Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Uganda

Bricks
Bricks
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Cattle
Cattle
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Charcoal
Charcoal
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Coffee
Coffee
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Fish
Fish
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Gold
Gold
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Rice
Rice
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Sand
Sand
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Stones
Stones
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Sugarcane
Sugarcane
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Tea
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Tobacco
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Vanilla
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Uganda
2018 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2018, Uganda made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Ministry of Gender, Labor, and Social Development, in partnership with the Kampala Capital City Authority, removed 283 children from the streets of Kampala and provided them with social services. The government initiated proceedings to harmonize legal provisions on minimum age to align with international standards. It also drafted a National Action Plan on Child Labor, which was approved in February 2019. However, children in Uganda engage in the worst forms of child labor in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Children also perform dangerous tasks in gold mining. The lack of a centralized supervisory authority, as well as inadequate funding, training, and resources, hampered the capacity of law enforcement agencies to conduct child labor inspections and investigations. Gaps in the legal framework persist, including contradicting laws regulating the minimum age for employment. In addition, existing programs are inadequate to address child labor in the country.

Children in Uganda engage in the worst forms of child labor in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. (1-3) Children also perform dangerous tasks in gold mining. (4-7) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Uganda.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

30.9 (3,034,126)

Working children by sector

5 to 14

 

Agriculture

 

95.4

Industry

 

1.5

Services

 

3.1

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

88.7

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

34.4

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

51.0

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2017, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2019. (8) 

Source for all other data: International Labor Organization's analysis of statistics from Labour Force Survey, 2016-17. (9) 

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Cultivating and harvesting cocoa, coffee, corn, tea,† tobacco,† rice,† sugarcane,† and vanilla, and acting as scarecrows in rice fields (10-16) 

Working with livestock, including herding cattle† (11,16-18)

Fishing,† including catching, smoking,† and selling fish, and paddling† and loading boats† (4,11,17,19) 

Producing charcoal (11) 

Collecting grasshoppers (17,18)

Industry

Construction,† including making and laying bricks (16,17)

Quarrying stone† and mining gold, sand,† and salt (4,5,11,17,20-25) 

Manufacturing, including in steel rolling mills† and carpentry workshops† (11,17) 

Services

Domestic work† (1,2,4,16-18,26,27)

Street work, including vending,† begging,† car washing,† working as porters,† scavenging,† and collecting and selling scrap metal (1,2,11,17,18,28-31)

Working in hairsalons, hotels,† restaurants,† bars,† and video halls† (1,11,16,17,28)

Collecting firewood for sale (32) 

Producing alcoholic beverages (17,33) 

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1-3,17,18,28) 

Forced labor in agriculture, fishing, cattle herding, working in bars and restaurants, begging, brick making, mining, stone quarrying, street vending, and domestic work, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (3,17,18,31,33-35) 

Use in the production of pornography and pornographic performances (36,17)

Use in illicit activities, including smuggling, burglary, and car and house break-ins, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1,11,17) 

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

In June 2018, the Government of Uganda published results from the 2016/17 National Labour Force Survey. (37) The results show that an estimated 2,057,000 children are in child labor, which is a slight increase in the total number of children in child labor from the previous 2011/2012 survey. The government indicated that this figure is a lower-bound estimate because it does not include children involved in unconditional worst forms of child labor, including but not limited to child trafficking. (37)

Children from the Karamoja region are trafficked and at times willingly migrate to Kampala and other urban centers, where they engage in begging, street vending, domestic work, and commercial sexual exploitation. (2,3,30,31) In 2018, NGO and media reports indicated that children from Karamoja are sold in open-air markets or through intermediaries and forced into domestic work, begging, herding, and sexual exploitation. (38-40) Children from neighboring countries are exploited in forced agricultural labor and commercial sexual exploitation in Uganda. (3) 

