Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Nicaragua

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Nicaragua

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2016, Nicaragua made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government passed the Good Government Plan, which aims to increase human trafficking investigations and protect children from commercial sexual exploitation, as well as increase access to education, particularly for children of indigenous and African descent. The Ministry of Education also continued to expand the National School Supply Program, which provided more than 700,000 packages of school supplies and 3.9 million textbooks to children in need. However, children in Nicaragua engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in street work and commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. National policies to eliminate child labor and protect children have not been fully implemented, and the Government lacks a specific and consistent mechanism to coordinate efforts to address child labor. In addition, the Government does not publish key labor and criminal law enforcement data on child labor, including its worst forms.

Expand All

Children in Nicaragua engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in street work and commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking.(1-4) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Nicaragua.

Table 1. Statistics on Children's Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

10 to 14

47.7 (342,076)

Working children by sector

 

 

Agriculture

 

53.5

Industry

 

8.7

Services

 

37.8

Attending School (%)

10 to 14

88.3

Combining Work and School (%)

10 to 14

40.3

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

85.4

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2010, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(5)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children's Work Project's analysis of statistics from Encuesta Continua de Hogares (ECH) Survey, 2012.(6)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children's Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Harvesting coffee, bananas, tobacco,† African palm, sugarcane, and oranges (1, 7-12)

Raising cattle† and producing dairy products (10)

Collecting shellfish† (7, 13)

Industry

Construction,† including transporting materials (13, 14)

Quarrying† of pumice and limestone and mining† of gold (1, 7, 13, 15, 16)

Production of gravel (crushed stones)† (10, 17, 18)

Services

Domestic work (13, 19, 20)

Work in transportation† and as couriers† (7, 13, 16, 19)

Street work, including vending,† washing car windshields, and performing at stoplights† (1, 2, 4, 16, 19, 21-23)

Garbage scavenging† (16, 19, 21, 24, 25)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking, and use in the production of pornography (3, 26, 27)

Domestic work as a result of human trafficking (28, 29)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

In Nicaragua, children are subjected to commercial sexual exploitation, particularly in Granada, Managua, the Caribbean Coast, and San Juan del Sur.(3, 26, 28, 30) Children in Nicaragua who lack identification documents, sometimes because of a lack of birth registration, may not have access to social services and are at an increased risk of human trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation.(13) An estimated 20 percent of children born in Nicaragua lack birth certificates.(31) Although the Government's birth registration campaign is advancing, it does not reach all children, especially in remote areas.(32-35) In an effort to promote birth registrations, Nicaragua's Family Code, which went into effect in 2015, provides for free birth registrations up to age 7.(36, 37)

Education is free and compulsory in Nicaragua. However, costs associated with school supplies and transportation make it difficult for some children, particularly those from poor backgrounds and rural areas, to attend school.(22, 38-40) Some sources indicate that secondary schools have not received adequate assistance and that secondary school attendance remains low, increasing the risk that older children engage in exploitative work.(1, 30, 40)

Nicaragua has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Nicaragua's legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

14

Article 131 of the Labor Code; Article 73 of the Childhood and Adolescence Code; Article 84 of the Constitution (41-44)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Articles 130 and 133 of the Labor Code; Article 1 of Ministerial Agreement No. JCHG-08-06-10; Articles 2 and 74 of the Childhood and Adolescence Code (41-43, 45)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Article 6 of Ministerial Agreement No. JCHG-08-06-10; Article 133 of the Labor Code (41, 45)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 40 of the Constitution; Articles 61–63 of the Law Against Trafficking in Persons; Articles 182, 183, and 315 of the Penal Code (44, 46, 47)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 61–63 of the Law Against Trafficking in Persons; Articles 182, 183, and 315 of the Penal Code (46, 47)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 61 of the Law Against Trafficking in Persons; Articles 175–183 of the Penal Code; Articles 5 and 26 of the Childhood and Adolescence Code (43, 46, 47)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 61 of the Law Against Trafficking in Persons; Articles 358, 359, and 362 of the Penal Code; Article 71 of Law 285 (Reform to the Narcotics Law); Article 79 of the Childhood and Adolescence Code (43, 46-48)

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

N/A*

 

Article 96 of the Constitution (44)

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Annex 1 of the Code on the Organization, Jurisdiction, and Social Welfare of the Military (49)

Non-state Compulsory

Yes

 

Article 509 of the Penal Code; Article 95 of the Constitution (44, 46)

Compulsory Education Age

No

12

Article 121 of the Constitution; Articles 19 and 23 of the Education Law; Article 43 of the Childhood and Adolescence Code (43, 44, 50)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 121 of the Constitution; Articles 8, 19, and 23 of the Education Law; Article 43 of the Childhood and Adolescence Code (43, 44, 50)

