Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Sierra Leone

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Sierra Leone

2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Minimal Advancement – Efforts Made but Regression in Policy that Delayed Advancement

In 2015, Sierra Leone made a minimal advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. Despite new initiatives to address child labor, Sierra Leone is receiving this assessment because it implemented a regression in policy that delayed advancement in eliminating the worst forms of child labor. Girls who were pregnant were prohibited by a Government policy from taking secondary and post-secondary school entrance exams or attending regular public schools during the reporting period, making them more vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor. Otherwise, the Government made efforts by launching its National Ebola Recovery Strategy and finalizing its human trafficking database and a National Referral Mechanism to assist victims of human trafficking. Children in Sierra Leone are engaged in child labor, including in agriculture, and in the worst forms of child labor, including in diamond mining. Sierra Leone’s laws do not adequately protect children from involvement in hazardous work and the country does not have an approved national action plan on child labor. 

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Children in Sierra Leone are engaged in child labor, including in agriculture.(1, 2) Children are also engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in diamond mining. Children working in the mining sector load, carry, and wash and sieve gravel.(1) Other children in this sector hawk or deliver goods, perform errands, or are exploited in commercial sexual exploitation.(1, 3)

Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Sierra Leone.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

51.3 (897,142)

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

67.0

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

43.3

Primary completion rate (%):

69.5

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2013, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(4)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from the Demographic and Health Survey, 2013.(5)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Farming of coffee, cocoa, and palm oil, including clearing fields, planting, weeding, harvesting, and transporting these products (6-10)

Fishing,* including deep-sea fishing,*† mending nets,* and working on boats in the open sea*† (1, 3, 11)

Industry

Mining† for alluvial diamonds, sand,* gold,* including loading gravel* in sacks or basins, carrying sacks on their heads,* washing,* and sieving* (1, 10, 12-14)

Quarrying† and crushing stone,* including granite, and transporting gravel* (1, 3, 10, 15, 16)

Construction, activities unknown (1, 2)

Manufacturing,† activities unknown (2)

Services

Scavenging scrap metals and recyclable materials from dumpsites (1, 10)

Domestic work (1, 10)

Street work, including begging, trading, and selling goods (1-3, 10, 17)

Portering, including carrying heavy loads† (1, 10, 17)

Working as apprentices,* including in auto-repair shops and on transportation vehicles (poda poda) (1, 2)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Forced begging, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1, 10, 18)

Forced domestic work,* sometimes as a result of human trafficking* (18, 19)

Forced stealing* (1, 10)

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1, 10, 20)

Forced labor in agriculture* and at granite* and alluvial diamond mines, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1, 10, 18, 20)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Sierra Leone is a source, transit, and destination country for children trafficked for forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation.(3, 20) Children are trafficked mostly from rural to urban areas for commercial sexual exploitation, domestic work, and petty trading.(3) Children are also trafficked internally for forced labor in agriculture and diamond mines and for begging.(3) Children from neighboring West African countries are trafficked to Sierra Leone for begging, forced labor in mining and portering, and commercial sexual exploitation.(3) Sources indicate that during the reporting period, cross-border human trafficking increased, including trafficking of girls from Sierra Leone to Guinea for labor exploitation and of boys and girls to The Gambia for “cultural dancing.”(21)

According to the Education Act, the Government has established the right to free basic education; however, in practice, families pay for their children’s uniforms, supplies, transportation, and other school costs.(1, 10, 22, 23) Some children work part-time to help cover these costs.(22) Other factors that limit children’s access to education are a lack of schools, early pregnancy, motherhood and marriage, sexual abuse from teachers, and poor school conditions.(1, 10, 24-26) Although the Persons with Disability Act prohibits discrimination in education, children with disabilities in Sierra Leone are less likely to attend school than other children due to discrimination and inadequate school facilities, which may make them more vulnerable to involvement in child labor.(10, 26, 27)

In 2015, the Government continued to redirect its resources to address an outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), which adversely affected thousands of children in the country.(18) Although Sierra Leone reopened its public schools on April 14, 2015, after a 9-month closure due to the EVD outbreak, the Government implemented a policy that prohibits pregnant girls from taking secondary and post-secondary school entrance exams or attending regular public schools. This policy was carried out despite a significant increase in pregnancies among girls during the EVD outbreak.(28) The policy may make pregnant girls more vulnerable to involvement in child labor, including its worst forms. Other children in Sierra Leone have not returned to school since the reopening because they are working or because their families can no longer afford the costs of schooling.(29)