Although the law provides for free compulsory education, the cost of school supplies, uniforms, and other materials often prohibits children from attending school. (4,7,41-43) Research also found that children experience physical and sexual abuse at school by teachers and classmates. (36,42) Furthermore, a lack of teachers and adequate school infrastructure, as well as poor transportation in remote rural areas have, created barriers to children's access to education. (17,44) 

Although laws on free compulsory education apply equally to refugee children, a UNHCR report from 2018 notes that 149,806 refugee children are either not enrolled in or not attending school. Girls in refugee camps are at particular risk of being out of school and vulnerable to exploitation due to pressure to undertake domestic duties and gender-based violence and harassment. (45,46) In addition to the same obstacles faced by Ugandan children, refugee children may face discrimination from fellow pupils and teachers due to their refugee status, and they may also experience language barriers. (47) For a number of refugee settlements, such as Nakivale, schools are often located far from where refugees live and are inadequately equipped to meet the needs of the large student population. (48) 

Uganda has ratified most key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Uganda’s legal framework to adequately protect children from the worst forms of child labor, including the minimum age for work.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

16

Section 7 of the Children (Amendment) Act (49)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

No

18

Section 7 of the Children (Amendment) Act; Section 32 of the Employment Act; and Regulation 5 of the Employment (Employment of Children) Regulations (49-51) 

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Regulation 6 and the First Schedule of the Employment (Employment of Children) Regulations; Section 7 of the Children (Amendment) Act (49,51)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Section 5 of the Employment Act; Sections 3–5 of the Prevention of Trafficking in Persons Act (50,52)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Sections 3–5 of the Prevention of Trafficking in Persons Act (52) 

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Section 8 of the Children (Amendment) Act; Sections 3–5 of the Prevention of Trafficking in Persons Act; Sections 131, 136–137, and 139 of the Penal Code; and Section 14 of the Anti-Pornography Act (49,52-54) 

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 5(d) of the Prevention of Trafficking in Persons Act (52)

Minimum Age for Voluntary State Military Recruitment

Yes

18

Article 52(2)(c) of the Defense Forces Act (55) 

Prohibition of Compulsory Recruitment of Children by (State) Military

Yes*

   

Prohibition of Military Recruitment by Non-state Armed Groups

Yes

 

Section 5(b) of the Prevention of Trafficking in Persons Act (52) 

Compulsory Education Age

No

13‡

Section 10(3)(a) of the Education Act (41) 

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Section 10(3)(a) of the Education Act (41) 

* No conscription (55) 
‡ Age calculated based on available information (41)

The law’s minimum age protections do not apply to children working without a formal employment relationship. (50) 

Although Uganda has a list of hazardous occupations prohibited to children under age 18, Section 8 of the Employment of Children Regulations permits a commissioner to allow children age 12 and older enrolled in an educational training or apprenticeship program to engage in hazardous work, in violation of international standards. (51)

Children in Uganda are required to attend school only up to age 13, although public education is free until age 18. This standard makes children ages 13 to 15 vulnerable to child labor because they are not required to attend school but are not legally permitted to work. (41) In 2018, the government began a process to harmonize the country's legal provisions and bring the allowable minimum age for work in line with international standards. The process will require approval from the cabinet, parliament, and the president before enactment and is expected to conclude in 2019. (17) 

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the authority of the Ministry of Gender, Labor, and Social Development (MGLSD) that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Gender, Labor, and Social Development (MGLSD)

Sets labor inspection priorities and inspection guidelines. (44,56) The Industrial Court makes judgments on labor dispute cases, which are referred to the court by labor officers. (11) Operates the Uganda Child Helpline known as Sauti. (57) 

Ministry of Internal Affairs

Enforces criminal laws on the worst forms of child labor. The Uganda Police Force’s Child and Family Protection Unit (CFPU) investigates forced labor cases, the Special Investigations Division and the Anti-Human Trafficking Desk investigate cases related to human trafficking and the use of children in illicit activities, and the Sexual Offenses Desk investigates commercial sexual exploitation. (11) Liaison officers handle child labor complaints and overall child protection issues at police posts that do not have a CFPU officer. The Immigration Department assists in identifying potential human trafficking victims. (58) 

