Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Nicaragua

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Nicaragua

2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2015, Nicaragua made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government conducted its first human trafficking prosecutions under the Law Against Trafficking in Persons, which went into effect in February 2015 and raises penalties for the trafficking of children and adolescents to 19 to 20 years’ imprisonment. The Government also reported conducting trafficking in persons prevention and awareness programs that reached 112,359 individuals, including law enforcement officials. The Ministry of Education expanded the National School Supply Program, which provided 700,000 packages of school supplies and 3 million textbooks to children in need. However, children in Nicaragua are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in street work and in commercial sexual exploitation sometimes as a result of human trafficking. National policies to eliminate child labor and protect children have not been fully implemented, and the Government appears to lack a specific and consistent mechanism to coordinate efforts to address child labor. In addition, the Labor Inspectorate is reported to lack the human and financial resources it needs to adequately enforce child labor laws across the country.

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Children in Nicaragua are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in street work and in commercial sexual exploitation sometimes as a result of human trafficking.(1-4) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Nicaragua.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Working children, ages 10 to 14 (% and population):

47.7 (342,076)

Working children by sector, ages 10 to 14 (%)

 

Agriculture

53.5

Industry

8.7

Services

37.8

School attendance, ages 10 to 14 (%):

88.3

Children combining work and school, ages 10 to 14 (%):

40.3

Primary completion rate (%):

85.4

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2010, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(5)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Encuesta Continua de Hogares (ECH) Survey, 2012. Data on working children, school attendance, and children combining work and school are not comparable with data published in the previous version of this report because of differences between surveys used to collect the data.(6)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Harvesting coffee, bananas, tobacco,† African palm,* and oranges* (2, 3, 7-11)

Harvesting sugarcane* (8, 12, 13)

Livestock breeding,*† cattle raising*† (2, 7, 8)

Production of beef products*† and dairy products* (7)

Collecting shellfish† (8, 9, 14)

Industry

Construction,† including transporting materials* (8, 15)

Quarrying† of pumice, gypsum,* and limestone* (3, 8, 9, 14, 16)

Production of gravel (crushed stones)† (17, 18)

Mining† of gold (8, 9, 14)

Services

Domestic work (8, 19, 20)

Work in transportation*† (2, 8)

Street work, including vending† and performing at stoplights† (2-4, 19, 21-24)

Garbage scavenging† (2, 19, 22, 25, 26)

Work as couriers† (7, 9, 19)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1, 9, 19)

Domestic work as a result of human trafficking* (27, 28)

Use in the production of pornography* (29)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a) – (c) of ILO C. 182.

In Nicaragua, children are subjected to commercial sexual exploitation, particularly in Granada, Managua, the Caribbean Coast, and San Juan del Sur.(27, 30) It has been reported that children in Nicaragua who lack identification documents, sometimes because of a lack of birth registration, are at an increased risk of human trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation.(8) An estimated 20 percent of children born in Nicaragua lack birth certificates.(31)

Education is free and compulsory in Nicaragua. However, costs associated with school supplies and transportation make it difficult for some children, in particular those from poor backgrounds and rural areas, including the Caribbean coastal region, to attend.(23, 32-34) Some sources indicate that secondary schools have not received adequate assistance and that secondary school attendance remains low, increasing the risk that older children engage in exploitative work.(3, 30, 34)

Nicaragua has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

14

Article 131 of the Labor Code; Article 73 of the Childhood and Adolescence Code; Article 84 of the Constitution (35-38)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Articles 130 and 133 of the Labor Code; Article 1 of Ministerial Agreement No. JCHG-08-06-10; Articles 2 and 74 of the Childhood and Adolescence Code (35-37, 39)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Article 6 of the Ministerial Agreement No. JCHG-08-06-10; Article 133 of the Labor Code (35, 39)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 40 of the Constitution; Articles 61-63 of the Law Against Trafficking in Persons; Articles 182-183 and 315 of the Penal Code (38, 40, 41)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 61-63 of the Law Against Trafficking in Persons; Articles 182-183 and 315 of the Penal Code (40, 41)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 61 of the Law Against Trafficking in Persons; Articles 175-183 of the Penal Code; Articles 5 and 26 of the Childhood and Adolescence Code (37, 40, 41)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 61 of the Law Against Trafficking in Persons; Articles 358-359 and 362 of the Penal Code; Article 71 of Law 285 (Reform to the Narcotics Law); Article 79 of the Childhood and Adolescence Code (37, 40-42)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

N/A*

 

 

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

18

Annex 1 of the Code on the Organization, Jurisdiction, and Social Welfare of the Military (43)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

12

Article 121 of the Constitution; Articles 19 and 23 of the Education Law; Article 43 of the Childhood and Adolescence Code (37, 38, 44)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 121 of the Constitution; Articles 8, 19, and 23 of the Education Law; Article 43 of the Childhood and Adolescence Code (37, 38, 44)

* No conscription (38, 45)

The National Assembly approved the Law Against Trafficking in Persons – Nicaragua’s first anti-trafficking law – through a two-stage process in December 2014 and January 2015; it was enacted in February 2015.(41, 46) The law amends the Penal Code by raising penalties for the procurement of prostitution from 4 to 6 years’ imprisonment to 8 to 10 years; it also applies these penalties to an expanded set of criminal offenses that include benefitting commercially from and managing prostitution.(40, 41) These penalties are increased to 12 to 15 years’ imprisonment when the victim is a child or adolescent. The law also raises penalties for the trafficking of children and adolescents from 10 to 12 years’ imprisonment to 19 to 20 years.(40, 41) Additionally, the law specifies that exploitative child labor figures among an expanded set of criminal offences that may be prosecuted as human trafficking.(41)

