Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Tanzania

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Tanzania

2017 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Minimal Advancement – Efforts Made but Continued Policy that Delayed Advancement

In 2017, the United Republic of Tanzania made a minimal advancement to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The government published regulations to define hazardous work for children in several sectors and, for the first time, explicitly prohibited hazardous tasks for children in the fishing industry. Despite these initiatives to address child labor, Tanzania is receiving this assessment because it continued to implement a policy and practice that delayed advancement in eliminating the worst forms of child labor. Since 1984, the government has regulated access to secondary education through the Primary School Leaving Exam. Students who do not pass the exam do not have an opportunity to re-take the exam, and must drop out of public school, preventing them from continuing their education. Students in Mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar complete primary education at the average age of 14. Children in Zanzibar who do not pass the exam can find themselves both out of formal education but still below the minimum age for work, which is age 15, leaving such children at increased risk of child labor. Although the government has expressed its intention to phase out the National exam by 2021, it has yet to initiate efforts or make preparations to do so. The government also explicitly supports the routine expulsion of pregnant students from public schools, making them more vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor. Children in Tanzania engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in mining, quarrying, and domestic work. Other gaps remain in the legal framework, including protections for child engagement in illicit activities and domestic work.

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Children in Tanzania engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in mining, quarrying, and domestic work. (1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6)Children also perform dangerous tasks in agriculture. (5) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Mainland Tanzania.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

29.3 (3,573,467)

Working Children by Sector

5 to 14

 

Agriculture

 

94.1

Industry

 

1.0

Services

 

4.9

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

74.3

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

24.6

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

72.4

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2013, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2018. (7)
Source for all other data: Tanzania National Child Labour Survey (NCLS), 2014
. (5)

 

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Plowing, weeding, harvesting, and processing crops including coffee, sisal, tea, tobacco, and cloves (1; 3; 4; 8; 9; 10)

Seaweed farming (1; 11)

Production of sugarcane† (4)

Livestock herding, including tending cattle (3; 6; 12)

Fishing,† including for Nile perch (13; 5; 8; 11; 14; 6; 12)

Industry

Quarrying† stone and breaking rocks to produce gravel (1; 3; 4; 13; 5; 12)

Mining,† including gold and tanzanite, and using mercury (3; 4; 13; 5; 8; 11; 15; 16; 17; 18) (19; 20; 21; 22)

Manufacturing,† activities unknown (4; 8; 11)

Construction,† including digging, drilling, carrying bricks,† bricklaying, and assisting masons (3; 4; 11; 23)

Services

Domestic work,† including child care,† cooking, and washing† (3; 5; 24; 25; 26; 6; 12)

Garbage collecting† (8)

Street work, including vending,† shoe shining, small business, and scavenging† (3; 8)

Work as barmaids† (27)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking or work in the tourism industry (3; 8; 11; 28; 6; 12)

Forced begging (6)

Forced labor in domestic work, agriculture, mining, fishing, commercial trading, quarrying, shining shoes, pushing carts, and working in factories and bars, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (28; 29; 30; 31; 6; 12)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

 

The United Republic of Tanzania consists of Mainland Tanzania and the semi-autonomous Zanzibar archipelago. Mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar have separate laws and regulations governing child labor and are presented separately when information differs between them.

Tanzania is a source, transit, and destination country for child trafficking for forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation. Child trafficking is often facilitated by victims’ family members, friends, or intermediaries promising assistance or employment. (29; 31; 32; 6; 12) Girls are often trafficked for domestic servitude or commercial sexual exploitation, including along the Kenya border and in tourist areas. (29; 30; 6) Although most children are trafficked internally, children from Burundi and Rwanda are also trafficked to Tanzania for involuntary servitude. (33) Impoverished rural children and those orphaned by HIV/AIDS are particularly vulnerable. (32; 34; 6; 12)

Children working in mining are exposed to many hazards such as mercury poisoning and entrapment when tunnels collapse, especially in smaller unlicensed operations. (35; 22; 21)

Despite a recent policy shift to institute tuition-free primary education, families must still pay for books, uniforms, and school lunches, at costs that are prohibitive to some families. (36; 37; 38; 39) Barriers to education such as these can reduce children’s access to school and increase their vulnerability of child labor.

