Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Guatemala

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Guatemala

2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Significant Advancement

In 2015, Guatemala made a significant advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government strengthened legal protections for children by increasing penalties for the human trafficking of minors in the Migration Law. The Ministry of Labor and Social Security increased training for labor inspectors, published a labor inspection protocol, and began drafting the 2016–2018 Action Plan to Make Guatemala Free From the Worst Forms of Child Labor. The Departmental Commissions for the Eradication of Child Labor developed, and received training on, guidance, procedures, and a sustainability plan for members. The Government published national child labor data and launched a program to assist children engaged in garbage scavenging. However, children in Guatemala are engaged in child labor, including in agriculture, and in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation sometimes as a result of human trafficking. The labor inspectorate’s lack of resources and inability to assess fines, coupled with inadequate judicial enforcement of court orders, limit the Government’s capacity to combat the worst forms of child labor. Existing social programs are insufficient to reach all children engaged in exploitative labor and, in particular, do not target children working in domestic service or agriculture.

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Children in Guatemala are engaged in child labor, including in agriculture. Children are also engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation sometimes as a result of human trafficking.(1-5) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Guatemala.

In April 2015, the Government of Guatemala published the 2014 National Survey of Employment and Earnings (ENEI), which included an analysis of child labor in the country. According to the 2014 ENEI, approximately 71 percent of child labor in Guatemala occurs among males and nearly 65 percent of all child labor is found in the agricultural sector.(1)

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Working children, ages 7 to 14 (% and population):

10.6 (311,940)

Working children by sector, ages 7 to 14 (%)

 

Agriculture

64.4

Industry

10.3

Services

25.3

School attendance, ages 7 to 14 (%):

88.4

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

7.9

Primary completion rate (%):

86.6

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2014, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(6)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Encuesta Nacional de Empleo e Ingreso (ENEI) Survey, 2014.(7)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Planting and harvesting coffee, sugarcane, corn, beans,* and broccoli (8-12)

Production of rubber* and timber* (8, 12)

Harvesting palm kernels* and producing palm oil* (13)

Industry

Mining,† including silver mining*† (2, 14, 15)

Construction, including as bricklayers* and mason helpers* (12, 14, 16)

Production of garments,* activities unknown (2, 17)

Manufacturing gravel (crushed stones)† and fireworks† (2, 4, 8, 12, 14, 15, 18)

Services

Domestic work† (4, 8, 12, 14)

Street work,† including vending,† performing,*† begging,* and shoe shining† (2, 8, 12, 15, 19)

Garbage scavenging*† and working in garbage dumps† (4, 8, 12, 14)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Forced labor in agriculture, production of garments,* domestic work, garbage scavenging,* street begging,* and vending (2, 3, 8, 15, 17, 20)

Use in the production of pornography* (2, 5, 21-24)

Commercial sexual exploitation sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2, 3, 5, 12, 15, 17, 20, 25)

Use in illicit activities, including stealing*and transporting contraband as a result of criminal and gang recruitment* (4, 8, 12, 17, 20)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
† Determined hazardous by national law or regulation as understood under Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Approximately 40 percent of Guatemalans belong to three ethnic groups representing more than 26 linguistic communities, among which the majority are indigenous.(26, 27) Government data indicate that 57.9 percent of working children in Guatemala are of indigenous heritage.(1) Indigenous Guatemalans, including children, are particularly vulnerable to labor trafficking and often travel to the Mexican border region of Guatemala to work, sometimes as a stop before migrating farther north.(3, 20, 28, 29)

In 2015, Guatemala, like Honduras and El Salvador, continued to be a principal source of the high numbers of unaccompanied children from Central America that were found migrating to the United States.(30-32) Such children often lack economic and educational opportunities and are vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor, including commercial sexual exploitation and recruitment by gangs into illicit activities such as committing homicides and drug trafficking.(33, 34) Gangs in Guatemala, including transnational criminal organizations, use children to commit illegal acts such as stealing and transporting contraband; gangs recruit near educational centers, and some of these children are reported to be victims of human trafficking.(4, 12, 17, 20) Children often emigrate to escape such violence and once en route, they are also vulnerable to human trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation.(25, 35, 36)

Reports indicate that children in Guatemala are victims of commercial sexual exploitation in the tourist areas of Antigua, Puerto Barrios, Rio Dulce, Lake Atitlan communities, Peten, and Guatemala City.(37)

In the last several decades, the Government has improved access to education for children, but many significant challenges still remain, particularly for children in rural areas and for girls.(12) Studies by the Ministry of Education and the Human Rights Ombudsman’s Office indicate that girls have lower participation rates in elementary school than boys and that indigenous children receive less years of schooling than non-indigenous children.(5) In the Western Highlands, indigenous children only complete an average of 5.6 years of school. There are not enough qualified teachers throughout the country who can speak and teach in children’s native languages, nor are sufficient classroom materials available in these languages.(38)

Guatemala has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

14

Article 102 of the Constitution; Articles 31 and 150 of the Labor Code; Government Accord 112-2006 (39-41)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 148 of the Labor Code; Article 1 of Government Accord 250-2006 (39, 42)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Article 4 of Ministerial Accord 154-2008 (43)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 4 of the Constitution; Articles 202 and 203 of the Penal Code; Article 50 of the Law of Integral Protection of Children and Adolescents; Articles 103 and 106–108 of the Migration Law (40, 44-48)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 202 and 203 of the Penal Code; Article 50 of the Law of Integral Protection of Children and Adolescents; Article 108 of the Migration Law (44-48)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 36-42 of the Law against Sexual Violence, Exploitation, and Trafficking in Persons, No. 9-2009 (45)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 27 of the Penal Code (44)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

Yes

18

Article 57 of the Law of Integral Protection of Children and Adolescents (46)

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

18

Article 57 of the Law of Integral Protection of Children and Adolescents (46)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

15‡

Article 74 of the Constitution (2, 40, 49, 50)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 74 of the Constitution; Article 1 of Government Agreement 226-2008 (40, 46, 51)

‡ Age calculated based on available information (2, 40, 49, 50)

Guatemala’s Constitution establishes compulsory education for all children through grade 9. The Ministry of Education expects most children to enter first grade by age 7.(40, 50) Therefore, most children are required to be in school until age 15. 

