Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Tanzania

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Tanzania

2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2015, the United Republic of Tanzania made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government, in coordination with the ILO, continued to conduct a National Child Labor Survey and support programs on the elimination of child labor.  The Government also passed implementation regulations for the Anti-Trafficking In Persons Act. However, children in Tanzania are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in quarrying, fishing, and domestic work. In addition, gaps remain in the laws regulating children’s engagement in illicit activities and legal protections for children engaging in domestic work. Although the Government has coordination mechanisms to monitor child labor and undertake child protection, concrete goals and a unified approach are lacking. The National Action Plan for the Elimination of Child Labor remains under-funded, as do enforcement mechanisms that detect and protect children from child labor, including its worst forms.

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Children in Tanzania are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in quarrying, fishing, and domestic work. Children also are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in mining.(1-6) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Tanzania.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education       

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

25.1 (3,157,442)

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

74.1

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

21.6

Primary completion rate (%):

73.7

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2013, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(7)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from National Panel Survey, 2010-2011.(8)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Cultivation of coffee, sisal, tea, tobacco, and cloves (1, 5, 9-11)

Ploughing, weeding, harvesting, and processing crops* (4)

Seaweed farming* (1, 12, 13)

Production of sugarcane* (5)

Livestock herding,* including tending cattle* (4, 14)

Fishing, including for Nile perch (3, 10, 13, 15-17)

Industry

Quarrying† stone, and breaking rocks to produce gravel (1, 3-5, 12, 15, 18)

Mining,† including gold and tanzanite (4, 5, 10, 13, 19-23)

Manufacturing,* activities unknown (5, 10, 13, 24)

Construction,† including digging,* drilling, carrying bricks,†* bricklaying,* and assisting masons* (4, 5, 13, 25)

Services

Domestic work, including child care, cooking, and washing (3, 4, 9, 26)

Garbage collecting* (10)

Street work, including vending, shoe shining, petty business, and scavenging (4, 10, 27-30)

Work as barmaids* (27)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking* or work in the tourism industry*† (4, 6, 10, 13)

Forced begging* (6, 29)

Forced labor in domestic work, agriculture, mining,* fishing, commercial trading, quarrying, shoe shining,* pushing carts,* and working in factories,* working in bars,* each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (6, 31, 32)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a) – (c) of ILO C. 182.

Tanzania is a source, transit, and destination country for child trafficking.(6, 33) Trafficking of children  for forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation is a problem in Tanzania, which particularly affects children trafficked internally (31, 33, 34). Children from poor families as well as those residing in rural areas or affected by HIV/AIDS face the greatest risk.(33, 35) Trafficking often involves family members, friends, or brokers, who promise rural families jobs or assistance with their children’s education in the urban areas of Arusha, Dar es Salaam, and Mwanza.(33) Girls are often trafficked for domestic servitude or commercial sexual exploitation, including along the Kenya-Tanzania border and in touristic areas in the country.(6, 11, 31, 32) Children from Burundi and Kenya are trafficked to Tanzania for mining, domestic work, and agricultural labor.(6, 34)

Access to education and public services is limited for some children in Tanzania. While the Primary Education Development Plan makes primary school education free, students or their parents may be required to contribute money to pay for books, school feeding programs, or uniforms.(11, 36, 37) Globally, Tanzania has one of the lowest levels of birth registrations.(38) Lack of birth registration is a barrier to accessing education, health care, and other social services, all of which may increase children’s vulnerability to child labor, including its worst forms, in Tanzania.(38)

Tanzania has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Related Entity

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Mainland

Yes

14

Article 5 of the Employment and Labor Relations Act; Article 77 of the Law of the Child Act (39, 40)

Zanzibar

Yes

15

Article 6 of the Zanzibar Employment Act; Articles 2 and 98 of the Zanzibar Children’s Act (41, 42)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Mainland

Yes

18

Article 5 of the Employment and Labor Relations Act; Article 82 of the Law of the Child Act (39, 40)

Zanzibar

Yes

18

Articles 8 and 9 of the Zanzibar Employment Act; Article 100 of the Zanzibar Children’s Act (41, 42)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Mainland

Yes

 

Article 5 of the Employment and Labor Relations Act; Article 82 of the Law of the Child Act; List of Hazardous Child Labor (5, 39, 40)

