Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Tanzania

Cloves
Cloves
Child Labor Icon
Coffee
Coffee
Child Labor Icon
Gold
Gold
Child Labor Icon
Nile Perch (Fish)
Nile Perch (Fish)
Child Labor Icon
Sisal
Sisal
Child Labor Icon
Tanzanite (Gems)
Tanzanite (Gems)
Child Labor Icon
Tea
Tea
Child Labor Icon
Tobacco
Tobacco
Child Labor Icon
Tanzania
2018 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Minimal Advancement – Efforts Made but Continued Practice that Delayed Advancement

In 2018, The United Republic of Tanzania made a minimal advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The government made efforts by establishing a new national child labor policy and continuing to support the Tanzania Social Action Fund Conditional Cash Transfer Program, planning Phase IV for launch in 2019. However, despite these initiatives to address child labor, Tanzania continued to implement a practice that delayed advancement in eliminating the worst forms of child labor. The Mainland Government explicitly supports the routine expulsion of pregnant students from public schools, making them more vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor. Children in Tanzania engage in the worst forms of child Iabor, including in mining, quarrying, and domestic work. Children also perform dangerous tasks in agriculture. Other gaps remain in the legal framework and enforcement of laws related to child labor, including protections for child engagement in illicit activities and domestic work; the lack of authorization for the labor inspectorate to assess penalties; and the likely insufficient number of labor inspectors for the size of Tanzania’s labor force.

Children in Tanzania engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in mining, quarrying, and domestic work. (1-4) Children also perform dangerous tasks in agriculture. (2,3) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Mainland Tanzania.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Related Entity

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

 

5 to 14

29.3 (3,573,467)

Working children by sector

 

5 to 14

 

Agriculture

   

94.1

Industry

   

1.0

Services

   

4.9

Attending School (%)

 

5 to 14

74.3

Combining Work and School (%)

 

7 to 14

24.6

Primary Completion Rate (%)

   

58.4

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2016, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2019. (5)

Source for all other data: International Labor Organization's analysis of statistics from Tanzania National Child Labour Survey, 2014. (2,6)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Plowing, weeding, harvesting, and processing crops including coffee, sisal, tea, tobacco, and cloves (1-3,6-11)

Seaweed farming (1,12)

Production of sugarcane† (8)

Livestock herding, including tending cattle (4,7,13)

Fishing,† including for Nile perch (2,4,9,12-14)

Industry

Quarrying† stone and breaking rocks to produce gravel (1,2,13)

Mining,† including gold and tanzanite, and using mercury (2-5,7,9,12,15-20)

Manufacturing† (8,9,12)

Construction,† including digging, drilling, carrying bricks,† bricklaying, and assisting masons (7,8,12,13)

Services

Domestic work,† including child care,† cooking, and washing† (2,7,13,21-23)

Garbage collecting† (9)

Street work, including vending,† shoe shining, small business, and scavenging† (7,9)

Work as barmaids† (24)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (3,4,7,9,12,13,25,26)

Forced begging (27)

Forced labor in domestic work, agriculture, mining, fishing, commercial trading, quarrying, shining shoes, pushing carts, and working in factories and bars, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (3,13,25-29)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

The United Republic of Tanzania consists of Mainland Tanzania and the semi-autonomous Zanzibar Archipelago. Mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar have separate laws and regulations governing child labor and are presented separately in this report when information differs between them.

Tanzania is a source, transit, and destination country for child trafficking for forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation. Child trafficking is often facilitated by victims’ family members, friends, or intermediaries who promise assistance or employment. (4,13,26,30) Girls are often subject to child trafficking, including for domestic work or commercial sexual exploitation; this frequently occurs along the Kenyan border and in tourist, mining, and construction areas, including "megaproject" sites. (4,26,28,31) Although most children are victims of domestic human trafficking, children from Burundi and Rwanda are also subject to child trafficking into Tanzania for forced labor. (4,32) Impoverished rural children and those orphaned by HIV/AIDS are particularly vulnerable. (4,13,30,33)

Children working in mining are exposed to many hazards, such as mercury poisoning and being trapped when tunnels collapse, especially in smaller unlicensed operations. (19,20,34)

Families are often required to pay for books, uniforms, and school lunches, at costs that are prohibitive for some families. (3,35-37) These barriers can reduce children’s access to school and increase their vulnerability to child labor.

