Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Sierra Leone

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Sierra Leone

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Minimal Advancement – Efforts Made but Continued Policy that Delayed Advancement

In 2016, Sierra Leone made a minimal advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. Despite new initiatives to address child labor, Sierra Leone is receiving this assessment because it continued to implement a policy that delayed advancement in eliminating the worst forms of child labor. Government policy continued to prohibit girls who were pregnant from attending regular public schools or taking secondary and postsecondary school entrance exams during the reporting period, making them more vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor. Otherwise, the National Technical Steering Committee on Child Labor organized awareness-raising programs on child labor for fishing and quarrying communities, as well as on child labor in street vending in the western area of Freetown. Children in Sierra Leone perform dangerous tasks in agriculture. Children also engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in diamond mining and in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as result of human trafficking. Sierra Leone’s laws do not adequately protect children from involvement in hazardous work, and the country has not implemented the national action plan on child labor.

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Children in Sierra Leone perform dangerous tasks in agriculture. Children also engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in diamond mining and in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as result of human trafficking.(1-3) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Sierra Leone.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

51.3 (897,142)

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

67.0

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

43.3

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

66.0

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2015, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(4)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from the Demographic and Health Survey, 2013.(5)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of cassava, coffee, cocoa, palm oil, peanuts, and rice (6-10)

Fishing, including deep-sea fishing,† mending nets, and working on boats in the open sea† (1, 3, 9)

Industry

Mining† for alluvial diamonds, sand, and gold, including loading gravel in sacks or basins, carrying sacks on their heads, washing, and sieving (1, 8, 9, 11-13)

Quarrying† and crushing stone, including granite, and transporting gravel (1, 3, 9, 14, 15)

Construction, activities unknown (1, 2, 8)

Manufacturing,† activities unknown (2)

Services

Scavenging scrap metals and recyclable materials from dumpsites (1, 9, 16, 17)

Domestic work (1, 9)

Street work, including begging, trading, and selling goods (1-3, 8, 9, 18, 19)

Portering, including carrying heavy loads† (1, 9)

Working as apprentices, including in auto-repair shops and on transportation vehicles (poda poda) (1)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Forced begging, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1, 9, 20-22)

Forced domestic work, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (20, 23)

Forced stealing (1, 9)

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1, 8, 9, 21)

Forced labor in agriculture and at granite and alluvial diamond mines, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1, 9, 20, 21)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Sierra Leone is a source, transit, and destination country for children trafficked for forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation, in addition to domestic work and petty trading.{Government of Sierra Leone, 2014 #278;U.S. Department of State, February 27`, 2014 #261;U.S. Embassy-Freetown,  #306}(3, 8, 21) Internally, children are trafficked for forced labor in fishing, agriculture, diamond mines, and begging.(3) Children from neighboring countries are trafficked to Sierra Leone for begging, forced labor in mining and portering, and commercial sexual exploitation.(3, 8)

Research indicated the Government continued to implement a policy to prohibit pregnant girls from attending regular public schools and taking secondary and postsecondary school entrance exams, which makes them vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor.(9, 24, 25) In addition, despite the legal right to free basic education, many children do not complete primary school because of the high costs of uniforms, books, and fees charged by school authorities.(1, 26) Beyond early pregnancy, children’s access to education is also limited by a lack of schools and teachers, distance from schools, and sexual abuse by teachers.(1, 8, 9, 27, 28) Further, despite legal protections, children with disabilities are less likely to attend school due in part to inappropriate school facilities and discrimination.(9, 28, 29) NGOs also reported that children were denied access to school because of their HIV status.(9)

Sierra Leone has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Sierra Leone’s legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Section 125 of the Child Right Act; Section 52 of Chapter 212, Employers and Employed Act (30, 31)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Sections 126 and 128 of the Child Right Act; Sections 47–56 of Chapter 212, Employers and Employed Act (30, 31)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Section 128 of the Child Right Act; Sections 47–56 of Chapter 212, Employers and Employed Act; Sections 164 and 170 of the Mines and Minerals Act (30-32)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Part II, Section 2, and Part IV, Sections 14, 15, and 21 of the Anti-Human Trafficking Act; Section 19 of the Constitution of Sierra Leone (33, 34)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Part II, Section 2, and Part IV, Sections 14, 15, and 21 of the Anti-Human Trafficking Act; Section 60 of the Child Right Act (30, 34)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Sections 19–34 of the Sexual Offenses Act; Part II, Section 2, of the Anti-Human Trafficking Act (34, 35)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Sections 7 and 13 of the National Drugs Control Act (36)