Tanzania has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Tanzania’s legal framework to adequately protect children from the worst forms of child labor, including the minimum age for work, access to public education, compulsory education age and the prohibition of using children in illicit activities.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Related Entity

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Mainland

No

14

Article 5 of the Employment and Labor Relations Act; Article 77 of the Law of the Child Act (40; 41)

Zanzibar

No

15

Article 6 of the Zanzibar Employment Act; Articles 2 and 98 of the Zanzibar Children’s Act (42; 43)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Mainland

Yes

18

Article 5 of the Employment and Labor Relations Act; Article 82 of the Law of the Child Act (40; 41)

Zanzibar

Yes

18

Articles 8–9 of the Zanzibar Employment Act; Article 100 of the Zanzibar Children’s Act (42; 43)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Mainland

Yes

 

Article 5 and First Schedule of Regulations of the Employment and Labor Relations Act; Article 82 of the Law of the Child Act; List of Hazardous Child Labor (4; 40; 41; 35)

Zanzibar

Yes

 

Articles 8–9 of the Zanzibar Employment Act; Article 100 of the Zanzibar Children’s Act (42; 43)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Mainland

Yes

 

Article 25 of the Constitution; Article 80 of the Law of the Child Act; Article 6 of the Employment and Labor Relations Act; Article 4 of the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act (40; 41; 44; 45)

Zanzibar

Yes

 

Article 7 of the Zanzibar Employment Act; Article 102 of the Zanzibar Children’s Act (42; 43)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Mainland

Yes

 

Article 4 of the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act (45)

Zanzibar

Yes

 

Articles 6–7 of the Zanzibar Employment Act; Article 106 of the Zanzibar Children’s Act (42; 43)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Mainland

Yes

 

Article 138.2.b of the Sexual Offences Special Provisions Act; Article 4 of the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act (45; 46)

Zanzibar

Yes

 

Article 155 of the Penal Code of Zanzibar; Article 110 of the Zanzibar Children’s Act (42; 47)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Mainland

No

 

 

Zanzibar

Yes

 

Article 7.2.c of the Zanzibar Employment Act (43)

Prohibition of Military Recruitment

 

 

 

 

State Compulsory

 

N/A*

 

 

State Voluntary

 

Yes

18

Article 29 of the National Defense Act (48)

Non-state

 

No

 

 

Compulsory Education Age

Mainland

No

14‡

Article 35 of the National Education Act (36)

Zanzibar

No

13

 

Free Public Education

 

No

 

 

* No conscription (48)
‡ Age calculated based on available information (36)

 

Mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar’s non-union matters are governed by distinct territorial jurisdictional laws, leaving each territory to determine its own child labor laws. (1; 44) The minimum age for work laws in Mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar do not meet international standards because they do not extend to all working children, including children engaged in domestic work. (40; 42; 43) In 2017, Mainland Tanzania published regulations for the Employment and Labor Relations Act that defined hazardous work for children in many sectors. For the first time, the government explicitly prohibited hazardous tasks for children in the fishing industry. (49; 35) However, Mainland Tanzania’s hazardous work list for children does not specify weeding and processing as activities that are dangerous agricultural tasks in the production of tobacco, cloves, coffee, sisal, and tea. (4; 40; 41; 42; 43; 35) Zanzibar does not have a hazardous work list, and research could not determine that the new regulations on hazardous work from Mainland Tanzania are applicable to Zanzibar. (49) In addition, Mainland Tanzania does not clearly provide penalties for using children for illicit activities, including in the production and trafficking of drugs. Zanzibar prohibits the use of children for illicit activities, including the production and trafficking of drugs. (42; 43)

Tanzania does not have a law requiring free public education, but it does have an education policy that allows children to attend primary school without paying tuition fees. The government regulates access to secondary education through the Primary School Leaving Exam; students who do not pass the exam do not have an opportunity to re-take the exam and must drop out of public school. (50) The compulsory education age for children in Mainland Tanzania is 14 but in Zanzibar is 13. (51) However, while children in Mainland Tanzania may begin work at 14, children in Zanzibar cannot work until the age of 15. As a result, children who do not pass the exam can find themselves both out of formal education in government schools and still below the minimum age for work, leaving them at increased risk of child labor. (50; 52) Although the government has expressed its intention to phase out the exam by 2021, it has yet to initiate efforts or make preparations to do so. (50; 52; 53)