In November 2015, Congress enacted legislation modifying the Migration Law to broaden the definition of human trafficking and include more severe penalties for the human trafficking of minors.(47)

Although Articles 32 and 150 of the Labor Code allow the Ministry of Labor and Social Security (MTPS) to authorize children under age 14 to work under exceptional circumstances, including if the MTPS determines that children must work to support their family due to poverty, the law does not define the total number of hours, kinds of tasks, or age range applicable for this exception which is inconsistent with international standards on light work.(39) The President’s Office and the MTPS have anagreement reiterating the Labor Code’s prohibition of the employment of children under the age of 14 and committing the MTPS to grant exceptions only in very extraordinary cases and the MTPS did not approve any requests for exceptions during the reporting period.(2, 41)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor and Social Security’s (MTPS) Inspection Division (IGT)

Enforce child labor laws, including prohibitions on the worst forms of child labor, by inspecting businesses and responding to child labor complaints.(2) Refer children to government social services and complaints to the MTPS Adolescent Workers Protection Unit.(52-55) Establish deadlines for employers to remedy violations and refer unresolved cases to labor courts for review and sanctions, as appropriate.(14, 39)

Secretariat of Social Welfare and Departmental Social Welfare Offices

Lead government efforts to protect children and oversee the implementation of the Protocol for Identifying and Assisting Child and Adolescent Victims of Commercial Sexual Exploitation.(56) Departmental Social Welfare Offices coordinate services for children outside of Guatemala City.(54)

Secretariat Against Sexual Violence, Exploitation, and

Trafficking in Persons (SVET)

Assist child victims of commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor. Receive cases involving human trafficking or forced labor from the IGT and refer them to the Public Ministry’s Public Prosecutor’s Office.(2) Provide trainings to law enforcement agencies and businesses on indicators of human trafficking and strategies for preventing the commercial sexual exploitation of children.(3)

National Civil Police

Maintain Trafficking in Persons and Forced Labor Unit located within the Special Investigation Police, and a hotline to receive reports of suspected child trafficking cases. Investigate cases of child trafficking.(15, 17, 36)

Public Ministry, Public Prosecutors’ Office

Receive case referrals involving the worst forms of child labor from labor inspectors.(2) Investigate cases of human trafficking and forced labor through the Special Prosecutor’s Office against Human Trafficking. Prosecute crimes against minors not involved in human trafficking through the Special Prosecutor’s Office for Children.(2)

Human Rights Ombudsman

Receive complaints regarding child victims of human trafficking.(35)

Solicitor General’s Office

Receive complaints regarding the exploitation of children. Initiate legal proceedings to protect children in cases of violation of criminal law and ensure the legal representation of children whose rights have been violated.(21, 35, 36) Maintain a Child Rescue Unit that assesses the risk of children whose rights have been violated, including making determinations on whether children should remain with family members and requesting appropriate protection measures.(21)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2015, labor law enforcement agencies in Guatemala took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

 Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$3,700,000 (15)

$3,400,000 (2)

Number of Labor Inspectors

266 (15)

267 (2)

Number of Child Labor Dedicated Inspectors

20 (57)

12 (2)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (2)

No (2)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (15)

Yes (2)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (15)

Yes (2)

Number of Labor Inspections

30,552 (58)

18,286 (2)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown

Unknown

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown

167 (2)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

Unknown

Unknown

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (15)

Yes (2)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (15)

Yes (2)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (15)

Yes (2)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

No (15)

No (2)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (15)

Yes (2)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (15)

Yes (2)

 

According to the ILO’s recommendation of one inspector for every 15,000 workers in developing economies, Guatemala should employ roughly 313 inspectors in order to adequately enforce labor laws throughout the country.(59-61) In 2015, the Government of Guatemala suffered budget shortfalls and less than 4 percent of the MTPS’s budget was allocated for carrying out labor inspections. Inspectors, especially outside of Guatemala City, lacked the necessary resources, such as vehicles and fuel, to carry out inspections; the Government also indicated that the inspectorate lacked up-to-date computers and Internet connections.(2, 4, 8, 15, 62-64)

Although labor inspectors may conduct unannounced inspections, the MTPS holds press conferences announcing the sectors it will target, after which these sectors undergo random inspections.(15) There are reports that question the quality of child labor inspections, particularly the scope and coverage across industries.(15) Although laws governing the minimum age for work and hazardous work apply in both the formal and informal sectors, labor inspectors rarely inspect informal workplaces where child labor violations are most likely to occur.(2) The MTPS increased training for labor inspectors on child labor, forced labor, and human trafficking and published a labor inspection protocol that standardizes training and procedures across the ministry, including specific procedures for cases of child labor and human trafficking.(2, 3, 64)

