Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Tanzania

2014 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Tanzania

Minimal Advancement

In 2014, the United Republic of Tanzania made a minimal advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government, in coordination with the ILO, conducted a National Child Labor Survey and continued to support programs on the elimination of child labor. However, children in Tanzania are engaged in child labor, including in agriculture and in the worst forms of child labor, including in mining. In addition, gaps remain in the laws regulating children's engagement in illicit activities.

 

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Children in Tanzania are engaged in child labor, including in agriculture. Children also are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in mining.(1-7) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Tanzania.

Table 1. Statistics on Children's Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

25.1 (3,157,442)

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

74.1

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

21.6

Primary completion rate (%):

80.8

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2012, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(8)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children's Work Project's analysis of statistics from National Panel Survey, 2010 — 2011.(9)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children's Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Cultivation of coffee, sisal, tea, tobacco, and cloves (5, 10-12)

Ploughing, weeding, harvesting, and processing crops (6)

Seaweed farming* (1, 13, 14)

Production of sugarcane* (7)

Livestock herding,* including tending cattle* (6, 15, 16)

Fishing,* including for Nile perch (3-5, 14, 17, 18)

Industry

Quarrying† stone,* and breaking rocks to produce gravel* (1, 5, 7, 13, 17, 19)

Mining,† including gold and tanzanite (6, 7, 14, 20-26)

Manufacturing, activities unknown* (7, 14)

Construction,*† including carrying bricks,† bricklaying, and assisting masons (6, 7, 14, 27)

Services

Domestic work, including child care, cooking, and washing (5, 6, 11, 28-30)

Street work, including vending, shoe shining, petty business, and scavenging (6, 28, 31-34)

Work in the tourism industry*† (1)

Work as barmaids* (10, 31)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (3, 6, 14)

Forced begging* (33)

Forced labor in domestic work, agriculture, mining, fishing, commercial trading, quarrying, shoe shining, pushing carts, and working in factories, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (3, 35-38)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Tanzania is a source, transit, and destination country for child trafficking.(39, 40) Trafficking of children for forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation is a problem in Tanzania, which particularly affects children trafficked internally.(37, 39, 40) Trafficking often involves family members, friends, or brokers, who promise rural families jobs or assistance with the education of their children in the urban areas of Arusha, Dar es Salaam, and Mwanza.(39) Children are trafficked for domestic work; girls are trafficked for commercial sexual exploitation, including along the Kenya-Tanzania border and in touristic areas in the country.(5, 35, 37, 38, 40) Children from Burundi and Kenya are trafficked to Tanzania for mining, domestic work, and agricultural labor.(40)

While the Primary Education Development Plan makes primary school education free, students or their parents are required to contribute money to pay for books, school feeding programs, the construction of classrooms, and the provision of teachers' houses.(5, 41) In addition, corporal punishment in schools is lawful in Tanzania and, while information is limited, data have shown that the use of corporal punishment by teachers might increase dropout rates.(17, 42-45) Furthermore, some children may lack birth registration, which makes it difficult for them to access education, health care, and other social services.(23, 29, 46) As a result of HIV/AIDS, some children must work for survival; thus, they become heads of household and are unable to attend school.(29, 47)

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Tanzania has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes Yes

14 17

Article 5 of the Employment and Labor Relations Act, 2004; Article 77 of the Law of the Child Act, 2009 (48, 49)

Article 6 of the Zanzibar Employment Act, 2005; Articles 2 and 98 of the Zanzibar Children's Act, 2011 (50-52)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 5 of the Employment and Labor Relations Act, 2004; Article 82 of the Law of the Child Act, 2009; Articles 8 and 9 of the Zanzibar Employment Act No. 11 of 2005; Article 100 of the Zanzibar Children's Act, 2011 (48, 49, 51, 52)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Article 5 of the Employment and Labor Relations Act, 2004; Article 82 of the Law of the Child Act, 2009; Articles 8 and 9 of the Zanzibar Employment Act No. 11 of 2005; Article 100 of the Zanzibar Children's Act, 2011; List of Hazardous Child Labor (7, 48, 49, 51, 52)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 25 of the Constitution; Article 80 of the Law of the Child Act, 2009; Article 6 of the Employment and Labor Relations Act, 2004; Article 102 of the Zanzibar Children's Act, 2011; Article 5 of the Zanzibar Employment Act No. 11 of 2005 (48, 49, 51-53)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 4 of the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act, 2008 (54)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 138.2.b of the Sexual Offences Special Provisions Act, 1998; Article 155 of the Penal Code of Zanzibar; Article 110 of the Zanzibar Children's Act, 2011; Article 83 of the Law of the Child Act, 2009 (49, 52, 55)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 53 of the Zanzibar Children's Act, 2011 (52)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