Tanzania has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Related Entity

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

 

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

 

UN CRC

 

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

 

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

 

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Tanzania’s legal framework to adequately protect children from the worst forms of child labor, including the minimum age for work, access to public education, the compulsory education age, and prohibition of using children in illicit activities.

Table 4.Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Related Entity

Meets International Standards

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Mainland

No

14

Article 5 of the Employment and Labor Relations Act; Article 77 of the Law of the Child Act (38,39)

Zanzibar

No

15

Article 6 of the Zanzibar Employment Act; Articles 2 and 98 of the Zanzibar Children’s Act (40,41)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Mainland

Yes

18

Article 5 of the Employment and Labor Relations Act; Article 82 of the Law of the Child Act (38,39)

Zanzibar

Yes

18

Articles 8–9 of the Zanzibar Employment Act; Article 100 of the Zanzibar Children’s Act (40,41)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Mainland

Yes

 

Article 5 and First Schedule of Regulations of the Employment and Labor Relations Act; Article 82 of the Law of the Child Act; List of Hazardous Child Labor (8,34,38,39)

Zanzibar

Yes

 

Articles 8–9 of the Zanzibar Employment Act; Article 100 of the Zanzibar Children’s Act (40,41)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Mainland

Yes

 

Article 25 of the Constitution; Article 80 of the Law of the Child Act; Article 6 of the Employment and Labor Relations Act; Article 4 of the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act (38,39,42,43)

Zanzibar

Yes

 

Article 7 of the Zanzibar Employment Act; Article 102 of the Zanzibar Children’s Act (40,41)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Mainland

Yes

 

Article 4 of the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act (43)

Zanzibar

Yes

 

Articles 6–7 of the Zanzibar Employment Act; Article 106 of the Zanzibar Children’s Act (40,41)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Mainland

Yes

 

Article 138.2.b of the Sexual Offences Special Provisions Act; Article 4 of the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act (43,44)

Zanzibar

Yes

 

Article 155 of the Penal Code of Zanzibar; Article 110 of the Zanzibar Children’s Act (40,45)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Mainland

No

   

Zanzibar

Yes

 

Article 7.2.c of the Zanzibar Employment Act (41)

Minimum Age for Voluntary State Military Recruitment

 

Yes

18

Article 29 of the National Defense Act (46)

Prohibition of Compulsory Recruitment of Children by (State) Military

 

N/A*

   

Prohibition of Military Recruitment by Non-state Armed Groups

 

No

   

Compulsory Education Age

Mainland

Yes

14‡

Article 35 of the National Education Act (35)

Zanzibar

No

13

Legislation not found.

Free Public Education

 

No

   

* No conscription (46)
‡ Age calculated based on available information (35)

Mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar’s non-union matters are governed by distinct territorial jurisdictional laws, leaving each territory to determine its own child labor laws. (1,42) The minimum age for work laws in Mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar do not meet international standards because they do not extend to all working children, including children engaged in domestic work. (38,40,41) Mainland Tanzania’s hazardous work list for children does not specify weeding and processing as activities that are dangerous agricultural tasks in the production of tobacco, cloves, coffee, sisal, and tea. (8,34,38-41) In addition, Mainland Tanzania does not clearly provide penalties for using children for illicit activities, including in the production and trafficking of drugs. Zanzibar prohibits the use of children for illicit activities, including the production and trafficking of drugs. (40,41)

A practice that may contribute to children being left out of the formal education system stems from Mainland Tanzania’s Education Act of 1978, which allows the Ministry of Education to conduct medical examinations on students. This law, in combination with the Mainland’s 2002 Education Regulations (Expulsion and Exclusion of Pupils from Schools), allows for the academic expulsion of students for moral offenses, enabling schools to force students to undergo pregnancy tests and expel them if they are pregnant, thereby increasing their vulnerability to child labor. (35,47-51) Although pregnant girls are more at risk of expulsion, boys who are found to be sexually active are also expelled from school. (32)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist with the authority of the labor ministries of Mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Related Entity

Role

Minister of State in the Prime Minister’s Office for Policy, Parliamentary Affairs, Labor, Employment, Youth, and the Disabled

Mainland

Enforces child labor laws. Assigns area labor officers to each region to respond to reports of child labor violations, issues non-compliance orders, and reports incidents to police and the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare. (1) Through its Labor Administration and Inspection Section, provides legal guidance upon request, disseminates information to employers and employees on their rights and obligations, and helps area offices conduct labor inspections. (52)

Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, Elders, and Children

Mainland

Enforces child protection laws and regulations, and health and social welfare policies. Employs officers to monitor child labor at the district and village levels, and reports findings to the President's Office of Regional Administration and to local governments. Promotes community development, gender equality, and children’s rights by formulating policies, strategies, and guidelines in collaboration with stakeholders. (52)

Ministry of Home Affairs

Mainland

Enforces anti-trafficking laws, including child trafficking, and laws prohibiting commercial sexual exploitation of children and the use of children in illicit activities. Chairs the Anti-Trafficking Committee. (52)

Ministry of Empowerment, Adults, Youth, Women and Children

Zanzibar

Ensures compliance with child protection and child labor laws, including inspections, through its Child Protection Unit. (52) Following a merger with the Ministry of Labor, Economic Empowerment and Cooperatives, investigates child labor cases reported by the police and refers cases to social welfare officers. (53)

Ministry of Health

Zanzibar

Enforces anti-trafficking laws, including cases of child trafficking. (52)

Tanzania Police Force

Mainland and Zanzibar

Investigates cases of child labor and other forms of child endangerment reported to police stations; in some cases, refers cases to labor officers or seeks assistance from social welfare officers and the Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions to take legal action. Includes a Human Trafficking desk, and Gender and Children’s desks to handle cases pertaining to children. (28,52,54)

Labor Law Enforcement
In 2018, labor law enforcement agencies in Tanzania took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist in the authority of the labor ministries and in the execution of their mandates that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including the authority to assess penalties, and the lack of publicly available enforcement data.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

Related Entity

2017

2018

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Mainland

Unknown (48)

Unknown (3)

Zanzibar

$26,818† (48)

$28,193 (3)

Number of Labor Inspectors

Mainland

95 (48,55)

79 (3)

Zanzibar

11 (48)

20 (3)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Mainland

No (48)

No (3)

Zanzibar

No (48)

No (3)

Initial Training for New Labor Inspectors

Mainland

Unknown (48)

Unknown (3)

Zanzibar

No (48)

No (3)

 

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Mainland

Unknown (48)

N/A

Zanzibar

No (48)

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Mainland

Yes (48)

Unknown (3)

Zanzibar

No (48)

Yes (3)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

Mainland

2,237 (48)

Unknown (3)

Zanzibar

228 (48)

360 (3)

 

Number Conducted at Worksite

Mainland and Zanzibar

2,465 (48)

Unknown (3)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Mainland

Unknown (48)

Unknown (3)

Zanzibar

0 (48)

0 (3)

 

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Mainland and Zanzibar

Unknown (48)

Unknown(3)

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that Were Collected

Mainland and Zanzibar

Unknown (48)

Unknown (3)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Mainland

Yes (48)

Yes (3)

Zanzibar

Unknown (48)

Yes (3)

 

Routine Inspections Targeted

Mainland

Yes (48)

Yes (3)

Zanzibar

Unknown (48)

Yes (3)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Mainland

Yes (48)

Yes (3)

Zanzibar

Yes (48)

Yes (3)

 

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Mainland

Yes (48)

Yes (3)

Zanzibar

Unknown (48)

Yes (3)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Mainland and Zanzibar

Yes (48)

Yes (3)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Mainland

Yes (48)

Yes (3)

Zanzibar

Unknown (48)

Yes (3)

† Data are from July 1, 2017 to December 31, 2017.

Despite regulations requiring that one or more labor officers be assigned to each region, research was unable to determine whether this was followed during the reporting period. (3,56) The number of labor inspectors is likely insufficient for the size of Tanzania’s workforce, which includes nearly 25 million workers. According to the ILO’s technical advice of a ratio approaching 1 inspector for every 40,000 workers in least developed economies, Tanzania would employ about 622 inspectors. (57,58)

The government did not provide information on its labor inspectorate funding, training, number of labor inspections conducted, or number of child labor violations found for inclusion in this report; however, in previous years, inspections in Mainland Tanzania were carried out in sectors such as agriculture, mining, domestic work, hotels, trade, industry and commerce, construction, and fishing. (7) Exact figures on labor inspectorate funding remain unavailable; nevertheless, research indicates that NGOs noted that labor enforcement efforts could benefit from additional funding and increased numbers of inspections. (52)