Sierra Leone has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Section 125 of the Child Rights Act; Section 52 of Chapter 212, Employers and Employed Act (30, 31)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Sections 126 and 128 of the Child Rights Act; Sections 47–56 of Chapter 212, Employers and Employed Act (30, 31)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Section 128 of the Child Rights Act; Sections 47–56 of Chapter 212, Employers and Employed Act; Sections 164 and 170 of the Mines and Minerals Act (30-32)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Part II, Section 2, and Part IV, Sections 14, 15, and 21 of the Anti-Human Trafficking Act Section 19 of the Constitution of Sierra Leone (33, 34)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Part II, Section 2, and Part IV, Sections 14, 15, and 21 of the Anti-Human Trafficking Act; Section 60 of the Child Rights Act (30, 34)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Sections 19–34 of the Sexual Offenses Act; Part II, Section 2, of the Anti-Human Trafficking Act (34, 35)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Sections 7 and 13 of the National Drugs Control Act (36)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

N/A*

 

 

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

18

Section 28 of the Child Rights Act (30)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

15

Section 3 of the Education Act; Section 125 of the Child Rights Act (23, 30)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Section 3 of the Education Act; Section 9 of the Constitution of Sierra Leone; Section 11(c) of the Child Rights Act (23, 30, 33)

* No conscription (37)

Sierra Leone’s hazardous work prohibitions are not comprehensive. The types of hazardous work prohibited for children do not adequately cover children’s work in sectors in which child labor is known to occur, including in agriculture, construction, domestic work, transportation, street work, auto repair shops, and dumpsites, all of which may be undertaken in conditions that harm children’s health, safety, or morals.(1) The Government has developed a list of hazardous work prohibited for children under age 18; however, the list has not be submitted for Cabinet approval.(21, 36)

In 2013, the Government prepared a National Action Plan on Human Trafficking that included a goal for strengthening provisions of its Anti-Trafficking Law, including those prohibiting domestic human trafficking; in 2014, the Government set up a task force to review and revise the law.(19, 38) Research did not find whether additional actions were taken on the Anti-Trafficking Law in 2015.

The Child Rights Act sets the minimum age for light work at 13 years; however, it does not specify the hours and conditions under which light work may be undertaken or limit the number of hours for light work.(30)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor and Social Security (MLSS)—Child Labor Unit

Supervise implementation of ILO C. 138 and 182 and formulate, implement, and monitor compliance with child labor regulations.(39) MLSS District Labor Officers are responsible for enforcing labor laws in the formal sector.(18)

Ministry of Mines and Mineral Resources

Enforce regulations against using child labor in mining. Authorized to suspend licenses of mining operators engaged in child labor.(10, 32)

Ministry of Social Welfare, Gender and Children’s Affairs

Serve as lead agency to ensure child protection in country and in criminal law enforcement.(1, 18) Head National Trafficking In Persons Secretariat.(18)

Sierra Leone Police, Family Support Unit (FSU)

Investigate and prosecute various child labor crimes identified by monitors.(18)

Transnational Organized Crime Unit (TOCU)

Responsible for enforcing human trafficking cases and providing statistics and information on cases of human trafficking.(40)

District Councils

Enforce child labor laws in the informal sector.(1)

Village Child Welfare Committees

Promote awareness on child rights and report child welfare concerns to village and Government officials who are responsible for children’s issues. Provide recommendations and instructions on the maintenance and support of specific village children. Address complaints and concerns of adults or children in the village.(30)

 

The Child Rights Act requires the establishment of a child welfare committee in every village, chiefdom, and district; however, these committees have only been established in a few parts of the country.(18, 30)

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2015, labor law enforcement agencies in Sierra Leone took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown (41)

Unknown (41)

Number of Labor Inspectors

22 (42)

18 (42)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (41)

Yes (41)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (41)

Yes (18)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (41)

Yes (18)

Number of Labor Inspections

200 (41)

250 (18)

Number Conducted at Worksite

200 (41)

250 (18)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

0 (41)

0 (41)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

0 (16)

0 (18)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown (21)

0 (18)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

Unknown (21)

0 (18)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (41)

Yes (41)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (41)

Yes (41)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (41)

Yes (41)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (41)

Yes (41)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

No (41)

No (41)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (41)

Yes (41)

 