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

N/A*

 

 

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Section 28 of the Child Right Act (30)

Non-state Compulsory

No

 

 

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

15

Section 3 of the Education Act; Section 125 of the Child Right Act (26, 30)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Section 3 of the Education Act; Section 9 of the Constitution of Sierra Leone; Section 11(c) of the Child Right Act (26, 30, 33)

* No conscription (37)

The Government developed a list of hazardous work prohibited for children under age 18; however, it remains with the Cabinet for review and has not yet been approved.(8) Currently, the types of hazardous work prohibited for children do not comprehensively cover children’s work in sectors in which child labor is known to occur, including in agriculture, construction, domestic work, transportation, street work, auto-repair shops, and dumpsites, areas of work where there is evidence of harm to children’s health, safety, or morals.(1, 9, 30-32) Furthermore, research did not find whether actions were taken on the Anti-Trafficking Law in 2016.(8)

The Child Right Act sets the minimum age for light work at age 13; however, it does not limit the number of hours for light work, and therefore is not specific enough to prevent children from involvement in child labor.(30)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor law and criminal law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor and Social Security (MLSS)

Formulate, implement, and monitor compliance with child labor regulations through its Child Labor Unit, consisting of six labor officials in the Western Area.(8, 38) MLSS District Labor Officers are responsible for enforcing labor laws in the formal sector.(20) Operate regional offices in Kenema, Makeni, and Bo, in addition to a newly established office in the diamond-producing district of Kono.(8)

Ministry of Mines and Mineral Resources

Enforce regulations against the use of child labor in mining. Authorized to suspend licenses of mining operators engaged in child labor.(9, 32)

Ministry of Social Welfare, Gender and Children’s Affairs (MSWGCA)

Serve as lead agency to ensure child protection in country and in criminal law enforcement.(1, 20) Head the National Trafficking in Persons Secretariat.(20)

Sierra Leone Police

Investigate and prosecute child labor crimes identified through Family Support Units, which are mandated to minimize and eradicate the incidence of sexual abuse, domestic violence, and child abuse by leading the investigation and prosecution of related offences.(20, 39)

Transnational Organized Crime Unit

Enforce human trafficking laws and provide statistics and information on cases of human trafficking.(40)

Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development

Enforce child labor laws in the informal sector through its district Councils.(1)

Child Welfare Committees

Promote awareness of children’s rights and report child welfare concerns to officials responsible for children’s issues. Provide recommendations on the support of village children and address complaints and concerns by village inhabitants.(30, 39)

 

The Child Right Act requires the establishment of a child welfare committee in every village, chiefdom, and district; however, these committees have only been established in a few parts of the country due to budgetary constraints.(20, 25, 30)

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, labor law enforcement agencies in Sierra Leone took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown (41)

Unknown (8)

Number of Labor Inspectors

18 (42)

6 (8, 25)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (41)

Yes (43)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (20)

No (8)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A

No (8)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (20)

No (8)

Number of Labor Inspections

250 (20)

350 (8)

Number Conducted at Worksite

250 (20)

350 (8)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown (41)

0 (8)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

0 (20)

0 (8)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

0 (20)

0 (8)

Number of Penalties Imposed that Were Collected

0 (20)

0 (8)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (41)

Yes (8)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (41)

Yes (8)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (41)

Yes (8)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (41)

Unknown (8)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (41)

Yes (8)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (41)

Yes (8)

 

In 2016, the Ministry of Labor and Social Security (MLSS) had 6 labor inspectors and 44 factory inspectors who assess the safety and health of workers in factories.(25, 42, 43) The number of labor inspectors is insufficient for the size of Sierra Leone’s workforce, which includes over 2 million workers. According to the ILO’s recommendation of 1 inspector for every 40,000 workers in least developed economies, Sierra Leone should employ roughly 67 inspectors.(44, 45) In addition, enforcement of child labor laws remains challenging due to the lack of resources for inspections and insufficient training.(20) Although the Government has a complaint line for issues related to child protection, it does not receive child labor complaints.(11) Further, the Ministry of Mines and Mineral Resources can conduct inspections of mines and revoke licenses from license holders who are found to be using child labor, but reports indicated that the Government did not effectively enforce these laws in the diamond mining sector.(9, 32)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in Sierra Leone took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