Zanzibar

Yes

 

Articles 8 and 9 of the Zanzibar Employment Act; Article 100 of the Zanzibar Children’s Act (41, 42)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Mainland

Yes

 

Article 25 of the Constitution; Article 80 of the Law of the Child Act; Article 6 of the Employment and Labor Relations Act; Article 4 of The Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act (39, 40, 43, 44)

Zanzibar

Yes

 

Article 102 of the Zanzibar Children’s Act; Article 7 of the Zanzibar Employment Act (41, 42)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Mainland

Yes

 

Article 4 of the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act(44)

Zanzibar

Yes

 

Article 7 of the Zanzibar Employment Act (41)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Mainland

Yes

 

Article 138.2.b of the Sexual Offences Special Provisions Act; Article 4 of the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act (44, 45)

Zanzibar

Yes

 

Article 155 of the Penal Code of Zanzibar; Article 110 of the Zanzibar Children’s Act; Article 83 of the Law of the Child Act (40, 42)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Mainland

No

 

 

Zanzibar

Yes

 

Article 53 of the Zanzibar Children’s Act (42)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

 

N/A*

 

 

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

 

Yes

18

Article 29 of the National Defense Act (46)

Compulsory Education Age

 

Yes

14

Article 35 of the National Education Act (36)

Free Public Education

 

No

 

 

* No conscription (46)

Tanzania’s Constitution stipulates which laws apply across the entire United Republic, but does not cover child labor laws.(43) Therefore, mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar have separate legislation governing child labor.(1) In addition to the legal frameworks of mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar on child labor, some districts have incorporated restrictions against child labor into their local bylaws.(9)

Mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar have different laws for the minimum age for work and governing hazardous labor.(39-43, 46) Article 77 of the Law of the Child Act sets the minimum age for work on mainland Tanzania at 14.(39, 40) In comparison, Article 98 of Children’s Act sets the minimum age for light work in Zanzibar at 15. In addition, Articles 99 and 100 of the Children’s Act prohibit hazardous work in Zanzibar for children under age 18. (41, 42, 47)

While the Constitution and mainland Tanzania’s Employment and Labor Relations Act, the Law of the Child Act, Zanzibar Children’s Act, and Zanzibar Employment Act prohibit forced labor, the National Defense Act and the Constitution include exceptions for forced labor through compulsory national service.(39, 41-43, 46, 47) Mainland Tanzania’s law does not explicitly prohibit child domestic work.(39, 41)Although the Zanzibar Children’s Act sets the minimum age for work at 15 it does not specify whether its protections cover children engaged in domestic work.(41, 42)

Mainland Tanzania does not clearly provide penalties for using children for illicit activities, including in the production and trafficking of drugs. Zanzibar prohibits the use of children for illicit activities; however, it does not specify the types of activities, such as production and trafficking of drugs.(42)

Although Tanzania’s age for voluntary military recruitment is 18, children younger than age 18 may volunteer with the consent of parents, guardians, or (if orphaned) that of the local district commission.(46, 48)

Tanzania does not have a law requiring free public education, but it does have an education policy that provides for free education. (49) The National Education Act of 1978 requires that children enroll in primary education at age 7, with primary education lasting  for 7 years; thus, the compulsory education age is 14.(36)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor and Employment (MOLE, mainland)— Labor Administration and Inspection Section

Coordinate labor inspections carried out by the area offices and prepare, review, and recommend guidelines on labor inspection services and compliance with labor legislation. Provide legal guidance upon request, disseminate information to employers and employees on their rights and obligations, and assist area offices in conducting labor inspections.(50)

MOLE (mainland)—Labor Officers

Inspect locales for suspected violations of child labor laws.(1) Assigned to each region of Tanzania. Respond to reports of child labor violations, issue noncompliance orders, and report incidents to local police authorities and other responsible ministries.(1) Accept complaints about violations of child labor law.(1)

Ministry of Community Development, Gender, and Children

Enforce child protection laws and regulations, employ community development officers to monitor child labor at the district and village levels, and report findings to the Regional Administration and Local Government (PMORALG).(2, 16) Coordinate all children’s issues as a result of the Child Development Policy of 2008. Key advocate for the primary education agenda at the community level.(49)