* No conscription (27, 44, 51)

Nicaraguan law is not clear regarding the age up to which education is compulsory. Article 121 of the Constitution states that primary school education is compulsory, but does not specify an age.(44) Under Articles 19 and 23 of the Education Law, education is compulsory only through the sixth grade, which it specifies is up to age 12 and the end of primary school.(50) Article 43 of the Childhood and Adolescence Code states that both primary and secondary school education are compulsory, suggesting up to age 17, but does not specifically state an age.(43) The lack of clarity regarding the age up to which education is compulsory and the potential gap between the compulsory education age and the minimum age for work may leave children vulnerable to child labor, including its worst forms.(1, 52)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor law and criminal law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor (MITRAB)

Enforce labor laws and set child labor policy priorities.(19, 53) Conduct labor inspections through its General Labor Inspectorate, including child labor inspections through its Child Labor Inspections Unit. Conduct training on child labor issues and inspections.(7, 54, 55) Maintain a mailbox in each of Nicaragua's 17 departments to receive complaints of child labor violations.(56)

Nicaraguan National Police (NNP)

Investigate cases of child labor and human trafficking through the Police Intelligence Unit and the Special Crimes Unit, which detect and investigate crimes, respectively.(7, 19, 54) Maintain a hotline for violations of children's rights.(56)

Ministry of Governance

Coordinate participation between MITRAB and NNP in labor inspections in which employers resist inspection.(56)

Prosecutor General's Office

Prosecute cases of child trafficking, commercial sexual exploitation, and the use of children in illicit activities. Contains 2 national-level and 35 department-level prosecutors that prosecute these and other crimes.(7, 19, 54)

Human Rights Attorney for Children

Assist in the enforcement of laws related to child labor and hazardous child labor.(7, 19)

Ministry of the Family, Adolescence, and Childhood (MIFAN)

Maintain a hotline for receiving reports on human trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation.(56) Assist in providing officials with training on child labor violations.(31)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, labor law enforcement agencies in Nicaragua took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$1,000,000 (57)

Unknown*

Number of Labor Inspectors

98 (57)

133 (58)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (41)

Yes (41, 59)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown*

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Unknown

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown

Yes (59)

Number of Labor Inspections

Unknown

14,605 (59)

Number Conducted at Worksite

2,593 (57, 60)

Unknown

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

539 (57)

475 (59)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

0 (57)

Unknown

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

0 (57)

Unknown

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (61)

Yes (59)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (61)

Yes (59)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (56, 57)

Yes (62)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (56, 57)

Unknown

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (56, 57)

Yes (59)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Unknown

Yes (59)

* The Government does not publish this information.

NGOs reported that the Ministry of Labor (MITRAB) lacks sufficient resources to adequately enforce child labor laws.(57) The number of labor inspectors is insufficient for the size of Nicaragua's workforce, which includes over 3 million workers. According to the ILO's recommendation of 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in industrializing economies, Nicaragua should employ roughly 201 inspectors.(63-65) Of the 133 labor inspectors the Government employed in 2016, 97 focused on general labor law compliance and 36 focused on occupational safety and health issues.(58)

In 2016, MITRAB conducted 14,605 labor inspections, of which 1,696 were child labor-specific inspections.(59) Government officials and NGOs have reported that child labor inspections throughout the country, and those in agricultural areas in particular, are limited due to resource and personnel constraints.(19, 56) Complete information on labor inspections, including on whether inspections were conducted at worksites and on their geographic distribution, was not publicly available. Research could not determine the number of children referred between labor authorities and social services in 2016.

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in Nicaragua took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Yes (60)

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (60)

Yes (66)

Number of Investigations

10 (60)

Unknown

Number of Violations Found

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

23 (61)

Unknown

Number of Convictions

6 (61)

2 (59)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (60)

Yes (27, 59)

Research did not find the number of criminal investigators employed by the Nicaraguan National Police or Prosecutor General's Office during the reporting period. NGOs reported that criminal law enforcement efforts related to the worst forms of child labor do not adequately address the scope of the problem.(66) NGOs also indicate that criminal law enforcement agencies lack sufficient financial resources to effectively carry out criminal investigations.(61, 66)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Social Welfare System (SNBS)

Coordinate efforts on child labor and ensure that government institutions protect the rights of and provide social services to children as part of its mandate to assist the Nicaraguan population. Comprises various government ministries, including MITRAB, MIFAN, the Ministry of Education (MINED), the Ministry of Health (MINSA), and the Ministry of Governance.(56)

National Coalition Against Trafficking in Persons(CNCTP)

Coordinate efforts to address human trafficking for labor and commercial sexual exploitation. Led by the Ministry of Governance and comprises law enforcement agencies, the Supreme Court of Justice, and NGOs.(47, 60, 67)