Ministry of Local Government

Oversees district labor officers who refer cases to the Industrial Court. (11) Deploys community development officers at the district level when district labor officers are not available. (32) 

Directorate of Public Prosecutions

Prosecutes criminal cases related to the worst forms of child labor that are referred by the Uganda Police Force. (59) 

Research found that coordination among the various agencies responsible for child labor law enforcement remains a challenge because labor officers are under district government authority, rather than that of the MGLSD. (60,61) In addition, due to budgetary limitations at the district level, the majority of districts in Uganda do not have labor officers. (44) Despite the decentralization of labor law enforcement efforts, Uganda is signatory to ILO Convention 81 that requires labor inspection to be placed under the supervision and control of a central authority. (58,62,63) Although under the Employment Act labor officers are required to submit monthly reports, in practice the MGLSD does not receive labor reports from districts. Research also found that followup inspections rarely happen due to insufficient funding at the district level. (56) The government has initiated a process to amend legislation placing the inspection system under a central authority. (62) In 2018, the Industrial Court advocated the MGLSD to supervise district labor officers with the hope that it will increase the number of child labor case referrals. (11,64) Research found that the Industrial Court has not heard any child labor cases since its inception. (61) 

In 2018, the MGLSD, in conjunction with the Kampala Capital City Authority, removed 283 street children (184 girls and 99 boys) from the streets of Kampala and placed them in a rehabilitation center before resettling them in Napak, Masaka, Mpigi, and Kampala districts. (17) 

Labor Law Enforcement
In 2018, labor law enforcement agencies in Uganda took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the authority of the MGLSD that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including penalty assessment authorization.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2017

2018

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown

Unknown (17) 

Number of Labor Inspectors

47 (33) 

73 (17) 

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (33) 

No (17) 

Initial Training for New Labor Inspectors

Yes (33) 

Yes (17) 

 

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Yes (33) 

No (17) 

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (33) 

Yes (17) 

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

Unknown

Unknown (17) 

 

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown

Unknown (17) 

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown

Unknown (17) 

 

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown

Unknown (17) 

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that Were Collected

Unknown

Unknown (17) 

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (33) 

Yes (17) 

 

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (33) 

Yes (17) 

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (33) 

Yes (17) 

 

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (33) 

Yes (17) 

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (33) 

Yes (17) 

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (33) 

Yes (17) 

The number of labor inspectors is likely insufficient for the size of Uganda’s workforce, which includes more than 15 million workers. According to the ILO’s technical advice of a ratio approaching 1 inspector for every 40,000 workers in less developed countries, Uganda would employ about 400 inspectors. (65-67) In addition, enforcement of child labor laws remains challenging due to the lack of resources for inspections. (33) As a result, local civil society organizations train labor inspectors and often assist them in conducting inspections. In 2018, the NGO Platform for Labor Action (PLA) conducted 10 child labor inspections in gold mining, tobacco farming, and road construction, 5 of which were in coordination with a government labor inspector. (17) In 2018, PLA also trained 73 full-time and 7 part-time labor inspectors, including both new recruits and previously hired labor inspectors. (68) 

Criminal Law Enforcement
In 2018, criminal law enforcement agencies in Uganda took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including training for criminal investigators.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2017

2018

Initial Training for New Criminal Investigators

No (33) 

Yes (17) 

 

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Yes (69) 

No (17) 

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (70) 

Yes (17) 

Number of Investigations

Unknown

30 (71) 

Number of Violations Found

Unknown

155 (71)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown

Unknown (17) 

Number of Convictions

Unknown

Unknown (17) 

Imposed Penalties for Violations Related to The Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown (72)

Unknown (72)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (33) 

Yes (17) 

