Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Costa Rica

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Costa Rica

2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Significant Advancement

In 2015, Costa Rica made a significant advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government updated the Roadmap Towards the Elimination of Child Labor, introduced the Bridge to Development policy to reduce poverty in the poorest districts of the country, and expanded services to indigenous children vulnerable to child labor in coffee growing areas. Criminal law enforcement agencies received training on the worst forms of child labor and the Prosecutorial Unit for Gender Issues made 17 convictions for cases involving child pornography and commercial sexual exploitation of children. However, children in Costa Rica are engaged in child labor, including in agriculture, and in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation. Existing social programs are insufficient to reach all child laborers and resources for the Government’s child labor law enforcement agencies are inadequate.

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Children in Costa Rica are engaged in child labor, including in agriculture. Children are also engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation.(1-9) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Costa Rica. Data on some of these indicators are not available from the sources used in this report.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

4.4 (34,494)

Working children by sector, ages 5 to 14 (%)

 

Agriculture

Unavailable

Industry

Unavailable

Services

Unavailable

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

92.2

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

4.2

Primary completion rate (%):

98.7

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2014, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(10)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from MICS 4, 2011.(11)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Harvesting bananas,* pineapple,* and oranges* (12, 13)

Picking coffee (2, 12-16)

Weeding,* clearing land,* and watering seeds* (7)

Cattle raising (2)

Fishing,*† activities unknown (1, 6, 17, 18)

Industry

Construction, activities unknown (1, 2, 17, 18)

Manufacturing,* activities unknown (1, 2)

Services

Commerce, including in stores, hotels, restaurants, and supermarkets (1, 2, 17, 19)

Street vending,† car washing, and repairing motor vehicles* (2, 6, 17, 18, 20)

Domestic work (1, 2, 6, 17)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (3-5, 8, 9, 17, 21-23)

Use in the production of pornography* (4, 8, 24)

Forced labor in agriculture,* construction,* fishing,* and commerce* (5, 22, 23)

Domestic servitude* (9, 22)

Use in trafficking of drugs (3, 5, 23)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Results from the Government of Costa Rica’s 2011 National Household Survey indicate that almost 72 percent of child laborers ages 5 through 14, and 80 percent of working adolescents ages 15 through 17, are engaged in hazardous work, particularly in rural areas, where 9.1 percent of households are in situations of extreme poverty.(1) The 2011 National Household Survey also showed a decrease in children’s school attendance beginning at age 13 and identified the expense or difficulty of accessing educational services as barriers to education for 21 percent of out of school children ages 5 through 17.(2) The Ministry of Labor and Social Security (MTSS) has noted the need for updated child labor statistics, citing the lack of funding as a key challenge toward this end.(7)

Research indicates Ngäbe Buglé indigenous children in Costa Rica travel with their families to coffee farms and may face challenges accessing education and nutrition services due to long distances, language barriers, and difficulties obtaining required documents from government institutions. Coffee pickers are paid by the number of baskets they fill, and children reportedly participate in the coffee harvest with their families by collecting beans from the ground and from shorter plants.(13-16)

Commercial sexual exploitation of children occurs in the provinces of Guanacaste, Limón, Puntarenas, and San José, as well as in border towns and port areas.(4, 25)

Costa Rica has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Articles 78 and 92 of the Childhood and Adolescence Code (26)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Articles 1 and 5 of Law 8922; Article 87 of the Labor Code (27, 28)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Article 94 of the Childhood and Adolescence Code; Article 5 of Law 8922; Article 88 of the Labor Code; Articles 5 and 6 of Regulation No. 36640 (26-29)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 20 and 56 of the Constitution; Article 8 of the Labor Code; Articles 7, 170–172, 189, 192, 376, 381, 383, and 384 of the Penal Code; Article 84 of Regulation No. 36659 (27, 30-33)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 7, 170–172, 189, 192, 376, 381, 383, and 384 of the Penal Code; Article 84 of Regulation No. 36659 (31-33)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 160, 168, and 170–174 of the Penal Code (31)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Articles 7, 188, 381, and 390 of the Penal Code; Article 77 of the Narcotics Law (31, 34)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

N/A†

 

 

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

N/A†

 

 