Ministry of Health and Social Welfare

Implement, monitor, and evaluate health and social welfare policies, including those pertaining to children.(51) Support vulnerable groups of children through the National Costed Plan of Action for Most Vulnerable Children.(49, 51) Employ Social Welfare Officers at the district level to monitor child labor at the district and village levels, and report findings to the PMORALG.(52)

Ministry of Labor, Economic Empowerment and Cooperatives—Labor Commission (Zanzibar)

Enforce Zanzibar’s child labor laws and administer the provisions of the Zanzibar Labor Act, including inspections.(1, 9, 25) Investigate reports of child labor reported by the police and refer cases to social welfare officers for support.(1, 9, 47, 50)

Ministry of Social Welfare and Youth Development (Zanzibar)—Child Protection Unit

Ensure compliance with child protection laws, including those pertaining to child labor.(51)

Tanzania Police Force (mainland)

Investigate cases of child labor reported to police stations, and in some cases, refer them to labor officers or solicit the assistance of social welfare officers; includes a Trafficking desk and Gender and Children’s desks to handle cases pertaining to children.(9, 31, 53)

 Zanzibar Police Force (Zanzibar)

Investigate and compile reports of incidents of child abuse, child labor, human trafficking, rape, and other forms of child endangerment.(9, 31)

INTERPOL Criminal Investigation Department—

INTERPOL National Central Bureau for Tanzania

Investigate various priority crimes, including trafficking in persons and illegal immigration. Headed by a Commissioner of Police, is staffed by 23 police officers, and includes focal points responsible for trafficking.(9, 54)

Ministry of Home Affairs (mainland)

Enforce anti-trafficking laws, including those pertaining to child trafficking, laws prohibiting commercial sexual exploitation of children and the use of children in illicit activities.(9)

Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (Zanzibar)

Enforce anti-trafficking laws, including those pertaining to child trafficking.(9)

 

Previously, the mainland Ministry of Labor attempted to establish a formal child labor unit; it has yet to be formed. However, under the Prime Minister’s Office Policy, Parliamentary Affairs, Labor, Employment, Youth and Disabled, there are labor officers that are responsible for enforcing child labor laws. In December 2015, the change in presidential leadership led to ministerial restructurings which consolidated several ministries and decreased the total number of cabinet ministers from 30 to 19.(10) Table 5 presents the agency structure for the majority of the reporting period.

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2015, labor law enforcement agencies in Tanzania took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

 Table 6.  Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

 

2014

2015

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Mainland

Unknown(13)

Unknown

Zanzibar

$8,500(13)

Unknown

Number of Labor Inspectors

Mainland

Unknown(2)

Unknown

Zanzibar

10(13)

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Dedicated Inspectors

Mainland and Zanzibar

Unknown

Unknown

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Mainland

No

No

Zanzibar

Unknown(13)

Unknown (10)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

  

Initial Training for New Employees

Mainland and Zanzibar

Unknown(2)

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Mainland

Unknown(2)

Yes(55)

Zanzibar

Unknown

Unknown

Refresher Courses Provided

Mainland

Yes(13)

No (10)

Zanzibar

No(13)

Unknown (10)

Number of Labor Inspections

Mainland

1,843(13)

1754‡(10)

Zanzibar

111(13)

Unknown(10)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Mainland and Zanzibar

Unknown

Unknown (10)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Mainland and Zanzibar

Unknown

Unknown (10)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Mainland

2,232(13)

Unknown

Zanzibar

Unknown(13)

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations for which Penalties were Imposed

Mainland and Zanzibar

 

Unknown(13)

Unknown

Number of Penalties Imposed that were Collected

Mainland and Zanzibar

Unknown(13)

Unknown

Routine Inspections Conducted

Mainland and Zanzibar

Unknown

Unknown

Routine Inspections Targeted

Mainland and Zanzibar

Unknown

Unknown

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Mainland

Yes(13)

Yes(10)

Zanzibar

Unknown

Unknown

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Mainland and Zanzibar

Unknown(13)

Unknown(10)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Mainland and Zanzibar

Yes(13)

Yes(10)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Mainland and Zanzibar