The MTPS cannot directly impose fines for labor law violations and must transfer cases of violations to the labor courts for their review and sanction, as appropriate. This leads to significant delays in penalizing employers for labor law violations.  (15, 54, 65) Furthermore, the ILO has noted that the number of child labor violations forwarded to labor courts is inadequate given the size of the problem.(2, 66) In cases in which the courts impose sanctions, including remediation for labor violations, court orders are often not enforced.(67)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2015, criminal law enforcement agencies in Guatemala took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (15)

Yes (2)

Number of Investigations

266 (15)

280 (3)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

62 (37)

62 (3)

Number of Convictions

20 (37)

17 (3)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (2)

Yes (2)

 

In March 2015, the Human Rights Ombudsman published a report containing statistics on the number of human trafficking complaints received by the Human Rights Ombudsman and the Public Ministry in 2014.(2, 68) In April 2015, the National Civil Police hired 20 officers trained in cybercrimes, and the Public Prosecutors’ Office of the Public Ministry provided training on investigating and gathering evidence of cybercrimes to its Special Prosecutor’s Office against Human Trafficking. Subsequently, the Public Prosecutors’ Office of the Public Ministry and the National Civil Police initiated the Government of Guatemala’s first significant action to combat online child pornography by raiding two distribution centers of a child pornography ring in June 2015.(3) Although the Special Prosecutor’s Office against Human Trafficking received three new vehicles and 10 additional assistant prosecutors in 2015, and some reports indicate the quality of investigations may be improving, law enforcement agencies still lack sufficient training and resources, including investigators and staff, to effectively enforce criminal laws related to the worst forms of child labor, particularly outside of Guatemala City.(2, 15, 21, 36) The Government has established specialized courts to hear cases of human trafficking and gender-based violence, however prosecutors generally note that judges are often unable to schedule hearings and trials in a timely manner.(3)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Commission for the Eradication of Child Labor (CONAPETI)

Coordinate government policies and efforts to combat child labor.(2) Led by the Vice President’s Office and composed of several government ministries, including the MTPS and the Ministry of Social Development (MIDES), as well as representatives from industry associations and trade unions.(14, 69) In 2015, CONAPETI met six times, compared to twice in 2014, and its technical level secretariat continued to meet on a monthly basis.(2)

Departmental Commissions for the Eradication of Child Labor

Coordinate government efforts to combat child labor at the departmental or regional level. Composed of department-level representatives of CONAPETI member agencies as well as NGO and business representatives.(2, 15) Active in 14 of 22 departments. Replaced the Labor Ministry Executive Secretariats.(2) In 2015, held awareness-raising events for vulnerable populations in four departments; a series of workshops for members to develop a conceptual guide, attention protocol, and sustainability plan to advance efforts to eliminate child labor; and six follow-up trainings on implementing these new guidelines.(2) Also developed guidance to assist municipalities in collecting and analyzing data on child labor.(2)

Secretariat Against Sexual Violence, Exploitation, and Trafficking in Persons (SVET)

Coordinate all government efforts against human trafficking, including for commercial sexual exploitation of children and forced child labor. Operate under the auspices of the Vice President’s Office.(35, 36) Establish and oversee networks in all departments that respond to human trafficking cases and provide support for victims.(37) In 2015, SVET provided human trafficking prevention training to 2,405 individuals, including 17 businesses and three government agencies.(3)

Inter-Institutional Commission Against Trafficking

Develop and manage initiatives to combat human trafficking. Coordinated by SVET and co-chaired by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs; include 28 government and civil society institutions.(21, 35, 36)

 

Although there have been improvements in interagency coordination, Guatemala continues to lack effective coordination among government institutions and civil society actors who provide services and protection to child victims of child labor.(4, 15, 21)

The Government of Guatemala has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

Roadmap toward the Elimination of Child Labor in Guatemala (2013–­2015)

Aimed to eliminate the worst forms of child labor in Guatemala by 2015 and integrate child labor issues into anti-poverty, education, and health programs. Called for legal reform to remove exceptions to the minimum age in the Labor Code.(65)

Action Plan to Make Guatemala Free From the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2013–2015)

Specified actions for government agencies to implement the Roadmap toward the Elimination of Child Labor in Guatemala. Included three advisers in Guatemala City and one in each departmental capital.(15) In September 2015, the MTPS began drafting the 2016–2018 Action Plan to Make Guatemala Free From the Worst Forms of Child Labor.(2)

Declaration of Cancún and Plan of Action (2015)†

In 2015, the Government of Guatemala participated in the XIX Inter-American Conference of Ministers of Labor to promote decent work with social inclusion throughout the Americas, held in Cancún, Mexico. Participating countries adopted the declaration, which aims in part to foster policies to eliminate labor exploitation, including child labor, and to promote education and vocational training for youth.(70, 71) Participating countries also adopted the Plan of Action, which prioritizes the elimination of child labor, including through data collection, enforcement of labor laws, and the development of social protection policies for children and families.(70, 72)

Intra-Institutional Coordination Protocol to Assist Child Laborers

Sets guidelines for MTPS inspectors to identify child laborers, remove children from the worst forms of child labor, and coordinate services for such children with other government agencies.(43)

Protocol for Providing Comprehensive Health Care to Children and Adolescents in the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Requires public health workers to enter information about any child whose injuries may have been labor related into a database. Implemented by the Ministry of Public Health and Social Assistance.(14, 73)

Declaration of the Regional Initiative: Latin America and the Caribbean Free of Child Labor

Aims to increase regional cooperation on eradicating child labor by 2020 through signatories’ efforts to strengthen monitoring and coordination mechanisms, government programs, and South-South exchanges. Reaffirms commitments made in the Brasilia Declaration from the Third Global Conference on Child Labor (October 2013) and signed by Guatemala at the ILO’s 18th Regional Meeting of the Americas in Lima, Peru (October 2014).(74-76)