No (20)

No (8)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

N/A (8)

Refresher Courses Provided

No (20)

No (8)

Number of Investigations

Unknown (46)

12 (8)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown (46)

23 (8)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown (46)

6 (8)

Number of Convictions

0 (20, 47)

0 (8)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (47)

Yes (8)

Reports indicate that criminal law enforcement in Sierra Leone, particularly in its efforts to address human trafficking, is hampered by a lack of coordination, limited funding, and a lack of training among law enforcement personnel and the judiciary.(8, 47) During the reporting period, 12 cases of child forced labor and child sexual exploitation were investigated by the authorities, and six of these were prosecuted; however, no convictions were reporting during the reporting period.(8)

The Government has a formal complaint mechanism. Complaints filed are routed to the Ministry of Social Welfare, Gender and Children's Affairs (MSWGCA) or the MLSS to assess the situation and determine the victim’s medical and shelter needs; once notified by the authorities, the police pursue an investigation.(8) MSWGCA officials reported that the Child Protection Office received 728 complaints related to child abuse in 2016.(25)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Technical Steering Committee on Child Labor (NTCCL)

Develops and coordinates a National Action Plan Against the Worst Forms of Child Labor.(11, 38, 48) Led by the MLSS and the MSWGCA, and includes representatives from 10 other government agencies as well as representatives from international organizations and NGOs.(43) In 2016, the NTCCL met every quarter and conducted three sensitization programs in fishing and quarrying communities, in addition to programs on child street work in the western area of Freetown. The NTCCL also trained 20 government social workers on child labor and human trafficking.(8, 25)

National Trafficking in Persons Task Force

Coordinates the needs and requirements of agencies that provide shelter and services for human trafficking victims, gathers data on reported human trafficking cases, and meets regularly to develop policy and address the issue of child trafficking.(11, 49) Led by the MSWGCA.(50) In 2016, a proposed anti-migrant smuggling law and ratification of the ECOWAS Convention on Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters both remained under review by the Cabinet.(8)

National Commission for Children

Coordinates and exchanges information in accordance with the Child Right Act. Advises the Government on ways to improve the condition and welfare of children as part of the NTCCL; Led by and the MLSS and the MSWGCA.(30)

 

Research was unable to determine whether all members of the National Commission for Children have been named in accordance with Child Right Act requirements.

The Government of Sierra Leone has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor‡

Policy

Description

National Action Plan on Human Trafficking

Includes strategies to address human trafficking through prevention, victim identification, protection and referral, training, and government coordination and monitoring.(51) In 2016, no activities were carried out and directly funded by the Government; however, several trainings for police, border guards, and social workers were held on human trafficking issues in support of the plan’s objectives, financed through international organizations and NGOs.(25)

‡ The Government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor.(20, 43, 52, 53)

The Government has yet to approve the National Action Plan against the Worst Forms of Child Labor and has not included child labor elimination and prevention strategies in the Education Sector Plan.(8, 54)

In 2016, the Government of Sierra Leone funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues Project (2011–2017)

USDOL-funded project implemented by the ILO in approximately 40 countries to build the capacity of the Government and to develop strategic policies to eliminate child labor.(38, 55) For additional information about USDOL’s work, please visit our website.