Nicaraguan law is not clear regarding the age up to which education is compulsory. Article 121 of the Constitution states that primary school education is compulsory without specifying an age.(38) Under Articles 19 and 23 of the Education Law, education is compulsory only through the sixth grade, which it specifies is up to age 12 and the end of primary school.(44) Article 43 of the Childhood and Adolescence Code states that both primary and secondary school education are compulsory, suggesting up to age 17, but does not specifically state an age.(37) The lack of clarity regarding the age up to which education is compulsory and the potential gap between the compulsory education age and the minimum age for work may leave children vulnerable to child labor, including its worst forms.(3, 47)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor (MITRAB)

 

Enforce labor laws and set child labor policy priorities.(19, 48) Conduct labor inspections through its General Labor Inspectorate, including child labor inspections through its Child Labor Inspections Unit. Conduct training on child labor issues and inspections, and coordinate with other public and private agencies.(9, 49, 50) Maintain a mailbox in each of Nicaragua’s 17 departments to receive complaints of child labor violations.(51)

Nicaraguan National Police

(NNP)

Investigate cases of child labor and human trafficking through the Police Intelligence Unit, which detects crimes; the Special Crimes Unit, which investigates crimes; and 54 Women’s Commissions, which work on prevention and protection.(9, 19, 49) Maintain a hotline for receiving reports on the welfare of children, including those in danger of exploitation.(51)

Ministry of Governance

Coordinate participation between MITRAB and NNP in labor inspections in which employers resist inspection.(51)

Prosecutor General’s Office

Prosecute cases of child trafficking, commercial sexual exploitation, and the use of children in illicit activities. Contains 2 national-level and 35 department-level prosecutors that prosecute these and other crimes.(9, 19, 49)

Human Rights Attorney for Children

Assist in the enforcement of laws relating to child labor and hazardous child labor.(9, 19)

Ministry of the Family, Adolescence, and Childhood (MIFAN)

Maintain a hotline for receiving reports on human trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation.(51) Assist in providing officials with training on child labor violations.(31)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2015, labor law enforcement agencies in Nicaragua took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown

$1,000,000 (52)

Number of Labor Inspectors

97 (51)

98 (52)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (35)

Yes (35)

Training for Labor Inspectors

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Unknown

Unknown

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (51)

Unknown

Number of Labor Inspections

3,204 (51)

2,593 (52, 53)

Number Conducted at Worksite

3,204 (51)

2,593 (52, 53)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

178 (51)

539 (52)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown

0 (52)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

Unknown

0 (52)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Unknown

 Yes (54)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Unknown

 Yes (54)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (51)

Yes (51, 52)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (51)

Yes (51, 52)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (51)

Yes (51, 52)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Unknown

Unknown

 

In 2015, the overall budget for the Ministry of Labor (MITRAB) was approximately $3 million, with approximately $1 million allocated for the labor inspectorate.(52) NGO’s report that MITRAB’s budget is the third-lowest of all government ministries and that MITRAB lacks sufficient resources to adequately enforce child labor laws.(51, 52)

During the reporting period, MITRAB employed 98 labor inspectors whose responsibilities included investigating child labor violations. NGO’s report that the number of inspectors is insufficient to address the scope of the child labor problem in Nicaragua.(19) According to the ILO’s recommendation of one inspector for every 15,000 workers in industrializing economies, Nicargua should employ roughly 199 inspectors in order to adequately enforce labor laws throughout the country.(55-57)

MITRAB reported conducting 1,321 inspections of worksites from January to November 2015.(52) Also during the reporting period, the Government conducted 1,272 inspections that focused on commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor that were preventative in nature.(53) Government officials and child labor experts have reported that child labor inspections throughout the country, and those in agricultural areas in particular, are limited due to resource and personnel constraints.(9, 19, 51) Complete information on the geographic distribution of labor inspections and the sectors in which they occurred was not publicly available.(51)

As a result of inspections, MITRAB reported 539 infractions of child labor laws.(52) Among these, 86 children were found working in hazardous conditions. MITRAB reported removing these children from hazardous work and referring them for services.(52) However, research could not determine whether a reciprocal referral mechanism exists between social service providers and labor authorities.

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2015, criminal law enforcement agencies in Nicaragua took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown

Yes (53)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (46)

Yes (53)

Number of Investigations

17 (46)

10 (53)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

9 (46)

23 (54)

Number of Convictions

9 (46)

6 (54)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (46)

Yes (53)

 

The Government reported that criminal law enforcement officials received training on the new Law Against Trafficking in Persons, which went into effect on February 25, 2015.(53) The Government also reported conducting human trafficking prevention and awareness programs that reached 112,359 individuals. Participants included government criminal investigators, prosecutors, judges, and other law enforcement officials.(53) Research did not find the number of criminal investigators employed by the Nicaraguan National Police (NNP) or Prosecutor General’s Office during the reporting period.

The Government reported that as of February 2015, the Law Against Trafficking in Persons was the principal basis for all suspected human trafficking prosecutions and related convictions.(53) However, NGOs that work on human trafficking issues reported that the number of investigations was low compared with the scope of the problem.(53)

In 2015, the budget for the NNP and the Prosecutor General’s Office was not made publicly available. Reports from NGOs indicate that the NNP has insufficient resources, including a lack of personnel, equipment, vehicles, and funding, to carry out criminal investigations. NGO’s also report that the NNP’s Women’s Commissions are functionally inoperational.(31, 46, 54)

The Government and NGOs have reported that, according to a process developed by the National Coalition Against Trafficking in Persons (CNCTP), victims of the worst forms of child labor are referred by the NNP to the Ministry of the Family, Adolescence, and Childhood (MIFAN), which then refers them to NGOs for services. Reports indicate that this method of referral has been successful.(46)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Social Welfare System (SNBS)

Coordinate efforts on child labor and ensure that government institutions protect the rights of, and provide social services to, children and adolescents as part of its mandate to assist the Nicaraguan population. Comprises various government ministries, including MITRAB, MIFAN, the Ministry of Education (MINED), the Ministry of Health (MINSA), and the Ministry of Governance.(51)

National Coalition Against Trafficking in Persons (CNCTP)