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

17‡

Articles 57 and 59 of the Childhood and Adolescence Code; Article 78 of the Constitution (6, 26, 30)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 59 of the Childhood and Adolescence Code; Article 8 of the Education Law; Article 78 of the Constitution (26, 30, 35)

† No standing military.(30, 36)
‡ Age calculated based on available information. (6, 26, 30)

The Constitution and the Childhood and Adolescent Code make education compulsory through secondary school but do not specify a start or end age.(26, 30) The Government of Costa Rica has indicated that education is compulsory until age 17.(6)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor and Social Security (MTSS)

Investigate reports of child labor, including hazardous and forced child labor, and enforce child labor laws.(3, 17) Protect adolescent labor rights by conducting school and workplace visits, providing referrals to government services, and writing socio-labor studies and technical reports for the National Scholarship Fund (FONABE).(19, 26)

Prosecutor’s Office

Enforce criminal laws protecting children, including laws prohibiting forced child labor, human trafficking, commercial sexual exploitation, and the use of children in illicit activities. Employ the following investigative and prosecutorial units: the Specialized Prosecutorial Unit against Trafficking in Persons, the Organized Crime Unit, the Specialized Prosecutorial Unit for Gender Issues, and the Juvenile Justice Unit.(17)

Judicial Investigative Police (OIJ)

Conduct investigations of child labor violations, including child trafficking, child commercial sexual exploitation, and the use of children in illicit activities.(3, 17)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2015, labor law enforcement agencies in Costa Rica took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$12,000,000 (20)

$11,000,000 (37)

Number of Labor Inspectors

100 (19)

89 (8)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (20)

No (20)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

No (20)

No (8)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

No (20)

No (8)

Number of Labor Inspections

13,435 (38)

 13,152 (38)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown

Unknown

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

85 (20)

207 (39)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown

1 (8)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

Unknown

0 (8)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (20)

Yes (8)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (20)

Yes (8)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (20)

Yes (20)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Unknown

Unknown

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (20)

Yes (20)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (20)

Yes (8)

 

In 2015, the Office for the Eradication of Child Labor and Protection of the Adolescent Worker (OATIA) identified 138 children between the ages of 7 and 14 engaged in child labor and 69 adolescents engaged in hazardous work. OATIA used the Inter-Institutional Coordinating Protocol for the Protection of Working Minors to remove and assist these children and adolescents through home visits and referrals to social programs.(39)

According to the ILO’s recommendation of one inspector for every 15,000 workers in developing economies, Costa Rica should employ roughly 151 inspectors in order to adequately enforce labor laws throughout the country.(40-42) In 2015, the MTSS reported that it had insufficient personnel and transportation resources to enforce labor laws. Government capacity to monitor labor violations is particularly limited in the informal sector, where much of child labor, especially hazardous adolescent work, occurs.(2, 8, 39)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2015, criminal law enforcement agencies in Costa Rica took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (20)

Yes (8)

Number of Investigations

71 (20)

50 (43)

Number of Violations Found

74 (20)

Unknown

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

6 (20)

10 (43)

Number of Convictions

Unknown

17 (8)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (20)

Yes (8)

 

The Trafficking in Persons Prosecutor’s office reported 50 criminal investigations and 10 prosecutions of commercial sexual exploitation of children during 2015.(43) The Specialized Prosecutorial Unit for Gender Issues reported eight convictions involving the production, possession, reproduction, or dissemination of child pornography and nine convictions involving the commercial sexual exploitation of children.(8)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Committee for the Elimination of Child Labor and the Protection of Adolescent Work

Develop and promote policy initiatives focused on eliminating child labor and regulating adolescent work. Overseen by Office for the Eradication of Child Labor and Protection of the Adolescent Worker; includes a technical secretariat that comprises representatives from various sectors.(6, 7) In 2015, the Government updated the Roadmap Towards the Elimination of Child Labor to define interagency coordination and strategies for 2015 through 2020.(44)

Office for the Eradication of Child Labor and Protection of the Adolescent Worker

Coordinate Government policies and programs to combat child labor from within the MTSS.(2, 6, 7, 45) Monitor implementation of the Roadmap Towards the Elimination of Child Labor in Costa Rica. Provide technical assistance to government ministries and design social programs to combat child labor.(45, 46) Oversee the Inter-Institutional Coordinating Protocol for the Protection of Working Minors to ensure that children’s and adolescents’ rights and welfare are protected.(6, 47) Provided child labor training and consultation services to 1,992 individuals in 2015.(39)