Human Trafficking and Sexual Violence Prevention Program (2013–2016)

USDOS-funded project implemented by World Hope International (WHI) that provides the only shelter for human trafficking victims in Sierra Leone. Identifies victims of human trafficking and exploitation and provides care, recovery, and reintegration services, and works to build the Government’s capacity to combat human trafficking in a sustainable manner.(20) In 2016, WHI provided shelter and related care for 23 children who were victims of forced labor, namely domestic servitude and sexual exploitation.(8)

Government-run Shelters†

Government program that refers child trafficking victims to private shelters that house child victims of forced labor and human trafficking.(23) In 2016, the Government noted that there was an insufficient number of shelters.(25)

Revitalizing Education Development in Sierra Leone (2014–2017)

World Bank-funded, $23.4 million project that aims to strengthen the education system in Sierra Leone. Adds resources to support the initiation of a school feeding program, helps eliminate informal school fees, supplies books to children in grades one to three, and supports local councils with school infrastructure needs, among other activities.(56, 57) In 2016, 30 early childhood education classrooms were nearly completed.(25, 57)

UNICEF Country Program (2015–2018)

Aims to address the worst forms of child labor, increase access to basic education, reduce child marriage and adolescent pregnancies, and address other children’s needs.(28) In 2016, among other activities, UNICEF provided technical support, including vehicles, to assist the Government in monitoring educational programs and activities.(25)

† Program is funded by the Government of Sierra Leone.

Sierra Leone has insufficient shelters and safe houses for children who have been withdrawn from working on the streets or in forced labor.(3, 25)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Sierra Leone (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that all children are protected from hazardous work, particularly in agriculture, construction, domestic work, transportation, street work, repair shops, and dumpsites that have hazardous conditions and in which child labor is known to occur.

2014 – 2016

Clarify whether actions were taken to strengthen prohibitions on domestic human trafficking in the Anti-Trafficking Law.

2015 – 2016

Ensure that the law’s light work provisions are specific enough to prevent children from involvement in child labor.

2015 – 2016

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under 18 by non-state armed groups.

2016

Enforcement

Ensure that Village Child Welfare Committees are fully established and operational.

2014 – 2016

Publish information about MLSS funding and whether unannounced inspections are conducted, and increase the number of labor inspectors to meet the ILO recommendation.

2011 – 2016

Enforce laws prohibiting child labor in mining, particularly in the diamond mining sector.

2015 – 2016

Ensure training for civil and criminal law enforcement officials.

2015 – 2016

Target child labor issues as part of the child protection complaint line.

2013 – 2016

Improve coordination between criminal law enforcement agencies to ensure that violations are effectively investigated and prosecuted, and that the judicial system has sufficient training and ability to handle child labor and human trafficking cases efficiently.

2014 – 2016

Provide labor law and criminal law enforcement officials with sufficient budgetary and transportation resources to effectively enforce the labor laws throughout the country.

2012 – 2016

Coordination

Designate all members of the National Commission for Children in accordance with Child Right Act requirements.

2014 – 2016

Government Policies

Permit pregnant girls to take school entrance exams and attend regular public schools.

2015 – 2016

Integrate child labor prevention and elimination strategies into the Education Sector Plan.

2015 – 2016

Adopt the National Action Plan against the Worst Forms of Child Labor.

2014 – 2016

Social Programs

Increase access to education for children by eliminating school expenses, providing transportation, increasing the number of schools and improving poor infrastructure, eliminating abuse by teachers, and improving access for children with disabilities as well as for children in situations involving early marriage, pregnancy, and motherhood.

2013 – 2016

Increase the availability of shelters and safe houses for victims of forced labor and for children removed from street work.

2009 – 2016

1.         Government of Sierra Leone. Draft National Action Plan for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour 2014-2017. Freetown; 2014. [Source on file].

2.         ILO, SSL, and Ministry of Labour and Social Security. Report on National Child Labour in Sierra Leone 2011. Freetown; 2014. [Source on file].

3.         U.S. Embassy-Freetown. reporting, January 26, 2015.

4.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed December 16, 2016; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary education. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. The calculation includes all new entrants to the last grade (regardless of age). Therefore, the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

5.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from the Demographic and Health Survey, 2013. Analysis received December 15, 2016. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children's work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information, please see  "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

6.         Children of the Nations. Making Palm Oil in Sierra Leone, Children of the World, [online] March 28, 2014 [cited December 15, 2014]; https://cotni.org/news/sierra-leone/2014/03/28/making-palm-oil-sierra-leone.

7.         Chaon, A. Ebola-hit Sierra Leone's Late Cocoa Leaves Bitter Taste, Agence France Presse, [online] November 23, 2014 [cited December 7, 2015]; https://uk.finance.yahoo.com/news/ebola-hit-sierra-leones-cocoa-055318624.html.