According to the government, there is not a sufficient number of criminal law enforcement officials responsible for investigating child labor. (11) Training is insufficient, in part due to regular staff turnover and transfers. Some criminal law enforcement officials were not aware of key human trafficking laws, and some police officers did not understand the evidence needed to prosecute child labor cases. (3,33) In August 2018, the government reported that between January and June 2018, 58 domestic trafficking cases involving children were registered with the police. (40) In September 2018, the Uganda Police Force arrested eight people for trafficking children from the Karamoja region to Kampala. (38) In addition, in 2018, the media reported that some high-level officials were associated with, or partially owned, labor recruitment companies suspected to be involved in trafficking in persons, including child trafficking. The association of these high-level officials with these entities may have impeded law enforcement efforts to investigate their operations. (72,73) 

Research found that street children, including potential human trafficking victims, have faced conflict with local authorities and are sometimes detained by police. (1,3,40,68) In January 2018, the Uganda Police Force arrested 45 women and girls, some as young as age 15, at a bar in the Central region for allegedly participating in pornographic performances. The police plan to charge those arrested with being a public nuisance, and cases remained pending at the end of 2018. (17) According to the government, police officers identify and refer street children to probation officers and civil society organization actors to place children in homes and shelters and do not keep them in detention facilities; however, some children may have been housed in juvenile rehabilitation centers because shelters are frequently full. Police intermittently rounded up street children, housed them in children’s homes and shelters for several days while social workers completed background checks and family tracing, and then returned them to their families. (64,74) Some children from the Karamoja region were enrolled in a youth training center in Karamoja, where they were provided with counseling and vocational training before they were returned to their families. (59,74) 

During the reporting period, 30 police officers in Kampala were trained by the PLA regarding the law on domestic workers, which included a module specific to child labor in domestic work. (17)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including coordination among agencies.

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Steering Committee on the Elimination of Child Labor

Coordinates child labor issues and implements the National Action Plan on the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor. Led by MGLSD, includes members from several ministries, the Uganda Police Force's CFPU, trade unions, development organizations, civil society, and media agencies. (17) The committee met twice in 2018. (63)

Stop Child Labor Partners Forum

Coordinates, monitors, and evaluates child labor-related programs and policies in Uganda. Led by the National Council for Children, with representatives from several ministries, CFPU, and civil society groups. (75) Research was unable to determine whether the forum was active during the reporting period.

Anti-Human Trafficking National Taskforce

Coordinates government efforts on human trafficking. Led by the Ministry of Internal Affairs, includes 30 members from government agencies and civil society. (75,76) During the reporting period, and in collaboration with the Coordination Office for Prevention of Trafficking in Persons, the Anti-Human Trafficking National Taskforce developed referral guidelines for human trafficking victims. (71) 

National Child Protection Working Group

Monitors the quality of services provided to orphans and vulnerable children. Led by MGLSD, includes members from five government agencies and civil society organizations. (11) Research was unable to determine whether the working group was active during the reporting period.

National Children's Authority

Works to ensure that member organizations integrate child labor concerns into their policies and budgets. Members include 10 government agencies. (11) Research was unable to determine whether the National Children's Authority was active during the reporting period.

In 2018, the Anti-Human Trafficking National Taskforce also reviewed a new national action plan for the prevention of trafficking in persons, which it plans to bring into force in 2019. (72)

The government has established policies that are consistent with relevant international standards on child labor (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Action Plan for the Elimination of Child Labor 2017/2018–2021/2022

Aims to reduce child labor in Uganda by 4 percent by 2022 through strengthening governmental frameworks on child labor, increasing coordination, expanding access to social services for children, enhancing research and advocacy, and improving the Monitoring and Evaluation System for the elimination of child labor. The government approved the plan in February 2019. (78,79) 

National Social Protection Policy

Aims to reduce poverty and socioeconomic inequalities for inclusive development by targeting vulnerable people, including child laborers. (81) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement the National Social Protection Policy during the reporting period.

National Strategy for Girls’ Education in Uganda (2015–2019)

Promotes girls’ education and identifies child labor, particularly domestic work, as a key barrier to girls’ access to education. (77) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement the National Strategy for Girls' Education in Uganda during the reporting period.