Ministry of the Family, Adolescence, and Childhood (MIFAN)

Maintain a guide for the provision of assistance to victims of commercial sexual exploitation and coordinate between agencies responsible for their care.(30) Part of the SNBS.(56)

 

The National Social Welfare System (SNBS) is the mechanism that coordinates efforts to address child labor.(27) However, NGOs report that the SNBS does not comprise a specific and consistent coordinating mechanism due to limited coordination among constituent ministries and a lack of resources dedicated to combating child labor.(56) Coordination between the SNBS and NGOs that addresses child labor is also limited.(27) Research did not find that the SNBS published information in 2016 on its child labor coordination efforts or how it monitored the implementation of national child labor policies.(62)

NGOs working on human trafficking issues reported that the National Coalition Against Trafficking in Persons (CNCTP) and its regional working groups were largely inactive. Reports also indicate that the CNCTP did not appoint its Executive Secretariat, which is mandated by the Law Against Trafficking in Persons.(66) While the Ministry of the Family, Adolescence, and Childhood maintains a guide for providing assistance to child victims of commercial sexual exploitation, reports indicate that the Government had no formal procedures for the identification of human trafficking victims among high-risk populations, including children who are trafficked for commercial sexual exploitation.(3, 30, 67, 68)

The Government has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor‡

Policy

Description

Roadmap for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Sets the goal of eliminating the worst forms of child labor by 2016, and all forms of child labor by 2020.(36, 56, 69)

Strategic Plan for the Prevention and Elimination of Child Labor and the Protection of Young Workers (2007–2016)

Aims to eliminate child labor and ensure protections for adolescent workers. Seeks to reintegrate child laborers into the school system and increase school enrollment.(30)

Good Government Plan (2016)†

Sets development goals for government ministries, including MITRAB, MINED, and MINSA. Prioritizes human trafficking investigations; aims to protect children from commercial sexual exploitation; and commits to training teachers, creating 1,000 primary teaching positions, and increasing access to education, including for indigenous and Afro-descendant children.(70)

Coffee Harvest Plan

Aims to assist children whose parents work in the coffee harvest and improve their educational opportunities. Focuses on eliminating hazardous child labor in the coffee sector in the Jinotega Department. Developed by the Government in collaboration with the private sector and NGOs.(7, 19, 71, 72)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.
‡ The Government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor.(53, 71-77)

The Government's Roadmap for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor sets the goal of eliminating child labor in Nicaragua by 2020. However, there is no comprehensive action plan for its full implementation.(1) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken during the reporting period to implement the Strategic Plan for the Prevention and Elimination of Child Labor and the Protection of Young Workers or the Coffee Harvest Plan. The CNCTP's Strategic Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons expired in 2015, and the extent of its implementation is unknown.(60, 68) In 2016, the CNCTP began drafting a new national action plan to combat human trafficking.(66)

In 2016, the Government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor‡

Program

Description

Program Love (Programa Amor)†

MIFAN program that targets vulnerable or impoverished children, including children involved in child labor, such as street work. Provides educational assistance for children and vocational training for parents.(19, 53, 67, 78, 79) Overseen by Nicaragua's Vice President in coordination with MINED, MINSA, MITRAB, and the Ministry of Governance.(78) Includes children from birth to age 6 through Program Love for the Smallest Ones.(19, 70, 80) In 2016, aimed to assist and promote school attendance of 33,695 vulnerable children.(70)

Educational Bridges (Puentes Educativos)†

MITRAB and MINED public-private partnership that provides education to children of coffee workers to prevent child labor during coffee harvests. In 2016, program continued to build commitments to eliminate child labor in coffee.(81-85)

Integral School Meal Program (Merienda Escolar)†

MIFAN and WFP initiative that provides children and adolescents with meals at school to address poverty and improve attendance.(86-88) In 2016, program assisted approximately 1.2 million children.(27, 89, 90)

National School Supply Program (Paquete Escolar)

MINED program that distributes packages of school supplies to preschool, primary, and secondary school children in the poorest districts to increase attendance and completion rates.(91, 92) In 2016, MINED provided more than 700,000 packages of school and teaching supplies, as well as 3.9 million textbooks.(90)

Birth Registration Campaign

Government initiative, in coordination with Save the Children and UNICEF, to advance birth registration campaigns.(31, 35, 36)

† Program is funded by the Government of Nicaragua.
‡ The Government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms.(59, 93-95).