8.         U.S. Embassy- Freetown. reporting, February 8, 2017.

9.         U.S. Department of State. "Sierra Leone," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - 2016. Washington, DC; March 3, 2017; https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265510.pdf.

10.       Sierra Leone Children's Fund official. Interview with USDOL official. December 2, 2016.

11.       U.S. Embassy- Freetown. reporting, January 23, 2014.

12.       ILO-IPEC. Good practices in tackling child labour through education. Geneva, ILO-IPEC; 2013. http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/download.do?type=document&id=22956.

13.       Roy Maconachie, and Gavin Hilson. "Re-Thinking the Child Labor Problem in Rural sub-Saharan Africa: The Case of Sierra Leone’s Half Shovels." World Development, 78(February 2016)(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2015.10.012.

14.       Campbell, G. "The Rock Mining Children of Sierra Leone Have Not Found Peace." theatlantic.com [online] May 31, 2012 [cited February 21, 2014]; http://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2012/05/the-rock-mining-children-of-sierra-leone-have-not-found-peace/257899/.

15.       U.S. Embassy- Freetown official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 10, 2015.

16.       Margai, J.S. "Women and children scavenge in dumpsites to eke a Living." slconcordtimes.com [online] January 29, 2016 [cited October 28, 2016]; http://slconcordtimes.com/women-and-children-scavenge-in-dumpsites-to-eke-a-living/.

17.       Drury, F. "The girls as young as FIVE earning less than £1 a DAY sifting through piles of rotting rubbish on Sierra Leone's 'Bomeh' dumps." dailymail.co.uk [online] April 21, 2016 [cited December 2, 2016]; http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3545678/The-girls-young-FIVE-earning-1-DAY-sifting-piles-rotting-rubbish-Sierra-Leone-s-Bomeh-dumps.html.

18.       Street Children UK. National Headcount of Street Children in Sierra Leone. London; April 2012. http://www.childhope.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Headcount_draft_report__FINALcfedit.pdf.

19.       Margai, J.S. "Child labourers not sure about their future." slconcordtimes.com [online] February 10, 2016 [cited October 28, 2016]; http://slconcordtimes.com/child-labourers-not-sure-about-their-future/.

20.       U.S. Embassy- Freetown. reporting, February 12, 2016.

21.       U.S. Department of State. "Sierra Leone," in Trafficking in Person's Report- 2016. Washington, DC; June 30, 2016; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/258881.pdf.

22.       U.S. Embassy- Freetown. reporting, February 14, 2017.

23.       U.S. Embassy-Freetown. reporting, February 19, 2015.

24.       Guilbert, K. "After Ebola, ban on pregnant pupils sours return to school in Sierra Leone." [online] September 13, 2016 [cited December 2, 2016]; http://www.reuters.com/article/us-leone-education-women-idUSKCN11J0GA.

25.       U.S. Embassy- Freetown official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 28, 2017.

26.       Government of Sierra Leone. The Education Act, enacted 2004. http://www.sierra-leone.org/Laws/2004-2p.pdf.

27.       Farzaneh, N. An Evaluation of Teenage Pregnancy Pilot Projects in Sierra Leone.UNICEF; September 2013. http://www.unicef.org/evaldatabase/files/SierraLeone_2013-001_Evaluation_of_Teenage_Pregnancy_Pilot_Projects_in_Sierra_Leone.pdf.

28.       UNICEF. Sierra Leone country programme document 2015-2018.UNICEF; 2014. http://www.unicef.org/about/execboard/files/2014-PL10-Sierra_Leone_CPD-Final_approved-EN.pdf.

29.       Government of Sierra Leone. Persons with Disability Act, enacted 2011. http://www.sierra-leone.org/Laws/2011-03.pdf.

30.       Government of Sierra Leone. The Child Right Act, enacted 2007. http://www.sierra-leone.org/Laws/2007-7p.pdf.

31.       Government of Sierra Leone. The Laws of Sierra Leone: Employers and Employed Act (Chapter 212), enacted 1960. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/MONOGRAPH/28611/57066/F2005526770/SLE28611.pdf.

32.       Government of Sierra Leone. The Mines and Minerals Act, 2009, enacted 2010. http://www.sierra-leone.org/Laws/2009-12.pdf.

