April 25, 2012. http://allafrica.com/stories/201204250239.html.

12.       U.S. Embassy- Dar es Salaam. reporting, January 20, 2015.

13.       U.S. Embassy- Dar es Salaam. reporting, January 24, 2012.

14.       UNICEF. Cities and Children: The Challenge of Urbansation in Tanzania. Dar es Salaam; 2012. http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/files/Cities_and_Children_-_FINAL.pdf.

15.       Yusuf, I. "Pemba Needs New Ways to Fight Child Labour." Tanzania Daily News, Dar es Salaam, October 17, 2012. http://allafrica.com/stories/201210170233.html?viewall=1.

16.       Kim, M.J. Allegations of Illicit Child Labor Draws Scrutiny in Tanzania’s Mining Sectors, Human Rights Brief, [online] October 27, 2013 [cited November 26, 2013]; http://hrbrief.org/2013/10/allegations-of-illicit-child-labor-draws-scrutiny-in-tanzania%E2%80%99s-mining-sectors/.

17.       Makene, P. "Efforts to Curb Child Labour in Gold Mines Proves Fruitful, Says RC." ippmedia.com [online] March 18, 2014 [cited March 27, 2014]; http://www.123tanzania.com/?module=news&action=newsdetails&news=4153.

18.       Human Rights Watch. Toxic Toil: Child Labor and Mercury Exposure in Tanzania's Small-Scale Gold Mines; 2013. http://www.hrw.org/reports/2013/08/28/toxic-toil.

19.       Human Rights Watch. Child Rights and the Environment--The Need for Action. Submission by Human Rights Watch to the Committee on the Rights of the Child; July 22, 2016. https://www.hrw.org/news/2016/07/22/child-rights-and-environment-need-action.

20.       Lobulu, W. "City Fathers Erred on Arusha Tag." Arusha Times, Arusha, February 27, 2016. [Source on file].

21.       Committee on the Rights of the Child. Committee on the Rights of the Child reviews report of Tanzania. Geneva: January 16, 2015. http://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=15492&LangID=E#sthash.hsnZl3oe.dpuf.

22.       U.S. Embassy- Dar es Salaam. reporting, January 29, 2013.

23.       ILO-IPEC. Ending Child Labour in Domestic Work and Protecting Young Workers from Abusive Working Conditions. Geneva; June 12, 2013. http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/download.do?type=document&id=21515.

24.       ILO. A Situational Analysis of Domestic Workers in the United Republic of Tanzania. Dar es Salaam; January 30, 2016. http://www.ilo.org/addisababa/countries-covered/tanzania/WCMS_517516/lang--en/index.htm.

25.       Smeaton, E. Struggling to Survive: Children Living Alone on the Streets in Tanzania and Kenya; 2012. [Source on file].

26.       Makoye, K. "Tanzania Suspends Quarter Of Job Agencies In Crackdown On Sex, Labour Trafficking." Thomas Reuters Foundation News [online] August 20, 2015 [cited January 3, 2017]; http://news.trust.org//item/20150820114050-04y6h/.

27.       Kimani, G. "Child Trafficking On Increase With No Solution in Horizon." The Citizen, Dar es Salaam, October 28, 2016. http://allafrica.com/stories/201610260785.html.

28.       U.S. Embassy- Dar es Salaam. reporting, Feburary 14, 2014.

29.       Mwita, S. "Human Trafficking Getting Worrisome." Tanzania Daily News, Dar es Salaam, June 12, 2013. http://allafrica.com/stories/201306121100.html?viewall=1.

30.       Mwita, S. "Human Trafficking Seen Escalating." Tanzania Daily News, Dar es Salaam, June 23, 2016. http://allafrica.com/stories/201606230071.html.

31.       U.S. Embassy- Dar es Salaam. reporting, February 18, 2015.

32.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation Concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Tanzania, United Republic of (ratification: 2001) Published: 2014; accessed April 18, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:13100:0::NO::P13100_COMMENT_ID:3142624.

33.       U.S. Embassy- Dar es Salaam. reporting, January 17, 2017.

34.       Government of Tanzania. National Education Act, enacted December 4, 1978. http://www.unesco.org/education/edurights/media/docs/873ae01bc28cf449895950c7cac2a419d3ede5fd.pdf.

35.       Human Rights Watch. The Education Deficit: Failures to Protect and Fulfill the Right to Education in Global Development Agendas. Washington, DC; 2016. https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/accessible_document/educationdeficit0616_accessible.pdf.

36.       U.S. Department of State. "Tanzania," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - 2016. Washington, DC; March 3, 2017; https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265522.pdf.

37.       Mtema, N. "Tanzania: School Desk Initiative Pays Off." Tanzania Daily News, Dar es Salaam, July 1, 2016. http://allafrica.com/stories/201607010575.html.

38.       Government of Tanzania. Employment and Labour Relations Act, enacted 2006. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/SERIAL/68319/66452/.

39.       Government of Tanzania. The Law of the Child Act, enacted 2009. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_protect/---protrav/---ilo_aids/documents/legaldocument/wcms_151287.pdf.

40.       Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar. Children's Act, enacted 2011. [Source on file].

41.       Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar. Employment Act, No.11, enacted 2005. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/WEBTEXT/49108/65102/E98TZA01.htm#p2.