The scope of current social programs is not sufficient to assist children who are trafficked or engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including commercial sexual exploitation.(19) While the Government provides medical, educational, and legal assistance to trafficking victims, international organizations and NGOs provide their shelter, food, clothing, and psychological assistance.(7, 68, 96) NGOs indicate that the regions most affected by human trafficking lack adequate care facilities, and that victims of the worst forms of child labor in these areas are referred to NGO shelters in Managua.(68) NGOs also indicate that Program Love lacks overall effectiveness and transparency.(19) Research could not find comprehensive information on the kind of assistance provided to beneficiaries, including those who were engaged in child labor.(57)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Nicaragua (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that the law is consistent and provides a compulsory education age that is not less than the minimum age for work.

2014 – 2016

Enforcement

Dedicate more human and financial resources, such as by hiring and retaining a sufficient number of labor inspectors, to the enforcement of child labor laws, in particular in agriculture.

2009 – 2016

Publish information on the training provided to new labor inspectors.

2015 – 2016

Publish information on the number of labor inspections conducted at worksites and by desk review, as well as whether unannounced inspections were conducted.

2014 – 2016

Ensure that penalties are imposed and fines are collected for child labor violations, and make this information publicly available.

2015 – 2016

Publish information on the number of children referred between labor authorities and social services, respectively.

2015 – 2016

Publish information on the number and training of criminal investigators employed to investigate the worst forms of child labor and ensure that they have adequate resources to conduct their investigations.

2014 – 2016

Publish information on the number of criminal investigations, violations, and prosecutions related to the worst forms of child labor, and ensure that criminal law enforcement efforts are adequate to address the scope of the problem.

2014 – 2016

Coordination

Clarify the roles of SNBS ministries in addressing child labor; increase their collaboration and resources to ensure that the Government has a specific and consistent mechanism to coordinate efforts to address child labor, including with NGOs; and publicly report on their efforts.

2014 – 2016

Ensure that the National Coalition Against Trafficking in Persons meets regularly to coordinate government activities on human trafficking issues, and ensure that it establishes its Executive Secretariat as mandated by the Law Against Trafficking in Persons.

2015 – 2016

Enhance coordination and information sharing among actors involved in child labor issues and in efforts to identify and refer victims of child trafficking.

2009 – 2016

Government Policies

Finalize and implement a concrete action plan to achieve the objective of eliminating child labor by 2020.

2009 – 2016

Publish information on efforts undertaken to implement the Strategic Plan for the Prevention and Elimination of Child Labor and the Protection of Young Workers and the Coffee Harvest Plan.

2016

Make publicly available national plans that address human trafficking and publicly report on their implementation.

2014 – 2016

Social Programs

Develop strategies and devote resources to improve attendance in secondary school education.

2009 – 2016

Expand programs to address the worst forms of child labor to more sectors in which exploitative child labor exists, such as commercial sexual exploitation.

2009 – 2016

Dedicate greater resources to expand services that assist child trafficking victims.

2010 – 2016

Assess the effectiveness of Program Love in reducing the worst forms of child labor and publish its results to inform future efforts.

2010 – 2016

Expand birth registration programs, in particular in remote areas, to ensure that children have access to basic services.

2009 – 2016

1.         ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Nicaragua (ratification: 1981) Published: 2014; accessed November 10, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:11003:0::NO:::.

2.         La Prensa, EFE. "Procuradora de Niñez de Nicaragua pide penar el trabajo infantil en semáforos." laprensa.com.ni [online] June 1, 2015 [cited November 16, 2015]; http://www.laprensa.com.ni/2015/06/01/nacionales/1842805-procuradora-de-ninez-de-nicaragua-pide-penar-el-trabajo-infantil-en-semaforos.

3.         U.S. Department of State. "Nicaragua," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016. Washington, DC; June 30, 2016; https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/258881.pdf.

4.         El Nuevo Diario, Josué Garay. "Trabajo infantil persiste aún en los hogares." [online] August 12, 2016 [cited http://www.elnuevodiario.com.ni/nacionales/400979-trabajo-infantil-persiste-aun-hogares/.

5.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed December 16, 2016; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary education. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. The calculation includes all new entrants to the last grade (regardless of age). Therefore, the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

6.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Encuesta Continua de Hogares (ECH), 2012. Analysis received December 15, 2016. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information,  please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

7.         U.S. Embassy- Managua. reporting, January 31, 2013.

8.         El Nuevo Diario, Deybis Sánchez. "Trabajo infantil sigue creciendo en Nicaragua." [online] October 6, 2013 [cited January 9, 2015]; http://www.elnuevodiario.com.ni/nacionales/298474-infantil-sigue-creciendo-nicaragua.

9.         La Prensa, A Lorio L. "Persiste trabajo infantil en fincas de café y tabaco." La Prensa, Managua, February 5, 2015; Departamentales. http://www.laprensa.com.ni/2015/02/05/departamentales/1777164-persiste-trabajo-infantil-en-fincas-de-cafe-y-tabaco.