Criminal Law Enforcement
In 2018, criminal law enforcement agencies in Tanzania took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including the collection and availability of enforcement statistics.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

Related Entity

2017

2018

Initial Training for New Criminal Investigators

Mainland

N/A (55)

No (3)

Zanzibar

N/A (55)

No (3)

 

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Mainland

Yes (48)

N/A

Zanzibar

No (48)

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Mainland

No (55)

Unknown(3)

Zanzibar

No (55)

Yes (3)

Number of Investigations

Mainland

Unknown (48)

Unknown(3)

Zanzibar

0 (48)

0 (3)

Number of Violations Found

Mainland

Unknown (48)

Unknown (3)

Zanzibar

0 (48)

0 (3)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Mainland

Unknown (48)

Unknown (3)

Zanzibar

0 (48)

0 (3)

Number of Convictions

Mainland

Unknown (48)

Unknown (3)

Zanzibar

0 (48)

0 (3)

Imposed Penalties for Violations Related to The Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown

Unknown

 

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Mainland

Yes (48)

Yes (3)

Zanzibar

Unknown (48)

Yes (3)

In June, the UNODC trained 21 law enforcement officials, including immigration and prison officials, on data collection and other skills needed to address trafficking in persons cases. (26) The government did not provide information on the number of investigations undertaken, the number of prosecutions initiated, or the number of convictions for inclusion in this report.

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including inactive coordinating bodies.

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Related Entity

Role & Description

National Education Task Force on Child Labor

Mainland and Zanzibar

Reviews education sector policies and existing laws, regulations, and strategies related to children’s issues, including the National Action Plan. Reviews existing curriculum and programs, identifies gaps, and suggests strategies to resolve barriers to accessing education. (9,59) Research was unable to determine whether the National Education Task Force on Child Labor was active during the reporting period.

Zanzibar Child Labor Steering Committee

Zanzibar

Coordinates various implementing agencies responsible for child labor and provides policy guidance on the Zanzibar National Action Plan to Combat Child Labor. (52) Chaired by Zanzibar’s Ministry of Empowerment, Adults, Youth, Women and Children. (56) Research was unable to determine whether the Child Labor Steering Committee was active during the reporting period.

National Protection Steering Committee

Mainland and Zanzibar

Provides overall policy guidance and coordination at the national and local levels of the National Plan of Action to End Violence Against Women and Children (NPA-VAWC) through the merger of the National Inter-Sectoral Coordination Committee and the Multi-Sector Task Force on Violence Against Children. (53,54) Operates the NPA-VAWC National Protection Technical Committee and Thematic Working Groups at the national level. Merge pre-existing committees at the regional and district levels, focusing on violence prevention and response, including the Child Labor Committees, Gender-Based Violence Committees, District Child Protection Teams, and Most Vulnerable Children Committees. (52,54) Research was unable to determine whether the National Protection Steering Committee was active during the reporting period.

National Anti-Trafficking Committee (ATC) and National Anti-Trafficking Secretariat (ATS)

Mainland and Zanzibar

Promotes, defines, and coordinates policy to prevent human trafficking through engagement with local NGOs. (28,30,43,53) Chaired by the Ministry of Home Affairs, includes representatives from the Prime Minister’s Office for Policy, Parliamentary Affairs, Labor, Employment, Youth, and the Disabled. (56) In 2018, ATC and ATS reviewed and updated the National Action Plan, operated with a budget of $45,000, and, with the help of UNODC, held a 3-day workshop for judges and magistrates on the prosecution of human trafficking cases. (26)

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including lack of effort related to ongoing policy implementation.

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Related Entity

Description

National Strategy for Child Labor (2018–2023)†

Mainland and Zanzibar

Coordinates policy on child labor at the national level, and was provided with a $4.8 million budget for the duration of project. Drafted with support from ILO. (3) In 2018, the government adopted this policy, but did not begin implementation. (60)

National Plan of Action to End Violence Against Women and Children in Tanzania (NPA-VAWC) (2017–2022)

Mainland and Zanzibar

Prevents and responds to all forms of violence against women and children through comprehensive multi-sectoral collaboration at all levels and combining eight national action plans. (54) The renewed plan details responsible agencies to address multiple challenges, including education and poverty reduction. (52) The government allocated $5.72 million for fiscal year 2017–2018, but did not provide details on how the allocation was spent. In 2018, research has been unable to confirm that the plan has been implemented. (3,9,52,55)

