Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Sierra Leone

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Sierra Leone

2017 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Minimal Advancement – Efforts Made but Continued Policy that Delayed Advancement

In 2017, Sierra Leone made a minimal advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. Despite new initiatives to address child labor, Sierra Leone is receiving this assessment because it continued to implement a policy that delayed advancement in eliminating the worst forms of child labor. A government policy continued to prohibit girls who were pregnant from attending regular public schools or taking secondary and postsecondary school entrance exams during the reporting period, making them more vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor. Children in Sierra Leone engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in diamond mining and in commercial sexual exploitation, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Children also perform dangerous tasks in agriculture. Sierra Leone’s laws do not adequately protect children from involvement in hazardous work, and the country has not implemented its national action plan on child labor.

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Children in Sierra Leone engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in diamond mining and in commercial sexual exploitation, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Children also perform dangerous tasks in agriculture. (1; 2; 3) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Sierra Leone.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

51.3 (897,142)

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

67.0

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

43.3

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

66.5

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2016, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2018. (4)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from the Demographic and Health Survey, 2013. (5)

 

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of cassava, coffee, cocoa, palm oil, peanuts, and rice (6; 7; 8; 9)

Fishing, including deep-sea fishing,† mending nets, and working on boats in the open sea† (1; 3)

Industry

Mining† for alluvial diamonds, sand, and gold, including loading gravel in sacks or basins, carrying sacks on their heads, washing, and sieving (1; 8; 10; 11; 12; 13)

Quarrying† and crushing stone, including granite, and transporting gravel (1; 3; 14)

Construction, activities unknown (1; 2; 8; 13)

Manufacturing†, activities unknown, and metallurgy (2; 15)

Services

Scavenging scrap metals and recyclable materials from dumpsites (1; 16; 17)

Domestic work (1)

Street work, including begging, trading, and selling goods (1; 2; 3; 8; 18; 13)

Portering, including carrying heavy loads† (1)

Working as apprentices, including in auto-repair shops and on transportation vehicles (poda poda) (1)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Forced begging, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1; 19; 20)

Forced domestic work, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (19; 21)

Forced stealing (1)

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1; 8; 13)

Forced labor at granite and alluvial diamond mines, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1; 19; 20)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

 

Sierra Leone is a source, transit, and destination country for children trafficked for forced labor in domestic work, granite and diamond mining, and begging; trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation also occurs. (3; 8; 20; 22)

Research indicated that the government continued to implement a policy to prohibit pregnant girls from attending regular public schools and taking secondary and postsecondary school entrance exams, which makes them vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor. (23; 24; 25; 13) In addition, despite the legal right to free basic education, many children do not complete primary school because of the high costs of uniforms, books, and fees charged by school authorities. (1; 26) Children’s access to education is also limited by a lack of schools and teachers, distance from schools, and sexual abuse by teachers. (1; 8; 23; 27; 28) Further, despite legal protections, children with disabilities are less likely to attend school due in part to discrimination and school facilities that are not adequately accessible. (23; 28; 29) NGOs also reported that children were denied access to school because of their HIV status. (23)

Sierra Leone has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Sierra Leone’s legal framework to protect children from the worst forms of child labor, including the lack of specific provisions on light work.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Section 125 of the Child Right Act; Section 52 of Chapter 212, Employers and Employed Act (30; 31)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Sections 126 and 128 of the Child Right Act; Sections 47–56 of Chapter 212, Employers and Employed Act (30; 31)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Section 128 of the Child Right Act; Sections 47–56 of Chapter 212, Employers and Employed Act; Sections 164 and 170 of the Mines and Minerals Act (30; 31; 32)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Part II, Section 2, and Part IV, Sections 14, 15, and 21 of the Anti-Human Trafficking Act; Section 19 of the Constitution of Sierra Leone (33; 34)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Part II, Section 2, and Part IV, Sections 14, 15, and 21 of the Anti-Human Trafficking Act; Section 60 of the Child Right Act (30; 34)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Sections 19–34 of the Sexual Offenses Act; Part II, Section 2, of the Anti-Human Trafficking Act (34; 35)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Sections 7 and 13 of the National Drugs Control Act (36)