Coordinate efforts to address human trafficking for labor and commercial sexual exploitation, including the implementation of the Strategic Plan Against Trafficking in Persons. Led by the Ministry of Governance and comprising the NNP, Prosecutor General’s Office, governmental ministries, the Supreme Court of Justice, and civil society organizations.(19, 41, 53, 58) Coordinate Nicaragua’s participation in the Central American Regional Coalition Against Trafficking in Persons.(31)

Ministry of the Family, Adolescence, and Childhood (MIFAN)

Maintain a guide for the provision of assistance to victims of commercial sexual exploitation and coordinate between agencies responsible for their care.(30) Part of the SNBS.(51)

 

In 2015, the Government reported that the National Social Welfare System (SNBS) is the mechanism that coordinates efforts to address child labor.(51, 52) However, NGO reports indicate that the SNBS does not comprise a specific and consistent coordinating mechanism due to limited coordination among constituent ministries and a lack of resources dedicated to combating child labor.(51) Coordination between the SNBS and NGOs that address child labor is also limited. In addition, research did not find that the SNBS published information during the reporting period on its child labor coordination efforts or how it monitored the implementation of national policies, such as the Strategic Plan for the Prevention and Elimination of Child Labor and the Protection of Young Workers (PEPETI).(52)

NGOs working on human trafficking issues reported that the CNCTP, as well as its regional working groups, were largely inactive following the enactment of the Law Against Trafficking in Persons in February 2015. Reports also indicate that the CNCTP did not appoint its Executive Secretariat, which is mandated by the Law Against Trafficking in Persons.(53)

While MIFAN maintains a guide for providing assistance to child victims of commercial sexual exploitation, reports indicate that the Government had no formal procedures for the identification of human trafficking victims among high-risk populations, including children who are trafficked for commercial sexual exploitation.(30, 46) MIFAN appears to be responsible only for the care of child trafficking victims under age 13, and the extent of its coordinating role is unclear.(30, 58)

The Government of Nicaragua has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

Roadmap for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Sets the goal of eliminating the worst forms of child labor by 2016, and all forms of child labor by 2020.(51, 59, 60)

Strategic Plan for the Prevention and Elimination of Child Labor and the Protection of Young Workers (PEPETI) (2007–2016)

Aims to eliminate child labor and ensure protections for adolescent workers. Seeks to reintegrate child laborers into the school system and increase school enrollment.(30)

National Human Development Plan (2012–2016)

Sets the Government’s strategy for national development, including in poverty reduction, social well-being, and education. Includes efforts to eliminate child labor and uphold children’s and adolescents’ rights.(19, 61, 62)

National Plan of Youth Employment (2012–2016)

Seeks to eliminate child labor and protect the rights of working adolescents. Established by the National Commission of Youth Employment.(63-65)

Coffee Harvest Plan

Aims to develop a comprehensive approach to assist children whose parents work in the coffee harvest and to improve educational opportunities for children on coffee plantations. Focuses on eliminating hazardous child labor in the coffee sector in the Department of Jinotega. Developed by the Government, in collaboration with the private sector and civil society.(9, 19, 65, 66)

Plan of Integrated Attention

Prioritizes assistance for children and adolescents who work in stone quarries, mines, and in African palm cultivation. Involves coordination among several national ministries and local municipalities in order to determine the extent of child labor; create an action plan to uphold the rights of working children and adolescents to education, recreation, and health care; and promote better livelihoods for the families of working children and adolescents.(48, 64, 65)

Inter-Ministerial Agreement on the Sustained Development of Children’s Rights (2013)

Aims to make Nicaragua a country free from child labor, including hazardous child labor, through inter-ministerial cooperation channeled through the SNBS. Participating ministries agree to jointly create an action plan to address child labor and to generate dignified work for adolescents permitted to work.(67) Signed by MITRAB, MIFAN, MINED, the Presidents of the National Assembly and the Supreme Court, as well as by representatives from unions, the private sector, and NGOs.(67)

Policy on Special Protection for Children and Adolescents (Decreto No. 20-2006)

Focuses and consolidates the Government’s guiding principles, objectives, and strategies on children’s and adolescents’ rights. Seeks to mainstream the recognition and defense of children’s rights, including protections against child labor and commercial sexual exploitation, in policy areas such as social protection, development, and education.(68)

National Coalition Against Trafficking in Persons Strategic Plan (2014–2015)

Addresses human trafficking through directives shared by national and international public and private actors. Focuses on planning and monitoring efforts for awareness-raising, prevention, prosecution, and assistance for victims and their reintegration.(46)

Strategic Education Plan (PEE) (2011–2015)*

Articulates national educational strategies with development objectives that prioritize the building of human capital. Based on three core areas: (1) equality of access to free, universal education; (2) improved quality; and (3) increased institutional strength.(69, 70)

Declaration of the Regional Initiative: Latin America and the Caribbean Free of Child Labor (2014–2020)

Aims to increase regional cooperation on eradicating child labor by 2020 through signatories’ efforts to strengthen monitoring and coordination mechanisms, government programs, and South-South exchanges. Reaffirms commitments made in the Brasilia Declaration from the Third Global Conference on Child Labor (October 2013), and signed by Nicaragua at the ILO’s 18th Regional Meeting of the Americas in Lima, Peru (October 2014).(71-73)

Declaration of the Vice-Ministers of the XX Regional Conference on Migration†

Aims to strengthen regional cooperation in order to protect the human rights of migrants, especially youth and children, in countries of origin, transit, and destination, including by increasing opportunities for education and employment. Adopted by Nicaragua at the XX Regional Conference on Migration in Mexico City (November, 2015).(74-76)

XIX Inter-American Conference of Ministers of Labor†

Promotes decent work with social inclusion throughout the Americas. Held in Cancún, Mexico; participating countries adopted the Declaration of Cancún 2015 which aims in part to foster policies to eliminate labor exploitation, including child labor, and to promote education and vocational training for youth.(77, 78) Participating countries also adopted a Plan of Action that prioritizes the elimination of child labor, including through data collection, enforcement of labor laws, and the development of social protection policies for children and families.(77, 79)