Zanzibar Education Policy of 2006

Zanzibar

Recommends formal education through the approximate age of 15. In 2018, research indicated that there were issues with implementation of this policy due to issues of quality, equity, and access. (31,61,62)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.
‡ The government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor. (52,53,63)

Tanzania does not have a law requiring free public education, but it does have an education policy that allows children to attend primary school and lower secondary school without paying tuition fees. Furthermore, the government regulates access to secondary education through the Primary School Leaving Examination. In Mainland Tanzania, students who do not pass the exam do not have an opportunity to re-take the exam and must drop out of public school. (53) Despite the government's intention to phase out the exam by 2021, there is no evidence of government efforts or preparations to do so. (47,53,55) The compulsory education age for children in Mainland Tanzania is approximately 14 as determined by law. In 2006, Zanzibar adopted and began implementing the Zanzibar Education Policy, which establishes compulsory education through Form 4, which is approximately age 15. (62,64) However, reporting suggests that implementation of this policy has been slow due to limited resources for schools and the economic burdens on families to financially contribute to post-primary education. More than half of children in Zanzibar leave the formal education system below the minimum age for work, leaving them at increased risk for child labor. (31,60,61)

In 2018, the government funded and participated in programs that may contribute to eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including the scope and implementation of programs in all relevant sectors, including the construction, service and informal sectors.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Global Research on Child Labor Measurement and Policy Development

USDOL-funded research project implemented by ILO in 10 countries to increase the knowledge base related to child labor by collecting new data, analyzing existing data, and building the capacity of the government to conduct research in this area. Additional information is available on the USDOL website.

Promoting Sustainable Practices to Eradicate Child Labor in Tobacco (PROSPER) Umoja (Unity) (2018–2020)*

$900,000 extension project of PROSPER Plus funded by the Eliminating Child Labor in Tobacco-Growing Foundation and implemented by Winrock International, Tanzania Association of Women Leaders in Agriculture and the Environment, and Tabora Development Foundation Trust. Aims to bring together public and private sectors to reduce child labor on a nationwide scale, focusing in Kaliua, Sikonge, Tabora, and Urambo. (3,52,65) In November 2018, the program expanded to Mbeya and Songwe regions, providing 500 scholarships to children ages 5 to 14. (60)

Eradicating the Worst Forms of Labor in the Eight Mining Wards of the Geita District, Phase 2 (2015–2019)

$2 million EU-funded, 3-year project implemented by Plan International Tanzania to enhance social protection mechanisms to prevent and improve awareness of child labor among children, parents, and mining employers near Chato, Geita, and Nywangwale. (3,48) Cumulative figures report that by 2018, 6,550 community members and about 5,500 small‐scale unregistered miners received awareness-raising messages on child protection and the effects of child labor. (3)

Tanzania Social Action Fund Conditional Cash Transfer Program, Phase III (2012–2018)†

Government-funded conditional cash transfer program to provide financial assistance to vulnerable populations, including children. USDOL-funded study conducted on the program reported increased school enrollment and reduced forced child migration and child labor. (48) In 2018, research reports that the program is moving to implement Phase IV, running from 2019 to 2023. The first transfer targets 300,000 poor households and is scheduled for July 1, 2020. (3,60)

Decent Work Country Program (DWCP)

ILO-supported program with four objectives: (a) create jobs, (b) guarantee rights at work, (c) extend social protection, and (d) promote social dialogue. Outcomes include an improved operational environment for the elimination of child labor and its worst forms. (48,52) During the reporting period, DWCP carried out five trainings for government labor inspectors to enhance the capacity to carry out inspections on farms and in industries, primarily tobacco. (60)

Achieving Reduction of Child Labor in Support of Education (ARISE)

Joint initiative of ILO, Japan Tobacco International, and Winrock International. Seeks to end child labor in tobacco through education. Operates in three districts in the Tabora Region: Kaliua, Urambo, and Uyui. (66,67) Research was unable to determine program activities during the reporting period.

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Tanzania.
‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. (52)

The scope of government-funded social programs is inadequate in that it does not cover construction, domestic service, fishing, and informal sectors in which children engage in child labor.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Tanzania (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Related Entity

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Mainland and Zanzibar

Ensure that minimum age protections apply to children engaged in domestic work.