In 2015, the Ministry of Labor and Social Security (MLSS) had 18 labor inspectors.(42) These inspectors were largely responsible for enforcing laws in factories; however, less than 1 percent of children work in factories.(2) This year, the Government established regional child labor units in cities in the North (Makeni), East (Kenema), and South (Bo) and assigned a factory inspector to each unit, although most inspectors are still assigned to the Western Area of the country which has the lowest number of child laborers of any region in the country.(18, 42) According to the ILO recommendation of 1 inspector for every 40,000 workers in less developed economies, the Government of Sierra Leone should employ about 180 inspectors to adequately enforce labor laws throughout the country.(43-45) In addition, although the MLSS was provided with additional donor funds to purchase vehicles in 2015, the MLSS reported that it had insufficient funding, including resources for transportation, to adequately carry out its duties.(18)

In December 2015, the MLSS trained 40 newly recruited staff and other staff members on general labor administration, including child labor monitoring; however, officials reported that they did not believe this training was adequate.(18) Although the Government has a complaint line for issues related to child protection, it does not receive child labor complaints.(12)

Although the Ministry of Mines and Mineral Resources can conduct inspections of mines and revoke licenses from license holders who are found to be using child labor, reports indicated that the government did not effectively enforce these laws in the diamond mining sector.(20, 32)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2015, criminal law enforcement agencies in Sierra Leone took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

No (18)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (19)

No (18)

Number of Investigations

Unknown

Unknown (46)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown

Unknown (46)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown

Unknown (46)

Number of Convictions

Unknown

0 (18, 21)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Unknown

Yes (21)

 

Reports indicate that criminal law enforcement in Sierra Leone, particularly to address human trafficking, is hampered by a lack of coordination, limited funding, and a lack of training among law enforcement personnel and the judiciary.(21) During the reporting period, most government agency resources, including those used for enforcing laws on human trafficking, forced labor, and commercial sexual exploitation, were diverted to address the EVD outbreak.(21)

According to one source, the Transnational Organized Crime Unit (TOCU) investigated nine cases of cross-border child trafficking for labor exploitation involving 16 victims in 2015, while the Sierra Leone Police, Family Support Unit (FSU) investigated two cases of trafficking of children for both labor and sexual exploitation.(47) In addition, both TOCU and the FSU reported investigations involving the trafficking of children to Guinea to be domestic servants, and the attempted trafficking of children to be “cultural dancers” in The Gambia. Comprehensive criminal enforcement statistics from other agencies are unavailable.(47) Research could not determine whether the District Councils conducted enforcement visits in other areas of the informal sector in 2015 in which child labor is prevalent.(47)

The courts handle human trafficking cases inefficiently, and cases are often dropped before completion because of pressures and other difficult circumstances that victims face.(21)

In 2015, in an effort to improve its data collection efforts, the Government finalized its database on human trafficking and a National Referral Mechanism to better serve human trafficking victims.(21) The Government also made a reported 74 referrals to private shelters during the reporting year.(21)

The Government of Sierra Leone collaborated with the Governments of Liberia and Guinea in addressing human trafficking during the reporting period and with the U.S. Government in the training of Sierra Leonean diplomats on child labor issues.(21)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

 

National Technical Steering Committee on Child Labor

Meet ad hoc to discuss major issues on child labor as they arise.(12, 39)

 

National Trafficking in Persons Task Force

Coordinate the needs and requirements of agencies involved in providing shelter and services for victims, gather data on reported trafficking cases, and meet regularly to develop policy and address the issue of child trafficking.(12, 48) Task Force is headed by the Ministry of Social Welfare, Gender and Children’s Affairs.(49)

 

National Commission for Children

Coordinate and exchange information in accordance with the Child Rights Act. Advise the Government on ways to improve the condition and welfare of children in Sierra Leone.(30) By the end of 2015, only 11 of the 12 members of the Commission were named.(18)

 

 

The National Technical Steering Committee met every quarter in 2015.(18) The National Trafficking in Persons Task Force did not operate during the first 4 months of the year due to the EVD outbreak, but resumed operations in May.(21) After it resumed operations, the Task Force implemented an awareness-raising campaign on human trafficking and submitted two draft reports to the Cabinet, including one for a proposed anti-migrant smuggling law and another on ratifying the Economic Community of West African States Convention on Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters.(21) The National Commission for Children began operating in February 2015, with a budget of $47,000 and a staff of 12.