Unknown

Unknown

‡ Reported number of labor inspections up to June 2015

Ministry of Labor and Employment Development regulations dictate that one or more labor officers be assigned to each region. However, research was unable to determine whether each region had a dedicated labor officer during the reporting period.(10) There are reports that 21 additional mainland and no new Zanzibar labor inspectors were hired in the reporting period.(10) Sixty-four mainland labor officers received training through the WEKEZA project and sources indicate the ILO provided training to an unspecified number of mainland labor officers during the reporting period.(10, 56) The Government of the United Republic of Tanzania did not report data on the number of child labor trainings they provided.  Inspections on the mainland were carried out in previous years, in sectors such as agriculture, mining, domestic work, hotels, trade, industry and commerce, construction, and fishing.(4) However, no inspections data were provided for the reporting period. Complaint and referral mechanisms have been reported to lack investigative and enforcement capacity.(10, 13)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2015, criminal law enforcement agencies in Tanzania took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 7).

Table 7.  Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

 

2014

2015

Training for Investigators

 

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Mainland and Zanzibar

Unknown

Yes

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Mainland

Unknown

Yes

Zanzibar

Unknown(13)

Unknown

Refresher Courses Provided

Mainland and Zanzibar

Yes

Unknown (10)

Number of Investigations

Mainland

89(13)

Unknown (10)

Zanzibar

0(13)

Unknown (10)

Number of Violations Found

Mainland

Unknown

Unknown

Zanzibar

0(13

Unknown

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Mainland

Unknown(13)

Unknown (10)

Zanzibar

 0 (13)

Unknown (10)

Number of Convictions

Mainland

3 (13)

Unknown (10)

Zanzibar

 0 (13)

Unknown (10)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Mainland and Zanzibar

Unknown

Yes(33)

 

While the total number of criminal prosecutions is unknown, the Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions reported one case involving child trafficking which led to prosecution and conviction during the reporting period. The convicted was ordered to serve a one year jail sentence after being unable to pay a USD $5,000 penalty, in accordance with the Anti-TIP Act.(55) The GoURT has made efforts to sanction recruiting agencies outside of the country, prosecute offenders, and prevent known perpetrators from entering the country, but the total number of efforts related to child-specific violations remains unknown.(57, 58)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Inter-Sectoral Coordination Committee

(NISCC)

Oversee interagency child labor policy coordination, provide guidance on the overall implementation of child labor activities, and strengthen local structural capacity to address child labor.(4, 59) Chaired by the Prime Minister’s Office—PMORALG; members include the Ministries of Labor, Community Development, Gender and Children, and Health and Social Welfare, as well as NGOs.(1, 4)

Anti-Trafficking Secretariat and Anti-Trafficking Committee

Promote, define, and coordinate policy to prevent trafficking.(16, 31, 33, 44)

Regional Task Force on Human Trafficking and Illegal Immigration

Maintain a list of service providers to which trafficking victims can be referred.(60, 61)

National Education Task Force on Child Labor (NETFCL)

Review education sector policies, existing laws, regulations, and strategies related to child issues, including the National Action Plan. Review existing curriculum and programs, identify gaps, and suggest strategies to resolve barriers to education access as a result of child labor.(10, 62)

District Child Labor Committees

Coordinate and oversee the implementation of efforts to eliminate child labor at the district level. Members include the District Executive Director, Commanding District Officer, District Community Development Officer, District Education Officer, District Medical Officer, Social Welfare Officer, District Trade Officer, Legal Officer, Cooperative Officer, Planning Officer, representatives from regional affiliations, and representatives from NGOs and community-based organizations that deal with child labor.(2, 4) There are 14 District Child Labor Committees.(7)

Village Child Labor Committees

Coordinate and oversee efforts related to child labor at the village level.(4)

Zanzibar Child Labor Steering Committee

Coordinate various implementing agencies responsible for child labor. Provide policy guidance on the Zanzibar National Action Plan to Combat Child Labor. Exchange information with the mainland Tanzania NISCC.(9)

Most Vulnerable Children Committees

Identify children involved in or at risk of becoming involved in child labor at the ward and village levels, and refer children to social services.(2, 51)

Multi-Sector Task Force on Violence Against Children

Implement the 3-year National Plan to Prevent and Respond to Violence Against Children and enforce the Law of the Child Act.(63, 64)

 