Another practice that may contribute to children being left out of the formal education system, stems from Mainland Tanzania’s Education Act of 1978 which allows the Ministry of Education to conduct medical examinations on students. Sources indicate that the Ministry has forced students to undergo a pregnancy test and expelled them from school if they are pregnant. (49; 36; 52; 54) Although pregnant girls are more at risk of expulsion, boys who are found to be sexually active are also expelled from school. (33) In June 2017, President John Magufuli stated publicly that he supported the expulsion of pregnant students from public schools. (49; 55; 56; 57)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the authority of the labor ministries of Mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Minister of State in the Prime Minister’s Office for Policy, Parliamentary Affairs, Labor, Employment, Youth, and the Disabled (Mainland)

Enforce child labor laws. Assign area labor officers to each region to respond to reports of child labor violations, issue non-compliance orders, and report incidents to police and the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare. (1) Through its Labor Administration and Inspection Section, provide legal guidance on request, disseminate information to employers and employees on their rights and obligations, and help area offices conduct labor inspections. (58)

Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, Elders, and Children (Mainland)

Enforce child protection laws and regulations and health and social welfare policies. Employ officers to monitor child labor at the district and village levels, and report findings to the President's Office of Regional Administration and Local government. (2) Promote community development, gender equality, and children’s rights by formulating policies, strategies, and guidelines, in collaboration with stakeholders. (58)

Ministry of Empowerment, Adults, Youth, Women and Children (Zanzibar)

Ensure compliance with child protection and child labor laws, including inspections, through its Child Protection Unit. (58) Following a merger with the Ministry of Labor, Economic Empowerment and Cooperatives, investigate child labor cases reported by the police and refer cases to social welfare officers. (50)

Ministry of Health (Zanzibar)

Enforce anti-trafficking laws, including cases of child trafficking. (58)

Tanzania Police Force

Investigate cases of child labor and other forms of child endangerment reported to police stations; in some cases, refer the cases to labor officers or seek assistance of social welfare officers and the Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions for legal actions. Includes a Human Trafficking desk, and Gender and Children’s desks to handle cases pertaining to children. (29; 58; 59; 60)

Ministry of Home Affairs (Mainland)

Enforce anti-trafficking laws, including child trafficking, and laws prohibiting commercial sexual exploitation of children and the use of children in illicit activities. Chair the Anti-Trafficking Committee. (58)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2017, labor law enforcement agencies in Tanzania took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the authority of the labor ministries of Mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including the authority to assess penalties, and the lack of publicly available enforcement data.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

Related Entity

2016

2017

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Mainland

Unknown (58)

Unknown (49)

Zanzibar

Unknown (58)

$26,818‡ (49)

Number of Labor Inspectors

Mainland

120 (58)

95 (49; 53)

Zanzibar

5 (58)

11 (49)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Mainland

Unknown (58)

No (49)

Zanzibar

Unknown (58)

No (49)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Mainland

Unknown (58)

Unknown (49)

Zanzibar

Unknown

No (49)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Mainland

Yes (58)

Unknown (49)

Zanzibar

Unknown (58)

No (49)

Refresher Courses Provided

Mainland

Unknown (58)

Yes (49)

Zanzibar

Unknown (58)

No (49)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

Mainland

1,200† (58)

2,237 (49)

Zanzibar

228† (58)

228 (49)

Number Conducted at Worksites

Mainland and Zanzibar

1,228† (58)

2,465 (49)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Mainland

Unknown (58)

Unknown (49)

Zanzibar

Unknown (58)

0 (49)

Number of Child Labor Violations for which Penalties were Imposed

Mainland and Zanzibar

10 (58)

Unknown (49)

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that were Collected

Mainland and Zanzibar

0 (58)

Unknown (49)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Mainland

Yes (58)

Yes (49)

Zanzibar

Yes (58)

Unknown (49)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Mainland

Yes (58)

Yes (49)

Zanzibar

Yes (58)

Unknown (49)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Mainland

Yes (58)

Yes (49)

Zanzibar

Unknown (58)

Yes (49)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Mainland

Yes (58)

Yes (49)

Zanzibar

Yes (58)

Unknown (49)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Mainland and Zanzibar

Yes (58)

Yes (49)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Mainland

Yes (58)

Yes (49)

Zanzibar

Yes (58)

Unknown (49)

†Data are from January 2016 to July 2016.
‡Data are from July 1, 2017 to December 31, 2017.