10.       U.S. Department of State. "Nicaragua," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2015. Washington, DC; April 13, 2016; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/253241.pdf.

11.       La Isla Foundation. Cycle of Sickness - A Survey Report on Child Labor In the Nicaraguan Sugarcane Fields of Ingenio San Antonio. Ada, Michigan, Department of Law and Human Rights; 2015. https://laislafoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/Child_Labor_Report_FINAL.pdf?7a2409.

12.       La Isla Foundation, Y-Vonne Hutchinson. Sickly Sweet: Human Rights Conditions for Sugar Cane Workers in Western Nicaragua. León, Nicaragua, La Isla Foundation; 2013. https://laislafoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/Sickly-Sweet-InDesign.pdf?219f68.

13.       U.S. Department of State. "Nicaragua," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2012. Washington, DC; April 19, 2013; https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2012humanrightsreport/index.htm.

14.       U.S. Embassy official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 8, 2015.

15.       Instituto de Estudios Estratégicos y Políticas Públicas. Historias de vida: Rostros de la explotación de la niñez y la adolescencia en Nicaragua; 2012. http://www.ieepp.org/wp-content/uploads/downloads/2013/01/Historias-de-Vida-SERIE-VOZ-para-WEBSITE.pdf.

16.       U.S. Department of State. "Nicaragua," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2013. Washington, DC; February 27, 2014; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/220670.pdf.

17.       Government of Nicaragua- Ministerio del Trabajo (CNEPTI). Son incontables sus riesgos y daños: Análisis de la explotación económica infantil y los trabajos peligrosos. Managua, Ministry of Labor and Save the Children Norway; 2007.

18.       ILO-IPEC. Podrían ampliar lista de peores formas de trabajo infantil. Geneva; 2006. http://white.oit.org.pe/ipec/alcencuentros/interior.php?notCodigo=1348.

19.       U.S. Embassy- Managua. reporting, January 16, 2014.

20.       El Nuevo Diario. "Las 10 peores formas de trabajo infantil." elnuevodiario.com [online] September 3, 2012 [cited January 9, 2015]; http://www.elnuevodiario.com.ni/nacionales/262792-10-peores-formas-de-infantil.

21.       La Prensa TV. El trabajo infantil en Nicaragua [video]. Managua: La Prensa TV; September 27, 2012, 50 sec., [accessed February 6, 2013]  http://www.laprensa.com.ni/2012/09/27/la-prensa-en-video/117748-infantil-nicaragua.

22.       López Ocampo, I. "Trabajo infantil: no es jugando." labrujula.com.ni [previously online] June 10, 2012 [cited February 6, 2013]; http://www.labrujula.com.ni/noticia/284.

23.       La Prensa - Jeniffer Castillo Bermúdez. "Más niños trabajando en las calles." [online] November 11, 2013 [cited March 13, 2015]; http://www.laprensa.com.ni/2013/11/26/nacionales/171803-mas-ninos-trabajando-en-las-calles.

24.       La Prensa, E Romero. "No hay cifras actualizadas de trabajo infantil." La Prensa, Managua, June 12, 2015; Nacionales. http://www.laprensa.com.ni/2015/06/12/nacionales/1849018-no-hay-cifras-actualizadas-de-trabajo-infantil.

25.       Retamal, H. Child Labor rises in Central America, NBC News, [online] September 25, 2012 [cited January 6, 2014 ]; http://photoblog.nbcnews.com/_news/2012/09/25/14102040-child-labor-rises-in-central-america?lite.

26.       El País. "Explotación sexual infantil o turismo responsable." February 15, 2016. http://elpais.com/elpais/2016/02/12/planeta_futuro/1455295837_663441.html.

27.       U.S. Embassy- Managua. reporting, January 13, 2017.

28.       U.S. Department of State. "Nicaragua," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2013. Washington, DC; June 19, 2013; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2013/215533.htm.

29.       IOM. Trata de personas con fines de explotación laboral en Centroamérica: Nicaragua. online; 2013. http://costarica.iom.int/public/pdf/Trata_de_personas_nicaragua.pdf.

30.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Nicaragua (ratification: 2000) Published: 2012; accessed November 6, 2012; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:11003:0::NO:::.

31.       U.S. Embassy- Managua. reporting, February 25, 2014.

32.       Plan International. Nicaragua: What we do, Plan International, [online] 2012 [cited February 4, 2013]; http://plan-international.org/where-we-work/americas/nicaragua/what-we-do/what-we-do.

33.       UNICEF. "Nicaragua participará en taller sobre el derecho a la identidad." unicef.org [online] June 5, 2013 [cited January 12, 2015]; http://unicef.org.ni/prensa/111/.