In July 2015, the National Education Task Force held the first of four planned meetings to review existing laws, regulations, and the National Action Plan and to synergize with educational opportunities.(10) The National Inter-Sectoral Coordination Committee convened during the reporting period.(10) In May 2015, a national conference on child labor in the agriculture sector was held in Dar es Salaam.(56) Research could not determine whether Zanzibar coordinating bodies convened during the reporting period. While mainland child labor and child protection coordinating bodies exist, research could not determine whether coordination across bodies exists. Mechanisms appear to lack a coordinated, unified approach to address child labor issues, which could be facilitated through greater NISCC involvement.(10)  

In January 2015, the Government passed the implementing regulations to the 2008 Anti-Trafficking In Persons Act.(33) The Anti-Trafficking Secretariat and Anti-Trafficking Committee met to draft an updated National Action Plan which would incorporate anti-trafficking in persons provisions.(33) The Anti-Trafficking Secretariat received a budget allocation of approximately $40,000, which is $5,000 less than the previous reporting period.(33, 58)

The Government of Tanzania has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Action Plan for the Elimination of Child Labor for Mainland Tanzania (2009)

Names key stakeholders and ministries responsible for child labor; proposes strategies for poverty alleviation, child labor monitoring, and child protection; and calls for capacity building for child labor law enforcement and evaluation efforts to combat the worst forms of child labor.(59, 65)

Zanzibar National Action Plan for the Elimination of Child Labor (2009–2015)

Authorizes the Zanzibar Child Labor Steering Committee to provide policy guidance on child labor.(66)

National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty II (NSGRP II/MKUKUTA II) (2011–2015)*

Includes provisions for improving literacy rates, promoting schooling for out-of-school children as well as children’s rights, and providing social protection interventions to assist vulnerable populations, which may include the families of working children. Eliminates primary school fees in Tanzania.(67, 68) Contributes to Tanzania’s National Development Vision of 2025, which includes addressing child labor.(69)

Zanzibar Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty II (ZSGRP II/MKUZA II) (2010–2015)

Includes a number of specific activities to reduce child labor. Provides support for the rehabilitation and reintegration of children withdrawn from labor into the education system. Encourages district officials to incorporate simple versions of child labor prevention information into educational materials, establishes district-level child labor regulations, and strengthens the system for inspection and enforcement of child labor laws.(70) Contributes to Tanzania’s National Development Vision of 2025, which includes addressing child labor.(69)

National Costed Plan of Action for Most Vulnerable Children II (2013–2017)

Includes child laborers among the most vulnerable children and aims to provide children with access to adequate care, support, protection, basic social services, education, and health programs.(35, 51, 65)

Child Development Policy (2008)

Includes strategies for eliminating the worst forms of child labor.(65, 71)

Zanzibar Child Survival and Development Policy (2001)*

Supports the Government’s commitment to the UN CRC.(72)

National Social Protection Framework (2008)

Identifies child labor as a coping mechanism for families with economic risks and proposes strategies to improve sustainable livelihoods.(73)

National Plan of Action to Respond to Violence Against Children*

Assigns responsibilities to various Government agencies to address violence against children and gives Most Vulnerable Children Committees, Council Multi-Sectoral AIDS Committees, and District Child Protection Teams the responsibility of implementing the plan at the local level.(63, 74)

National Employment Policy (2007)

Promotes youth employment.(75)

Primary Education Development Plan III
(2012–2016)*

Includes the right to primary education for all children and states that primary education is free and compulsory. Increases equitable access to pre-primary and primary education; raises the quality of education to ensure better learning outcomes for children; and addresses the root causes of school dropouts, such as poor school infrastructure and violence in schools.(65, 76, 77)

Zanzibar Education Development Plan

(2008–2015)*

Provides education and vocational education strategy to prepare children for the future workforce.(78)

Tanzania Complementary Basic Education and Training Program

Targets child laborers and provides child labor components in its curricula.(2, 65)

Vocational Education and Training Authority Program

Offers skills and entrepreneurship training to rural populations and incorporates child labor targets.(2)

Secondary Education Development Program II (2010–2014)*

Contributes to increased enrollment, reduced dropouts, and improved learning in secondary schools.(80, 81)

UNDAF (2011–2015)

Provides a secure and sustainable social protection system for children that are at risk of entering into child labor.(82)

Common Country Program (2011–2015)

Recognizes child labor as a barrier to education and targets efforts toward achieving universal primary education in Tanzania.(83)

District Framework for Interventions on Child Labor in Tanzania

Guides district governments in strategic approaches for district-based action against child labor.(84) Districts integrate child labor into individual district development plans and budgets, many by promoting the enrollment and retention of children in basic education and targeting vulnerable households in poverty reduction initiatives.(84)

* Child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy.