National Child Welfare Agency (PANI)

Protect child and adolescent rights and receive reports of child labor.(26) Activate interagency social services to provide child labor victims with protection and welfare assistance, including temporary shelter, legal advice, and victim counseling. Responsible for reintegrating child labor victims into the educational system.(3, 26)

National Commission to Combat the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children and Adolescents

Address child trafficking and the commercial sexual exploitation of minors.(3, 17) Report to the National Council of Childhood and Adolescence with legal standing under the PANI.(17)

National Coalition against the Smuggling of Migrants and Trafficking in Persons

Promote the formulation, implementation, and assessment of national policies that address human trafficking, including labor trafficking.(32) Review the country’s adherence to international standards and evaluate and award funds for programming through the National Trafficking in Persons and Smuggling of Migrants Trust Fund. Help coordinate prosecutions of human trafficking and assistance to trafficking victims.(32)

 

The Government had limited capacity to coordinate its efforts on child labor due to staff turnover and insufficient training on the implementation of protocols. According to OATIA, a national database is needed to allow Costa Rican institutions to monitor and evaluate child labor cases and measure Government actions.(7)

The Government of Costa Rica has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

Roadmap Towards the Elimination of Child Labor in Costa Rica (2010–2020)

Aims to eradicate all forms of child labor in Costa Rica by 2020 by strengthening anti-poverty, health, and educational programs and policies and conducting campaigns to raise awareness on the issue of child labor. Developed by OATIA, in coordination with ILO-IPEC.(44, 48, 49)

National Plan for Development (2015–2018)†

Incorporates child labor issues into national education and poverty reduction strategies.(50) The 2015–2018 plan aims to decrease child labor and the worst forms of child labor.(20)

Inter-Institutional Coordinating Protocol for the Protection of Working Minors

Provides services to child laborers and at-risk children through collaboration between the MTSS, PANI, the Ministry of Education, and the Social Welfare Institute, as well as their regional and local agencies and the private sector. As part of this partnership, civil society organizations collaborate with the tourist industry to train companies on how to identify and report the commercial sexual exploitation of children.(2, 7, 51)

Declaration of the Regional Initiative: Latin America and the Caribbean Free of Child Labor (2014–2020)

Aims to increase regional cooperation on eradicating child labor by 2020 through signatories’ efforts to strengthen monitoring and coordination mechanisms, government programs, and South-South exchanges. Reaffirms commitments made in the Brasilia Declaration from the Third Global Conference on Child Labor (October 2013) and signed by Costa Rica at the ILO’s 18th Regional Meeting of the Americas in Lima, Peru (October 2014).(52, 53)

Declaration of Cancún and Plan of Action (2015)†

In 2015, the Government of Costa Rica participated in the XIX Inter-American Conference of Ministers of Labor to promote decent work with social inclusion throughout the Americas, held in Cancún, Mexico. Participating countries adopted the declaration, which aims in part to foster policies to eliminate labor exploitation, including child labor, and to promote education and vocational training for youth.(54, 55) Participating countries also adopted the Plan of Action, which prioritizes the elimination of child labor, including through data collection, enforcement of labor laws, and the development of social protection policies for children and families.(54, 56)

National Coalition against the Smuggling of Migrants and Trafficking in Persons Strategic Plan (2012–2015)

Seeks to combat human trafficking, including for commercial sexual exploitation and labor exploitation.(17, 32)

Bridge to Development (2015–2018)†

Aims to reduce poverty and eliminate situations of vulnerability, including child labor, by providing social services to 54,600 families in the 75 poorest districts of Costa Rica.(7, 8, 44, 57)

Declaration of the Vice-Ministers of the XX Regional Conference on Migration†

Aims to strengthen regional cooperation in order to protect the human rights of migrants, especially youth and children, in countries of origin, transit, and destination, including by increasing opportunities for education and employment. Adopted by Costa Rica at the XX Regional Conference on Migration in Mexico City (November 2015).(58, 59) In 2015, Costa Rica participated in two meetings with the Ad Hoc Group on Migrant Children and Adolescents of the Regional Conference on Migration to identify ways for member states to increase protections for underage migrants and refugees. These meetings promoted the exchange of information on migrant children’s rights and experiences, guiding principles relating to migration, and the holistic protection of children and adolescents.(60)