Panama Declaration (2012)

Establishes commitments among Central American countries, Belize, and the Dominican Republic to implement country-based actions to eradicate the worst forms of child labor. MITRAB highlighted good practices and lessons learned from its child labor programs in coffee plantations and stone quarries.(80-85)

* Child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy.
† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

The Government’s Roadmap for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor sets the goal of eliminating child labor in Nicaragua by 2020. However, research has not found a comprehensive action plan for its full implementation.(3, 86) The Government has developed a Strategic Plan to combat human trafficking through the CNCTP for 2014–2015.(46) However, research did not find information on this Strategic Plan publicly available, and the full extent of its implementation is unknown.(46, 53) NGOs working on human trafficking issues have reported that the Government lacks adequate resources to implement the victim care assistance procedures prescribed in the plan.(53)

In 2015, the Government of Nicaragua funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Program Love†

(Programa Amor)

MIFAN program that targets 20,000 children, primarily in Managua, who are impoverished or involved in child labor, including in street vending and garbage scavenging. Provides education for children and vocational training for parents.(19, 48, 58, 87, 88) Overseen by Nicaragua’s First Lady in coordination with the, MINED, MINSA, MITRAB, and the Ministry of Governance.(87) Includes children from birth to age 6 through “Program Love for the Smallest Ones”.(19, 89) In 2015, the program reported reaching 18,415 children and adolescents through a range of initiatives, including by providing educational materials and tutoring to help children complete school.(52)

First, I Learn

(Primero, Aprendo)

Regional project supported by the European Union that promoted the eradication of child labor through access to education, among other avenues, in support of the Roadmap to Eliminate Child Labor.(90, 91) In Nicaragua, served children working in the agricultural sector in Jinotega.(92) Program ended in 2015.(52)

Educational Bridges

(Puentes Educativos)†

MITRAB and MINED public-private partnership that provides education to children of coffee workers to prevent child labor during coffee harvests.(93-95) In 2015, the program continued to maintain and secure commitments from coffee farms to eliminate child labor in coffee production.(96)

Integral School Meal Program (Merienda Escolar)†

MIFAN and WFP initiative that provides more than 1 million children and adolescents meals at school to address poverty and bolster school attendance.(97, 98) Program is 70 percent funded by the Government of Nicaragua.(99) Plans to assist approximately 1.2 million children in 2016.(100)

National School Supply Program

 

MINED program to distribute packages of school supplies to preschool and primary school children in the poorest districts to increase attendance and completion rates. In 2014, program assisted 400,000 children.(101) In 2015, MINED expanded the program to provide 700,000 packages of school supplies to children from families in need. Program also provided 1.4 million textbooks to children in primary school, and 1.6 million textbooks to children in secondary school.(102)

La Chureca Project

$50 million Government of Spain-funded project that closed La Chureca garbage dump in Managua in 2013 and opened a recycling plant in its place. Accomplishments include the creation of a school that keeps children out of child labor, construction of houses, and employment for 258 families who had worked scavenging in the garbage dump.(103-106) In 2015, continued to assist beneficiaries.(107)

Birth Registration Campaign (Derecho a un Nombre)

Government initiative, in coordination with Save the Children and UNICEF, to advance birth registration campaigns.(31, 60, 108)

Pro-Child Program (Proniño

MINED and Telefónica Foundation public-private partnership that increases educational opportunities for children to reduce and prevent child labor in line with ILO goals to eradicate the worst forms of child labor by 2020.  Implemented with the assistance of local NGOs, assists children, families, and schools by helping to strengthen curricula and by working to support families’ commitments to ensure children attend school.(109-111)   

Elimination of Child Labor in Latin America (Phase 4) (2011–2015)

$4.5 million Government of Spain-funded, 4-year project implemented by ILO-IPEC to combat child labor in 19 countries, including Nicaragua.(112)

Education and Monitoring Program for the Eradication of Child Labor (2012–2015)

$1.3 million Government of Spain-funded, 2-year project implemented by ILO-IPEC that aims to strengthen public policies and government capacity to combat child labor in 19 countries in Latin America, including Nicaragua. Includes the objective of developing information systems on the worst forms of child labor.(112)

† Program is funded by the Government of Nicaragua.

The scope of current social programs does not appear to be sufficient to assist children who are trafficked or engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including commercial sexual exploitation.(19) While the Government provides medical, educational, and legal assistance to trafficking victims, international organizations and NGOs provide their shelter, food, clothing, and psychological assistance.(9, 46, 113) NGOs indicate that the regions most affected by human trafficking lack adequate care facilities, and that victims of the worst forms of child labor in these areas are referred to NGO shelters in Managua.(46)

NGOs also indicate that Program Love lacks overall effectiveness and transparency.(7, 9, 19) For example, while the Government reported that Program Love assisted 18,415 children and adolescents during the reporting period, information on the kind of assistance provided to beneficiaries, including on whether beneficiaries were engaged in child labor, was not publicly available.(51, 52)

Although the Government’s birth registration campaign is advancing, it does not reach all children, especially in remote areas, and many children lack the documentation needed to access basic services.(108, 114-116) In an effort to promote birth registrations, Nicaragua’s new Family Code, which was passed in 2014 and went into effect in 2015, provides for free birth registrations up to age 7.(60, 117)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Nicaragua (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that the law is consistent and provides a compulsory education age that is not less than the minimum age for work.

2014 – 2015

Enforcement

Publicly report on the training provided to labor inspectors on child labor, including its worst forms.

2015

Dedicate more human and financial resources, such as by hiring and retaining more labor inspectors, to the enforcement of child labor laws, in particular in agriculture.

2009 – 2015

Publicly report on the geographic distribution of labor inspections and on the sectors in which inspections occur.

2014 – 2015

Ensure that penalties are imposed and fines are collected for child labor violations.

2015

Ensure a reciprocal referral mechanism exists between labor authorities and social services, and make information on the number of children referred between agencies publicly available.