Urban Social Protection Strategy

Seeks to prevent children from engaging in street work and to increase training and employment opportunities for youth.(14)

Protocol for Identifying and Assisting Child and Adolescent Victims of Commercial Sexual Exploitation

Establishes procedural guidelines for government agencies and NGOs responsible for the protection and care of child and adolescent victims of commercial sexual exploitation. Overseen by the Secretariat of Social Welfare and Departmental Social Welfare Offices and implemented by SVET.(2, 56)

Public Policy on Human Trafficking and the Comprehensive Protection of Victims (2014–2024)

Includes a National Plan of Strategic Action that directs the Government’s actions on preventing and combating human trafficking.(21) Replaces the Public Policy on Human Trafficking and the Comprehensive Protection of Victims (2007–2017). Plan includes the creation of SVET-run TIP shelters.(15, 37)

Central American Regional Coalition to Combat Human Trafficking

Aims to improve Government and civil society efforts to combat human trafficking in Central America. Includes the participation of civil society organizations and the national police and public prosecutor’s offices in Central America.(21, 77) Includes the MOU Between El Salvador and Guatemala on Protecting Trafficking Victims and the Illicit Trafficking of Migrants, which establishes actions for the Governments of Guatemala and El Salvador to improve the protection of trafficking victims and reduce the trafficking of migrants along the Guatemala-El Salvador border. Includes a focus on improving services for children.(21, 78)

Alliance for Prosperity in the Northern Triangle

Aims to create economic growth, increase educational and vocational training opportunities for youth, and reduce violence in Honduras, Guatemala, and El Salvador, in part to reduce the number of unaccompanied minors who leave Guatemala and other Central American countries for the United States and who are vulnerable to human trafficking. Signed by the presidents of each country in 2014.(79-81)

Declaration of the Vice-Ministers of the XX Regional Conference on Migration†

Aims to strengthen regional cooperation in order to protect the human rights of migrants, especially youth and children, in countries of origin, transit, and destination, including by increasing opportunities for education and employment. Adopted by Guatemala at the XX Regional Conference on Migration in Mexico City (November 2015).(82, 83) In 2015, Guatemala participated in two meetings with the Ad Hoc Group on Migrant Children and Adolescents of the Regional Conference on Migration to identify ways for member states to increase protections for underage migrants and refugees. These meetings promoted the exchange of information on migrant children’s rights and experiences, guiding principles relating to migration, and the holistic protection of children and adolescents.(84)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

In 2015, the Government of Guatemala funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Business Network for the Prevention and Elimination of Child Labor in Guatemala*

Program that aims to address child labor by fighting poverty and promoting education. Members include the ministries of Education and Agriculture, MTPS, CONAPETI, ILO, UNICEF, UN Food and Agriculture Organization, and representatives from the private sector.(85-87)

Over-Age Population Educational Program†

Office of Bilingual Education program for child workers ages 12 to 17. Offers an accelerated, two-year program that is equivalent to six years of education, designed for children who delayed entering school due to work.(58)

Chiquimula School*†

Ministry of Education program that assists children who were living and working in a landfill in Chiquimula. The school provided scholarships to 35 students in 2015 and is staffed with social workers who provide outreach to connect families living in the landfill to additional social services.(2)

I Don’t Allow Sexual Exploitation of Children in Tourism†

SVET-administered national campaign against the commercial sexual exploitation of children in tourism.(3) Displays messaging in Spanish, English, and French in airports, hotels, and restaurants. Provides a code of conduct for businesses to sign and display; signed by 306 new businesses and 52 individuals in 2015.(3)

Human Trafficking Referral and Grant Funding†

Government program that provides funding for NGOs to provide shelter and services to child victims of human trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation.(37)

Conditional Cash Transfer Program (Mi Bono Seguro)†

MIDES program that provides cash assistance to families with school-age children, conditioned on children’s school attendance.(14, 55, 88)

Food Assistance Program (Mi Bolsa Segura)†

MIDES program that provides food assistance to poor families, with the requirement that their children attend school.(55, 89, 90)

Zero Hunger Pact (Pacto Hambre Cero)†

Government programs to combat malnutrition, increase access to education, and reduce the economic vulnerability of approximately 701,000 families.(14, 57, 91)

Young Protagonists (Jóvenes Protagonistas)†

MIDES program that provides at-risk adolescents with training and formative activities outside of school hours.(88, 92, 93)

My First Employment (Mi Primer Empleo)†

MIDES program that places working-age youth in apprenticeship programs and grants them on-the-job training and a monthly stipend.(73, 88, 94)

Stay Training Center (Quédate)*†

Secretariat of Social Welfare and IOM funded program with support from local businesses, large corporations, and the municipality that provides psychosocial care and reintegration services to returned unaccompanied migrant children.(64, 95)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Guatemala.

While the Government has implemented programs to assist children and families with conditional cash transfers, food assistance, and education services, research found no evidence of government programs specifically designed to assist children, especially those of indigenous descent, who perform hazardous work, including in agriculture and domestic service.(4)

Budget shortfalls limited the Government’s ability to disburse allocated funding to existing social programs in 2015. As a result, by November 2015, the Ministry of Social Development only expended 40 percent of its allocated budget and its conditional cash transfer program (Mi Bono Seguro) often failed to reach families in the rural interior.(2) NGOs in the Human Trafficking Referral and Grant Funding program did not receive government funding during the second half of the year and government-run shelters for vulnerable children, including child trafficking victims, also lacked sufficient translators for children who speak roughly two dozen Mayan languages, causing additional difficulties in service provision.(2, 17)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Guatemala (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that the law prohibits all children under 14 from working, or establish a light work framework for children 12 to 14 outlining restrictions on working conditions, type of work, and number of hours of work.