Prohibition of Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

N/A*

 

 

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Section 28 of the Child Right Act (30)

Non-state

No

 

 

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

15

Section 3 of the Education Act; Section 125 of the Child Right Act (26; 30)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Section 3 of the Education Act; Section 9 of the Constitution of Sierra Leone; Section 11(c) of the Child Right Act (26; 30; 33)

* No conscription (37)

 

In 2015, the government developed a list of hazardous work prohibited for children under age 18; however, it remains with the Cabinet for review and has not yet been approved. (8; 37) Currently, the types of hazardous work prohibited for children do not comprehensively cover children’s work in a number of sectors in which child labor is known to occur, including in agriculture, construction, domestic work, transportation, street work, auto repair shops, and dumpsites, all areas of work in which there is evidence of work in an unhealthy environment, and work with dangerous machinery, equipment, and tools. (1; 23; 30; 31; 32)

The Child Right Act sets the minimum age for light work at age 13; however, it is not specific enough to prevent children from involvement in child labor because it does not limit the number of hours per week for light work, determine the activities in which light work may be permitted, or specify the conditions in which light work may be undertaken. (30)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the operations of the Child Welfare Committees that may hinder adequate child labor enforcement.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor and Social Security (MLSS)

Formulate, implement, and monitor compliance with child labor regulations through its Child Labor Unit. (8; 38) MLSS District Labor Officers are responsible for enforcing labor laws in the formal sector. (19) Operate regional offices in Bo, Kenema, Makeni, in addition to an office in the diamond-producing district of Kono. (8)

Ministry of Mines and Mineral Resources

Enforce regulations against the use of child labor in mining. Authorized to suspend licenses of mining operators engaged in child labor. (23; 32)

Ministry of Social Welfare, Gender and Children’s Affairs (MSWGCA)

Serve as the umbrella agency to oversee child protection issues, including child labor. (1; 19) Head the National Trafficking in Persons Secretariat. (19)

Sierra Leone Police

Investigate and prosecute child labor crimes identified through Family Support Units, which are mandated to minimize and eradicate the incidence of sexual abuse, domestic violence, and child abuse by leading the investigation and prosecution of related offenses. (19; 39)

Transnational Organized Crime Unit

Enforce human trafficking laws and provide statistics and information on cases of human trafficking. (40)

Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development

Enforce child labor laws in the informal sector through its district councils. (1)

Child Welfare Committees

Promote awareness of children’s rights and report child welfare concerns to officials responsible for children’s issues. Provide recommendations on the support of village children and address complaints and concerns by village inhabitants. (30; 39)

 

The Child Right Act requires the establishment of a Child Welfare Committee in every village, chiefdom, and district; however, these committees have been established only in a few parts of the country due to budgetary constraints. (19; 25; 30; 37)

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2017, labor law enforcement agencies in Sierra Leone took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the operations of the Ministry of Labor and Social Security (MLSS) that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including with labor inspector training.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown (8)

Unknown (13)

Number of Labor Inspectors

6 (8; 25)

30 (13)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (41)

Unknown (37)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

No (8)

No (13)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

No (8)

No (13)

Refresher Courses Provided

No (8)

No (13)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

350 (8)

300 (13)

Number Conducted at Worksites

350 (8)

300 (13)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

0 (8)

Unknown (37)

Number of Child Labor Violations for which Penalties were Imposed

0 (8)

0 (13)

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that were Collected

N/A (8)

N/A (13)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (8)

Yes (13)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (8)

Yes (13)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (8)

Yes (13)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Unknown (8)

Unknown (13)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (8)

Yes (13)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (8)

Yes (13)

 