N/A*

 

 

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

18

Article 29 of the National Defense Act, 1966 (56)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

14

Article 35 of the National Education Act, 1978 (57)

Free Public Education

No

 

 

* No conscription (56)

Tanzania's Constitution stipulates which laws apply across the entire United Republic, but labor laws are not included.(53, 58) Therefore, mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar have separate legislation governing child labor.(1) In addition to the legal frameworks of mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar on child labor, some districts have incorporated restrictions against child labor into their local bylaws.(11)

Because mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar have different labor laws, each has different laws for the minimum age for work and governing hazardous labor.(48, 49, 51-53, 56) Zanzibar has two different laws that provide a minimum age for work. Article 98 of the Zanzibar Children's Act prohibits children under age 15 from working, while Zanzibar Employment Act No. 11 of 2005 stipulates 17 as the minimum age for work.(50-52) As a result, the minimum age for work in Zanzibar is unclear. In contrast, the minimum age for work on mainland Tanzania is 14.(48, 49)

While the Constitution and mainland Tanzania's Employment and Labor Relations Act, the Law of the Child Act, Zanzibar Children's Act, and Zanzibar Employment Act No. 11 of 2005 prohibit forced labor, the National Defense Act and the Constitution include exceptions for forced labor through compulsory national service.(48, 50-53, 56) The Zanzibar Employment Act permits children in Zanzibar under the minimum working age to engage in domestic work, while the Children's Act does not specify whether its protections cover children engaged in domestic work. Mainland Tanzania's law does not explicitly prohibit child domestic work.(48, 51)

While Zanzibar clearly prohibits the use of children for illicit activities, mainland Tanzania does not clearly provide penalties for using children for illicit activities, including in the production and trafficking of drugs.(52)

Although Tanzania's age for voluntary military recruitment is 18, children younger than age 18 may volunteer with the consent of parents, guardians, or (if orphaned) that of the local district commission.(56, 59)

Tanzania has an education policy that provides for free education, but it is not required by law.(60) The National Education Act of 1978 requires that children enroll in primary education at age 7, with primary education lasting for 7 years; thus, the compulsory education age is 14.(57)

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The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor and Employment (MOLE) (mainland) — Child Labor Unit

Enforce child labor laws at the national level.(1, 5)

MOLE (mainland) — Labor Administration and Inspection Section

Coordinate labor inspections carried out by the area offices and prepare, review, and recommend guidelines on labor inspection services and compliance with labor legislation. Provide legal guidance upon request, disseminate information to employers and employees on their rights and obligations, and assist area offices in conducting labor inspections.(61)

MOLE (mainland) — Labor Officers

Inspect locales for suspected violations of child labor laws.(1) Assigned to each region of Tanzania. Respond to reports of child labor violations, issue noncompliance orders, and report incidents to local police authorities and other responsible ministries.(1) Accept complaints about violations of child labor law.(1)

Ministry of Community Development, Gender, and Children

Enforce child protection laws and regulations, employ community development officers to monitor child labor at the district and village levels, and report findings to the Regional Administration and Local Government (PMORALG).(2, 16) Coordinate all children's issues as a result of the Child Development Policy of 2008. Key advocate for the primary education agenda at the community level.(60)

Ministry of Health and Social Welfare

Implement, monitor, and evaluate health and social welfare policies, including those pertaining to children.(62) Support vulnerable groups of children through the National Costed Plan of Action for Most Vulnerable Children.(60, 62) Employ Social Welfare Officers at the district level to monitor child labor at the district and village levels, and report findings to the PMORALG.(63)

Ministry of Labor, Economic Empowerment and Cooperatives — Labor Commission (Zanzibar)

Enforce Zanzibar's child labor laws and administer the provisions of the Zanzibar Labor Act, including inspections.(1, 11, 27) Investigate reports of child labor reported by the police and refer cases to social welfare officers for support.(1, 11, 50, 61)

Ministry of Social Welfare and Youth Development (Zanzibar) — Child Protection Unit

Ensure compliance with child protection laws, including those pertaining to child labor.(62)

Tanzania Police Force(mainland)

Investigate cases of child labor reported to police stations, and in some cases, refer them to labor officers or solicit the assistance of social welfare officers; includes a Trafficking desk and Gender and Children's desks to handle cases pertaining to children.(11, 37, 64)