2010 – 2015

Enforcement

Hire a sufficient number of labor inspectors to effectively enforce laws related to child labor.

2015

Eliminate significant delays in the process for penalizing labor law violators, including in cases of child labor, by authorizing the MTPS legislatively to assess penalties for labor law violations. At a minimum, enact legislation to allow the MTPS to recommend sanctions to the labor courts and expedite the process for the judiciary to adopt such recommendations, issue fines, and order and enforce remediation of labor law violations.

2014 – 2015

Make publicly available the number of labor inspections conducted at worksites and by desk review, the number of child labor violations found and for which penalties were imposed and collected, and whether the underlying violations have been remedied.

2011 – 2015

Increase resources for the labor inspectorate, including vehicles and fuel for inspections, particularly outside of Guatemala City.

2009 – 2015

Strengthen the inspection system by conducting unannounced inspections across all industries, particularly in the agriculture sector and in the informal sector.

2015

Apply penalties to violators of child labor laws.

2014 – 2015

Make information publicly available on the number of complaints received involving child victims of trafficking and the number of investigations, violations found, prosecutions initiated, and convictions.

2014 – 2015

Dedicate more resources, staff, and training to law enforcement agencies, particularly outside the capital, responsible for enforcing criminal laws related to the worst forms of child labor.

2013 – 2015

Coordination

Strengthen coordination efforts to institutionalize relationships between civil society representatives and government agencies that provide services to child victims of child labor.

2013 – 2015

Social Programs

Strengthen access to education for girls and children in rural and indigenous areas, including by recruiting and training more teachers to provide instruction in indigenous languages.

2015

Initiate social programs to address child labor, especially with a focus on indigenous children, in agriculture, domestic work, and for children who perform other types of hazardous work.

2009 – 2015

Ensure existing social programs receive all allocated funding, have adequate geographical coverage to reach families living in both urban and rural areas, and are staffed with service providers able to assist children in their native languages.

2013 – 2015

 

 

1.         Instituto Nacional de Estadística. Encuesta Nacional de Empleo e Ingresos 2-2014. Guatemala; April 2015. http://www.ine.gob.gt/sistema/uploads/2015/07/22/YXFVZe0cIfRDUPYuNwuVak3gjNsF8g2w.pdf.

2.         U.S. Embassy- Guatemala City. reporting, January 20, 2016.

3.         U.S. Embassy- Guatemala City. reporting, February 2, 2016.

4.         UN Human Rights Council. Information presented by the Guatemalan Human Rights Ombudsman’s Office. Prepared by the Government of Guatemala, Universal Periodic Review - Midterm Report. Geneva: June 22, 2015. http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G15/130/99/PDF/G1513099.pdf?OpenElement.

5.         UNICEF. Human trafficking for sexual exploitation purposes in Guatemala. Guatemala de la Asunción; 2016. http://www.cicig.org/uploads/documents/2016/Trata_Ing_978_9929_40_829_6.pdf.

6.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed December 16, 2015]; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. Because the calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age), the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

7.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Encuesta Permanente de Hogares (EPH), 2014. Analysis received December 18, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

8.         U.S. Department of State. "Guatemala," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2013. Washington, DC; February 27, 2014; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm#wrapper.

9.         Verite. Research on Indicators of Forced Labor in the Supply Chain of Coffee in Guatemala. Amherst; 2012. http://bit.ly/1d6gake.

10.       Garcia de Leiva, P. Opciones productivas para el fin del trabajo infantil en Chilascó, infomipyme, [online] [cited November 12, 2015]; http://infomipyme.tmp.vis-hosting.com/Docs/GT/sidel/chilasco.htm.

11.       The Coca-Cola Company. Review on Child and Forced Labor and Land Rights in Guatemala's Sugar Industry; March 15, 2015. http://assets.coca-colacompany.com/d4/6b/1e57d9b9486092555db4aa983b43/review-on-child-and-forced-labor-and-land-rights-in-guatemalas-sugar-industry.pdf.

12.       U.S. Department of State. "Guatemala," in Country Reports on Human Rights- 2014. Washington, DC; June 25, 2015; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/236904.pdf.

13.       Verite. Labor and Human Rights Risk Analysis of the Guatemalan Palm Oil Sector. Amherst; March 31, 2014. http://www.verite.org/sites/default/files/images/RiskAnalysisGuatemalanPalmOilSector.pdf.

14.       Government of Guatemala. Response to USDOL Request for Information. Guatemala City; February 1, 2013.

15.       U.S. Embassy- Guatemala City. reporting, January 15, 2015.

16.       U.S. Embassy- Guatemala City official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 17, 2015.

17.       U.S. Department of State. "Guatemala," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2014. Washington, DC; June 19, 2014; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2014/.

18.       ILO Committee of Experts. Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Guatemala (ratification: 2001) Published: 2013; accessed December 3, 2013; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:11003:0::NO:::.

19.       Sapalu, L. "Alto número de niños aún trabaja." Prensa Libre, March 17, 2015; Totonicapán. http://www.prensalibre.com/guatemala/totonicapan/alto-numero-de-nios-aun-trabaja.

20.       U.S. Department of State. "Guatemala," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015. Washington, DC; July 27, 2015; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/243559.pdf.