In 2017, the number of labor inspectors increased to 30, up from 6 the previous year. (37) The number of labor inspectors is likely insufficient for the size of Sierra Leone’s workforce, which includes over 2.9 million workers. According to the ILO’s technical advice of a ratio approaching 1 inspector for every 40,000 workers in least developed economies, Sierra Leone should employ roughly 74 inspectors. (42; 43) In addition, enforcement of child labor laws remains challenging due to the lack of resources for inspections and insufficient training. (19; 13) Although the government has a complaint line for issues related to child protection, it does not receive any child labor complaints in 2017. (10) Further, the Ministry of Mines and Mineral Resources can conduct inspections of mines and revoke licenses from license holders who are found to be using child labor, but reports indicated that the government did not adequately enforce these laws in the diamond mining sector, due to the limited number of labor inspectors and a lack of funding. (23; 32; 13)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2017, criminal law enforcement agencies in Sierra Leone took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including with training for criminal investigators.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

No (8)

No (13)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A (8)

N/A (13)

Refresher Courses Provided

No (8)

No (13)

Number of Investigations

12 (8)

Unknown (37)

Number of Violations Found

23 (8)

Unknown (37)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

6 (8)

Unknown (37)

Number of Convictions

0 (8)

0 (13)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (8)

Yes (13)

 

Reports indicate that criminal law enforcement in Sierra Leone, particularly efforts to address human trafficking, is hampered by a lack of coordination, limited funding, and a lack of training of law enforcement personnel and the judiciary. (8; 44; 13) During the reporting period, NGOs reported 4 cases of sex trafficking and 15 cases of labor trafficking that resulted in criminal investigations; it is unknown if any of these cases involved children. (13)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including a lack of named members to the National Commission for Children.

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role and Description

National Technical Steering Committee on Child Labor (NTCCL)

Develop and coordinate a National Action Plan Against the Worst Forms of Child Labor. (10; 38; 45) Led by the MLSS and the MSWGCA, includes representatives from 10 other government agencies and representatives from international organizations and NGOs. (41)

National Trafficking in Persons Task Force

Coordinate the needs and requirements of agencies that provide shelter and services for human trafficking victims, gather data on reported human trafficking cases, and meet regularly to develop policy and address the issue of child trafficking. (10) Led by the MSWGCA. (46)

National Commission for Children

Coordinate and exchange information in accordance with the Child Right Act. Advise the government on ways to improve the condition and welfare of children as part of the NTCCL. Led by the MLSS and the MSWGCA. (30)

 

Research was unable to determine whether all members of the National Commission for Children have been named as required by the Child Right Act and whether the coordinating bodies were active during the reporting period. (37)

The government of Sierra Leone has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including lack of approval of the National Action Plan against the Worst Forms of Child Labor.

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor‡

Policy

Description

National Action Plan on Human Trafficking

Includes strategies to address human trafficking through prevention, victim identification, protection and referral, training, and government coordination and monitoring. (47) In 2017, the government conducted radio broadcast programs to increase public awareness of human trafficking, conducted training programs on trafficking issues for the police, and informed Sierra Leone nationals overseas in Guinea and Kuwait of the dangers of human trafficking. (37)

‡ The government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor. (41; 48; 49; 13; 50)

 

In 2017, the then First Lady of Sierra Leone, Sia Nyama Koroma, along with other African First Ladies, made a declaration in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire, to pledge support to their governments’ efforts to prevent child labor, support victims, enhance regional cooperation, and mobilize resources. (51; 52)

The government has yet to approve the National Action Plan against the Worst Forms of Child Labor, which was drafted in 2014, because it remains under review by the Cabinet. (13)

In 2017, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including with insufficient shelters and safe houses for children who have been withdrawn from working on the streets or in forced labor.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor‡

Program

Description

Child Trafficking Shelters†

Government program that refers child trafficking victims to privately run shelters that house child victims of forced labor and human trafficking. (21) Research was unable to determine whether these shelters cared for any child trafficking victims in 2017. (37)

Revitalizing Education Development in Sierra Leone (2014–2017)

