Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Costa Rica

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Costa Rica
2018 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Significant Advancement

In 2018, Costa Rica made a significant advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The government launched new cooperative efforts with nongovernmental organizations to develop projects to prevent child labor as part of its Roadmap against Child Labor and the Worst Forms of Child Labor. Costa Rica also amended its Penal Code to strengthen the provisions related to child trafficking, and the Ministry of Labor and Social Security collaborated with the International Labor Organization to develop a statistical tool that will identify child labor risks. Furthermore, the National Child Welfare Agency issued and trained relevant agencies on a protocol for the care of child victims, and the President signed an Executive Order authorizing the countrywide expansion of childcare centers for children of migrant farm workers. However, children in Costa Rica engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Children also engage in child labor in agriculture. Existing social programs are insufficient to reach all child laborers, and resources for the government’s child labor law enforcement agencies remain inadequate.

Children in Costa Rica engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Children also engage in child labor in agriculture. (1-9) Costa Rica's National Institute of Statistics, which carries out annual, national-level surveys, last included a child labor module in its annual survey in 2016. (3,10,11) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Costa Rica.


Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

1.1 (8,071)

Working children by sector

   

Agriculture

 

35.5

Industry

 

9.8

Services

 

54.7

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

96.8

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

1.1

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

96.4

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2016, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2019. (12)
Source for all other data: International Labor Organization's analysis of statistics from Módulo de Trabajo Infantil (ENHAO-MTI), 2016. (13)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.


Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Cultivating bananas, pineapple, vegetables, roots, and tubers (8,14)

Picking coffee (2,3,10,15-17)

Weeding, clearing land, and watering seeds (4,18)

Cattle raising, including for the production of milk (2,8,10,18)

Fishing,† including shellfish extraction (10,19,20)

Industry

Construction, including of buildings (2,8,18-20)

Mining† gold informally (18)

Manufacturing, activities unknown (2,19)

Services

Working in restaurants, shops, and hotels (2,8,19,21)

Street vending,† car washing, and repairing motor vehicles (2,8,10,18,20,22,23)

Domestic work (2,8,18,19,24)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (5-7,10,25)

Use in the production of pornography (18,25,26)

Forced labor in the agriculture, construction, fishing, street vending, and commercial sectors (7,25,27)

Domestic servitude (7,25)

Use in transporting or selling drugs (7,18)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

The Ministry of Labor's Office for the Eradication of Child Labor and Protection of the Adolescent Worker (OATIA) noted that working children in Costa Rica are employed in agriculture, fishing, construction, and the informal sector. Children in Costa Rica, including migrant children, are also subjected to commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking, particularly in tourist destinations and border areas. (5-7,27) In 2018, the National Child Welfare Agency identified 43 minors in situations of commercial sexual exploitation, and an additional 4 minors were identified as victims of human trafficking and labor exploitation. (1) Migrant children, typically from Nicaragua, are subjected to forced labor in agriculture, domestic servitude, and commercial sexual exploitation. (27)

Although preschool and general basic education are free and compulsory, children in rural areas, girls, LGBTI youth, and children from indigenous and Afro-descendant communities face challenges, such as discrimination and gender stereotypes, in accessing and completing their education. (1,5,28-30)

Costa Rica has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3)


Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Costa Rica’s legal framework to adequately protect children from the worst forms of child labor, including the prohibition of non-state military recruitment of children.


Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Articles 78 and 92 of the Childhood and Adolescence Code (31)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Articles 1 and 5 of Law 8922; Article 87 of the Labor Code (32,33)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Article 94 of the Childhood and Adolescence Code; Article 5 of Law 8922; Article 88 of the Labor Code; Articles 5–6 of Regulation No. 36640 (31-34)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 20 and 56 of the Constitution; Article 8 of the Labor Code; Articles 7, 170–172, 189 bis 192, 376, 381, and 383–384 of the Penal Code; Article 84 of Regulation No. 36659; Articles 7 of the Trafficking in Persons Law (33,35-38)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 7, 170–172, 189, 192, 376, 381, and 383–384 of the Penal Code; Article 84 of Regulation No. 36659; Article 5 of the Trafficking in Persons Law (35,36,38)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 160, 168, and 170–174 of the Penal Code (35)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Articles 7, 188, 381, and 390 of the Penal Code; Article 77 of the Narcotics Law (35,39) 