2013 – 2018

Mainland

Criminalize the use of children in illicit activities, particularly in producing and trafficking drugs.

2012 – 2018

Mainland and Zanzibar

Criminalize the recruitment of children under age 18 by non-state armed groups.

2016 – 2018

Mainland

Continue to expand the list of hazardous occupations and activities prohibited for children to ensure that the list includes weeding and processing in the production of tobacco, cloves, coffee, sisal, and tea.

2016 – 2018

Zanzibar

Pass and publish legislation that establishes a compulsory age for education.

2018

Zanzibar

Ensure that there is no gap between the age for compulsory education and the minimum age for work, which leaves children vulnerable to child labor.

2017 - 2018

Mainland and Zanzibar

Ensure that the law does not prohibit access to education for pregnant girls and sexually active boys.

2017 - 2018

Mainland and Zanzibar

Establish by law free basic public education.

2016 – 2018

Enforcement

Mainland and Zanzibar

Increase the number of labor inspectors to meet ILO’s technical advice.

2013 – 2018

Mainland and Zanzibar

Ensure that a dedicated labor officer is appointed to each region, and publish this information.

2013 – 2018

Mainland and Zanzibar

Authorize the Mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar labor inspectorates to assess penalties.

2017 - 2018

Mainland and Zanzibar

Publish information for Mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar on child labor law enforcement actions, such as funding, trainings provided, routine and unannounced inspections conducted, child labor violations found, and penalties imposed and collected.

2011 – 2018

Mainland and Zanzibar

Provide sufficient funding and trained staff to conduct child labor inspections.

2013 – 2018

Mainland and Zanzibar

Publish information on criminal enforcement efforts to combat child labor, including trainings provided, investigations conducted, violations found, prosecutions initiated, and criminal convictions executed in Mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar.

2012 – 2018

Coordination

Mainland and Zanzibar

Ensure that the National Education Task Force on Child Labor, the Zanzibar Child Labor Steering Committee, and the National Protection Steering Committee are active.

2018

Government Policies

Mainland

Eliminate provisions in the Primary School Leaving Examination and other national exams that are barriers to education, such as the no re-take policy.

2016 - 2018

Mainland and Zanzibar

Take steps to implement the National Plan of Action to End Violence Against Women and Children in Tanzania.

2018

Zanzibar

Ensure full implementation of the Zanzibar Education Policy to limit dropouts.

2018

Social Programs

Mainland and Zanzibar

Address barriers to education, including prohibitive related costs, such as books, school meals, and uniforms.

2010 - 2018

Mainland and Zanzibar

Integrate programs that include the construction, domestic service, and informal sectors to address children engaged in child labor.

2017 - 2018

Mainland and Zanzibar

Publish information on the efforts of government social programs that address child labor, including Achieving Reduction of Child Labor in Support of Education.

2018

  1. U.S. Embassy- Dar es Salaam. Reporting, January 17, 2014.

  2. ILO and Government of Tanzania. Tanzania Mainland National Child Labor Survey 2014. February 2016.
    http://www.ilo.org/ipec/Informationresources/WCMS_IPEC_PUB_28475/lang--en/index.htm.

  3. U.S. Embassy- Dar es Salaam. Reporting. February 11, 2019.

  4. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2018. Washington, DC. 2018.
    https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-trafficking-in-persons-report/tanzania/.

  5. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed March 12, 2019. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.
    http://data.uis.unesco.org/.

  6. ILO. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Tanzania National Child Labour Survey, 2014. Analysis received March 12, 2019. Please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

  7. Government of Tanzania. The Brief on Update Information on Child Labour in Tanzania. March 4, 2014. Source on file.

  8. Government of Tanzania. List of Hazards. 2013. Source on file.

  9. U.S. Embassy- Dar es Salaam. Reporting January 19, 2016.

  10. Yussuf, Issa. Clove Production Records Success Despite Challenges. Tanzania Daily News, June 29, 2016.
    http://allafrica.com/stories/201606290468.html.

  11. ILO-IPEC and Government of Tanzania. Rapid Assessment on Child Labour in Tobacco Growing Communities in Tabora Region, Tanzania. 2016.
    http://www.ilo.org/addisababa/countries-covered/tanzania/WCMS_517519/lang--en/index.htm.