33.       Government of Sierra Leone. The Constitution of Sierra Leone, enacted 1991. http://www.sierra-leone.org/Laws/constitution1991.pdf.

34.       Government of Sierra Leone. The Anti-Human Trafficking Act, enacted 2005. http://www.sierralii.org/sl/legislation/act/2005/7

35.       Government of Sierra Leone. The Sexual Offenses Act, enacted 2012. [Source on file].

36.       Government of Sierra Leone. National Drugs Control Act, enacted 2008. http://www.sierra-leone.org/Laws/2008-10.pdf.

37.       Child Soldiers International. London; 2012. https://www.child-soldiers.org/Handlers/Download.ashx?IDMF=da92581e-7130-40e6-bf3a-a86b944f17dd.

38.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request Concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Sierra Leone (ratification: 2011) Published: 2014; accessed February 18, 2014; [Source on file].

39.       Isabelle Risso-Gill, and Leah Finnegan. Children's Ebola Recovery Assessment Sierra LeoneSave the Children; 2016. http://www.savethechildren.org/atf/cf/%7B9def2ebe-10ae-432c-9bd0-df91d2eba74a%7D/EBOLA_REPORT_CHILDRENS_RECOVERY_ASSESSMENT_SIERRA_LEONE.PDF.

40.       U.S. Embassy- Freetown. reporting, February 21, 2014.

41.       U.S. Embassy- Freetown. E-mail communication to USDOL Official. January 22, 2016.

42.       U.S. Embassy- Freetown. E-mail communication to USDOL Official. February 25, 2016.

43.       U.S. Embassy-Freetown official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 7, 2017.

44.       UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex. New York; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, "developed economies" equate to the ILO's classification of "industrial market economies; "economies in transition" to "transition economies,” “developing countries” to "industrializing economies, and "the least developed countries" equates to "less developed countries." For countries that appear on both "developing countries" and "least developed countries" lists, they will be considered "least developed countries" for the purpose of calculating a "sufficient number" of labor inspectors.

45.       CIA. The World Factbook, [online] [cited April 25, 2017]; https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a "sufficient number" of labor inspectors based on the country's level of development as determined by the UN.

46.       U.S. Embassy- Freetown. E-mail communication to USDOL official. July 1, 2016.

47.       U.S. Embassy- Freetown. reporting, February 3, 2016.

48.       Blyden, S.O. Opening Statement on the Presentation of the Combined Third to Fifth Periodic Report of Sierra Leone in Fulfillment of Article 44 of the UN Rights of the Child. Geneva: September 14, 2016. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=INT%2fCRC%2fSTA%2fSLE%2f25174&Lang=en.

49.       U.S. Embassy- Freetown. reporting, February 21, 2012.

50.       U.S. Embassy- Freetown. reporting, February 4, 2013.

51.       Government of Sierra Leone. National Action Plan on Human Trafficking. Freetown; 2013. [Source on file].

52.       Government of Sierra Leone. National Ebola Recovery Strategy for Sierra Leone (2015-2017). Freetown; July 2015. https://ebolaresponse.un.org/sites/default/files/sierra_leone_-_national_recovery_strategy_2015-2017.pdf.

53.       Government of Sierra Leone. The Agenda for Prosperity. Freetown; July 2013. http://www.sierra-leone.org/Agenda%204%20Prosperity.pdf.

54.       Government of Sierra Leone. Education Sector Plan 2014-2018. Freetown; 2014. http://www.globalpartnership.org/content/sierra-leone-education-sector-plan.

55.       ILO-IPEC. Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues II. Technical Progress Report. Geneva; October 2016. [Source on file].

56.       Sorie, A. "As Ebola Bows Out Of Sierra Leone, This New Education Development Plan Will Surprise You!" sierraloaded.com [online] August 11, 2015 [cited March 14, 2016]; http://www.sierraloaded.com/sierra-leone-plans-post-ebola-education-revitalizing-development-plan/.

57.       World Bank. Revitalizing Education in Sierra Leone. Washington, DC; 2016 December,. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/523231483101701166/pdf/ISR-Disclosable-P133070-12-30-2016-1483101691342.pdf.

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