Information was not available on the amount of funding budgeted toward the implementation of the National Action Plans for the Elimination of Child Labor in mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar.

In 2015, the Government of Tanzania funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms. The Government has funded and participated in other programs that may have an impact on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

WEKEZA Project (2012 – 2016)

$10 million USDOL-funded, 4-year project implemented by the International Rescue Committee that supports children and youth at risk of engaging or engaged in child labor in the Tanga and Kigoma regions, including those in domestic work and commercial agriculture in the sisal and tobacco sectors. Targets 8,000 at-risk children and 3,360 households with education and livelihood services. The Government sits on the WEKEZA National Project Advisory Council.(2)

Global Research on Child Labor Measurement and Policy Development (2013 – 2017)

USDOL-funded, 4-year research project implemented by the ILO and in 10 countries, including Tanzania, to increase the knowledge base around child labor by collecting new data, analyzing existing data, and building capacity to conduct research in child labor. (85)  (86) During the reporting period, the ILO implemented a child labor data analysis workshop, with data analysis beginning May of 2015.

Expanding the Evidence Base and Reinforcing Policy Research for Scaling Up and Accelerating Action Against Child Labor (2010 – 2016)

USDOL-funded research project implemented by the ILO in 7 countries, including Tanzania, to accelerate country level actions to address child labor by collecting new data, analyzing existing data, building capacity of governments to conduct research in this area, and supporting governments, social partners and other stakeholders to identify areas of policy intervention against child labor.(87) The National Bureau of Statistics, in collaboration with the ILO, conducted the survey during the reporting period.(13)

Community Empowerment for Elimination of Child Sexual Exploitation; Prevention and Rehabilitation of Children withdrawn from CSEC (2014-2015)

$958,781 Terre des Hommes-funded, 2 year programs to eliminate child labor, including withdrawing children from the Worst Forms of Child Labor in Artisanal Gold Mines in Kahama and Mara, and in other sectors in Mtwara. The Community Empowerment for Elimination of Child Sexual Exploitation project in the mining and fishing villages in Mara Region reached 1000 children and the Prevention and Rehabilitation of children withdrawn from commercial sexual exploitation in Mtwara program reached 700 girls. Interventions include withdrawal, counselling, vocational and entrepreneurial training, child rights clubs, training of and coordination with government officials at district, ward and village level, as well as linking in with national level fora.(55)

2025 Timebound Program on the Elimination of Child Labor

Provides a plan to eliminate the worst forms of child labor in Tanzania by 2025 and facilitates the formation of child labor committees at the district and regional levels to develop the capacity of Child Labor Monitoring System.(88, 89) Currently, the ILO has a child labor elimination project in Tabora region to examine  existing district level child labor elimination/prevention mechanisms, including child labor committees or district child protection committees.(55)

Supporting the Establishment of Assistance and Referral Mechanisms for Child Victims of Trafficking in Tanzania
(2013 – 2015)

$1.4 million EU/UNDAF-funded, 3-year project implemented by the International Organization for Migration that promotes structured measures at the local and national levels to eradicate child trafficking in Tanzania, including by developing standardized medical and psychological tools; setting up two shelters for child victims of trafficking in Arusha and Mwanza; and providing vocational skills training, medical care, and psychosocial care for child victims of trafficking.(92)

Promoting Sustainable Practices to Eradicate Child Labor in Tobacco (PROSPER Program) (2011 – 2015)

$4.75 million Eliminating Child Labor in Tobacco Growing (ECLT) Foundation-funded, 4-year project implemented by Winrock International that targets 7,800 children and aims to reduce child labor in Tanzania‘s tobacco industry through targeted interventions to address social and economic factors that fuel child labor in the target districts of Sikonge and Urambo. Strengthens local and national structures to achieve child-free tobacco production in target districts.(93, 94)