 

Despite regulations requiring that one or more labor officers be assigned to each region, research was unable to determine whether this was followed during the reporting period. (61) The number of labor inspectors is likely insufficient for the size of Tanzania’s workforce, which includes nearly 25 million workers. According to the ILO’s technical advice of a ratio approaching 1 inspector for every 40,000 workers in least developed countries, Tanzania would employ about 622 inspectors. (62; 63)

The government provided incomplete data on inspections for the reporting period; however, in previous years, inspections in Mainland Tanzania were carried out in sectors such as agriculture, mining, domestic work, hotels, trade, industry and commerce, construction, and fishing. (3) Exact figures on Labor Inspectorate funding are unavailable; however, NGOs noted that child labor inspections could benefit from additional funding and increased numbers of inspections. (58) Complaint and referral mechanisms lack investigative and enforcement capacity. (8; 11; 58) In Mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar, penalties for violations of labor and criminal laws are determined by the courts according to the Employment and Labor Relations Act. (49)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2017, criminal law enforcement agencies in Tanzania took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including the collection of and availability of enforcement statistics.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

Related Entity

2016

2017

Training for Investigators

 

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Mainland

Unknown (58)

N/A (53)

Zanzibar

Unknown (58)

N/A (53)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Mainland

Yes (58)

Yes (49)

Zanzibar

Unknown (58)

No (49)

Refresher Courses Provided

Mainland

Unknown (58)

None (53)

Zanzibar

Unknown (58)

None (53)

Number of Investigations

Mainland

Unknown (58)

Unknown* (49)

Zanzibar

Unknown (58)

0 (49)

Number of Violations Found

Mainland

10 (58)

Unknown* (49)

Zanzibar

Unknown (58)

0 (49)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Mainland

Unknown (58)

Unknown* (49)

Zanzibar

Unknown (58)

0 (49)

Number of Convictions

Mainland

Unknown (58)

Unknown* (49)

Zanzibar

Unknown (58)

None (49)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Mainland

Yes (58)

Yes (49)

Zanzibar

Yes (58)

Unknown* (49)

* The government does not publish this information.

 

Police reported that eight girls trafficked from Nepal had been returned home. (12) The government continued to include human trafficking in police academy training; research was unable to obtain information on the number of new employee training. (33) Supported by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Tanzania implemented a human trafficking data collection and reporting system, including computers and operator training for police, immigration officials, and the Director of Public Prosecutions; these government officials also received training on identifying and prosecuting human trafficking victims. (12)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role and Description

National Education Task Force on Child Labor

Review education sector policies and existing laws, regulations, and strategies related to children’s issues, including the National Action Plan. Review existing curriculum and programs, identify gaps, and suggest strategies to resolve barriers to education access related to child labor. (8; 64) Research was unable to determine whether the National Education Task Force was active during the reporting period.

Zanzibar Child Labor Steering Committee

Coordinate various implementing agencies responsible for child labor and provide policy guidance on the Zanzibar National Action Plan to Combat Child Labor. (58) Chaired by Zanzibar’s Ministry of Empowerment, Adults, Youth, Women and Children. (61) Research was unable to determine whether the Child Labor Steering Committee was active during the reporting period.

National Protection Steering Committee

Provide overall policy guidance and coordination at the national and local levels of the National Action Plan to End Violence Against Women and Children (NPA-VAWC) through the merger of the National Inter-Sectoral Coordination Committee and the Multi-Sector Task Force on Violence Against Children. (50; 60) Operate the NPA-VAWC National Protection Technical Committee and Thematic Working Groups at the national level. Merge pre-existing committees at the regional and district levels, focusing on violence prevention and response, including the Child Labor Committees, the Gender Based Violence Committees, District Child Protection Teams (DCPT) and Most Vulnerable Children Committees. (58; 60) Research was unable to determine whether the National Protection Steering Committee was active during the reporting period.

National Anti-Trafficking Committee and Secretariat

Promote, define, and coordinate policy to prevent human trafficking through engagement with local NGOs. (29; 32; 45; 50) Chaired by the Ministry of Home Affairs, includes representatives from the Prime Minister’s Office for Policy, Parliamentary Affairs, Labor, Employment, Youth, and the Disabled. (61) In 2017, the Parliament allocated approximately $43,500 to the Secretariat. However, the secretariat reported that its budget is not sufficient to conduct a nationwide public relations campaign to raise awareness of trafficking issues. (12)

The government has established one policy related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including mainstreaming child labor issues into other relevant policies.