The Government of Sierra Leone has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Action Plan on Human Trafficking

Includes strategies to address human trafficking through prevention, victim identification, protection and referral, training, and government coordination and monitoring.(38) In 2015, the Government approved the updated National Action Plan and the new Trafficking in Persons Reporting Framework.(21)

Agenda for Prosperity (2013–2018)

Addresses child labor, including its worst forms, through strategies to expand and strengthen the capacity of the country’s social protection system and improve education access, equity, and quality for children.(50)

Education Sector Plan (2014–2018)*

Implements the Education Act and includes provisions to increase access, equity, completion, quality, and relevance of basic education.(51)

National Ebola Recovery Strategy (2015–2017)†

Includes strategies to address the impact of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) as it relates to the economy, education, gender, health, and labor.(18) Addresses child labor, including its worst forms, through strategies to care for and protect orphans and other vulnerable children, provide livelihood support for families, and return children to schools.(52)

* Child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy.
† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

The Government drafted the National Action Plan against the Worst Forms of Child Labor, but it has yet to be approved.(53)

In 2015, the Government of Sierra Leone funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues Project (2011–2015)

USDOL-funded project implemented by the ILO in approximately 40 countries to support the priorities of the Roadmap for Achieving the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor by 2016, established by the Hague Global Child Labor Conference in 2010.(39, 54) Aims to build the capacity of the Government and develop strategic policies to eliminate child labor.(54) In 2015, the project trained 40 labor officials.(54)

Program to Combat Recruitment of Child Soldiers, Child Soldier Prevention in Local Schools

Child Soldier Initiative-funded, 5-year program provides child protection training for the police and army. Implements an education program, run by former child soldiers, in 45 schools across 5 districts of Sierra Leone to teach children about their legal rights, child soldiering, and tactics used to recruit children.(55) The program aims to make child rights training mandatory for the local police and armed forces, and outlines standards on how troops must engage with children in combat.(55)

Human Trafficking and Sexual Violence Prevention Program (2013–2016)

USDOS-funded project, implemented by World Hope International, provides the only shelter for human trafficking victims in Sierra Leone. Identifies and provides care, recovery, and reintegration services for victims of human trafficking and exploitation, and works to build the Government’s capacity to combat human trafficking in a sustainable manner.(18)

Building Law Enforcement Capacity to Combat Trafficking in Persons (2013–2015)

USDOS-funded, $500,000, 2-year project implemented in collaboration with the Sierra Leone Labor Congress, and in conjunction with the Solidarity Center and the International Trade Union Confederation, Africa, to combat trafficking in persons and child labor in the informal sector. In 2015, the project worked with unions in the informal sector to identify and eliminate trafficking in persons and trained the Sierra Leone Police in how to investigate and prosecute these types of cases.(18)

Shelters

Government program that refers child trafficking victims to private shelters that house child victims of forced labor and trafficking.(19)

Observational Interim and Interim Care Centers†

Centers operated by the Government to assist children adversely affected by EVD. Interim Care Centers provided protection and care to children orphaned by Ebola while Observational Interim Care Centers, operated until November 2015, assisted children who were at high risk due to exposure to family members and other people affected by EVD.(21)

Awareness-raising programs on EVD

Government awareness-raising effort to prevent the spread of EVD. In 2015, the Government included information about trafficking in persons in its awareness-raising programs on Ebola in local communities.(21)

Revitalizing Education Development in Sierra Leone (2014–2017)

World Bank-funded, $23.4 million project that aims to strengthen the education system in Sierra Leone. Adds resources to support the initiation of a school feeding program, helps eliminate informal school fees, supplies books to children in grades 1 to 3, and supports local councils with school infrastructure needs, among other activities.(56, 57)

UNICEF Country Program (2015–2018)*

Aims to address the worst forms of child labor, increase access to basic education, reduce child marriage and adolescent pregnancies, and address other children’s needs.(26)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Sierra Leone.

Sierra Leone has insufficient shelters and safe houses for children who have been withdrawn from working on the streets or in forced labor.(3)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Sierra Leone (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Approve the draft list of hazardous activities for children and ensure that all children are protected from hazardous work, particularly in agriculture, construction, domestic work, transportation, street work, repair shops, and dumpsites that have hazardous conditions and in which child labor is known to occur.

2014 – 2015

Clarify whether actions were taken to strengthen prohibitions on domestic trafficking in the Anti-Trafficking Law.

2015

Ensure that the law’s light work provisions are specific enough to prevent children from involvement in child labor.

2015

Enforcement

Ensure that Village Child Welfare Committees are fully established and operational.