Support Program for Child Domestic Workers/Wote Sawa (2011 – 2015)

$975,000 Terre des Hommes/Anti-Slavery International/Mama Cash-funded, 6-year program that withdraws and trains child domestic workers, and establishes child domestic worker committees in Mwanza. Empowers child domestic workers to advocate collectively for their rights, including through reporting cases of mistreatment to the local authorities. Advocates for the passage of ILO C. 189.(95-97)

Eradicating the Worst Forms of Labor in the Eight Mining Wards of the Geita District Phase 2 (2015 – 2018)

$1.1 million EU-funded, 3-year project that enhances social protection mechanisms for communities in order to prevent child labor and improves awareness of child labor among children, parents, and mining employers.(23, 98)

 

Tanzania Social Action Fund Conditional Cash Transfer Program (TASAF CCT) Phase III (2012 – 2017)†

Government-funded conditional cash transfer program that provides financial assistance to vulnerable populations, including children.(99, 100) A USDOL-funded study implemented by the WEKEZA project reported an increase in school enrollment and a reduction in forced child migration and child labor as a result of the TASAF CCT. (2, 101)

Decent Work Country Program (2013 – 2016)

ILO-supported program that identifies four objectives of decent work: (1) creating jobs, (2) guaranteeing rights at work, (3) extending social protection, and (4) promoting social dialogue. Includes, as an outcome, improving the operational environment for the elimination of child labor and its worst forms.(102, 103)

Education Fund†

Government program that supports the improvement of quality and equity, and increased access to education at all levels in mainland Tanzania and higher education in Tanzania and Zanzibar.(104)

Big Results Now Initiative†

Government program to improve the quality and availability of education. Supports teacher training, provision of learning materials, and school incentive grants to high-performing schools; includes efforts to construct schools, particularly at the secondary school level. However, due to constraints on resources for school construction, the Government has also encouraged communities to build and run their own schools while it provides teachers and capitalization grants once schools are established.(105)

 Program is funded by the Government of Tanzania.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Tanzania (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that the minimum age protections apply to children engaged in domestic work.

2013 – 2015

Adopt legislation that prohibits the use of children for illicit activities on mainland Tanzania and establish penalties for using children for illicit activities, including the production and trafficking of drugs.

2012 – 2015

Enforcement

Ensure a dedicated labor officer is appointed to each region and make this information publicly available.

2013 – 2015

Make information publicly available on child labor inspection mechanisms and elimination activities such as labor inspectorate budgetary allocation, number of labor inspectors, trainings provided, child labor violations found, penalties imposed and collected, and routine and unannounced inspections conducted at work-sites by the Ministry of Labor on mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar.

2011 – 2015

Provide adequate resources to conduct child labor inspections.

2013 – 2015

Ensure that reporting and referral mechanisms are effective.

2014 – 2015

Make information publicly available on enforcement efforts to combat the worst forms of child labor, including whether trainings were provided, investigations conducted, violations found, prosecutions initiated, and criminal convictions on mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar.

2012 – 2015

Coordination

Continue conducting regular meetings of the National Inter-Sectoral Child Labor Committee and develop concrete goals for the Committee.

2011 – 2015

Ensure that greater, unified coordination exists across task forces for child labor and child protection. 

2015

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into existing Government policies.

2011 – 2015

Provide funding for Government policies, including the National Action Plan for the Elimination of Child Labor and make this information available.

2010 – 2015

Social Programs

Ensure that laws require the provision of free education

2015

Address barriers to education, such as access to birth registration and prohibitive costs such as books, school meals, or uniforms.

2010 – 2015

 

 

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4.         Government of Tanzania. The Brief on Update Information on Child Labour in Tanzania. Dar es Salaam; March 4, 2014.

5.         Government of Tanzania. List of Hazards. Dar es Salaam; 2013.

6.         U.S. Department of State. Tanzania. Washington, DC; 2015 http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/243562.pdf.

7.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed January 16, 2015]; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. Because the calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age), the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

8.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from National Panel Survey, 2010-2011. Analysis received January 16, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

9.         U.S. Embassy- Dar es Salaam. reporting, January 28, 2011.

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33.       U.S. Embassy- Dar es Salaam. reporting, February 18, 2015.

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