Minimum Age for Voluntary State Military Recruitment

N/A†

   

Prohibition of Compulsory Recruitment of Children by (State) Military

N/A†

   

Prohibition of Military Recruitment by Non-state Armed Groups

No

   

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

17‡

Articles 57 and 59 of the Childhood and Adolescence Code; Article 78 of the Constitution (31,38)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 59 of the Childhood and Adolescence Code; Article 8 of the Education Law; Article 78 of the Constitution (31,38,40)

† No standing military (38)
‡ Age calculated based on available information (22,31,38)

In 2018, Costa Rica passed laws revising Articles 5 and 6 of the Trafficking in Persons (TIP) Law and Articles 172 and 189 bis of the Penal Code to strengthen the provisions related to child trafficking and to align with standards set forth in the Palermo Protocol. In particular, the amendments clarify that neither force, fraud, coercion, nor proof of movement are required to establish human trafficking for child victims of trafficking. (1,27,36,41)

The government has established relevant institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the authority and operations of the Ministry of Labor and Social Security (MTSS) that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.


Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor and Social Security (MTSS)

Investigates reports of child labor, including hazardous and forced child labor. (20) Protects adolescent labor rights by conducting school and workplace visits, providing referrals to government services, and writing socio-labor studies and technical reports to inform policies and programs. (21,31)

Attorney General’s Office

Enforces criminal laws protecting children, including laws prohibiting forced child labor, human trafficking, commercial sexual exploitation of children, and the use of children in illicit activities. Coordinates with the Judicial Investigative Police, Immigration Police, Uniformed Police, and municipal police forces, as well as administers the following investigative and prosecutorial units: Specialized Prosecutorial Unit against Trafficking in Persons, Organized Crime Unit, Specialized Prosecutorial Unit for Gender Issues, and Juvenile Justice Unit. (18,42)

Judicial Investigative Police

Investigates child labor violations, including child trafficking, child commercial sexual exploitation, and the use of children in illicit activities. (20)

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2018, labor law enforcement agencies in Costa Rica took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the authority and operations of the MTSS that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including sufficient allocation of financial resources and penalty assessment authorization.


Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2017

2018

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$14,284,000 (18)

$10,351,774 (1)

Number of Labor Inspectors

81 (18)

121 (1)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (18)

No (1)

Initial Training for New Labor Inspectors

Yes (18)

Yes (1)

 

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Yes (18)

N/A (1)

Refresher Courses Provided

No (18)

Yes (1)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

17,472 (42)

15,873 (1)

 

Number Conducted at Worksite

17,472 (42)

15,873 (1)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

51 (42)

42 (1)

 

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown (18)

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that Were Collected

Unknown (18)

Unknown (1)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (18)

Yes (1)

 

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (18)

Yes (1)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (18)

Yes (1)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (18)

Yes (1)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (18)

Yes (1)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (18)

Yes (1)

In 2018, the MTSS worked with the ILO to develop the "Risk Module for Identifying Child Labor," a statistical tool that will identify child labor risks and assist in prioritizing preventative efforts in vulnerable areas. The tool will be deployed in 2019, with Costa Rica being one of the first countries to employ it. (1)

During the reporting period, the MTSS identified 42 cases of child labor law violations and referred 8 of these cases to the judiciary for employer non-compliance. Three minors were also removed from child labor situations and referred to social services by the MTSS' OATIA. (1) In addition, the government collected approximately $3,500 in penalties for child labor violations found in previous years, carried out 6,259 routine inspections, and continued to carry out targeted labor inspections in sectors or geographical areas known to be vulnerable to labor violations. (1) Moreover, OATIA conducted workshops for labor inspectors on child labor, hazardous work, and the worst forms of child labor in the Huetar Norte, Central, and Huetar Cariba regions, with plans to cover the remaining regions of the country in 2019. New inspectors from three inspection regions also received training on child labor issues in collaboration with OATIA. (1)

Enforcement of child labor laws, particularly in rural areas, remained challenging due to insufficient funds for travel, facilities, and per diem costs incurred during inspections. (1,18) Government monitoring and enforcement of child labor laws is also limited in the informal sector, in which most child labor occurs, especially hazardous adolescent work. (2,10,26,43,44) Informal work is more common in agriculture than in other sectors in Costa Rica. (2)

Costa Rica significantly increased its number of labor inspectors from 2017 to 2018, improving the ratio of inspectors to number of inspections conducted; however, the number of labor inspectors is likely insufficient for the size of Costa Rica’s workforce, which includes more than 2 million workers. According to the ILO’s technical advice of a ratio approaching 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in industrializing economies, Costa Rica would employ about 148 inspectors. (45-47)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2018, criminal law enforcement agencies in Costa Rica took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including training for criminal investigators.


Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2017

2018

Initial Training for New Criminal Investigators

N/A (18)

No (1)

 

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A (18)

Yes (1)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (18)

Yes (1)

Number of Investigations

342 (18)

Unknown

Number of Violations Found

23 (18)

13 (1)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

3 (42)

2 (1)

Number of Convictions

Unknown (42)

Unknown

Imposed Penalties for Violations Related to The Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown

Yes (1)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (18)

Yes (1)

In 2018, Costa Rica's Supreme Court approved the Judicial Branch Action Plan, which outlines actions the judiciary will take over 2 years to improve how human trafficking offenses are addressed, including strengthening the capacity of prosecutors and investigators, training judicial authorities, and developing strategies to raise public awareness of human trafficking cases. (27)

In 2018, prosecutors received training on the worst forms of child labor, including on the commercial sexual exploitation of children and on trafficking in persons and alien smuggling. (1) However, the Prosecutorial Training Unit found the training insufficient, because not all prosecutors in all parts of the country were trained, and the Unit is planning a new course for 2019 to train more prosecutors on the worst forms of child labor. (1)

Although seven individuals were convicted in 2018 for crimes involving the worst forms of child labor, which including two cases of human trafficking for the commercial sexual exploitation of children and one case of human trafficking of a child for labor exploitation research could not identify the complete number of investigations, prosecutions, and convictions related to violations of the worst forms of child labor (42) The Prosecutorial Trafficking and Smuggling Unit also reported 11 child trafficking investigations, 13 child trafficking violations, and 2 prosecutions and convictions for alleged child labor crimes in 2018. (1) Costa Rica increased its number of investigations into cases involving sexual relations with minors and remunerated sex with a minor, and provided more complete data on both of these crimes. In 2018, 22 individuals were sentenced for each of these crimes, but it was not clear how many of these cases involved child commercial sexual exploitation. (27)

Reports indicate that the judiciary, prosecutors, and the police require additional staff, training, and resources to identify victims of human trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation, refer victims to appropriate social services, and investigate, prosecute, and convict perpetrators. (6,27,48) Costa Rica also lacks a database to track human trafficking cases, making it difficult to target enforcement and prevention efforts. (27)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including sufficient resources to ensure coordination among relevant agencies.


Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

MTSS Office for the Eradication of Child Labor and Protection of the Adolescent Worker (OATIA)

Coordinates government policies and programs to combat child labor. (2,4,22) Oversees the Inter-Institutional Coordinating Protocol for the Protection of Working Minors. (22,49) In 2018, OATIA provided social services to three minors removed from child labor and provided trainings to government officials in various parts of the country. (1)

National Committee for the Elimination of Child Labor and the Protection of Adolescent Work

Develops and promotes policy and program initiatives focused on eliminating child labor and regulating adolescent work. Overseen by OATIA and includes a technical secretariat that comprises representatives from various sectors. (4,22)

National Child Welfare Agency (PANI)

Ensures that child labor victims receive social services, including temporary shelter, legal advice, counseling, and reintegration into the educational system. (31) In 2018, PANI established the "Protocol for the Care of Minor Victims and Survivors of Trafficking in Persons" and trained staff on the protocol. PANI also conducted child labor awareness campaigns for minors in at-risk communities and created the Institutional Technical Committee to generate and implement an institutional action plan focusing on prevention, assistance, and training on human trafficking. (1)

National Coalition against Migrant Smuggling and Trafficking in Persons (CONATT)

Leads government efforts to combat human trafficking and coordinates with OATIA and the National Commission Against the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children and Adolescents (CONACOES). (6,18) In 2018, CONATT implemented a training program in schools to inform teachers and students of the risks of human trafficking and child labor. (27)

CONACOES

Prevents the commercial sexual exploitation of children and provides assistance and protection to victims. (18) Led by the National Council of Childhood and Adolescence; coordinates with OATIA and CONATT to address the worst forms of child labor. (18,20,50) Research was unable to determine whether CONACOES was active during the reporting period.