World Bank-funded, $23.4 million project that aims to strengthen the education system in Sierra Leone. Adds resources to support the initiation of a school feeding program, helps eliminate informal school fees, supplies books to children in grades one to three, and supports local councils with school infrastructure needs, among other activities. (53; 54). In 2017, the government worked with the World Bank to secure an additional $10 million in funding for the project. (55; 37)

UNICEF Country Program (2015–2018)

Aims to combat the worst forms of child labor, increase access to basic education, and address children’s needs. (28)

† Program is funded by the Government of Sierra Leone.
‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. (56; 57)

 

Sierra Leone has insufficient shelters and safe houses for children who have been withdrawn from working on the streets or in forced labor. (3; 25; 37)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Sierra Leone (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that all children are protected from hazardous work in sectors that have hazardous conditions and in which child labor is known to occur, including in agriculture, construction, domestic work, transportation, street work, auto repair shops, and dumpsites.

2014 – 2017

Ensure that the law’s light work provisions are specific enough to prevent children’s involvement in child.

2015 – 2017

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under 18 by non-state armed groups.

2016 – 2017

Enforcement

Ensure that Village Child Welfare Committees are fully established and operational.

2014 – 2017

Publish information about MLSS funding, whether unannounced inspections are conducted, whether the Labor Inspectorate is authorized to assess penalties, and the number of criminal law enforcement investigations, violations found, and prosecutions initiated, and increase the number of labor inspectors to meet the ILO’s technical advice ratio.

2011 – 2017

Enforce laws prohibiting child labor in mining, particularly in the diamond mining sector.

2015 – 2017

Ensure initial training, training on new laws, and refresher training for civil and criminal law enforcement officials on labor and criminal law enforcement.

2015 – 2017

Ensure that the child protection complaint line is fully operational and accessible as a way to target child labor issues.

2013 – 2017

Improve coordination between criminal law enforcement agencies to ensure that violations are adequately investigated and prosecuted and that the judicial system has sufficient training and ability to handle child labor and human trafficking cases.

2014 – 2017

Provide labor law and criminal law enforcement officials with sufficient budgetary and transportation resources to adequately enforce the labor laws throughout the country.

2012 – 2017

Coordination

Designate all members of the National Commission for Children in accordance with Child Right Act requirements and ensure that all coordinating bodies are able to carry out their intended mandates.

2014 – 2017

Government Policies

Permit pregnant girls to take school entrance exams and attend regular public schools.

2015 – 2017

Adopt the National Action Plan against the Worst Forms of Child Labor.

2014 – 2017

Social Programs

Increase access to education for children by eliminating school expenses, providing transportation, increasing the number of schools, eliminating abuse by teachers, and improving access for children with disabilities as well as for children in situations involving early marriage, pregnancy, and motherhood.

2013 – 2017

Increase the availability of shelters and safe houses for victims of forced labor and for children removed from street work, ensuring that they receive and care for trafficked children.

2009 – 2017

1. Government of Sierra Leone. Draft National Action Plan for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour 2014-2017. 2014. [Source on file].

2. ILO, SSL, and Ministry of Labour and Social Security,. Report on National Child Labour in Sierra Leone 2011. 2014. [Source on file].

3. U.S. Embassy- Freetown. Reporting, January 26, 2015.

4. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed March 3, 2018. http://data.uis.unesco.org/. For more information, please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

5. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from the Demographic and Health Survey, 2013. Analysis received January 12, 2018. Please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

6. Burke, Cassia. Making Palm Oil in Sierra Leone. Children of the Nations. March 28, 2014. https://cotni.org/news/sierra-leone/2014/03/28/making-palm-oil-sierra-leone.

7. Chaon, Anne. Ebola-hit Sierra Leone's Late Cocoa Leaves Bitter Taste. Agence France Presse. November 22, 2014. https://uk.finance.yahoo.com/news/ebola-hit-sierra-leones-cocoa-055318624.html.