2014 – 2015

Make information about the MLSS funding publicly available and ensure adequate budgetary resources, including a sufficient number of inspectors and transportation resources, to effectively enforce civil laws in areas in which child labor occurs.

2011 – 2015

Enforce laws prohibiting child labor in mining, particularly in the diamond mining sector.

2015

Ensure adequate training for civil and criminal law enforcement officials.

2015

Target child labor issues as part of the child protection complaint line.

2013 – 2015

Improve coordination between criminal law enforcement agencies to ensure violations are effectively investigated and prosecuted, and that the judicial system has sufficient training and ability to handle child labor and trafficking cases efficiently.

2014 – 2015

Provide criminal law enforcement officials with adequate resources to effectively enforce the law.

2012 – 2015

Make information publicly available about the number of criminal investigations, violations, and prosecutions related to the worst forms of child labor.

2014 – 2015

Coordination

Designate all members of the National Commission for Children in accordance with Child Rights Act requirements.

2014 – 2015

Government Policies

Permit pregnant girls to take school entrance exams and attend regular public schools.

2015

Integrate child labor prevention and elimination strategies into the Education Sector Plan.

2015

Adopt the National Action Plan against the Worst Forms of Child Labor.

2014 – 2015

Social Programs

Increase access to education for children by eliminating school expenses, providing transportation, increasing the number of schools and improving poor infrastructure, eliminating abuse from teachers, improving access for children in situations of early marriage, pregnancy and motherhood and for children with disabilities.

2013 – 2015

Ensure the availability of shelters and safe houses for victims of forced labor and for children removed from street work.

2009 – 2015

 

1.         Government of Sierra Leone. Draft National Action Plan for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour 2014-2017. Freetown; 2014. [hardcopy on file].

2.         ILO, SSL, and Ministry of Labour and Social Security. Report on National Child Labour in Sierra Leone 2011. Freetown; 2014. [source on file].

3.         U.S. Embassy-Freetown. reporting, January 26, 2015.

4.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed January 16, 2015]; http://www.uis.unesco.org/Pages/default.aspx?SPSLanguage=EN. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

5.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from the Demographic and Health Survey, 2013. Analysis received December 16, 2015. http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. Because the calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age), the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

6.         Dunstan S.C. Spencer. Farmer Perceptions, Child Labour, and Economics of Tree Crops Production and Marketing in Kailahun, Kenema and Kono Districts of Sierra Leone. Freetown; October 1, 2009. http://www.eds-sl.com/docs/EDSFarmerPerceptions_ChildLabour_EconsofTreeCrops-Mar2011.pdf.

7.         Dunstan S.C. Spencer. EDS-PAGE Child Labour Study (April/May 2009) Sample Size. Freetown; 2009.

8.         Children of the Nations. Making Palm Oil in Sierra Leone, Children of the World, [online] March 28, 2014 [cited December 15, 2014]; https://cotni.org/news/sierra-leone/2014/03/28/making-palm-oil-sierra-leone.

9.         Chaon, A. Ebola-hit Sierra Leone's Late Cocoa Leaves Bitter Taste, Agence France Presse, [Online] [cited December 7, 2015]; https://uk.finance.yahoo.com/news/ebola-hit-sierra-leones-cocoa-055318624.html.

10.       U.S. Department of State. "Sierra Leone," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2014. Washington, DC; June 25, 2015; http://www.refworld.org/docid/559bd53e24.html.

11.       Booth, R. "Fish worth £4m seized in EU crackdown on illegal fishing." The Guardian, London, April 19, 2011; Environment. http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2011/apr/19/fish-4m-seized-crackdown-illegal/print 

12.       U.S. Embassy-Freetown. reporting, January 23, 2014.

13.       ILO-IPEC. Good practices in tackling child labour through education. Geneva, ILO-IPEC; 2013. http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/download.do?type=document&id=22956.

14.       Machonachie, R, and Hilson, G. "Re-Thinking the Child Labor Problem in Rural sub-Saharan Africa: The Case of Sierra Leone’s Half Shovels." World Development, 78(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2015.10.012.

15.       Campbell, G. "The Rock Mining Children of Sierra Leone Have Not Found Peace." The Atlantic, May(2012); http://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2012/05/the-rock-mining-children-of-sierra-leone-have-not-found-peace/257899/.

16.       U.S. Embassy-Freetown official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 10, 2015.

17.       Street Children UK. National Headcount of Street Children in Sierra Leone. London; April 2012. http://www.childhope.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Headcount_draft_report__FINALcfedit.pdf.