National Multi-Sectoral Coordination Framework for Adolescent Girls (2017/2018–2021/2022)

Coordinates government, civil society, and community efforts to provide services and programs that focus on issues affecting adolescent girls ages 10 to 19, including exploitation in domestic work and gender-based violence in schools. (17,82) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement the National Multi-Sectoral Coordination Framework for Adolescent Girls during the reporting period.

‡ The government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor. (83,84) 

In 2018, the National Action Plan on the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor expired. The government has submitted a new 5-year plan for review to the ILO and other stakeholders, and received approval with slight modifications from the MGLSD in February 2019. (17,68,72,85) Cabinet approval is pending, and expected to take place in 2019. (72) However, due to the decentralized nature of labor inspection, some districts have developed their own labor action plans that do not always reflect MGLSD priorities. (63) The National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking also expired in 2018. The Ministry of Internal Affairs is in the process of developing a new plan, which it intends to launch in 2019. (17)

In 2018, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including the adequacy of efforts to address the problem in all sectors.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

USDOL-Funded Projects

Country-Level Engagement and Assistance to Reduce Child Labor Project (CLEAR) (2013–2018), implemented by ILO in 11 countries to build local and national capacity of the government to address child labor; and the African Youth Empowerment and Development Initiative (AYEDI) (2013–2018), $3.3 million project implemented by World Education, Inc. (86,87) Additional information is available on the USDOL website.

Combating Child Labor in Tobacco Growing (2013–2021)

Eliminating Child Labor in Tobacco Growing Foundation-funded program implemented by ILO that improves the capacity of the government and social partners to develop and implement policies to combat child labor in agriculture. (78,88) During the reporting period, the project provided school meals to more than 7,000 children and supported the development of both the Uganda National Action Plan for the Elimination of Child Labor and the Hoima District Action Plan. In 2018, the project was extended until 2021, seeking to support another 38,000 children in the western districts of Hoima and Kikube. (40,88) 

Uganda Child Helpline

Funded primarily by UNICEF with in-kind contributions from MGLSD, comprises Distract Action Centers (DACs) and a physical call center located in Wakiso that screens all calls on reported cases of child abuse. Caseworkers at DACs follow up directly on cases of child abuse, including child labor and exploitation, assigned to them by the National Call Center and liaise with local authorities to address the reported incidents. (57) In 2018, six staff members received training on how to identify instances of child labor, screening calls, best practices for providing support to victims, and confidentiality. (57,89) In 2018, the helpline logged 64 calls related to child labor and commercial sexual exploitation, and 40 calls related to child trafficking. Uganda Child Helpline coordinated with the police and local authorities to investigate and resolve all reported cases. (18)

Realizing Livelihood Improvement Through Savings and Education

NGO-implemented program in partnership with the government that provides technical assistance and capacity building to MGLSD and the National Steering Committee on the Elimination of Child Labor. (36) The program was extended through 2018. (33) 

Back Home Campaign for Karamoja Children†

Government program that rescues Karamoja street children working in Kampala and places them in newly completed rehabilitation centers in Wakiso and Moroto districts before reuniting them with their families. (17,90)

† Program is funded by the Government of Uganda.
‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. (91-93) 

Although Uganda has programs that address child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem, particularly in agriculture and commercial sexual exploitation.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Uganda (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ratify the Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons.

2013 – 2018

Ensure that only minors age 16 and older who have received adequate, specific instruction or vocational training are permitted to perform hazardous work, and that their health, safety, and morals are fully protected.

2017 – 2018

Ensure that all children are protected by law, including children who do not work under a formal employment relationship.

2016 – 2018

Ensure that the law requires free, compulsory education up to age 16 so that it is commensurate with the minimum age for work.

2009 – 2018

Enforcement

Ensure coordination between the Ministry of Gender, Labor, and Social Development and the Ministry of Local Government so that labor dispute cases are referred to the Industrial Court, and ensure that the Industrial Court hears child labor cases.