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor‡

Policy

Description

National Plan of Action to End Violence Against Women and Children in Tanzania (NPA-VAWC) (2017–2022)†

Prevent and respond to all forms of violence against women and children through comprehensive multi-sectoral collaboration at all levels combination of eight national action plans. (60) The renewed plan details responsible agencies to address multiple challenges, including education and poverty reduction. (58)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.
‡ The government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor. (2; 58; 50; 65)

 

The Anti-Trafficking Secretariat held meetings in 2017 to discuss challenges in the implementation of the Anti-Trafficking in Persons National Action Plan. These meetings ended in December 2017. (61; 66; 53; 67)

The National Plan of Action to End Violence Against Women and Children in Tanzania (NPA-VAWC) was published in December 2016 and includes funding requirements for 4 years. The government allocated $5.72 million for fiscal year 2017–2018, but did not provide details on how the allocation was spent. Research has been unable to confirm that the plan has been implemented. (8; 58; 53)

At the 2017 Global Conference on the Sustained Eradication of Child Labor held in Argentina, the Government of Tanzania made a pledge to implement a strategy within the NPA-VAWC to strengthen law enforcement through capacity building of labor officers and social partners, and conduct labor inspections in sectors with a high prevalence of child labor. The pledge also included the implementation of the National Skills Development Strategy (2016–2016 - 2020–2021), a 5 year plan that aims to equip the workforce, through internships, apprenticeship programs, and the development of a social protection policy, to extend coverage of social protection in the formal and informal economy. (68)

In 2017, the government funded and participated in programs that may contribute to eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including the scope and implementation of programs in all relevant sectors, including construction, service and informal sectors.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor‡

Program

Description

Global Research on Child Labor Measurement and Policy Development (MAP)

USDOL-funded research project implemented by the ILO in 10 countries to increase the knowledge base relating to child labor by collecting new data, analyzing existing data, and building capacity of the government to conduct research in this area. Additional information is available on the USDOL website.

Promoting Sustainable Practices to Eradicate Child Labor in Tobacco (PROSPER) Platform for Unity and Sustainability (PROSPER+) (2016–2017)

$837,592 continuation project funded by the ECLT Foundation implemented by Winrock International, the Tanzania Association of Women Leaders in Agriculture and the Environment, and the Tabora Development Foundation Trust. Aims to reduce child labor in tobacco-growing areas by: (a) encouraging advocacy of social and political change; (b) coordinating to convert policy into action; (c) providing decent work for youth and combating hazardous work; and (d) expanding access to quality education and economic opportunities. (58; 69) In 2017, hosted child labor awareness events in targeted communities involving 9,725 participants in collaboration with the Tanzania Leaf Tobacco Companies and Alliance One International. PROSPER+ trained 101 cooperative leaders on combatting child labor and sensitized other crop boards on child labor issues, including Tanzania Tea Board, Tanzania Coffee Board, Tanzania Sisal Board, and Tanzania Cotton Board. (33)

Eradicating the Worst Forms of Labor in the Eight Mining Wards of the Geita District, Phase 2 (2015–2019)

$1.1 million EU-funded, 3-year project implemented by Plan International Tanzania to enhance social protection mechanisms to prevent and improve awareness of child labor among children, parents, and mining employers near Chato, Geita, and Nywangwale. (17; 49) During the year, increased community initiatives to support vulnerable children by training community leaders and social workers on child protection issues and discussing financial savings as a sustainable solution to child labor in 81 village meetings. (33)

Tanzania Social Action Fund Conditional Cash Transfer Program (TASAF CCT), Phase III (2012–2018)†

Government-funded conditional cash transfer program to provide financial assistance to vulnerable populations, including children. (70) USDOL-funded study reported increased school enrollment and reduced forced child migration and child labor. (2; 71; 49) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement TASAF-CCT, Phase III during the reporting period. (33)

Decent Work Country Program (DWCP)

ILO-supported program with four objectives: (a) create jobs, (b) guarantee rights at work, (c) extend social protection, and (d) promote social dialogue. Outcomes include improved operational environment for the elimination of child labor and its worst forms. (58; 72; 49) In 2017, ILO reviewed DWCP II, in collaboration with the Ministry of Labor and Employment and the Trade Union Congress of Tanzania and Employers Association developed the DWCP III document, the next phase of the program. (33)

Achieving Reduction of Child Labor in Support of Education (ARISE)

Joint initiative of the ILO, Japan Tobacco International, and Winrock International, seeks to end child labor in tobacco through education. Operates in three districts in the Tabora Region: Kaliua, Urambo, and Uyui. (73; 74) In 2017,in collaboration with the Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, Elderly and Children. They worked to build capacity of these DCPTs in Uyui and Urambo, which reactivated the Most Vulnerable Child Committees in 215 villages. (49) Assisted in preparing annual work plans and budgets that were approved by the Urambo and Uyui District Full Councils, making funds available to implement anti-child labor activities in 2017-2018. (49)

† Program is funded by the Government of Tanzania.
‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. (58)

 

The government funded social programs do not cover construction, service and informal sectors where children engage in child labor.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Tanzania (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that minimum age protections apply to children engaged in domestic work.