34.       Nicaragua al Día. "1959 niñas, niños acceden al derecho a un nombre y una nacionalidad en las comunidades del Alto Wangki." [online] January 15, 2015 [cited March 18, 2015]; http://nicaraguaaldia.com/wp/?p=3661.

35.       UNICEF. Nicaragua - Derecho a un nombre y una nacionalidad, UN, [online] [cited March 18, 2015]; http://www.unicef.es/infancia/proyectos-desarrollo-cooperacion/nicaragua-derecho-un-nombre-y-una-nacionalidad.

36.       El Nuevo Diario, L Loaisiga. "'La educación obligatoria es eficaz contra el trabajo infantil' - Entrevista a Philippe Barragne-Bigot, representante de Unicef en Nicaragua." El Nuevo Diario, Managua, September 16, 2015; Nacionales. http://www.elnuevodiario.com.ni/nacionales/370540-educacion-obligatoria-es-eficaz-trabajo-infantil/.

37.       Government of Nicaragua. Código de Familia, Ley No. 870, enacted 2015; Aprobado el 24 de junio de 2014. http://www.unfpa.org.ni/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/Codigo-Fam1.pdf.

38.       Alvarez M., R. "Niñez rural es la más vulnerable." La Prensa, Managua, January 14, 2013. http://www.laprensa.com.ni/2013/01/14/ambito/130669-ninez-rural-mas-vulnerable.

39.       Lakhani, N. "Poverty in Nicaragua Drives Children out of School and into the Workplace." The Guardian, May 19, 2015. http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2015/may/19/poverty-nicaragua-children-school-education-child-labour?CMP=EMCGBLEML1625.

40.       Informe del Foro Educativo Nicaragüense EDUQUEMOS. Informe de Progreso Educativo - Nicaragua; 2014. http://www.cosep.org.ni/rokdownloads/main/cosep/ipe_nicaragua_2014.pdf.

41.       Government of Nicaragua. Código del Trabajo Compilación de normas laborales de la República de Nicaragua a septiembre del 2009,, enacted 1996 and 2009. http://www.construccion.com.ni/files/ley/1204139277_Codigo%20del%20Trabajo%20de%20Nicaragua.pdf.

42.       Government of Nicaragua. Ley núm. 474 por la que se dicta la Ley de reforma al Título VI, Libro Primero del Código de Trabajo, núm. 474 enacted October 21, 2003. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex_browse.details?p_lang=en&p_isn=67286.

43.       Government of Nicaragua. Código de la Niñez y la Adolescencia, No. 287, enacted May 1998. http://www.oas.org/dil/esp/Codigo_de_la_Ninez_y_la_Adolescencia_Nicaragua.pdf.

44.       Government of Nicaragua. Constitución Política de la República de Nicaragua, enacted 1987, with 1995, 2002 and 2005 reforms. http://pdba.georgetown.edu/Constitutions/Nica/nica05.html.

45.       Government of Nicaragua. Acuerdo Ministerial núm. JCHG-08-06-10 sobre prohibición de trabajos peligrosos para personas adolescentes y listado de trabajos peligrosos, enacted June 23, 2010. http://www.mitrab.gob.ni/documentos/acuerdos/ACUERDO%20MINISTERIAL%20JCHG-08-06-10.pdf/view.

46.       Government of Nicaragua. Código Penal de la República de Nicaragua, No. 641, enacted November 13, 2007. http://www.poderjudicial.gob.ni/pjupload/noticia_reciente/CP_641.pdf.

47.       Government of Nicaragua. Ley Contra la Trata de Personas, No. 896, enacted February 25, 2015. http://digesto.asamblea.gob.ni/iunp/docspdf/gacetas/2015/2/g38.pdf.

48.       Government of Nicaragua. Ley de Reformas y Adiciones a la Ley No. 177, Ley de Estupefacientes, Sicotrópicos, y Sustancias Controladas, No. 285, enacted April 15, 1999. http://www.superintendencia.gob.ni/documentos/marco_legal/generales/ley285.pdf.

49.       Government of Nicaragua. Código de Organización, Jurisdicción, y Previsión Social Militar, con sus reformas incorporadas, No. 181, enacted March 3, 2014. http://legislacion.asamblea.gob.ni/SILEG/Gacetas.nsf/5eea6480fc3d3d90062576e300504635/ce17eb8a0572c77706257c910079bacf/$FILE/2014-02-12-%20G-%20Texto%20de%20Ley%20No.%20181,%20C%C3%B3digo%20de%20Organizaci%C3%B3n,%20Jurisdicci%C3%B3n%20y%20Previsi%C3%B3n%20Social%20Militar%20con%20sus%20reformas%20incorporadas.pdf.