Zanzibar Police Force (Zanzibar)

Investigate and compile reports of incidents of child abuse, child labor, human trafficking, rape, and other forms of child endangerment.(11, 37)

INTERPOL Criminal Investigation Department — INTERPOL National Central Bureau for Tanzania

Investigate various priority crimes, including trafficking in persons and illegal immigration. Headed by a Commissioner of Police, is staffed by 23 police officers, and includes focal points responsible for trafficking.(11, 65)

Ministry of Home Affairs (mainland)

Enforce anti-trafficking laws, including those pertaining to child trafficking, laws prohibiting commercial sexual exploitation of children and the use of children in illicit activities.(11)

Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (Zanzibar)

Enforce anti-trafficking laws, including those pertaining to child trafficking.(11)

Law enforcement agencies in Tanzania took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms.

Labor Law Enforcement

Ministry of Labor and Employment (MOLE) regulations dictate that one or more labor officers be assigned to each region; however, research was unable to determine whether each region had a dedicated labor officer during the reporting period.(1) In 2014, the mainland MOLE released a report stating that it had employed 77 labor inspectors the previous year; however, this number is inadequate based on the size of the workforce. The number of labor inspectors for Zanzibar was unavailable.(14) No training sessions on child labor were conducted for labor inspectors, either on the mainland or in Zanzibar, in 2014.(14) The mainland MOLE did not report its level of funding for inspections, but it did report that the level of funding was inadequate.(66) Zanzibar had $8,500 for activities, including child labor inspections; the Ministry of Labor, Economic Empowerment, and Cooperatives reported that this amount of funding was inadequate.(14) On the mainland, 1,843 labor inspections were conducted during the reporting year. Zanzibar conducted 111 inspections between June and December 2014.(14) Inspections on the mainland have previously been carried out in establishments covering the agriculture, mining, domestic work, hotels, trade, industry and commerce, construction, and fishing sectors.(6) While inspectors on the mainland are able to conduct unannounced and proactive inspections, they rarely do so; inspections often are the result of specific requests. Reporting and referral mechanisms are also reported to be lacking.(14) Comprehensive information was not found on the number of violations found or penalties issued. The MOLE did not submit any cases related to child labor to the courts in 2014.(66)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2014, comprehensive information was not available on the number of criminal law enforcement investigators; the number, type, and quality of investigations; and the number of prosecutions, convictions, and penalties. During the reporting period, new police officers received training on human trafficking.(39)

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The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Inter-Sectoral Coordination Committee (NISCC)

Oversee interagency child labor policy coordination, provide guidance on the overall implementation of child labor activities, and strengthen local structural capacity to address child labor.(6, 67) Chaired by the Prime Minister's Office — PMORALG; members include the Ministries of Labor, Community Development, Gender and Children, and Health and Social Welfare, as well as NGOs.(1, 6, 28)

Anti-Trafficking Secretariat and Anti-Trafficking Committee

Promote, define, and coordinate policy to prevent trafficking.(3, 37, 54)

Regional Task Force on Human Trafficking and Illegal Immigration

Maintain a list of service providers to which trafficking victims can be referred.(36, 68)

District Child Labor Committees

Coordinate and oversee the implementation of efforts to eliminate child labor at the district level. Members include the District Executive Director, Commanding District Officer, District Community Development Officer, District Education Officer, District Medical Officer, Social Welfare Officer, District Trade Officer, Legal Officer, Cooperative Officer, Planning Officer, representatives from regional affiliations, and representatives from NGOs and community-based organizations that deal with child labor.(2, 6) There are 14 District Child Labor Committees.(7)

Village Child Labor Committees

Coordinate and oversee efforts related to child labor at the village level.(6)

Zanzibar Child Labor Steering Committee

Coordinate various implementing agencies responsible for child labor. Provide policy guidance on the Zanzibar National Action Plan to Combat Child Labor. Exchange information with the mainland Tanzania NISCC.(11)

Most Vulnerable Children Committees

Identify children involved in or at risk of becoming involved in child labor at the ward and village levels, and refer children to social services.(2, 62)

Multi-Sector Task Force on Violence Against Children

Implement the 3-year National Plan to Prevent and Respond to Violence Against Children and enforce the Law of the Child Act.(44, 69)

The National Inter-Sectoral Committee on Child Labor did not meet during the reporting period. This is insufficient to deal with the scope of the child labor problem in Tanzania.(14)

In 2014, the Anti-Trafficking Secretariat (ATS) and Anti-Trafficking Committee met six times to draft and approve the regulations and standard operating procedures required to implement the 2008 Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act and to draft a new Anti-Trafficking in Persons National Action Plan. The ATS received a budget allocation of approximately $45,000.(39)

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The Government of Tanzania has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 7).