Coordination Agreement on Labor Migration between the Ministries of Labor of Costa Rica and Panama*† (2015–2020)

Aims to strengthen dialogue between the Governments of Costa Rica and Panama on labor migration between the two countries, with an emphasis on indigenous Panamanian migrant workers, in order to ensure social protection of migrant workers and their families. Establishes a bilateral technical committee to promote joint action to combat human trafficking, exchange information, and develop cooperative strategies and projects.(61)

* Child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy.
† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

In 2015, the Government of Costa Rica funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Elimination of Child Labor in Latin America (Phase 4) (2011–2015)

$4.5 million Government of Spain-funded, 4-year project implemented by ILO-IPEC to combat child labor in 19 countries, including Costa Rica.(62)

Child Labor Awareness Campaign

MTSS and Ministry of Education public-private partnership supported by Fundación Telefónica to raise awareness of child labor through social media.(46)

Houses of Joy (Casas de la Alegria)

Public-private alliance that provides culturally sensitive daycare and meals to indigenous children whose parents work on coffee farms in Coto Brus and Los Santos. Aims to promote social inclusion and developmental opportunities for indigenous children and provide an alternative to child labor in the coffee harvest.(8, 14, 63-65) The Government of Costa Rica’s Joint Institute for Social Aid provides funds for meals, caregiver salaries, and training; farm owners provide the land and classroom, with financial contributions from UNICEF for building and didactic materials. Began as a pilot in 2014 with 6 centers serving 175 children, and in 2015 was expanded to 16 centers serving 687 children ages up to 10 years.(8, 14, 63-65)

FONABE†

OATIA and Ministry of Education national scholarship program created to encourage adolescents to complete their schooling. Includes targeted scholarships for child and adolescent workers identified by OATIA to promote their reintegration and retention in the educational system.(2, 3, 7, 66-68)

Let’s Get Ahead Program (Avancemos)†

Social Welfare Institute program that provides monthly conditional cash transfers to low-income families to keep children in school and out of exploitative work.(2, 3, 17, 68, 69)

Age Classroom (Aula Edad)†

Ministry of Education program that replaced the Open Classroom (Aula Abierta) program and helps at-risk children and adolescents complete their primary education by providing flexible school hours and curricula appropriate for their needs. Targets those who have never been to school, those who have left school, adolescent mothers and workers, and foreign migrant youth.(8, 70, 71)

Marco-Tulio Salazar Virtual High School†

Ministry of Education program for adolescents between the ages of 15 and 18 who did not complete, or begin, their secondary education. Offers classroom and homeschool lessons.(8, 72)

Employ Yourself (Empleate)†

MTSS public-private initiative that promotes access to employment for young people between the ages of 17 and 24 who are at risk or living in conditions of poverty.(73, 74)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Costa Rica.

While the Government continues to support initiatives to eradicate child labor, current programming does not reach all children who are engaged in the worst forms of child labor in agriculture and in commercial sexual exploitation. According to OATIA, existing social programs were insufficient to fully address the problem of child labor, including its worst forms, and additional staff and funding are required to assist children engaged in child labor and their families.(7, 8)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Costa Rica (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Enforcement

Hire a sufficient number of labor inspectors to effectively enforce laws related to child labor.

2015

Build enforcement capacity to address child labor protections for children and adolescents who work in the informal sector.

2015

Strengthen the labor inspectorate by permitting inspectors to determine and assess penalties for child labor violations.

2014 – 2015

Ensure adequate funding for human resources, transportation, and training for law enforcement agencies.

2013 – 2015

Make publicly available information on the number of labor inspections conducted at worksites and by desk review and whether unannounced inspections are conducted.

2015

Coordination

Strengthen coordination mechanisms by providing additional training on protocols.

2015

Increase coordination and information sharing between government agencies responsible for monitoring and evaluating child labor cases.

2015

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the Coordination Agreement on Labor Migration between the Ministries of Labor of Costa Rica and Panama.