2015 – 2018

Ensure that information on child labor collected at the district level is transmitted to the labor inspectorate.

2018

Publish information on the labor inspectorate’s funding, type of labor inspections conducted, number of child labor violations found, number of child labor penalties imposed, and number of penalties collected.

2013 – 2018

Publish disaggregated data on the prosecutions initiated, convictions achieved, number of investigations, and number of violations for the worst forms of child labor.

2017 – 2018

Authorize the labor inspectorate to assess penalties.

2017 – 2018

Significantly increase the number of labor inspectors to meet the ILO’s technical advice.

2009 – 2018

Ensure sufficient funding, training, and resources for law enforcement agencies so that child labor inspections and investigations can be properly conducted.

2013 – 2018

Strengthen mechanisms for referring street children, including potential human trafficking victims, to social services providers, and prevent these children from being detained.

2015 – 2018

Ensure that allegations of involvement of government officials in cases of the worst forms of child labor are investigated.

2018

Coordination

Publish information on activities undertaken by coordinating bodies, such as the Stop Child Labor Partner Forum, the Anti-Human Trafficking National Taskforce, and the National Child Protection Working Group.

2018

Ensure that existing policies addressing child labor are implemented as intended.

2018

Social Programs

Enhance efforts to eliminate barriers and make education accessible for all children, including refugees, regardless of their ability to purchase school materials.

2012 – 2018

Ensure that students are protected from physical and sexual abuse by teachers and classmates.

2012 – 2018

Ensure the availability of shelters for victims of child labor, including child trafficking victims.

2017 – 2018

Ensure that social programs to address child labor are implemented in accordance with their mandates.

2018

Expand existing social programs to address the scope of the child labor problem, particularly in agriculture and commercial sexual exploitation.

2009 – 2018

  1. Human Rights Watch. Where do you want us to go? Abuses against Street Children in Uganda. New York, July 17, 2014. 
    http://www.hrw.org/reports/2014/07/17/where-do-you-want-us-go.

  2. ANPPCAN-Uganda. Annual Situation Analysis on Karamojong Children and Families' Street Migration in Uganda. April 2015. 
    http://www.anppcanug.org/wp-content/uploads/situation_analysis/sit_analysis_2015.pdf.

  3. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2018: Uganda. Washington, DC, June 2018. 
    https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-trafficking-in-persons-report/uganda/.

  4. World Education/Bantwana. Africa Youth Empowerment Development Initiative Baseline Report. December 2014. Source on file. 

  5. Nakabugo, Zurah. Uganda- Where Pupils, Teachers, Parents Prefer Gold Mining to Schooling. The Observer (Kampala). June 12, 2017. 
    http://allafrica.com/stories/201706120764.html.

  6. Schipper, Irene et al. No Golden Future: Use of child labour in gold mining in Uganda. SOMO. April 2016. 
    https://www.somo.nl/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/No-golden-future-7.pdf.

  7. Platform for Labour Action. Child Labour in Gold Mining: A Study of Bugiri and Moroto Districts of Uganda. 2017. 
    http://ecouganda.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/REPORT-ON-CHILD-LABOUR-IN-GOLD-MINING.pdf.

  8. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%) Accessed March 16, 2019. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report. 
    http://data.uis.unesco.org/.

  9. ILO. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Labour Force Survey, 2016-17. Analysis received May 30, 2019. Please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report. 

  10. O'Dowd, Vinnie, and Danny Vincent. Catholic Church linked to Uganda child labour. BBC News. January 5, 2016. 
    http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-35220869.

  11. U.S. Embassy- Kampala. Reporting. January 15, 2016. 

  12. Ngware, Moses et al. The Quality of Education in Uganda: A Case of Iganga and Mayuge Districts. Nairobi, African Population and Health Research Center, May 2016. 
    http://aphrc.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/ERP-IV-Final-Report_June-2016.pdf.

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