Table 7. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Action Plan for the Elimination of Child Labor for Mainland Tanzania (2009)

Names key stakeholders and ministries responsible for child labor; proposes strategies for poverty alleviation, child labor monitoring, and child protection; and calls for capacity building for child labor law enforcement and evaluation efforts to combat the worst forms of child labor.(67, 70)

Zanzibar National Action Plan for the Elimination of Child Labor (2009–2015)

Authorizes the Zanzibar Child Labor Steering Committee to provide policy guidance on child labor.(71)

National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty II (NSGRP II/MKUKUTA II) (2011–2015)*

Includes provisions for improving literacy rates, promoting schooling for out-of-school children as well as children's rights, and providing social protection interventions to assist vulnerable populations, which may include the families of working children. Eliminates primary school fees in Tanzania.(29, 72) Contributes to Tanzania's National Development Vision of 2025, which includes addressing child labor.(73)

Zanzibar Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty II (ZSGRP II/MKUZA II) (2010–2015)

Includes a number of specific activities to reduce child labor. Provides support for the rehabilitation and reintegration of children withdrawn from labor into the education system. Encourages district officials to incorporate simple versions of child labor prevention information into educational materials, establishes district-level child labor regulations, and strengthens the system for inspection and enforcement of child labor laws.(74) Contributes to Tanzania's National Development Vision of 2025, which includes addressing child labor.(73)

National Costed Plan of Action for Most Vulnerable Children II (2013–2017)

Includes child laborers among the most vulnerable children and aims to provide children with access to adequate care, support, protection, and basic social services.(47, 62, 70)

Child Development Policy (2008)

Includes strategies for eliminating the worst forms of child labor.(70, 75)

Zanzibar Child Survival and Development Policy (2001)*

Supports the Government's commitment to the UN CRC.(76)

National Social Protection Framework (2008)

Identifies child labor as a coping mechanism for families with economic risks and proposes strategies to improve sustainable livelihoods.(77)

National Plan of Action to Respond to Violence Against Children*

Assigns responsibilities to various government agencies to address violence against children and gives Most Vulnerable Children Committees, Council Multi-Sectoral AIDS Committees, and District Child Protection Teams the responsibility of implementing the plan at the local level.(44, 78)

National Employment Policy (2007)

Promotes youth employment.(79)

Primary Education Development Plan III (2012–2016)*

Includes the right to primary education for all children and states that primary education is free and compulsory. Increases equitable access to pre-primary and primary education; raises the quality of education to ensure better learning outcomes for children; and addresses the root causes of school dropouts, such as poor school infrastructure and violence in schools.(70, 80, 81)

Zanzibar Education Development Plan (2008–2015)*

Provides education and vocational education strategy to prepare children for the future workforce.(82)

Zanzibar Vocational Education and Training Policy (2005)*

Promotes government and private job training and preparation for youth.(83)

Tanzania Complementary Basic Education and Training Program

Targets child laborers and provides child labor components in its curricula.(2, 70)

Vocational Education and Training Authority Program

Offers skills and entrepreneurship training to rural populations and incorporates child labor targets.(2)

Secondary Education Development Program II (2010–2014)*

Contributes to increased enrollment, reduced dropouts, and improved learning in secondary schools.(84, 85)

UNDAF (2011–2015)

Provides a secure and sustainable social protection system for children that are at risk of entering into child labor.(86)

Common Country Program (2011–2015)

Recognizes child labor as a barrier to education and targets efforts toward achieving universal primary education in Tanzania.(87)

District Framework for Interventions on Child Labor in Tanzania

Guides district governments in strategic approaches for district-based action against child labor.(88) Districts integrate child labor into individual district development plans and budgets, many by promoting the enrollment and retention of children in basic education and targeting vulnerable households in poverty reduction initiatives.(88)

* Child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy.

Information was not available on the amount of funding budgeted toward the implementation of the National Action Plans for the Elimination of Child Labor in mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar.