2013 – 2017

Criminalize the use of children in illicit activities, particularly in producing and trafficking drugs.

2012 – 2017

Criminalize the recruitment of children under age 18 by non-state armed groups.

2016 – 2017

Mainland Tanzania: Continue to expand the list of hazardous occupations and activities prohibited for children to ensure the list includes weeding and processing as activities in the production of tobacco, cloves, coffee, sisal, and tea.

2016 – 2017

Zanzibar: Create a list of occupations and activities that are hazardous for children.

2017

Ensure that there is no gap between the age for compulsory education and the minimum age for work, which leaves children vulnerable to child labor.

2017

Ensure that the law does not prohibit access to education for pregnant girls.

2017

Establish by law free basic public education.

2016 – 2017

Enforcement

Increase the number of labor inspectors to meet ILO’s technical advice.

2013 – 2017

Ensure that a dedicated labor officer is appointed to each region, and publish this information.

2013 - 2017

Authorize the Mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar Labor Inspectorates to assess penalties.

2017

Publish information for Mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar on child labor law enforcement actions, such as funding, trainings provided, routine and unannounced inspections conducted, child labor violations found, penalties imposed and collected, and referral mechanisms between labor authorities and social services.

2011 – 2017

Provide sufficient funding and trained staff to conduct child labor inspections.

2013 – 2017

Bolster the investigative and enforcement capacity of the government referral mechanism.

2014 – 2017

Publish information on enforcement efforts to combat child labor, including investigations conducted, violations found, prosecutions initiated, and criminal convictions executed in Mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar.

2012 – 2017

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the Primary Education Development Plan III.

2011 – 2017

Eliminate provisions in the Primary School Leaving Exam that are a barrier to education, such as the no retake policy.

2016 – 2017

Social Programs

Address barriers to education, including prohibitive costs, such as books, school meals, or uniforms.

2010 – 2017

Integrate programs that addresses construction, service and informal sectors to address children engaged in child labor.

2017

1. U.S. Embassy- Dar es Salaam. Reporting, January 17, 2014.

2. International Rescue Committee. WEKEZA Project Technical Progress Report. October 2013. [Source on file].

3. Government of Tanzania. The Brief on Update Information on Child Labour in Tanzania. March 4, 2014. [Source on file].

4. —. List of Hazards. 2013. [Source on file].

5. ILO and Government of Tanzania. Tanzania Mainland National Child Labor Survey 2014. February 2016. http://www.ilo.org/ipec/Informationresources/WCMS_IPEC_PUB_28475/lang--en/index.htm.

6. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2017: Tanzania. Washington, DC. 2017. http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2017/index.htm.

7. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). [Accessed December 16, 2016]. http://data.uis.unesco.org/. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

8. U.S. Embassy- Dar es Salaam. Reporting January 19, 2016.

9. Yussuf, Issa. Clove Production Records Success Despite Challenges. Tanzania Daily News. June 29, 2016. http://allafrica.com/stories/201606290468.html.

10. ILO-IPEC and Government of Tanzania. Rapid Assessment on Child Labour in Tobacco Growing Communities in Tabora Region, Tanzania. 2016. http://www.ilo.org/addisababa/countries-covered/tanzania/WCMS_517519/lang--en/index.htm.

11. U.S. Embassy- Dar es Salaam. Reporting, January 20, 2015.

12. —. Reporting, February 20, 2018 (TIP).

13. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016: Tanzania. Washington, DC. June 30, 2016. https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2016/258875.htm.

14. Mwaipopo, Rosemarie. Tanzania: Labour, Fraught with Danger. Samudra Report no. 77 (2017). https://www.icsf.net/images/samudra/pdf/english/issue_77/4309_art_Sam77_e_art08.pdf.

15. Kim, Min Jung. Allegations of Illicit Child Labor Draws Scrutiny in Tanzania’s Mining Sectors. October 27, 2013. http://hrbrief.org/2013/10/allegations-of-illicit-child-labor-draws-scrutiny-in-tanzania%E2%80%99s-mining-sectors/.