50.       Government of Nicaragua. Ley General de Educación, No. 582, enacted March 22, 2006. http://www.oei.es/quipu/nicaragua/Ley_Educ_582.pdf.

51.       Child Soldiers International. "Appendix II: Data Summary on Recruitment Ages of National Armies," in Louder than Words: An Agenda for Action to end State Use of Soldiers. London; 2012; http://www.child-soldiers.org/global_report_reader.php?id=562.

52.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Nicaragua (ratification: 1981) Published: 2012; accessed January 12, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:11003:0::NO:::.

53.       Government of Nicaragua. Written communication. Submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor Solicitation for Information on Child Labor and Forced Labor. Managua; 2012.

54.       U.S. Embassy- Managua. reporting, January 19, 2012.

55.       Government of Nicaragua. Acuerdo Ministerial núm. JCHG-008-05-07 sobre el cumplimiento de la ley 474 ley de reforma al título VI, libro primero del código del trabajo, enacted 2007. http://www.leylaboral.com/ImprimeDocumentoCompleto.aspx?tipo=t&bd=26&item=15183.

56.       U.S. Embassy- Managua. reporting, February 19, 2015.

57.       U.S. Embassy- Managua. reporting, January 26, 2016.

58.       USDOL official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 17, 2017.

59.       Government of Nicaragua. Written communication. Submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor’s “Request for Information on Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor.” Source on file; February 2017.

60.       U.S. Embassy- Managua. reporting, February 1, 2016.

61.       U.S. Embassy official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 17, 2016.

62.       U.S. Embassy official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 1, 2017.

63.       CIA. The World Factbook, [online] [cited March 18, 2017]; https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors based on the country’s level of development as determined by the UN.

64.       ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a “sufficient number” of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a “sufficient” number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

65.       UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex. New York; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies; “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies, and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

66.       U.S. Embassy- Managua. reporting, February 10, 2017.

67.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Nicaragua (ratification: 2000) Published: 2014; accessed November 10, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:11003:0::NO:::.

68.       U.S. Embassy- Managua. reporting (TIP), February 19, 2015.

69.       Government of Nicaragua. Hoja de Ruta para hacer de Nicaragua un país libre de trabajo infantil y sus peores formas: Documento estratégico. Managua; 2010. http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/viewProduct.do?productId=14796.

70.       Government of Nicaragua. Plan de Buen Gobierno 2016 -Trabajando Juntos Como Gran Familia; 2016. http://www.migob.gob.ni/bomberos/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/PLAN-DE-BUEN-GOBIERNO-2016.pdf.

71.       Ministerio de Trabajo y Desarrollo Laboral. Buenas Practicas para Prevenir y Disminuir el Trabajo Infantil en Nicaragua. source on file. Managua; 2012.

72.       Radio La Primerisima. "Nicaragua comprometida en eliminar trabajo infantil." radiolaprimerisima.com [online] November 24, 2012 [cited February 6, 2013]; www.radiolaprimerisima.com/noticias/131624.

73.       Government of Nicaragua. De la Política de la Protección Especial a los Niños, Niñas, y Adolescentes, Decreto No. 20-2006, enacted March 23, 2006. http://legislacion.asamblea.gob.ni/Normaweb.nsf/%28$All%29/B2B02DC626218EB60625755F007A7136?OpenDocument.

74.       Government of Nicaragua. Acuerdo "Hacia un desarrollo sustentado en la restitución de derechos"; October 1, 2013. [source on file ].

75.       "Avanza Nicaragua en eliminar trabajo infantil en todo el pais." La Voz del Sandinismo, Managua, November 26, 2012; Actualidad. http://www.lavozdelsandinismo.com/nicaragua/2012-11-26/avanza-nicaragua-en-eliminar-trabajo-infantil-en-todo-el-pais/.

76.       Government of Nicaragua. Plan Nacional de Desarrollo Humano 2012-2016. online; 2012. http://www.pndh.gob.ni/documentos/pndhActualizado/pndh.pdf.

77.       Government of Nicaragua. Plan Nacional de Empleo y Trabajo Digno y Decente Para Las Juventudes de Nicaragua; 2012. http://www.mined.gob.ni/Documents/ETFP/PNETDJ_2012-2016.pdf.

78.       Ministerio de la Familia Adolescencia y Niñez. Programa Amor, Ministerio de la Familia, Adolescencia y Niñez, [online] [cited January 28, 2014]; http://www.mifamilia.gob.ni/?page_id=239.

79.       La Prensa, Carla Torres Solórzano. "Avances sí, pero aún falta mucho." [online] November 12, 2014 [cited January 12, 2015]; http://www.laprensa.com.ni/2014/11/12/nacionales/217436-avances-si-pero-aun-falta-mucho.