21.       UN Human Rights Council. Report of the Special Rapporteur on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography, Najat Maalla M’jid: Addendum: Mission to Guatemala. New York; January 21,  2013. Report No. A/HRC/22/54/Add.1. http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/HRBodies/HRCouncil/RegularSession/Session22/A-HRC-22-54-Add1_en.pdf.

22.       "Estructuras difícilmente son identificadas." La Hora, Guatemala, August 5, 2013. http://www.lahora.com.gt/index.php/nacional/guatemala/reportajes-y-entrevistas/181798-desde-el-2009-solo-se-han-emitido-dos-sentencias-por-pornografia-infantil.

23.       Castañón, M. "Prolifera pornografía infantil 'Made in Guatemala'." La Hora, Guatemala, February 13, 2012. http://www.lahora.com.gt/index.php/nacional/guatemala/reportajes-y-entrevistas/153040-por-q25-se-consiguen-tres-discos-de-pornografia-infantil-guatemalteca.

24.       Rodríguez, M. "Perciben incremento de pornografía infantil." La Hora, Guatemala, October 29, 2013. http://www.lahora.com.gt/index.php/nacional/guatemala/actualidad/186004-perciben-incremento-de-pornografia-infantil.

25.       Asociación para la Eliminación de la Prostitución, Pornografía, Turismo, Tráfico Sexual de Niñas, Niños y Adolsescentes-ECPAT. La trata de personas con fines de matrimonios forzados, explotación sexual comercial y explotación laboral en Huetenango, Quetzaltenango, Totonicapán y Quiché; 2013. [source on file].

26.       UNICEF. Guatemala: Country programme document 2015-2019; 2014. [source on file].

27.       M. Lewis, Gary F. Simons, and Charles D. Fennig (eds.). Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Seventeenth edition. Dallas, Texas; 2014. https://www.ethnologue.com/country/gt.

28.       ILO-IPEC. Niños, niñas y adolescentes migrantes trabajadores en zonas fronterizas en Centroamérica y Panamá; 2014. [source on file].

29.       Cengel, K. "Guatemalan children return from Mexico shelters ‘in very bad shape’." aljazeera.com [online] October 7, 2015 [cited 2015]; http://america.aljazeera.com/multimedia/2015/10/guatemalan-children-return-from-mexico-shelters-in-very-bad-shape.html.

30.       U.S. Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Customs and Border Protection. Southwest Border Unaccompanied Alien Children Statistics FY 2016, U.S. Customs and Border Protection, [online] 2016 [cited December 17, 2015]; http://www.cbp.gov/newsroom/stats/southwest-border-unaccompanied-children/fy-2016.

31.       U.S. Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Customs and Border Protection. Southwest Border Unaccompanied Alien Children Statistics FY 2015, U.S. Customs and Border Protection, [online] 2015 [cited December 17, 2015]; http://www.cbp.gov/newsroom/stats/southwest-border-unaccompanied-children/fy-2015#.

32.       Jerry Markon, and Joshua Partlow. "Unaccompanied children surging anew across Southwest U.S. border." The Washington Post, Washington, DC, December 16, 2015; Americas. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/federal-eye/wp/2015/12/16/unaccompanied-children-crossing-southern-border-in-greater-numbers-again-raising-fears-of-new-migrant-crisis/.

33.       Dennis Stinchcomb, and Eric Hershberg. Unaccompanied Migrant Children from Central America: Context, Causes, and ResponsesCenter for Latin American & Latino Studies, American University; November 2014. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2524001.

34.       United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. Mission to Central America: The Flight of Unaccompanied Children to the United States; November 2013. http://www.usccb.org/about/migration-policy/upload/Mission-To-Central-America-FINAL-2.pdf.

35.       U.S. Embassy- Guatemala City. reporting, February 19, 2013.

36.       U.S. Embassy- Guatemala City official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 16, 2014.

37.       U.S. Embassy- Guatemala City. reporting, February 17, 2015.

38.       U.S. Embassy- Guatemala City official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 5, 2015.

39.       Government of Guatemala. Código de Trabajo de la República de Guatemala, enacted 1995. http://www.lexadin.nl/wlg/legis/nofr/oeur/arch/gua/ct.pdf.

40.       Government of Guatemala. Constitución de 1985 con las reformas de 1993 enacted May 31, 1985, reformed November 17, 1993. http://pdba.georgetown.edu/Constitutions/Guate/guate93.html.

41.       Government of Guatemala. Acuerdo gubernativo 112-2006, enacted 2006. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/travail/docs/2098/Protecci%C3%B3n%20laboral%20de%20la%20ni%C3%B1ez%20y%20adolescencia.pdf.

42.       Government of Guatemala. Acuerdo gubernativo 250-2006, enacted 2006. http://www2.congreso.gob.pe/Sicr/Comisiones/2007/ComRevNinAdo.nsf/34069c3bb71c123b05256f470062fea7/04BDED74D31FD9F3052574640067D12D/$FILE/GuatemalaAcuerdoGubernativo250Convenio182.pdf.

43.       Government of Guatemala. Intrainstitutional Protocol, No. 154-2008, enacted August 14, 2008. http://white.oit.org.pe/ipec/documentos/protocolo_intrainstitucional_atencion_guatemala.pdf.

44.       Government of Guatemala. Código Penal, enacted 1973. http://www.oas.org/JURIDICO/MLA/sp/gtm/sp_gtm-int-text-cp.pdf.

45.       Government of Guatemala. Ley contra la Violencia Sexual, Explotación y Trata de Personas, No. 9-2009, enacted March 20, 2009. http://www.acnur.org/biblioteca/pdf/7047.pdf.