  12. U.S. Embassy- Dar es Salaam. Reporting, January 20, 2015.

  13. U.S. Embassy- Dar es Salaam. Reporting. February 20, 2018 (TIP).

  14. Mwaipopo, Rosemarie. Tanzania: Labour, Fraught with Danger. Samudra Report no. 77 (2017).
    https://www.icsf.net/images/samudra/pdf/english/issue_77/4309_art_Sam77_e_art08.pdf.

  15. Makene, Prosper. Efforts to Curb Child Labour in Gold Mines Proves Fruitful, Says RC. March 18, 2014.
    http://www.123tanzania.com/?module=news&action=newsdetails&news=4153.

  16. Human Rights Watch. Child Rights and the Environment—The Need for Action. Submission by Human Rights Watch to the Committee on the Rights of the Child. July 22, 2016.
    https://www.hrw.org/news/2016/07/22/child-rights-and-environment-need-action.

  17. Lobulu, William. City Fathers Erred on Arusha Tag. Arusha Times, February 27, 2016. Source on file.

  18. Kippenberg, Juliane. Tackling Child Labor in the Minerals Supply Chain. Human Rights Watch, May 3, 2017.
    https://www.hrw.org/news/2017/05/03/tackling-child-labor-minerals-supply-chain.

  19. Mahr, Krista. Tanzania struggles to end child labor from the lure of gold. Reuters, April 3, 2017.
    https://www.reuters.com/article/us-tanzania-mining-children-feature/tanzania-struggles-to-end-child-labor-from-the-lure-of-gold-idUSKBN176007.

  20. Spence, Tony. Child Mining in Tanzania: A Forgotten Story. Global South Magazine, 2017.
    http://www.gsdmagazine.org/child-mining-tanzania-forgotten-story/.

  21. ILO. A Situational Analysis of Domestic Workers in the United Republic of Tanzania. January 30, 2016.
    http://www.ilo.org/addisababa/countries-covered/tanzania/WCMS_517516/lang--en/index.htm.

  22. Grant, Rebecca. No school, no salary: the children tricked into domestic servitude in Zanzibar. The Guardian, November 9, 2017.
    https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2017/nov/09/children-domestic-servitude-zanzibar-trafficking.

  23. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2019. Washington, DC. 2019.
    https://www.state.gov/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/2019-TIP-Report-Narratives-T-ZSpecial-Case.pdf.

  24. Makoye, Kizito. Tanzania Suspends Quarter Of Job Agencies In Crackdown On Sex, Labour Trafficking. Thomas Reuters Foundation News, Accessed January 3, 2017.
    http://news.trust.org//item/20150820114050-04y6h/.

  25. Kimani, Geofrey. Child Trafficking On Increase With No Solution in Horizon. The Citizen, October 28, 2016.
    http://allafrica.com/stories/201610260785.html.

  26. U.S. Embassy- Dar es Salaam. Reporting. March 1, 2019.

  27. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2017: Tanzania. Washington, DC. 2017.
    https://www.state.gov/reports/2017-trafficking-in-persons-report/tanzania/.

  28. U.S. Embassy- Dar es Salaam. Reporting, February 14, 2014.

  29. Mwita, Sosthenes. Human Trafficking Seen Escalating. Tanzania Daily News, June 23, 2016.
    http://allafrica.com/stories/201606230071.html.

  30. U.S. Embassy- Dar es Salaam. Reporting, February 18, 2015.

  31. U.S. Embassy- Dar es Salaam official. Email communication to USDOL official. July 12, 2019.

  32. U.S. Embassy- Dar es Salaam. Email communication to USDOL official. June 20, 2018.

  33. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation Concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Tanzania, United Republic of (ratification: 2001) Published: 2014. Accessed April 18, 2014.
    http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3142624.

  34. Government of Tanzania. Employment and Labor Relations Act General Regulations. Enacted: 2017. Source on file.

  35. Government of Tanzania. National Education Act. Enacted: December 4, 1978.
    http://www.unesco.org/education/edurights/media/docs/873ae01bc28cf449895950c7cac2a419d3ede5fd.pdf.

  36. Human Rights Watch. The Education Deficit: Failures to Protect and Fulfill the Right to Education in Global Development Agendas. 2016.
    https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/accessible_document/educationdeficit0616_accessible.pdf.

  37. Mtema, Nelly. Tanzania: School Desk Initiative Pays Off. Tanzania Daily News, July 1, 2016.
    http://allafrica.com/stories/201607010575.html.