8. U.S. Embassy- Freetown. Reporting, February 8, 2017.

9. Sierra Leone Children's Fund official. Interview with USDOL official. December 2, 2016.

10. U.S. Embassy- Freetown. Reporting, January 23, 2014.

11. ILO-IPEC. Good practices in tackling child labour through education. Geneva. 2013. http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/download.do?type=document&id=22956.

12. Maconachie, Roy, and Gavin Hilson. Re-Thinking the Child Labor "Problem" in Rural sub-Saharan Africa: The Case of Sierra Leone’s Half Shovels. World Development 78, February 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2015.10.012.

13. U.S. Embassy- Freetown. Reporting, February 5, 2018.

14. U.S. Embassy- Freetown official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 10, 2015.

15. Save the Children. Stolen Childhoods: End of Childhood Report 2017. June 1, 2017. http://www.savethechildren.org/atf/cf/%7B9def2ebe-10ae-432c-9bd0-df91d2eba74a%7D/SAVETHECHILDREN_ENDOFCHILDHOOD_INDEX_2017_EASTAFRICA%20EDITION_LOWRES.PDF.

16. Margai, Joseph S. Women and children scavenge in dumpsites to eke a living. Concord Times. January 29, 2016. http://slconcordtimes.com/women-and-children-scavenge-in-dumpsites-to-eke-a-living/.

17. Drury, Flora. The girls as young as FIVE earning less than £1 a DAY sifting through piles of rotting rubbish on Sierra Leone's 'Bomeh' dumps. Daily Mail. April 21, 2016. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3545678/The-girls-young-FIVE-earning-1-DAY-sifting-piles-rotting-rubbish-Sierra-Leone-s-Bomeh-dumps.html.

18. Margai, Joseph S. Child labourers not sure about their future. Concord Times. February 10, 2016. http://slconcordtimes.com/child-labourers-not-sure-about-their-future/.

19. U.S. Embassy- Freetown. Reporting, February 12, 2016.

20. —. Reporting, February 14, 2017.

21. —. Reporting, February 19, 2015.

22. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2017: Sierra Leone. Washington, DC. June 27, 2017. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/271344.pdf.

23. —. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2016: Sierra Leone. Washington, DC. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265510.pdf.

24. Guilbert, Kieran. After Ebola, ban on pregnant pupils sours return to school in Sierra Leone. Reuters. September 13, 2016. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-leone-education-women-idUSKCN11J0GA.

25. U.S. Embassy- Freetown official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 28, 2017.

26. Government of Sierra Leone. The Education Act. Enacted: 2004. http://www.sierra-leone.org/Laws/2004-2p.pdf.

27. Farzaneh, Nassrin. An Evaluation of Teenage Pregnancy Pilot Projects in Sierra Leone. UNICEF. September 2013. http://www.unicef.org/evaldatabase/files/SierraLeone_2013-001_Evaluation_of_Teenage_Pregnancy_Pilot_Projects_in_Sierra_Leone.pdf.

28. UNICEF. Sierra Leone country programme document 2015-2018. 2014: E/ICEF/2014/P/L.10. http://www.unicef.org/about/execboard/files/2014-PL10-Sierra_Leone_CPD-Final_approved-EN.pdf.

29. Government of Sierra Leone. Persons with Disability Act. Enacted: 2011. http://www.sierra-leone.org/Laws/2011-03.pdf.

30. —. The Child Right Act. Enacted: 2007. http://www.sierra-leone.org/Laws/2007-7p.pdf.

31. —. The Laws of Sierra Leone: Employers and Employed Act (Chapter 212). Enacted:1960. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/MONOGRAPH/28611/57066/F2005526770/SLE28611.pdf.

32. —. The Mines and Minerals Act, 2009. Enacted: 2010. http://www.sierra-leone.org/Laws/2009-12.pdf.

33. —. The Constitution of Sierra Leone. Enacted: 1991. http://www.sierra-leone.org/Laws/constitution1991.pdf.

34. —. The Anti-Human Trafficking Act. Enacted: 2005. [Source on file].