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In 2014, the Government of Tanzania funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms. The Government has other programs that may have an impact on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

WEKEZA Project (2012–2016)

USDOL-funded, 4-year project implemented by the International Rescue Committee that supports children and youth at risk of engaging or engaged in child labor in the Tanga and Kigoma regions, including those in domestic work and commercial agriculture in the sisal and tobacco sectors. Targets 8,000 children and 3,360 households with education and livelihood services. The Government sits on the WEKEZA National Project Advisory Council.(2)

Global Research on Child Labor Measurement and Policy Development (2013–2017)

USDOL-funded, 4-year research project implemented by the ILO and active in 10 countries, including Tanzania. Aims to increase the knowledge base around child labor by collecting new data, analyzing existing data, and building capacity to conduct research in child labor. (89)

Expanding the Evidence Base and Reinforcing Policy Research for Scaling Up and Accelerating Action Against Child Labor (2010–2014)

$3.5 million, USDOL-funded, 4-year global project implemented by the ILO that includes Tanzania and supports the implementation of a National Child Labor Survey.(90) The National Bureau of Statistics, in collaboration with the ILO, conducted the survey during the reporting period.(14)

2025 Timebound Program on the Elimination of Child Labor

Provides a plan to eliminate the worst forms of child labor in Tanzania by 2025 and facilitates the formation of child labor committees at the district and regional levels.(91)

Food for Education Program*

WFP-funded program that improves school attendance through support of community-led school meal initiatives and provision of daily school lunch to 700,000 primary school children at 1,167 schools in 16 drought-prone and food-insecure districts.(92) Constructs rainwater harvesting tanks to help schools access water for cooking and hygiene, and supports establishing school gardens.(92, 93)

Supporting the Establishment of Assistance and Referral Mechanisms for Child Victims of Trafficking in Tanzania (2013–2015)

$1.4 million, EU/UNDAF-funded, 3-year project that promotes structured measures at the local and national levels to eradicate child trafficking in Tanzania, including by developing standardized medical and psychological tools; setting up two shelters for child victims of trafficking in Arusha and Mwanza; and providing vocational skills training, medical care, and psychosocial care for child victims of trafficking.(94)

Supporting the Implementation of the National Action Plan for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor in Tanzania (NAP) (2013–2014)

$280,800, Government of Brazil-funded, 2-year project that supports the implementation of the NAP.(95)

Promoting Sustainable Practices to Eradicate Child Labor in Tobacco (PROSPER Program) (2011–2015)

$4.75 million, Eliminating Child Labor in Tobacco Growing (ECLT) Foundation-funded, 4-year project implemented by Winrock International that targets 7,800 children and aims to reduce child labor in Tanzania‘s tobacco industry through targeted interventions to address social and economic factors that fuel child labor in the target districts of Sikonge and Urambo. Strengthens local and national structures to achieve child-free tobacco production in target districts.(96, 97)

Towards a Decent Life for Children, Youth, and Their Families in the Mining Sector II (2013–2014)

Danish International Development Agency-funded project that targeted 243 boys and girls in Mirerani for withdrawal from child labor in mining by enrolling these children in primary or secondary school and by providing women with income-generating opportunities.(98)

Fighting Child Labor in Zanzibar Project (2011–2014)

$1.4 million, EU-funded, 3-year project that targets 5,000 children for withdrawal from child labor in nine districts in Pemba and Unguja. Pilots a multisectoral strategy to protect children from engaging in the worst forms of child labor by strengthening national and local policies, frameworks, strategies, and institutions.(99)

Child Labor Projects (2009–2014)

Terre des Hommes-funded projects that support the elimination of child labor, including the $148,000, Support for Vulnerable Children and Child Laborers project; the $128,000, 2-year Center for Widows and Children Assistance Fight Against Child Abuse and Exploitation project; the $646,000, 2-year Community Empowerment for Elimination of Child Sexual Exploitation project; the $362,000, 2-year St. Anthony Vocational Training for Child Laborers and Orphans project; and the $274,000, 2-year Child Labor Project/Tuwawezeshe Watoto. Provides legal-aid clinics and community awareness activities for the prevention of child abuse, child labor, and child rights; also provides child rights training sessions in which the police, judiciary, and social welfare and paralegal officers participate. Withdraws victims from commercial sexual exploitation, stone quarries, fishing, child domestic work, and mining through the provision of child-friendly services, including shelter, counseling, education, entrepreneurship skills, and vocational training alternatives.(100-102)

Support Program for Child Domestic Workers/Wote Sawa (2011–2015)

$975,000 Terre des Hommes/Anti-Slavery International/Mama Cash-funded program that withdraws and trains child domestic workers, and establishes child domestic worker committees inMwanza. Empowers child domestic workers to advocate collectively for their rights, including through reporting cases of mistreatment to the local authorities. Advocates for the passage of ILO C. 189.(101, 103, 104)