2015

Publicly report on the number of criminal investigators employed to investigate the worst forms of child labor and ensure they have adequate training and resources to conduct their investigations.

2014 – 2015

Ensure the number of criminal investigations for the worst forms of child labor, including for human trafficking violations, is adequate to address the scope of the problem.

2015

Publicly report on the number of criminal violations found through investigations for the worst forms of child labor.

2014 – 2015

Coordination

Clarify the roles of SNBS ministries in addressing child labor; increase their collaboration and resources to ensure the Government has a specific and consistent mechanism to coordinate efforts to address child labor, including with NGOs; and publicly report on its efforts.

2014 – 2015

Ensure the National Coalition Against Trafficking in Persons meets regularly to coordinate government activities on human trafficking issues, and ensure it establishes its Executive Secretariat as mandated by the Law Against Trafficking in Persons.

2015

Enhance coordination and information sharing among actors involved in child labor issues and in efforts to identify and refer victims of child trafficking.

2009 – 2015

Government Policies

Finalize and begin implementing a concrete action plan to achieve the objective of eliminating child labor by 2020.

2009 – 2015

Make publicly available national plans that address human trafficking and publicly report on their implementation.

2014 – 2015

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the Strategic Education Plan.

2014 – 2015

Social Programs

Develop strategies and devote resources to improve attendance in secondary school education.

2009 – 2015

Expand programs to address the worst forms of child labor to more sectors in which exploitative child labor exists, such as commercial sexual exploitation.

2009 – 2015

Dedicate greater resources to expand services that assist child trafficking victims.

2010 – 2015

Assess the effectiveness of Program Love in reducing the worst forms of child labor and publicize its results in order to inform future efforts.

2010 – 2015

Expand birth registration programs, in particular in remote areas, to ensure that children have access to basic services.

2009 – 2015

 

 

1.         U.S. Department of State. "Nicaragua," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015. Washington, DC; July 27, 2015; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/243561.pdf.

2.         U.S. Department of State. "Nicaragua," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2013. Washington, DC; February 27, 2014; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/220670.pdf.

3.         ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Nicaragua (ratification: 1981) Published: 2014; accessed November 10, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:11003:0::NO:::.

4.         La Prensa, EFE. "Procuradora de Niñez de Nicaragua pide penar el trabajo infantil en semáforos." laprensa.com.ni [online] June 1, 2015 [cited November 16, 2015]; http://www.laprensa.com.ni/2015/06/01/nacionales/1842805-procuradora-de-ninez-de-nicaragua-pide-penar-el-trabajo-infantil-en-semaforos.

5.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed December 16, 2015]; http://www.uis.unesco.org/.  Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. Because the calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age), the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

6.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Encuesta Continua de Hogares (ECH), 2012. Analysis received December 18, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

7.         U.S. Embassy- Managua. reporting, February 10, 2011.

8.         U.S. Department of State. "Nicaragua," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2012. Washington, DC; April 19, 2013; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm#wrapper.

9.         U.S. Embassy- Managua. reporting, January 31, 2013.

10.       El Nuevo Diario, Deybis Sánchez. "Trabajo infantil sigue creciendo en Nicaragua." [online] October 6, 2013 [cited January 9, 2015]; http://www.elnuevodiario.com.ni/nacionales/298474-infantil-sigue-creciendo-nicaragua.

11.       La Prensa, A Lorio L. "Persiste trabajo infantil en fincas de café y tabaco." La Prensa, Managua, February 5, 2015; Departamentales. http://www.laprensa.com.ni/2015/02/05/departamentales/1777164-persiste-trabajo-infantil-en-fincas-de-cafe-y-tabaco.

12.       La Isla Foundation, Y-Vonne Hutchinson. Sickly Sweet: Human Rights Conditions for Sugar Cane Workers in Western Nicaragua. León, Nicaragua, La Isla Foundation; 2013. https://laislafoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/Sickly-Sweet-InDesign.pdf?219f68.

13.       La Isla Foundation. Cycle of Sickness - A Survey Report on Child Labor In the Nicaraguan Sugarcane Fields of Ingenio San Antonio. Ada, Michigan, Department of Law and Human Rights; 2015. https://laislafoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/Child_Labor_Report_FINAL.pdf?7a2409.

14.       U.S. Embassy- Managua. reporting, April 28, 2009.

15.       U.S. Embassy official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 8, 2015.

16.       Instituto de Estudios Estratégicos y Políticas Públicas. Historias de vida: Rostros de la explotación de la niñez y la adolescencia en Nicaragua; 2012. http://www.ieepp.org/wp-content/uploads/downloads/2013/01/Historias-de-Vida-SERIE-VOZ-para-WEBSITE.pdf.

17.       Government of Nicaragua- Ministerio del Trabajo (CNEPTI). Son incontables sus riesgos y daños: Análisis de la explotación económica infantil y los trabajos peligrosos. Managua, Ministry of Labor and Save the Children Norway; 2007.

18.       ILO-IPEC. Podrían ampliar lista de peores formas de trabajo infantil. Geneva; 2006. http://white.oit.org.pe/ipec/alcencuentros/interior.php?notCodigo=1348.

19.       U.S. Embassy- Managua. reporting, January 16, 2014.

20.       El Nuevo Diario. "Las 10 peores formas de trabajo infantil." elnuevodiario.com [online] September 3, 2012 [cited January 9, 2015]; http://www.elnuevodiario.com.ni/nacionales/262792-10-peores-formas-de-infantil.

21.       Pérez Rivera, A. "Más de mil niños trabajan en semáforos." La Prensa, Managua, January 6, 2011; Nacionales. http://www.laprensa.com.ni/2011/01/06/nacionales/48184-mas-mil-ninos-semaforos.

22.       La Prensa TV. El trabajo infantil en Nicaragua [video]. Managua: La Prensa TV; September 27, 2012, 50 sec., [accessed February 6, 2013]  http://www.laprensa.com.ni/2012/09/27/la-prensa-en-video/117748-infantil-nicaragua.