46.       Government of Guatemala. Ley de Protección Integral de la Niñez y Adolescencia,, enacted 2003. [source on file].

47.       Government of Guatemala. DECRETO NÚMERO 10-2015, enacted November 19, 2015. http://old.congreso.gob.gt/archivos/decretos/2015/CCCIII0520200010010201505122015.pdf.

48.       Government of Guatemala. Ley de Migracion, Decreto Numero 95-98, enacted November 26, 1998. http://www.migracion.gob.gt/images/documentos/leydemigracion.pdf.

49.       UNESCO. Education for All Global Monitoring Report. Paris; 2015. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002322/232205e.pdf.

50.       Ministerio de Educación. Sistema Nacional de Indicadores Educativos; February, 2013. http://estadistica.mineduc.gob.gt/PDF/SNIE/SNIE-GUATEMALA.pdf.

51.       Government of Guatemala. Acuerdo gubernativo 226-2008, enacted 2008. http://colectivoepttguatemala.org/jla/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=8&Itemid=109.

52.       Government of Guatemala. Protocolos de Inspección Guatemala: Buenas Prácticas, Verificación, Investigación. Guatemala City; 2008.

53.       Government of Guatemala. Acuerdo Ministerial 128-2009, enacted July 8, 2009. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/travail/docs/2092/ACUERDO_Ministerio_128-2009.pdf.

54.       Government of Guatemala. Peores Formas de Trabajo Infantil. Submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor Request for Information on Child Labor and Forced Labor. Guatemala City; February 21, 2012.

55.       U.S. Embassy- Guatemala City official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 10, 2015.

56.       Secretariat of Social Welfare, ILO-IPEC, and ECPAT Guatemala. Protocolo para la detección y atención integral a niñas, niños, y adolescentes víctimas de explotación sexual comercial. Guatemala; 2007. http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/viewProduct.do?productId=6621.

57.       U.S. Embassy- Guatemala City official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 22, 2015.

58.       U.S. Embassy- Guatemala City official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 12, 2015.

59.       ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a “sufficient number” of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a “sufficient” number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

60.       UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex. New York; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies; “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies, and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

61.       Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook, CIA, [online] [cited March 18, 2016]; https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors based on the country’s level of development as determined by the UN.

62.       USDOL official. Observation Report, July 19, 2013. Washington, DC.

63.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Labour Inspection Convention, 1947 (No. 81) Guatemala (ratification: 1952) Published: 2015; accessed November 17, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3190008.

64.       U.S. Embassy- Guatemala City official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 25, 2016.

65.       ILO-IPEC. Hoja de Ruta para hacer de Guatemala un país libre de trabajo infantil y sus peores formas. Geneva; 2009. http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/download.do?type=document&id=12432.

66.       ILO Committee of Experts. Observation concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Guatemala (ratification: 1990) Published: 2016; accessed May 4, 2016; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3252854:NO.

67.       Office of the United States Trade Representative. Initial Written Submission of the United States In the Matter of Guatemala – Issues Relating to the Obligations Under Article 16.2.1(a) of the CAFTA-DR; November 3, 2014. https://ustr.gov/sites/default/files/US%20Initial%20Written%20Submission.pdf.

68.       Procurador de los Derechos Humanos. Trata de Personas en Guatemala: Informe de Situación 2014; March, 2015. http://www.pdh.org.gt/archivos/descargas/Biblioteca/Informes%20Especiales/informe_trata.pdf.

69.       U.S. Embassy- Guatemala City. reporting, February 15, 2012.

70.       Organization of American States. Meeting of the XIX Inter-American Conference of Ministers of Labor (IACML) - List of Participants, OAS, [previously online] [cited December 15, 2015]; http://www.oas.org/en/sedi/dsi/labor_and_employment/pages/cpo_trab_IIPreparatoryXIX_IACML.asp [source on file].

71.       Organization of American States. Meeting of the XIX Inter-American Conference of Ministers of Labor (IACML) - Declaration of Cancún 2015: "Achieving Decent Work with Social Inclusion and Sustainable Development in the Americas", OAS, [previously online] [cited December 15, 2015]; https://www.oas.org/en/sedi/dsi/labor_and_employment/pages/cpo_trab_XIX_cimt.asp#DOCUMENTS1 [source on file].

72.       Organization of American States. Meeting of the XIX Inter-American Conference of Ministers of Labor (IACML) - Plan of Action of Cancún: "Achieving Decent Work with Social Inclusion and Sustainable Development in the Americas", OAS, [previously online] [cited December 15, 2015]; https://www.oas.org/en/sedi/dsi/labor_and_employment/pages/cpo_trab_XIX_cimt.asp#DOCUMENTS1 [source on file].

73.       U.S. Embassy- Guatemala City. reporting, February 22, 2013.

74.       ILO. "18th American Regional Meeting - Latin America and Caribbean Sign a Declaration to Free the Region from Child Labour. October 17, 2014." ilo.org [online] October 17, [cited November 17, 2014]; http://www.ilo.org/caribbean/WCMS_314428/lang--en/index.htm.

75.       UN News Centre. "At UN-backed forum, Latin American, Caribbean nations pledge robust efforts against child labour." un.org [online] October 15, 2014 [cited 2015]; http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=49082#.VzH0tORTIuE.

76.       "Declaración de Constitución de la Iniciativa Regional América Latina y el Caribe Libre de Trabajo Infántil, signed at the ILO's 18th Regional Meeting of the Americas, October 14, 2014." wordpress.com [online] October 14, 2014 [cited November 17, 2014]; https://iniciativaregionalcontraeltrabajoinfantil.files.wordpress.com/2014/10/declaracic3b3n-ir_espac3b1ol.pdf.