Eradicating the Worst Forms of Labor in the Eight Mining Wards of the Geita District (2012–2014)

$1.1 million, EU-funded, 3-year project that enhances social protection mechanisms for communities in order to prevent child labor and improves awareness of child labor among children, parents, and mining employers.(20, 105)

Tanzania Social Action Fund Conditional Cash Transfer Program (TASAF CCT)‡

Government program that provides grants and a conditional cash transfer program to vulnerable populations, including children.(106, 107) A USDOL-funded study implemented by the WEKEZA project that reported an increase in school enrollment and a reduction in forced child migration and child labor as a result of the TASAF CCT. (2)

Decent Work Country Program (2013–2016)

ILO-supported program that identifies four objectives of decent work: (1)creating jobs, (2)guaranteeing rights at work, (3)extending social protection, and (4)promoting social dialogue. Includes, as an outcome, improving the operational environment for the elimination of child labor and its worst forms.(108, 109)

Education Fund*‡

Government program that supports the improvement of quality and equity, and increased access to education at all levels in mainland Tanzania and higher education in Tanzania and Zanzibar.(110)

Big Results Now Initiative*‡

Government program to improve the quality and availability of education. Supports teacher training, provision of learning materials, and school incentive grants to high-performing schools; includes efforts to construct schools, particularly at the secondary school level. However, due to constraints on resources for school construction, the Government has also encouraged communities to build and run their own schools while it provides teachers and capitalization grants once schools are established.(111)

* The impact of this program on child labor does not appear to have been studied.
‡ Program is funded by the Government of Tanzania.

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Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Tanzania (Table 9).

Table 9. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Clarify the minimum age for work in Zanzibar.

2014

Ensure that the laws protect children in domestic work.

2013–2014

Adopt legislation that prohibits the use of children for illicit activities on mainland Tanzania and establish penalties for using children for illicit activities, including the production and trafficking of drugs.

2012–2014

Enforcement

Ensure a dedicated labor officer is appointed to each region and make this information publicly available.

2013–2014

Increase the number of labor inspectors responsible for enforcing laws related to child labor in order to provide adequate coverage of the workforce and make publicly available the number of labor inspectors for Zanzibar.

2014

Make publicly available budgetary figures for child labor elimination activities within the Ministry of Labor on mainland Tanzania.

2011–2014

Provide adequate resources to conduct child labor inspections.

2013–2014

Ensure that reporting and referral mechanisms are effective.

2014

Make publicly available the number of violations found and civil enforcement penalties assessed related to child labor on mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar.

2012–2014

Make publicly available comprehensive information on the number of criminal law investigators; the number, type, and quality of criminal investigations; and the number of prosecutions, convictions, and penalties.

2013–2014

Coordination

Conduct regular meetings of the National Inter-Sectoral Child Labor Committee and develop concrete goals for the Committee.

2011–2014

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into existing government policies.

2011–2014

Provide funding for government policies, including the National Action Plan for the Elimination of Child Labor and make this information available.

2010–2014

Social Programs

Assess the impact that existing social programs may have on addressing child labor, including its worst forms.

2012–2014

Address barriers to education, such as corporal punishment, lack of birth registration, and lack of resources to pay school costs, including school meals.

2010–2014

 

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1.U.S. Embassy- Dar es Salaam. reporting, January 17, 2014.

2.International Rescue Committee. WEKEZA Project. Technical Progress Report; October 2013.

3.U.S. Department of State. "Tanzania," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2013. Washington, DC; June 19, 2013;.

4.Basic Education Coalition. "Too Much Work, Too Little School." International Basic Education Update- Tanzania, (2010);.

5.U.S. Department of State. "Tanzania," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2013. Washington, DC; February 27, 2014;.

6.Government of Tanzania. The Brief on Update Information on Child Labour in Tanzania. Dar es Salaam; March 4, 2014.

7.Government of Tanzania. List of Hazards. Dar es Salaam; 2013.

8.UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed January 16, 2015]; . Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. For more information, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.

9.UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from National Panel Survey, 2010 — 2011. Analysis received January 16, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children's work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.

10.Dassu, S. "Tanzania: Child Labour Declining on Slow Pace- ILO." [previously online] June 1, 2010 [cited January 22, 2013]; [source on file].

11.U.S. Embassy- Dar es Salaam. reporting, January 28, 2011.

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