23.       López Ocampo, I. "Trabajo infantil: no es jugando." labrujula.com.ni [previously online] June 10, 2012 [cited February 6, 2013]; http://www.labrujula.com.ni/noticia/284.

24.       La Prensa - Jeniffer Castillo Bermúdez. "Más niños trabajando en las calles." [online] November 11, 2013 [cited March 13, 2015]; http://www.laprensa.com.ni/2013/11/26/nacionales/171803-mas-ninos-trabajando-en-las-calles.

25.       La Prensa, E Romero. "No hay cifras actualizadas de trabajo infantil." La Prensa, Managua, June 12, 2015; Nacionales. http://www.laprensa.com.ni/2015/06/12/nacionales/1849018-no-hay-cifras-actualizadas-de-trabajo-infantil.

26.       Retamal, H. Child Labor rises in Central America, NBC News, [online] September 25, 2012 [cited January 6, 2014 ]; http://photoblog.nbcnews.com/_news/2012/09/25/14102040-child-labor-rises-in-central-america?lite.

27.       U.S. Department of State. "Nicaragua," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2013. Washington, DC; June 19, 2013; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2013/215533.htm.

28.       IOM. Trata de personas con fines de explotación laboral en Centroamérica: Nicaragua. online; 2013. http://costarica.iom.int/public/pdf/Trata_de_personas_nicaragua.pdf.

29.       U.S. Embassy- Managua. reporting, February 15, 2012.

30.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Nicaragua (ratification: 2000) Published: 2012; accessed November 6, 2012; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:11003:0::NO:::.

31.       U.S. Embassy- Managua. reporting, February 25, 2014.

32.       Alvarez M., R. "Niñez rural es la más vulnerable." La Prensa, Managua, January 14, 2013. http://www.laprensa.com.ni/2013/01/14/ambito/130669-ninez-rural-mas-vulnerable.

33.       Lakhani, N. "Poverty in Nicaragua Drives Children out of School and into the Workplace." The Guardian, May 19, 2015. http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2015/may/19/poverty-nicaragua-children-school-education-child-labour?CMP=EMCGBLEML1625.

34.       Informe del Foro Educativo Nicaragüense EDUQUEMOS. Informe de Progreso Educativo - Nicaragua; 2014. http://www.cosep.org.ni/rokdownloads/main/cosep/ipe_nicaragua_2014.pdf.

35.       Government of Nicaragua. Código del Trabajo Compilación de normas laborales de la República de Nicaragua a septiembre del 2009,, enacted 1996 and 2009. http://www.construccion.com.ni/files/ley/1204139277_Codigo%20del%20Trabajo%20de%20Nicaragua.pdf.

36.       Government of Nicaragua. Ley núm. 474 por la que se dicta la Ley de reforma al Título VI, Libro Primero del Código de Trabajo, núm. 474 enacted October 21, 2003. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex_browse.details?p_lang=en&p_isn=67286.

37.       Government of Nicaragua. Código de la Niñez y la Adolescencia, No. 287, enacted May 1998. http://www.oas.org/dil/esp/Codigo_de_la_Ninez_y_la_Adolescencia_Nicaragua.pdf.

38.       Government of Nicaragua. Constitución Política de la República de Nicaragua, enacted 1987, with 1995, 2002 and 2005 reforms. http://pdba.georgetown.edu/Constitutions/Nica/nica05.html.

39.       Government of Nicaragua. Acuerdo Ministerial núm. JCHG-08-06-10 sobre prohibición de trabajos peligrosos para personas adolescentes y listado de trabajos peligrosos, enacted June 23, 2010. http://www.mitrab.gob.ni/documentos/acuerdos/ACUERDO%20MINISTERIAL%20JCHG-08-06-10.pdf/view.

40.       Government of Nicaragua. Código Penal de la República de Nicaragua, No. 641, enacted November 13, 2007. http://www.poderjudicial.gob.ni/pjupload/noticia_reciente/CP_641.pdf.

41.       Government of Nicaragua. Ley Contra la Trata de Personas, No. 896, enacted February 25, 2015. http://digesto.asamblea.gob.ni/iunp/docspdf/gacetas/2015/2/g38.pdf.

42.       Government of Nicaragua. Ley de Reformas y Adiciones a la Ley No. 177, Ley de Estupefacientes, Sicotrópicos, y Sustancias Controladas, No. 285, enacted April 15, 1999. http://www.superintendencia.gob.ni/documentos/marco_legal/generales/ley285.pdf.

43.       Government of Nicaragua. Código de Organización, Jurisdicción, y Previsión Social Militar, con sus reformas incorporadas, No. 181, enacted March 3, 2014. http://legislacion.asamblea.gob.ni/SILEG/Gacetas.nsf/5eea6480fc3d3d90062576e300504635/ce17eb8a0572c77706257c910079bacf/$FILE/2014-02-12-%20G-%20Texto%20de%20Ley%20No.%20181,%20C%C3%B3digo%20de%20Organizaci%C3%B3n,%20Jurisdicci%C3%B3n%20y%20Previsi%C3%B3n%20Social%20Militar%20con%20sus%20reformas%20incorporadas.pdf.

44.       Government of Nicaragua. Ley General de Educación, No. 582, enacted March 22, 2006. http://www.oei.es/quipu/nicaragua/Ley_Educ_582.pdf.

45.       Child Soldiers International. "Appendix II: Data Summary on Recruitment Ages of National Armies," in Louder than Words: An Agenda for Action to end State Use of Soldiers. London; 2012; http://www.child-soldiers.org/global_report_reader.php?id=562.

46.       U.S. Embassy- Managua. reporting (TIP), February 19, 2015.

47.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Nicaragua (ratification: 1981) Published: 2012; accessed January 12, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:11003:0::NO:::.

48.       Government of Nicaragua. Written communication. Submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor Solicitation (December 19, 2011) for Information on Child Labor and Forced Labor. Managua; 2012.