42.       Government of Tanzania. The Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania, enacted 1977. [Source on file].

43.       Government of Tanzania. The Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act, enacted 2008. http://www.protectionproject.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/Tanzania_The-Anti-Trafficking_2008.pdf.

44.       Government of Tanzania. Sexual Offences Special Provisions Act, enacted 1998. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/67094/63635/F532037758/TZA67094.pdf.

45.       Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar. Penal Decree Act No. 6 of 2004, enacted 2004. [Source on file].

46.       Government of Tanzania. National Defence Act, enacted 1966. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/59640/110397/F-945252991/TZA59640.pdf.

47.       Government of Tanzania. Primary Education Development Plan III (2012-2016). Dar es Salaam; 2012. [Source on file].

48.       Government of Tanzania. Education Circular No. 5, enacted November 27, 2015. [Source on file].

49.       Government of Tanzania. Education Circular No. 6, enacted December 10, 2015. [Source on file].

50.       U.S. Embassy- Dar es Salaam official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 2, 2017.

51.       Human Rights Watch. "I Had a Dream to Finish School:" Barriers to Secondary Education in Tanzania. Washington, DC; 2017. https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/accessible_document/tanzania0217_-_accessible.pdf.

52.       ECPAT International. Global Monitoring Status of Action Against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children: Tanzania. Bangkok; 2013. www.ecpat.net/sites/default/files/a4a_v2_af_tanzania_4.pdf.

53.       Government of Tanzania. National Plan of Action to End Violence Against Women and Children in Tanzania. Dar es Salaam; December 2016. http://www.mcdgc.go.tz/index.php/publications/more/national_plan_of_action_to_end_violence_against_women_and_children_in_/.

54.       U.S. Embassy- Dar es Salaam official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 25, 2016.

55.       U.S. Embassy- Dar es Salaam official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 16, 2017.

56.       UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex. New York; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies," “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies," and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

57.       CIA. The World Factbook, CIA, [online] [cited March 16, 2017]; https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ag.html. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors based on the country’s level of development as determined by the UN.

58.       U.S. Embassy- Dar es Salaam. reporting, November 25, 2015.

59.       U.S. Embassy- Dar es Salaam. reporting, July 16, 2015.

60.       U.S. Embassy- Dar es Salaam. reporting, December 13, 2016.

61.       U.S. Embassy- Dar es Salaam. reporting, March 14, 2017.

62.       Government of Tanzania. NETF Action Plan. National Education Task Force on Child Labor; 2015. [Source on File].

63.       World Bank. Secondary Education Development Program II. Washington, DC; 2016. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/182201483110970136/pdf/ISR-Disclosable-P114866-12-30-2016-1483110951754.pdf.

64.       International Rescue Committee. WEKEZA Project. Technical Progress Report. New York; October 2016.

65.       ILO-IPEC. Global Research on Child Labor Measurement and Policy Development (MAP). Technical Progress Report. Geneva; October 2016.

66.       ILO-IPEC. Expanding the Evidence Base and Reinforcing Policy Research for Scaling Up and Accelerating Action Against Child Labor Technical Progress Report. Geneva; October 2016.

67.       IOM. Supporting the Establishment, Assistance and Referral Mechanisms for Child Victims of Trafficking in Tanzania. Paris; 2016. https://tanzania.iom.int/programmes/counter-traffickin/child-victims-trafficking-tanzania.

68.       IOM. Tanzania Launch Safe Family Reunification Guidelines for Child Victims of Trafficking. Press Release. Dar es Salaam; October 18, 2016. http://www.iom.int/news/iom-tanzania-launch-safe-family-reunification-guidelines-child-victims-trafficking.

69.       Winrock International. Empowerment & Civic Engagement: PROSPER Plus Program. Little Rock, AR; 2016. [Source on file].

70.       European Union official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. July 3, 2012.

71.       Kamagenge, A. Overview of Community-Based Conditional Cash Transfer (CB-CCT) Pilot. Dar Es Salaam; May 2012. [Source on file].

72.       Tanzania Daily News. "More Districts to Benefit from TASAF Cash Transfer Programme." dailynews.co.tz [online] April 6, 2012 [cited February 27, 2017]; http://allafrica.com/stories/201204060580.html.

73.       Government Project Preparation Team. Tanzania Third Social Action Fund: Productive Social Safety Net (PSSN) Operational Manual. Dar es Salaam, President's Office, United Republic of Tanzania; January 2013. [Source on file].

74.       ILO. Tanzania Decent Work Country Programme (2013-2016). Geneva; 2013. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---africa/---ro-addis_ababa/---sro-harare/documents/publication/wcms_248019.pdf.

75.       ILO-IPEC. Achieving Reduction of Child Labour In Support of Education (ARISE). Project Document; 2016. http://www.ilo.org/addisababa/countries-covered/tanzania/WCMS_531380/lang--en/index.htm.

76.       ARISE. ARISE Officially Launches in Tanzania. Press Release; May 25, 2016. http://ariseprogram.org/en/news/news/arise-officially-launches-tanzania/.

77.       ARISE. Growing Together: Annual Review 2015; 2016. http://ariseprogram.org/files/3114/6547/3494/ARISE_Annual_Review_2015.pdf.

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