In 2018, the MTSS led a series of trainings for labor and health agencies throughout the country on the implementation of the "Interagency Manual of Attention of Minors in Sexual, Trafficking, Child Labor and Dangerous Work," which instructs public institutions on how to provide coordinated assistance to victims of human trafficking. More than 650 public employees were trained on detecting and responding to cases involving child sexual exploitation, child labor, and other forms of human trafficking. (27)

Reports indicate that coordination is lacking between institutions responsible for investigating the worst forms of child labor and providing social services to victims. (4,6) OATIA reported that its office needs additional staff to better assist children engaged in child labor and their families. In addition, OATIA noted that its office shares one vehicle with two other MTSS units, which limits its ability to provide oversight of child labor programs. (42)

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including mainstreaming child labor issues into relevant policies.


Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

Roadmap against Child Labor and the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2010–2020)

Aims to eradicate all forms of child labor in Costa Rica by 2020 by strengthening anti-poverty, health, and educational programs and policies, and by raising awareness of child labor. (51-53) On June 12, 2018, the government issued an executive order declaring the 2010–2020 Roadmap against Child Labor and the Worst Forms of Child Labor to be of public interest and calling on all public institutions to contribute to efforts to eradicate child labor. As part of the Roadmap, the government signed a cooperation agreement with the nongovernmental PANIAMOR Foundation to develop projects to prevent child labor, protect adolescent workers, and create programs for youth from disadvantaged backgrounds. (1,54) The government also signed a cooperative agreement with the Confederation of Workers Rerum Novarum and the Costa Rican Education Workers Union to collaborate on the prevention and eradication of child labor. (54)

Inter-Institutional Coordinating Protocol for the Protection of Working Minors

Outlines service provision for child laborers through collaboration between MTSS, PANI, the Ministry of Public Education, and the Joint Institute of Social Assistance (IMAS), as well as their regional and local agencies and the private sector. (2,4,55) As part of implementing the Protocol, MTSS led a series of trainings in 2018 for labor and health agencies throughout the country on the implementation of the "Interagency Manual of Attention of Minors in Sexual, Trafficking, Child Labor and Dangerous Work." (27)

National Plan against the Sexual Commercial Exploitation (2017–2018)

Designated responsible agencies and established actions and timelines to address commercial sexual exploitation, including of children. (18,56) Research was unable to identify activities undertaken during the reporting period to implement the National Plan, and there were no indications that this plan was renewed beyond 2018.

National Plan for Development (2015–2018)

Incorporated efforts to decrease child labor into national education and poverty reduction strategies. (23,57) Costa Rica released its updated National Plan for Development for 2019–2022, but the new plan does not incorporate strategies to address child labor. (48)

Bridge to Development (2015–2018)

Aimed to reduce poverty and eliminate vulnerability, including child labor, by providing social services to families in poor communities. (4,26,53,58) In 2018, the Ministry of Human Development and Social Inclusion announced that the Bridge to Development program would be renewed after 2018 and expanded. The government reported that by 2018, the program had surpassed its goal for the number of families to whom it provided services. (59)

The government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including the adequacy of programs to address the full scope of the problem.


Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

USDOL-funded Projects to Support Youth Apprenticeship

USDOL-funded, $3 million Youth Pathways to Leadership, Learning, and Livelihoods in Costa Rica (2016–2020) and $2.9 million Promoting Apprenticeship as a Path for Youth Employment in Argentina, Costa Rica, and Kenya through Global Apprenticeship Network (GAN) National Networks (2016–2019). (60,61) Additional information is available on the USDOL website.