16. Makene, Prosper. Efforts to Curb Child Labour in Gold Mines Proves Fruitful, Says RC. March 18, 2014. http://www.123tanzania.com/?module=news&action=newsdetails&news=4153.

17. Human Rights Watch. Toxic Toil: Child Labor and Mercury Exposure in Tanzania's Small-Scale Gold Mines. 2013. http://www.hrw.org/reports/2013/08/28/toxic-toil.

18. —. Child Rights and the Environment--The Need for Action. Submission by Human Rights Watch to the Committee on the Rights of the Child. July 22, 2016. https://www.hrw.org/news/2016/07/22/child-rights-and-environment-need-action.

19. Lobulu, William. City Fathers Erred on Arusha Tag. Arusha Times. February 27, 2016. [Source on file].

20. Kippenberg, Juliane. Tackling Child Labor in the Minerals Supply Chain. Human Rights Watch. May 3, 2017. https://www.hrw.org/news/2017/05/03/tackling-child-labor-minerals-supply-chain.

21. Mahr, Krista. Tanzania struggles to end child labor from the lure of gold. Reuters. April 3, 2017. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-tanzania-mining-children-feature/tanzania-struggles-to-end-child-labor-from-the-lure-of-gold-idUSKBN176007.

22. Spence, Tony. Child Mining in Tanzania: A Forgotten Story. Global South Magazine. 2017. http://www.gsdmagazine.org/child-mining-tanzania-forgotten-story/.

23. U.S. Embassy- Dar es Salaam. Reporting, January 29, 2013.

24. ILO-IPEC. Ending Child Labour in Domestic Work and Protecting Young Workers from Abusive Working Conditions. June 12, 2013. http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/download.do?type=document&id=21515.

25. ILO. A Situational Analysis of Domestic Workers in the United Republic of Tanzania. January 30, 2016. http://www.ilo.org/addisababa/countries-covered/tanzania/WCMS_517516/lang--en/index.htm.

26. Grant, Rebecca. No school, no salary: the children tricked into domestic servitude in Zanzibar. The Guardian. November 9, 2017. https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2017/nov/09/children-domestic-servitude-zanzibar-trafficking.

27. Makoye, Kizito. Tanzania Suspends Quarter Of Job Agencies In Crackdown On Sex, Labour Trafficking. Thomas Reuters Foundation News [online]. August 20, 2015 [Accessed January 3, 2017]. http://news.trust.org//item/20150820114050-04y6h/.

28. Kimani, Geofrey. Child Trafficking On Increase With No Solution in Horizon. The Citizen. October 28, 2016. http://allafrica.com/stories/201610260785.html.

29. U.S. Embassy- Dar es Salaam. Reporting, Feburary 14, 2014.

30. Mwita, Sosthenes. Human Trafficking Getting Worrisome. Tanzania Daily News. June 12, 2013. http://allafrica.com/stories/201306121100.html?viewall=1.

31. —. Human Trafficking Seen Escalating. Tanzania Daily News. June 23, 2016. http://allafrica.com/stories/201606230071.html.

32. U.S. Embassy- Dar es Salaam. Reporting, February 18, 2015.

33. U.S. Embassy Dar es Salaam. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 20, 2018.

34. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation Concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Tanzania, United Republic of (ratification: 2001) Published: 2014. Accessed April 18, 2014. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3142624.

35. Government of Tanzania. Employment and Labor Relations Act General Regulations. Enacted: 2017.

36. —. National Education Act. Enacted: December 4, 1978. http://www.unesco.org/education/edurights/media/docs/873ae01bc28cf449895950c7cac2a419d3 ede5fd.pdf.

37. Human Rights Watch. The Education Deficit: Failures to Protect and Fulfill the Right to Education in Global Development Agendas. 2016. https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/accessible_document/educationdeficit0616_accessible.pdf.

38. U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2016. Washington, DC. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265522.pdf.

39. Mtema, Nelly. Tanzania: School Desk Initiative Pays Off. Tanzania Daily News. July 1, 2016. http://allafrica.com/stories/201607010575.html.

40. Government of Tanzania. Employment and Labour Relations Act. Enacted: 2004. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/SERIAL/68319/66452/.

41. —. The Law of the Child Act. Enacted: 2009. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_protect/---protrav/---ilo_aids/documents/legaldocument/wcms_151287.pdf.

42. Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar. Children's Act. Enacted: 2011. [Source on file].