2015

Social Programs

Expand existing social programs to strengthen school retention for children and adolescents, particularly at the secondary level.

2015

Conduct additional research on child labor, including its worst forms, in order to inform policies and programs.

2015

Increase access to education and nutrition services for indigenous children in coffee growing areas to ensure they have alternatives to participating in the coffee harvest.

2015

Expand programs to reach more children working in agriculture and subjected to commercial sexual exploitation.

2009 – 2015

Increase the number of personnel in governmental agencies dedicated to implementing programs that address the worst forms of child labor.

2009 – 2015

1.         ILO-IPEC. Magnitud y caracteristicas del trabajo infantil y adolescente en Costa Rica- Informe 2011. Geneva; 2012. http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/viewProduct.do?productId=20655.

2.         UCW. Entender el trabajo infantil y el empleo juvenil en Costa Rica. Rome, Understanding Children’s Work (UCW) Programme; October 2015. http://www.ucw-project.org/attachment/CostaRica_trabajo_infantil_empleo_juvenil20160408_160553.pdf.

3.         U.S. Embassy- San Jose. reporting, January 31, 2013.

4.         Araya, D. "La pornografía infantil existe en Costa Rica." Costa Rica Hoy, San José, February 16, 2012. http://www.crhoy.com/la-pornografia-infantil-existe-en-costa-rica/.

5.         U.S. Department of State. "Costa Rica," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2014. Washington, DC; 2014; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/226845.pdf.

6.         Government of Costa Rica. Preguntas para el informe del 2013 sobre las peores formas de trabajo infantil. San José; February 18, 2014.

7.         Government of Costa Rica. Información sobre trabajo infantil para el departamento de trabajo de los Estados Unidos. San José, Ministry of Labor and Social Security; December 21, 2015.

8.         U.S. Embassy- San Jose. reporting, January 19, 2016.

9.         U.S. Department of State. "Costa Rica," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2014. Washington, DC; June 25, 2015; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/236890.pdf.

10.       UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed December 16, 2015]; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. Because the calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age), the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

11.       UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from MICS 4, 2011. Analysis received December 18, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

12.       U.S. Embassy- San Jose. reporting, December 12, 2014.

13.       IOM. Trata de personas con fines de explotación laboral en Centro América. San José; 2011. https://www.iom.int/files/live/sites/iom/files/pbn/docs/INFORME_OIM.pdf.

14.       Costa Rican Social Security Employee. Interview with USDOL official. December 7, 2015.

15.       IOM. We improve the human security of the indigenous migrants Ngäbe and Buglé, IOM Regional Office for Central America, North America and the Caribbean, [previously online] [cited January 22, 2016]; http://costarica.iom.int/en/costa_rica/81/ [source on file].

16.       Abelardo Morales Gamboa, and Diego Lobo Montoya. Mejorando la situación sociolaboral de la población móvil Ngabe Buglé en Costa Rica y en Panamá. San José, Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales- Sede Costa Rica; May 2013. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---americas/---ro-lima/---sro-san_jose/documents/publication/wcms_250207.pdf.

17.       U.S. Embassy- San Jose. reporting, January 27, 2014.

18.       U.S. Department of State. "Costa Rica," in Country Reports on Human Rights- 2012. Washington, DC; April 19, 2013; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm#wrapper.

19.       U.S. Embassy- San Jose official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 24, 2015.

20.       U.S. Embassy- San Jose. reporting, January 15, 2015.

21.       UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 44 of the Convention. Geneva; August 3, 2011. Report No. CRC/C/CRI/CO/4. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC/C/CRI/CO/4&Lang=En.

22.       U.S. Department of State. "Costa Rica," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2013. Washington, DC; February 27, 2014; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/220644.pdf.

23.       U.S. Department of State. "Costa Rica," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015. Washington, DC; July 27, 2015; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/243558.pdf.

24.       Arias, L. "Costa Rica toughens legislation on child pornography." ticotimes.net [online] October 29, 2013 [cited 2013]; http://www.ticotimes.net/2013/10/29/costa-rica-toughens-legislation-on-child-pornography.

25.       U.S. Department of State. "Costa Rica," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2013. Washington, DC; June 19, 2013; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/210738.pdf.