18.       U.S. Embassy-Freetown. reporting, February 12, 2016.

19.       U.S. Embassy-Freetown. reporting, February 19, 2015.

20.       U.S. Department of State. "Sierra Leone " in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015. Washington, DC; July 2015; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2015/243525.htm.

21.       U.S. Embassy-Freetown. reporting, February 3, 2016

22.       Kyle O'Donoghue. Education plants the seeds of a better future for adolescents in Sierra Leone, UNICEF, [online] 2011 [cited March 12, 2015]; http://www.unicef.org/adolescence/sierraleone_57735.html.

23.       Government of Sierra Leone,. The Education Act, enacted 2004. http://www.sierra-leone.org/Laws/2004-2p.pdf.

24.       Open Democracy. Schools and Sexual Abuse in Sierra Leone, Standard Times Press, February 5, 2010 [cited December 16, 2014]; https://www.opendemocracy.net/annabel-symington/schools-and-sex-abuse-in-sierra-leone.

25.       Farzaneh, N. An Evaluation of Teenage Pregnancy Pilot Projects in Sierra LeoneUNICEF; September 2013. http://www.unicef.org/evaldatabase/files/SierraLeone_2013-001_Evaluation_of_Teenage_Pregnancy_Pilot_Projects_in_Sierra_Leone.pdf.

26.       UNICEF. Sierra Leone Country Programme Document 2015-2018,UNICEF; 2014. http://www.unicef.org/about/execboard/files/2014-PL10-Sierra_Leone_CPD-Final_approved-EN.pdf.

27.       Government of Sierra Leone. Persons with Disability Act, enacted 2011. http://www.sierra-leone.org/Laws/2011-03.pdf.

28.       Amnesty International. Shamed and Blamed: Pregnant Girls' Rights At Risk in Sierra Leone. London; November 2015. http://www.amnestyusa.org/pdfs/ShamedAndBlamed_SierraLeone_Nov2015.pdf.

29.       Bundu, J. Sierra Leone’s First Lady Launches Children’s Ebola Recovery Assessment Report, World Vision International, [Online] [cited December 7, 2015]; http://www.wvi.org/ebola-crisis/article/sierra-leone%E2%80%99s-first-lady-launches-children%E2%80%99s-ebola-recovery-assessment-report.

30.       Government of Sierra Leone. The Child Right Act, enacted 2007. http://www.sierra-leone.org/Laws/2007-7p.pdf.

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37.       Child Soldiers International. "Louder than Words:  An Agenda for Action to End the State Use of Child Soldiers," in. London; 2012; http://child-soldiers.org/global_report_reader.php?id=689.

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43.       ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a “sufficient number” of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a “sufficient” number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

44.       UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex. New York; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies; “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies, and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

45.       CIA. The World Factbook, [online] [cited March 18, 2016]; https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors based on the country’s level of development as determined by the UN.

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51.       Government of Sierra Leone. Education Sector Plan 2014-2018. Freetown; 2014. http://www.globalpartnership.org/content/sierra-leone-education-sector-plan.

52.       Government of Sierra Leone. National Ebola Recovery Strategy for Sierra Leone (2015-2017). Freetown; July 2015. https://ebolaresponse.un.org/sites/default/files/sierra_leone_-_national_recovery_strategy_2015-2017.pdf.

53.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning the Worst Forms of Child Labor, 1999 (No. 182) Sierra Leone (Ratification: 2011) Published 2014; accessed October 30, 2014; [source on file].

54.       ILO-IPEC. Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues II. Technical Progress Report. Geneva; October 2015.

55.       Rowe, A. Sierra Leone launches program to stop child soldier recruitment, Thomson Reuters Foundation, [online] March 7, 2013 [cited March 13, 2015]; http://www.trust.org/item/20130307172600-2spdf/?source=search.

56.       World Bank. Revitalizing Education in Sierra Leone. Washington, DC,  September 2014. http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/AFR/2014/12/02/090224b0828d8ada/1_0/Rendered/PDF/Sierra0Leone000Report000Sequence001.pdf.

57.       Sorie, A. As Ebola Bows Out Of Sierra Leone, This New Education Development Plan Will Surprise You!, Sierraloaded, [online] [cited March 14, 2016]; http://www.sierraloaded.com/sierra-leone-plans-post-ebola-education-revitalizing-development-plan/.