Face of Justice Shelter†

NGO-run shelter for child victims of human trafficking that provides PANI-funded monthly subsidies to victims and care from full-time staff, including a trauma psychologist and health practitioner. (25,27) In 2018, provided ongoing shelter to two minor female human trafficking victims. (27) 

Houses of Joy (Casas de la Alegría)†

Public-private alliance that provides culturally sensitive daycare and meals to Ngäbe Buglé, indigenous children whose parents work on coffee farms in Coto Brus. Aims to promote social inclusion and developmental opportunities for indigenous children and provide an alternative to child labor during the coffee harvest. (3,15,18,26,63-66) IMAS funds meals, caregiver salaries, and training; farm owners provide the land and classrooms, with financial contributions from UNICEF for building and teaching materials. Began as a pilot in 2014 with 6 centers serving 175 children; in 2018, served 600 children in 15 centers. (1,15,18,26,50,55,65) The program requires approval from the Ministry of Health to expand to other coffee-growing regions in the country. (66) In 2018, through Executive Decree No. 41381, the President approved the establishment of Houses of Joy outside the Coto Brus region, allowing producers across the country and a variety of agricultural products to implement the program model. The decree also established formal operating standards for all Houses of Joy. (1,67)  

Let’s Get Ahead Program (Avancemos)†

IMAS program that provides monthly conditional cash transfers to low-income families to keep children in school and out of exploitative work. (2,20,30,68) In 2018, Costa Rica's Legislative Assembly approved a proposal to include a budget for the program in the yearly national budget. (69)

I Sign Up for Education (Yo Me Apunto con la Educación)

Ministry of Public Education program that helps at-risk high school students from vulnerable areas remain in school or return to school. (18,29) In 2018, the Ministry of Public Education published high school dropout rates from 2016 to 2017, which showed that schools participating in the program experienced an almost 3 percent decrease in dropouts. (70) 

Age Classroom (Aula Edad)†

Ministry of Public Education program that targets children and adolescents who have never been to school or who dropped out, adolescent mothers and workers, and foreign migrant adolescents to help them complete primary school. (26) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement Aula Edad during the reporting period.

† Program is funded by the Government of Costa Rica

Research indicates that Ngäbe Buglé indigenous children in Costa Rica who migrate with their families to work seasonally on coffee farms face additional challenges in accessing social services due to long distances to service providers, language barriers, and complications in obtaining required documents from government institutions. (3,15,16)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Costa Rica (Table 11).


Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under age 18 by non-state armed groups.

2016 – 2018

Enforcement

Authorize the labor inspectorate to assess penalties.

2014 – 2018

Ensure that new prosecutors receive introductory training on child labor laws and policies.

2018

Ensure that regular training is provided to all criminal investigators throughout the country.

2018

Publish information on the number of child labor violations for which penalties were collected.

2017 – 2018

Allocate sufficient resources to ensure regular labor inspections in rural areas and the informal sector, including child labor inspections, particularly in agriculture.

2015 – 2018

Increase the number of labor inspectors to meet the ILO's technical advice.

2015 – 2018

Ensure that the judiciary, prosecutors, and the police have sufficient staff, training, and resources to investigate, prosecute, and convict perpetrators of human trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation of children, as well as identify victims of child trafficking and refer them to appropriate social services.

2017 – 2018

Coordination

Strengthen coordination and information-sharing between institutions responsible for investigating child labor and providing social services to victims.

2015 – 2018

Ensure that the National Commission Against the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children and Adolescents is actively implementing its mandate and reporting its yearly efforts.

2018

Increase transportation and human resources for the Office for the Eradication of Child Labor and Protection of the Adolescent Worker so that the office can improve program oversight.

2015 – 2018

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the new National Plan for Development.

2018

Publish efforts undertaken as part of the National Action Plan against Sexual Commercial Exploitation and renew the plan beyond 2018.

2018

Social Programs

Enhance efforts to eliminate barriers and make education accessible for all children, including adolescent mothers and children from rural, indigenous, and Afro-descendant communities, by expanding existing social programs to strengthen school retention and completion for children and adolescents, particularly at the secondary level.

2015 – 2018

Improve access to social services, particularly for indigenous children in coffee-growing areas.

2015 – 2017

Implement Aula Edad objectives and report on its yearly activities.

2018

1

U.S. Embassy - San Jose Reporting. January 8, 2019.

2

UCW. Entender el trabajo infantil y el empleo juvenil en Costa Rica. Rome, Understanding Children’s Work (UCW) Programme. October 2015.
http://www.ucw-project.org/attachment/13052016799CostaRica_trabajo_infantil_empleo_juvenil.pdf.

3

Government of Costa Rica. Consideraciones respecto al informe Child Labor and Forced Labor Report. San José, Ministry of Labor and Social Security. November 21, 2016. Source on file.