35. —. The Sexual Offenses Act. Enacted: 2012. [Source on file].

36. —. National Drugs Control Act. Enacted: 2008. http://www.sierra-leone.org/Laws/2008-10.pdf.

37. U.S. Embassy- Freetown official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 31, 2018.

38. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Sierra Leone (ratification: 2011) Published: 2014. Accessed February 18, 2014. [Source on file].

39. Risso-Gill, Isabelle, and Leah Finnegan. Children's Ebola Recovery Assessment: Sierra Leone. Save the Children. 2016. http://www.savethechildren.org/atf/cf/%7B9def2ebe-10ae-432c-9bd0-df91d2eba74a%7D/EBOLA_REPORT_CHILDRENS_RECOVERY_ASSESSMENT_SIERRA_LEONE.PDF.

40. U.S. Embassy- Freetown. Reporting, February 21, 2014.

41. U.S. Embassy- Freetown official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 7, 2017.

42. UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2017 Statistical Annex. New York. 2017. https://www.un.org/development/desa/dpad/wp-content/uploads/sites/45/publication/2017wesp_full_en.pdf. Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

43. CIA. The World Factbook. Accessed February 8, 2018. https://www.cia.gov/Library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2095rank.html. Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

44. U.S. Embassy- Freetown. Reporting, February 3, 2016.

45. Blyden, Sylvia Olayinka. Opening Statement on the Presentation of the Combined Third to Fifth Periodic Report of Sierra Leone in Fulfillment of Article 44 of the UN Rights of the Child. September 14, 2016. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=INT%2fCRC%2fSTA%2fSLE%2f25174&Lang=en.

46. U.S. Embassy- Freetown. Reporting, February 4, 2013.

47. Government of Sierra Leone. National Action Plan on Human Trafficking. 2013. [Source on file].

48. —. National Ebola Recovery Strategy for Sierra Leone (2015-2017). March 2015. https://ebolaresponse.un.org/sites/default/files/sierra_leone_-_national_recovery_strategy_2015-2017.pdf.

49. —. The Agenda for Prosperity: Road to Middle Income Status- Sierra Leone‘s Third Generation Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (2013-2018). July 2013. http://www.sierra-leone.org/Agenda%204%20Prosperity.pdf.

50. —. Education Sector Plan 2014-2018. 2014. http://www.globalpartnership.org/content/sierra-leone-education-sector-plan.

51. Conference of the First Ladies of West Africa and the Sahel on the Fight Against Child Trafficking, Exploitation, Child Labor, and All Forms of Violence Against Children. Declaration of the First Ladies of West Africa and the Sahel. October 18, 2017. [Source on file].

52. —. Final Communique. October 18, 2017. [Source on file].

53. Sorie, Abu. As Ebola Bows Out Of Sierra Leone, This New Education Development Plan Will Surprise You! Sierraloaded. August 11, 2015. http://www.sierraloaded.com/sierra-leone-plans-post-ebola-education-revitalizing-development-plan/.

54. World Bank. Revitalizing Education in Sierra Leone. Washington, DC. December 30, 2016: Implementation Status & Results Report. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/523231483101701166/pdf/ISR-Disclosable-P133070-12-30-2016-1483101691342.pdf.

55. —. Revitalizing Education Development in Sierra Leone Project. May 30, 2017: Project Paper. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/613021498183402556/pdf/SL-PP-final-06012017.pdf.

56. —. Sierra Leone Safety Nets Project (P143588). June 16, 2017: Implementation Status & Results Report - Sequence 6. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/464401497646600608/pdf/ISR-Disclosable-P143588-06-16-2017-1497646591946.pdf.

57. Milton, Betty. Sierra Leone News: EU signs €1.1m with GOAL on child labour, human trafficking. Awoko Newspaper. October 18, 2017. http://awoko.org/2017/10/19/sierra-leone-news-eu-signs-e1-1m-with-goal-on-child-labour-human-trafficking/.

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