80.       Ministerio de Educación (MINED). Fortalecen Programa Amor para los más Chiquitos, [online] [cited March 16, 2014]; http://www.mined.gob.ni/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1120:programa-amor-para-los-mas-chquitos-se-fortalece-en-san-lorenzo&catid=46:abril&Itemid=29.

81.       United States Department of Labor. Nicaraguan coffee producer Isidro León-York awarded US Labor Department's Iqbal Masih Award for the Elimination of Child Labor. News Release. Washington, DC, U.S. Department of Labor; March 20, 2014. http://www.dol.gov/opa/media/press/ilab/ILAB20140468.htm.

82.       Baca Castellón, L. "Premio Iqbal Masih: No a la niñez en las cafetales." La Prensa, Managua, March 22, 2014; Activos. http://www.laprensa.com.ni/2014/03/22/activos/187781.

83.       El Nuevo Diario, Leyla Jarquín. "Cafetalero niega trabajo a niños y les da estudio." [online] March 22, 2014 [cited January 12, 2015]; http://www.elnuevodiario.com.ni/nacionales/315068.

84.       La Prensa, Sara Ruiz. "Niños estudiaron en vez de trabajar: Tres fincas cafetaleras de Jinotega reconocidas como libres de trabajo infantil." April 28, 2015. http://www.laprensa.com.ni/2015/04/28/departamentales/1822503-ninos-estudiaron-en-vez-de-trabajar.

85.       World Vision Nicaragua. "Puentes Educativos: Un espacio protector para la niñez." [online] January 21, 2016 [cited http://www.wvi.org/es/nicaragua/article/puentes-educativos-un-espacio-protector-para-la-ni%C3%B1ez.

86.       Ministerio de Educación (MINED). Inicia distribución de la Merienda Escolar 2014, [online] [cited March 14, 2014]; http://www.mined.gob.ni/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2639:inicia-distribucion-de-la-merienda-escolar-2014&catid=37:noticias&Itemid=29.

87.       Ministerio de Educación (MINED). Merienda Escolar contribuye a permanencia de estudiantes en la escuela, Government of Nicaragua, [online] [cited March 14, 2014]; http://www.mined.gob.ni/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2777:estudiantes-matagalpinos-reciben-merienda-escolar&catid=44:noticias-febrero&Itemid=29.

88.       Quezada, S. Nicaragua: School Meals Start Earlier in Response to Drought, WFP, [online] September 02, 2014 [cited November 10, 2014]; http://www.wfp.org/node/3539/4383/642931.

89.       El 19, Kenneth Chávez. "MINED da a conocer Plan de Cierre de Año 2015 y de Buena Esperanza hacia el 2016." [online] 2015 [cited February 12, 2016]; http://www.el19digital.com/articulos/ver/titulo:34336-mined-da-a-conocer-plan-de-cierre-de-ano-2015-y-de-buena-esperanza-hacia-el-2016.

90.       La Voz del Sandinismo. "La educación desde el orgullo de ser nicaragüense." [online] January 25, 2016 [cited January 13, 2017]; http://www.lavozdelsandinismo.com/nicaragua/2016-01-25/la-educacion-desde-el-orgullo-de-ser-nicaraguense/.

91.       Ministerio de Educación (MINED). "Gobierno anuncia entrega de textos escolares al inicio de año lectivo 2015." [online] January 6, 2015 [cited January 13, 2016]; http://www.mined.gob.ni/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3607:gobierno-anuncia-entrega-de-textos-escolares-y-otras-herramientas-para-inicio-de-ano-lectivo-2015&catid=37:noticias&Itemid=29.

92.       Viva Nicaragua - Canal 13. "Inicia distribución nacional de paquetes escolares." vivanicaragua.com [online] February 27, 2015 [cited March 18, 2015]; http://www.vivanicaragua.com.ni/2015/02/27/sociales/inicia-distribucion-nacional-de-paquetes-escolares/.

93.       100 Noticias. "Programa Proniño redujo y combatió al trabajo infantil." [online] November 13, 2015 [cited January 12, 2016]; http://100noticias.com.ni/programa-pronino-redujo-y-combatio-al-trabajo-infantil/.

94.       Fundación Telefónica Nicaragua. "Programa Proniño " [online] [cited January 12, 2016]; http://www.fundaciontelefonica.com.ni/pronino/.

95.       Fundación Telefónica Nicaragua. "Fundación Telefónica desarrolla en Nicaragua un encuentro con autoridades educativas." [online] July 26, 2012 [cited January 12, 2016]; http://www.fundaciontelefonica.com/2012/07/26/17_01_2014_esp_6370-2992/.

96.       U.S. Department of State. "Nicaragua," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2014. Washington, DC; 2014; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/226848.pdf.

Download ILAB's Sweat & Toil app today. #endChildLabor