43. —. Employment Act, No.11. Enacted: 2005. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/WEBTEXT/49108/65102/E98TZA01.htm#p2.

44. Government of Tanzania. The Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania. Enacted: 1977. [Source on file].

45. —. The Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act. Enacted: 2008. [Source on file].

46. —. Sexual Offences Special Provisions Act. Enacted: 1998. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/67094/63635/F532037758/TZA67094.pdf.

47. Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar. Penal Decree Act No. 6 of 2004. Enacted: 2004. [Source on file].

48. Government of Tanzania. National Defence Act. Enacted: 1966.

49. U.S. Embassy- Dar es Salaam. Reporting, January 29, 2018.

50. U.S. Embassy- Dar es Salaam official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 2, 2017.

51. Government of Zanzibar. Ministry of Education and Vocational Training 2018. 2018. https://www.moez.go.tz/index.php?cq=dept&dept=6.

52. Human Rights Watch. I Had a Dream to Finish School: Barriers to Secondary Education in Tanzania. 2017. https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/accessible_document/tanzania0217_-_accessible.pdf.

53. U.S. Embassy- Dar es Salaam official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 23, 2018.

54. Human Rights Watch. Tanzania: 1.5 Million Adolescents Not in School. February 14, 2017. https://www.hrw.org/news/2017/02/14/tanzania-15-million-adolescents-not-school.

55. Ratcliffe, Rebecca. ‘After getting pregnant, you are done’: no more school for Tanzania's mums-to-be. June 30, 2017. https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2017/jun/30/tanzania-president-ban-pregnant-girls-from-school-john-magufuli.

56. BBC News. John Magufuli's pregnant schoolgirl ban angers Tanzanian women. June 23, 2017. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-40379113.

57. Makoye, Kizito. Tanzania's ban on pregnant girls in school violates basic rights. June 26, 2017. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-tanzania-girls/tanzanias-ban-on-pregnant-girls-in-school-violates-basic-rights-campaigners-idUSKBN19H1FE.

58. U.S. Embassy- Dar es Salaam. Reporting, January 17, 2017.

59. ECPAT International. Global Monitoring Status of Action Against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children: Tanzania. 2013. http://www.ecpat.net/sites/default/files/a4a_v2_af_tanzania_4.pdf.

60. Government of Tanzania. National Plan of Action to End Violence Against Women and Children in Tanzania. December 2016. http://www.mcdgc.go.tz/index.php/publications/more/national_plan_of_action_to_end_violence _against_women_and_children_in_/.

61. U.S. Embassy- Dar es Salaam official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 16, 2017.

62. UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2017 Statistical Annex. New York. 2017. https://www.un.org/development/desa/dpad/wp-content/uploads/sites/45/publication/2017wesp_full_en.pdf. Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

63. CIA. The World Factbook. Accessed January 19, 2018. https://www.cia.gov/Library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2095rank.html. Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

64. Government of Tanzania. NETF Action Plan. National Education Task Force on Child Labor. 2015. [Source on file].

65. World Bank. Secondary Education Development Program II. 2016. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/182201483110970136/pdf/ISR-Disclosable-P114866-12-30-2016-1483110951754.pdf.

66. U.S. Embassy- Dar es Salaam. Reporting, March 14, 2017.

67. Anti-Slavery International official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 28, 2018.

68. Global Conference on the Sustained Eradication of Child Labor. Pledges. November 14-16, 2017. http://www.childlabour2017.org/en/resources/updates/pledges.

69. Winrock International. Empowerment & Civic Engagement: PROSPER Plus Program. 2016. [Source on file].

70. Tanzania Daily News. More Districts to Benefit from TASAF Cash Transfer Programme. April 6, 2012. http://allafrica.com/stories/201204060580.html.

71. Government Project Preparation Team. Tanzania Third Social Action Fund: Productive Social Safety Net (PSSN) Operational Manual. President's Office, United Republic of Tanzania. January 2013. [Source on file].

72. ILO. Tanzania Decent Work Country Programme (2013-2016). 2013. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---africa/---ro-addis_ababa/---sro-harare/documents/publication/wcms_248019.pdf.

73. ILO-IPEC. Achieving Reduction of Child Labour In Support of Education (ARISE) Project Document. 2016. http://www.ilo.org/addisababa/countries-covered/tanzania/WCMS_531380/lang--en/index.htm.

74. ARISE. ARISE Officially Launches in Tanzania. May 25, 2016: Press Release. http://ariseprogram.org/en/news/news/arise-officially-launches-tanzania/.

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