4

Government of Costa Rica. Información sobre trabajo infantil para el Departamento de Trabajo de los Estados Unidos. San José, Ministry of Labor and Social Security. December 21, 2015. Source on file.

5

UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. Concluding observations on the seventh periodic report of Costa Rica. CEDAW/C/CRI/CO/7. July 24, 2017.
http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CEDAW/C/CRI/CO/7&Lang=En.

6

International Bureau for Children's Rights. Mapping Report on the Fight Against Human Trafficking in Costa Rica. 2016.
http://www.ibcr.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/Cartographie-Costa-Rica-ANG_WEB.pdf.

7

U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2017: Costa Rica. Washington, DC, June 27, 2017.
https://www.state.gov/reports/2017-trafficking-in-persons-report/costa-rica/

8

Government of Costa Rica. Magnitud y características del trabajo infantil y adolescente en Costa Rica- Informe 2016. 2017.
http://www.iniciativa2025alc.org/sites/default/files/magnitud-y-caracteristicas-del-trabajo-infantil-adolescente-CR-Informe2016.pdf.

9

Presidencia de la República de Costa Rica. Costa Rica reduce trabajo infantil al sacar a 12 mil menores de edad. March 28, 2017.
http://presidencia.go.cr/comunicados/2017/03/costa-rica-reduce-trabajo-infantil-al-sacar-a-12-mil-menores-de-edad/.

10

U.S. Embassy- San Jose. Reporting. January 27, 2017.

11

INEC. Encuesta Nacional de Hogares medirá pobreza y desigualdad, Instituto Nacional de Estadistica y Censos, (online). (cited December 13, 2016).
http://www.inec.go.cr/noticia/encuesta-nacional-de-hogares-medira-pobreza-y-desigualdad.

12

UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed March 16, 2019. For more information, please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.
http://data.uis.unesco.org/.

13

ILO. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Analysis received March 12, 2019. Please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

14

U.S. Embassy- San Jose. Reporting. December 12, 2014.

15

Costa Rican Social Security Employee. Interview with USDOL official. December 7, 2015.

16

IOM. We improve the human security of the indigenous migrants Ngäbe and Buglé, IOM Regional Office for Central America, North America and the Caribbean. January 22, 2016.
http://costarica.iom.int/en/costa_rica/81/.

17

La Nacion. 30.000 familias todavía se ganan el sustento en cogidas de café. December 18, 2016.
http://www.nacion.com/el-pais/30-000-familias-todavia-se-ganan-el-sustento-en-cogidas-de-cafe/WNJ3BIOEXRC4FN3GNGDFWFR5SU/story/.

18

U.S. Embassy- San Jose. Reporting. December 28, 2017.

19

ILO-IPEC. Magnitud y características del trabajo infantil y adolescente en Costa Rica- Informe 2011: Geneva. 2012.
http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/viewProduct.do?productId=20655.

20

U.S. Embassy- San Jose. Reporting. January 27, 2014.

21

U.S. Embassy- San Jose official. Email communication to USDOL official. March 24, 2015.

22

Government of Costa Rica. Preguntas para el informe del 2013 sobre las peores formas de trabajo infantil. San José. February 18, 2014. Source on file.

23

U.S. Embassy- San Jose. Reporting. January 15, 2015.

24

ILO CEACR. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labor Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Costa Rica (ratification: 2001). Published: 2018.
http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:13100:0::NO::P13100_COMMENT_ID,P11110_COUNTRY_ID,P11110_COUNTRY_NAME,P11110_COMMENT_YEAR:3340943,102599,Costa Rica,2017.

25

U.S. Embassy- San Jose. Reporting. February 22, 2017.

26

U.S. Embassy- San Jose. Reporting. January 19, 2016.

27

U.S. Embassy-San Jose. Reporting. February 22, 2019.

28

UN Human Rights Committee. Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 40 of the Convention: Concluding Observations: Costa Rica. Report No. CCPR/C/CRI/CO/6*. Geneva, April 22, 2016
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29

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30

U.S. Embassy- San Jose. Reporting. July 1, 2016.