49.       U.S. Embassy- Managua. reporting, January 19, 2012.

50.       Government of Nicaragua. Acuerdo Ministerial núm. JCHG-008-05-07 sobre el cumplimiento de la ley 474 ley de reforma al título VI, libro primero del código del trabajo, enacted 2007. http://www.leylaboral.com/ImprimeDocumentoCompleto.aspx?tipo=t&bd=26&item=15183.

51.       U.S. Embassy- Managua. reporting, February 19, 2015.

52.       U.S. Embassy- Managua. reporting, January 26, 2016.

53.       U.S. Embassy- Managua. reporting, February 1, 2016.

54.       U.S. Embassy official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 17, 2016.

55.       CIA. The World Factbook, [online] [cited March 18, 2016]; https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors based on the country’s level of development as determined by the UN.

56.       ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a “sufficient number” of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a “sufficient” number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

57.       UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex. New York; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies; “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies, and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

58.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Nicaragua (ratification: 2000) Published: 2014; accessed November 10, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:11003:0::NO:::.

59.       Government of Nicaragua. Hoja de Ruta para hacer de Nicaragua un país libre de trabajo infantil y sus peores formas: Documento estratégico. Managua; 2010. http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/viewProduct.do?productId=14796.

60.       El Nuevo Diario, L Loaisiga. "'La educación obligatoria es eficaz contra el trabajo infantil' - Entrevista a Philippe Barragne-Bigot, representante de Unicef en Nicaragua." El Nuevo Diario, Managua, September 16, 2015; Nacionales. http://www.elnuevodiario.com.ni/nacionales/370540-educacion-obligatoria-es-eficaz-trabajo-infantil/.

61.       Government of Nicaragua and IMF. Nicaragua: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper- Progress Report on National Human Development Plan as of 2010. Washington, DC; November 2011. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/scr/2011/cr11323.pdf.

62.       Government of Nicaragua. Plan Nacional de Desarrollo Humano 2012-2016. online; 2012. http://www.pndh.gob.ni/documentos/pndhActualizado/pndh.pdf.

63.       Government of Nicaragua. Plan Nacional de Empleo y Trabajo Digno y Decente Para Las Juventudes de Nicaragua; 2012. http://www.mined.gob.ni/Documents/ETFP/PNETDJ_2012-2016.pdf.

64.       "Avanza Nicaragua en eliminar trabajo infantil en todo el pais." La Voz del Sandinismo, Managua, November 26, 2012; Actualidad. http://www.lavozdelsandinismo.com/nicaragua/2012-11-26/avanza-nicaragua-en-eliminar-trabajo-infantil-en-todo-el-pais/.

65.       Radio La Primerisima. "Nicaragua comprometida en eliminar trabajo infantil." radiolaprimerisima.com [online] November 24, 2012 [cited February 6, 2013]; www.radiolaprimerisima.com/noticias/131624.

66.       Ministerio de Trabajo y Desarrollo Laboral. Buenas Practicas para Prevenir y Disminuir el Trabajo Infantil en Nicaragua. Managua; 2012. http://www.mitradel.gob.pa/portal/page/portal/PGMITRADEL/Asuntos_Laborales/RELATORIA.

67.       Government of Nicaragua. Acuerdo "Hacia un desarrollo sustentado en la restitución de derechos"; October 1, 2013. [source on file ].

68.       Government of Nicaragua. De la Política de la Protección Especial a los Niños, Niñas, y Adolescentes, Decreto No. 20-2006, enacted March 23, 2006. http://legislacion.asamblea.gob.ni/Normaweb.nsf/%28$All%29/B2B02DC626218EB60625755F007A7136?OpenDocument.

69.       Ministerio de Educación. Revisión de Nicaragua de la EPT al 2015: Evaluación del Plan Estratégico de Educación (PEE) 2011-2015; 2014. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002300/230034S.pdf.

70.       Ministerio de Educación. "Plan Estratégico de Educación 2011-2015." (2011); http://www.mined.gob.ni/Documents/Document/2013/pee2011_2015.pdf.

71.       Word Press. "Declaración de Constitución de la Iniciativa Regional América Latina y el Caribe Libre de Trabajo Infántil, signed at the ILO's 18th Regional Meeting of the Americas, October 14, 2014." wordpress.com [online ] [cited November 17, 2014]; https://iniciativaregionalcontraeltrabajoinfantil.files.wordpress.com/2014/10/declaracic3b3n-ir_espac3b1ol.pdf.

72.       ILO. "18th American Regional Meeting - Latin America and Caribbean Sign a Declaration to Free the Region from Child Labour." October 17, 2014. http://www.ilo.org/caribbean/WCMS_314428/lang--en/index.htm.

73.       UN News Centre. "At UN-backed forum, Latin American, Caribbean nations pledge robust efforts against child labour." un.org [online ] October 15, 2014 [cited October 28, 2014]; http://www.un.org/apps/news/printnews.asp?nid=49082.

74.       RCM. The Regional Conference on Migration or Puebla Process, [online] [cited March 2, 2016]; http://www.rcmvs.org/Descripcion.htm.

75.       Regional Conference on Migration. Meeting of the Vice-Ministers of the XX Regional Conference on Migration - Declaration in Mexico City 2015: "Return and Social and Productive Reintegration of Migrants", [online] [cited March 2, 2016]; http://www.rcmvs.org/Eventos/CRM_GRCM/XX_RCM.docx.

76.       IOM. IOM, Partners Work with the Americas to Protect Migrant Children, [online] [cited March 2, 2016]; http://www.iom.int/news/iom-partners-work-americas-protect-migrant-children.

77.       Organization of American States. Meeting of the XIX Inter-American Conference of Ministers of Labor (IACML) - List of Participants, [online] [cited December 15, 2015]; http://www.oas.org/en/sedi/dsi/labor_and_employment/pages/cpo_trab_IIPreparatoryXIX_IACML.asp.