77.       EFE. "Instan a Centroamérica a articular medidas contra la trata de personas." abc.es [online] September 9, 2013 [cited April 14, 2014]; http://www.abc.es/agencias/noticia.asp?noticia=1492206.

78.       Government of Guatemala, and the Government of El Salvador. Memorandum de Entendimiento entre la República de El Salvador y la República de Guatemala para la Protección de las Víctimas de la Trata de Personas y del Tráfico Ilícito de Migrantes. Guatemala City and San Salvadore; 2011. https://www.oas.org/dil/esp/Memorandum_de_Entendimiento_Guatemala_El_Salvador_Trata_de_Persona.pdf.

79.       The Governments of El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. Plan of the Alliance for Prosperity in the Northern Triangle: A Road Map; September 2014. http://idbdocs.iadb.org/wsdocs/getdocument.aspx?docnum=39224238.

80.       The White House, Office of the Press Secretary. "Fact Sheet: Support for the Alliance for Prosperity in the Northern Triangle." whitehouse.gov [online] March 3, 2015 [cited March 24, 2015]; https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2015/03/03/fact-sheet-support-alliance-prosperity-northern-triangle.

81.       Inter-American Development Bank. "Presidentes de El Salvador, Guatemala y Honduras presentan plan de Alianza para Prosperidad en Triángulo Norte." iadb.org [online ] November 14, 2014 [cited November 17, 2014]; http://www.iadb.org/es/noticias/comunicados-de-prensa/2014-11-14/presidents-del-triangulo-norte-presentan-plan,10987.html.

82.       Regional Conference on Migration. The Regional Conference on Migration or Puebla Process, RCM, [online] [cited March 2, 2016]; http://www.rcmvs.org/Descripcion.htm.

83.       Regional Conference on Migration. Meeting of the Vice-Ministers of the XX Regional Conference on Migration - Declaration in Mexico City 2015: "Return and Social and Productive Reintegration of Migrants", RCM, [online] [cited March 2, 2016]; http://www.rcmvs.org/Eventos/CRM_GRCM/XX_RCM.docx.

84.       IOM. "IOM, Partners Work with the Americas to Protect Migrant Children." iom.int [online] August 21, 2015 [cited March 2, 2016]; http://www.iom.int/news/iom-partners-work-americas-protect-migrant-children.

85.       Masaya, J. "Firman compromiso para prevenir y erradicar trabajo infantil." republicagt.com [online] March 3, 2015 [cited November 17, 2015]; http://www.republicagt.com/economia/firman-compromiso-para-prevenir-y-erradicar-trabajo-infantil/.

86.       Byron Vásquez, and Edwin Pitán. "Cámara del Agro pretende que se eleve la edad para trabajo de menores." Prensa Libre, March 3, 2015; Comunitario. http://www.prensalibre.com/guatemala/comunitario/camara-del-agro-pretende-que-se-eleve-la-edad-para-trabajo-de-menores.

87.       ILO. Lanzan red empresarial para prevenir y erradicar el trabajo infantil. Press Release. San Jose; March 19, 2015. http://www.ilo.org/sanjose/sala-de-prensa/WCMS_356360/lang--es/index.htm.

88.       Government of Guatemala. MINDES Social Program Information. Guatemala City February 23, 2015. [source on file].

89.       Alvarado, C. "Mides dará carné a beneficiarios de Mi Bolsa Segura." Diario de Centro América, Guatemala, May 23, 2013; Nacionales. http://www.dca.gob.gt/index.php/template-features/item/19067-mides-impulsa-crear-carn%C3%A9-para-la-entrega-de-bolsas-seguras.html.

90.       Government of Guatemala. Gobierno beneficia a 430 mil familias con Mi Bolsa Segura en siete meses del año; 2014. http://www.guatemala.gob.gt/index.php/2011-08-04-18-06-26/item/9174-gobierno-beneficia-a-430-mil-familias-con-mi-bolsa-segura-en-siete-meses-del-año. .

91.       SESAN. "Secretario de SESAN impulsa el compromiso con el país en la reducción de la desnutrición." sesan.gob.gt [online ] January 9, 2015 [cited April 13, 2015]; http://www.sesan.gob.gt/index.php/noticias/region-central/item/1521-secretario-de-sesan-impulsa-el-compromiso-con-el-pais-en-la-reduccion-de-la-desnutricion.

92.       Morales, M. "Programa Jóvenes Protagonistas disminuye inserción de menores a pandillas." Agencia Guatemalteca de Noticias, Guatemala, August 23, 2013; Portada. http://www.agn.com.gt/index.php/world/item/7726-programa-j%C3%B3venes-protagonistas-disminuye-inserci%C3%B3n-de-menores-a-pandillas.

93.       Government of Guatemala. Jóvenes Protagonistas llega a 75 mil asistencias 2014. http://www.mides.gob.gt/noticias/item/1054-jovenes-protagonistas-llega-a-75-mil-asistencias.

94.       Castillo, D. "Sistema de becas Mi Primer Empleo atenderá a 50 mil jóvenes." El Periódico, Guatemala, February 18, 2013; Nación. http://www.elperiodico.com.gt/es/20130218/pais/224926.

95.       IOM. IOM and Indigenous Teens Encourage Dialogue on Migration in Guatemala. Press Release. Guatemala; September 25, 2015. http://www.iom.int/news/iom-and-indigenous-teens-encourage-dialogue-migration-guatemala.

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