31

Government of Costa Rica. Código de la Niñez y la Adolescencia, Ley Nº 7739. Enacted: 1998 (updated 2010).
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32

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33

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34

Government of Costa Rica. Reglamento a la Ley Sobre Prohibición del Trabajo Peligroso e Insalubre para Personas Adolescentes Trabajadoras y Reforma Reglamento para la Contratación Laboral y Condiciones de Salud Ocupacional de las Personas Adolescentes, No. 36640-MTSS. Enacted: June 22, 2011.
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35

Government of Costa Rica. Código Penal, Ley 4573. Enacted: 1970 (updated 2013).
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36

Government of Costa Rica. Ley contra la trata de personas y creacion de la coalicion nacional contra el trafico ilicito de migrantes y la trata de personas (CONATT), Ley 9095. Amending the Penal Code. Enacted: February 8, 2013. (Last ammended 2018)
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37

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38

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39

Government of Costa Rica. Reforma integral Ley sobre estupefacientes, sustancias psicotrópicas, drogas de uso no autorizado, actividades conexas, legitimación de capitales y financiamiento al terrorismo, No. 8204. Enacted: December 26, 2001. Source on file.

40

Government of Costa Rica. Ley Fundamental de Educación, Public Law Number 2160. Enacted: 1957 (updated 2001).
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41

Government of Costa Rica. Reforma Código Penal y Ley contra la Trata de Personas y Creación de la Coalición Nacional contra el Tráfico Ilícito de Migrantes y la Trata de Personas (CONATT) April 24, 2018. Source on file.

42

U.S. Embassy- San Jose official. Email communication to USDOL official. June 29, 2018.

43

Government of Costa Rica. Informe institucional 2015 trabajo infantil San José, Ministry of Labor and Social Security. 2015. Source on file.

44

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45

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46

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47

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48

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49

Government of Costa Rica. Decreto 34423-MTSS. Enacted: February 12, 2008.
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50

U.S. Embassy- San Jose official. Email communication to USDOL official. May 10, 2017.

51

ILO-IPEC. Hoja de ruta para hacer de Costa Rica un pais libre de trabajo infantil y sus peores formas: Documento Estrategico. Geneva, January 2, 2010.
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52

ILO-IPEC. Hoja de ruta para hacer de Costa Rica un pais libre de trabajo infantil y sus peores formas. Geneva, March 2011
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53

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54

El Pais. Costa Rica declara de interes publico la erradicacion del trabajo infantil. San Jose. June 12, 2018.
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55

Government of Costa Rica. PROTOCOLO DE COORDINACIÓN INTERINSTITUCIONAL PARA LA ATENCIÓN DE LAS PERSONAS TRABAJADORAS MENORES DE EDAD. San José, February 12, 2008.
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56

Government of Costa Rica. Plan Nacional contra la Explotación Sexual Comercial. 2017-2018.
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57

Government of Costa Rica. Plan Nacional de Desarrollo 2015-2018. November 2014.
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58

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59

Government of Costa Rica--Instituto Mixto de Ayuda Social “La estrategia Puente al Desarrollo no solo se mantendrá, ¡la reforzaremos!” June 18, 2018.
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60

U.S. Department of Labor Youth Pathways to Leadership, Learning, and Liveliehoods in Costa Rica.
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61

U.S. Department of Labor. Promoting Apprenticeship as a Path for Youth Employment in Argentina, Costa Rica, and Kenya through Global Apprenticeships Network (GAN) National Networks.
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62

Ministerio de Trabajo y Seguridad Social (MTSS). Evaluación semestral 2013: trabajo infantil y trabajo adolescente. San José, 2013. Source on file.

63

UNICEF. UNICEF Annual Report 2014- Costa Rica. 2014.
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64

UNICEF Costa Rica. CAI Casas de la Alegria Coto Brus (YouTube Video); January 13, 2016, 7 min., 29 sec. May 6, 2016.
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65

U.S. Embassy- San Jose official. Email communication to USDOL official. April 12, 2018.

66

U.S. Embassy- San Jose official. Email communication to USDOL official. June 23, 2017.

67

Government of Costa Rica. Executive Decree No. 41381. 2018.
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68

IMAS. ¿Qué es el programa Avancemos?, Instituto Mixto de Ayuda Social (cited April 17, 2012).
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69

El Pais. Plenario aprueba proyecto para darle rango de ley al programa "Avancemos." September 24, 2018 .
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Barquero, Karla. MEP logra mayor reduccion de exclusion escolar de los ultimos 10 anos. La Republica. March 19, 2018.
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