78.       Organization of American States. Meeting of the XIX Inter-American Conference of Ministers of Labor (IACML) - Declaration of Cancún 2015: "Achieving Decent Work with Social Inclusion and Sustainable Development in the Americas", [online] [cited December 15, 2015]; https://www.oas.org/en/sedi/dsi/labor_and_employment/pages/cpo_trab_XIX_cimt.asp#DOCUMENTS1.

79.       Organization of American States. Meeting of the XIX Inter-American Conference of Ministers of Labor (IACML) - Plan of Action of Cancún: "Achieving Decent Work with Social Inclusion and Sustainable Development in the Americas", [online] [cited December 15, 2015]; https://www.oas.org/en/sedi/dsi/labor_and_employment/pages/cpo_trab_XIX_cimt.asp#DOCUMENTS1.

80.       Government of Panama. "Relatoria," in Encuentro de Ministros y Ministras de Trabajo sobre “Experiencias exitosas y buenas prácticas para la prevención y erradicación del trabajo infantil en Centro América, Belice, Panamá y República Dominicana" 2012; Panama: Ministry of Labor (MITRADEL); http://www.mitradel.gob.pa/portal/page/portal/PGMITRADEL/Asuntos_Laborales/RELATORIA.

81.       AFP. "CA se compromete a erradicar el trabajo infantil." La Prensa, Managua, August 8, 2012; Ámbitos. http://www.laprensa.com.ni/2012/08/08/ambito/111701-ca-se-compromete-a.

82.       ILO. Declaracíon de Compromisos, ILO, [online] August 8, 2012 [cited March 18, 2013]; http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---americas/---ro-lima/---sro-san_jose/documents/genericdocument/wcms_186994.pdf.

83.       Consejo Nacional de la Empresa Privada. CoNEP Participó en el Encuentro de Ministros y Ministras de Trabajo de la Región para la Erradicación del Trabajo Infantil, [previously online] [cited February 4, 2013]; http://www.conep.org.pa/eventos-y-noticias/294-conep-participo-en-el-encuentro-de-ministros-y-ministras-de-trabajo-de-la-region-para-la-erradicacion-del-trabajo-infantil-.html.

84.       Government of Panama. Primera Dama inaugura encuentro de Ministros y Ministras de Trabajo de Centroamérica, Belice, República Dominicana y Panamá, Government of Panama,, [online] August 7, 2012 [cited April 16, 2014]; http://www.presidencia.gob.pa/Primera_Dama-3728-Primera-Dama-inaugura-encuentro-de-Ministros-y-Ministras-de-Trabajo-de-Centroamerica-Belice-Republica-Dominicana-y-Panama.

85.       El Nuevo Diario. "Ministros de Centroamérica debatirán sobre trabajo infantil." elneuvodiaro.com [online] 2013 [cited January 7, 2015]; www.elnuevodiario.com.ni/imprimir.php/259660.

86.       American Institutes for Research. ENTERATE: Combating the Worst Forms of Child Labor through Education in Nicaragua. Final Technical Progress Report. Washington, DC; November 2011.

87.       Ministerio de la Familia Adolescencia y Niñez. Programa Amor, Ministerio de la Familia, Adolescencia y Niñez, [online] [cited January 28, 2014]; http://www.mifamilia.gob.ni/?page_id=239.

88.       La Prensa, Carla Torres Solórzano. "Avances sí, pero aún falta mucho." [online] November 12, 2014 [cited January 12, 2015]; http://www.laprensa.com.ni/2014/11/12/nacionales/217436-avances-si-pero-aun-falta-mucho.

89.       Ministerio de Educación (MINED). Fortalecen Programa Amor para los más Chiquitos, [online] [cited March 16, 2014]; http://www.mined.gob.ni/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1120:programa-amor-para-los-mas-chquitos-se-fortalece-en-san-lorenzo&catid=46:abril&Itemid=29.

90.       Wilder, PR. "Dicen NO al trabajo infantil." La Prensa, Managua, April 20, 2012; Ámbitos. http://www.laprensa.com.ni/2012/04/20/ambito/98569-dicen-no-al-infantil.

91.       Jarquín, L. "Algunos padres inciden en el índice de trabajo infantil." El Nuevo Diario, Managua, November 1, 2013; Nacionales. http://www.elnuevodiario.com.ni/nacionales/300795.

92.       Care (Nicaragua). "Proyectos: Primero Aprendo en Centroamérica." care.org [online] [cited January 12, 2015]; http://www.care.org.ni/proyectos/?proyecto=3.

93.       United States Department of Labor. Nicaraguan coffee producer Isidro León-York awarded US Labor Department's Iqbal Masih Award for the Elimination of Child Labor. News Release. Washington, DC, U.S. Department of Labor; March 20, 2014. http://www.dol.gov/opa/media/press/ilab/ILAB20140468.htm.

94.       Baca Castellón, L. "Premio Iqbal Masih: No a la niñez en las cafetales." La Prensa, Managua, March 22, 2014; Activos. http://www.laprensa.com.ni/2014/03/22/activos/187781.

95.       El Nuevo Diario, Leyla Jarquín. "Cafetalero niega trabajo a niños y les da estudio." [online] March 22, 2014 [cited January 12, 2015]; http://www.elnuevodiario.com.ni/nacionales/315068.

96.       La Prensa, Sara Ruiz. "Niños estudiaron en vez de trabajar: Tres fincas cafetaleras de Jinotega reconocidas como libres de trabajo infantil." April 28, 2015. http://www.laprensa.com.ni/2015/04/28/departamentales/1822503-ninos-estudiaron-en-vez-de-trabajar.

97.       Ministerio de Educación (MINED). Inicia distribución de la Merienda Escolar 2014, [online] [cited March 14, 2014]; http://www.mined.gob.ni/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2639:inicia-distribucion-de-la-merienda-escolar-2014&catid=37:noticias&Itemid=29.

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99.       Quezada, S. Nicaragua: School Meals Start Earlier in Response to Drought, WFP, [online] September 02, 2014 [cited November 10, 2014]; http://www.wfp.org/node/3539/4383/642931.

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