  38. Government of Tanzania. Employment and Labour Relations Act. Enacted: 2004.
    http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/SERIAL/68319/66452/.

  39. Government of Tanzania. The Law of the Child Act. Enacted: 2009.
    http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_protect/---protrav/---ilo_aids/documents/legaldocument/wcms_151287.pdf.

  40. Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar. Children's Act. Enacted: 2011. Source on file.

  41. Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar. Employment Act, No.11. Enacted: 2005.
    http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/WEBTEXT/49108/65102/E98TZA01.htm#p2.

  42. Government of Tanzania. The Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania. Enacted: 1977. Source on file.

  43. Government of Tanzania. The Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act. Enacted: 2008. Source on file.

  44. Government of Tanzania. Sexual Offences Special Provisions Act. Enacted: 1998.
    http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/67094/63635/F532037758/TZA67094.pdf.

  45. Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar. Penal Decree Act No. 6 of 2004. Enacted: 2004. Source on file.

  46. Government of Tanzania. National Defence Act. Enacted: 1966. Source on file.

  47. Human Rights Watch. I Had a Dream to Finish School: Barriers to Secondary Education in Tanzania. 2017.
    https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/accessible_document/tanzania0217_-_accessible.pdf.

  48. U.S. Embassy- Dar es Salaam. Reporting, January 29, 2018.

  49. Human Rights Watch. Tanzania: 1.5 Million Adolescents Not in School.
    https://www.hrw.org/news/2017/02/14/tanzania-15-million-adolescents-not-school.

  50. Ratcliffe, Rebecca. ‘After getting pregnant, you are done’: no more school for Tanzania's mums-to-be. June 30, 2017.
    https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2017/jun/30/tanzania-president-ban-pregnant-girls-from-school-john-magufuli.

  51. U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2018. Washington, DC. 2019.
    https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/tanzania/

  52. U.S. Embassy- Dar es Salaam. Reporting, January 17, 2017.

  53. U.S. Embassy- Dar es Salaam official. Email communication to USDOL official. May 2, 2017.

  54. Government of Tanzania. National Plan of Action to End Violence Against Women and Children in Tanzania. December 2016.
    http://www.mcdgc.go.tz/index.php/publications/more/national_plan_of_action_to_end_violence _against_women_and_children_in_/.

  55. U.S. Embassy- Dar es Salaam official. Email communication to USDOL official. March 23, 2018.

  56. U.S. Embassy- Dar es Salaam official. Email communication to USDOL official. June 16, 2017.

  57. UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2017 Statistical Annex. New York. 2017. Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.
    https://www.un.org/development/desa/dpad/wp-content/uploads/sites/45/publication/2017wesp_full_en.pdf.

  58. CIA. The World Factbook. Accessed January 19, 2018. Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.
    https://www.cia.gov/Library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2095rank.html.

  59. Government of Tanzania. NETF Action Plan. National Education Task Force on Child Labor. 2015. Source on file.

  60. U.S. Embassy- Dar es Salaam official. Email communication to USDOL official. June 26, 2019.

  61. Suleiman, Amran Said, Yen Yat, and Issah Iddrisu. Education Policy Implementation: A Mechanism for Enhancing Primary Education Development in Zanzibar. Open Journal of Social Sciences 5, 2017.
    https://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=74820.

  62. Government of Zanzibar Zanzibar Education Development Plan II. 2017.
    https://www.globalpartnership.org/sites/default/files/zedp_ii_zanzibar.pdf.

  63. The World Bank. Secondary Education Development Program II. 2016.
    http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/182201483110970136/pdf/ISR-Disclosable-P114866-12-30-2016-1483110951754.pdf.

  64. Government of Zanzibar. Ministry of Education and Vocational Training 2018. 2018.
    https://www.moez.go.tz/index.php?cq=dept&dept=6.

  65. Winrock International. Empowerment & Civic Engagement: PROSPER Plus Program. 2016. Source on file.

  66. ILO-IPEC. Achieving Reduction of Child Labour In Support of Education (ARISE) Project Document. 2016.
    http://www.ilo.org/addisababa/countries-covered/tanzania/WCMS_531380/lang--en/index.htm.

  67. ARISE. ARISE Officially Launches in Tanzania. May 25, 2016: Press Release.
    http://ariseprogram.org/en/news/news/arise-officially-launches-tanzania/.