26.       Government of Costa Rica. Código de la Niñez y la Adolescencia, Ley Nº 7739, enacted 1998 [updated 2002]. http://ministeriopublico.poder-judicial.go.cr/normativa/nacional/general/05-Codigo_Ninez_Adolescencia.pdf.

27.       Government of Costa Rica. Código de Trabajo, Ley No. 2, enacted 1943 [updated 2010]. http://www.asamblea.go.cr/Centro_de_informacion/biblioteca/Centro_Dudas/Lists/Formule%20su%20pregunta/Attachments/943/LEY%202%20codigo%20de%20trabajo.pdf.

28.       Government of Costa Rica. Prohibición del trabajo peligroso e insalubre para personas adolescentes trabajadoras, Law 8922, enacted February 3, 2011. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/86385/97460/F112157985/CRI86385.pdf.

29.       Government of Costa Rica. Reglamento a la Ley sobre prohibición del trabajo peligroso e insalubre para personas adolescentes trabajadoras y reforma reglamento para la contratación laboral y condiciones de salud ocupacional de las personas adolescentes, No. 36640-MTSS, enacted June 22, 2011. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/88852/101726/F662984233/CRI88852.pdf.

30.       Government of Costa Rica. Constitución Política de la República de Costa Rica, enacted 1949 (Actualizada al 1 de enero de 2014). http://www.cesdepu.com/xn/Constitucion-Politica-2014-rsv.pdf.

31.       Government of Costa Rica. Código Penal, Ley 4573, enacted 1970 [updated 2013]. http://ministeriopublico.poder-judicial.go.cr/normativa/nacional/general/02-Codigo_Penal.pdf.

32.       Government of Costa Rica. Ley contra la trata de personas y creacion de la coalicion nacional contra el trafico ilicito de migrantes y la trata de personas (CONATT), Ley 9095, enacted February 8, 2013. http://www.migracion.go.cr/institucion/Trata/Ley%20Trata%20de%20Personas%20%28difusion%20digital%29.pdf.

33.       Government of Costa Rica. Reglamento para la aplicación de la ley general de migración y extranjería número 8764 a las personas menores de edad, No. 36659, enacted May 2011. http://www.migracion.go.cr/institucion/leyes%20migratorias/reglamentos/Reglamento%20de%20Personas%20Menores%20de%20Edad.pdf.

34.       Government of Costa Rica. Reforma integral Ley sobre estupefacientes, sustancias psicotrópicas, drogas de uso no autorizado, actividades conexas, legitimación de capitales y financiamiento al terrorismo, No. 8204, enacted December 26, 2001.

35.       Government of Costa Rica. Ley Fundamental de Educación, Public Law Number 2160, enacted 1957 [updated 2001]. http://www.apse.or.cr/webapse/legdoc/leg02.htm.

36.       Child Soldiers International. "Appendix II: Data Summary on Recruitment Ages of National Armies," in Louder than Words: An Agenda for Action to end State Use of Soldiers. London; 2012; http://www.child-soldiers.org/global_report_reader.php?id=562.

37.       U.S. Embassy- San Jose official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 13, 2016.

38.       Secretaría del Trabajo y Previsión Social Banco de Buenas Practicas Sobre Inspección Laboral en Iberoamérica. Costa Rica - Ficha de país; accessed July 14, 2016; http://bancoinspeccioniberoamerica.stps.gob.mx/Publico/Index.aspx.

39.       Government of Costa Rica. Informe institucional 2015 trabajo infantil San José, Ministry of Labor and Social Security; 2015.

40.       Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook, CIA, [online] [cited March 18, 2016]; https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors based on the country’s level of development as determined by the UN.

41.       ILO. Strategies and practice for labour inspection. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a “sufficient number” of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a “sufficient” number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

42.       UN. World economic situation and prospects 2012 statistical annex. New York; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies; “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies, and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

43.       U.S. Embassy- San Jose. reporting, March 17, 2016.

44.       ILO. "Costa Rica intensifica estrategia para erradicar el trabajo infantil." ilo.org [online] May 4, 2015 [cited November 9, 2015]; http://www.ilo.org/sanjose/sala-de-prensa/WCMS_366040/lang--es/index.htm.

45.       Sánchez, EV. La oficina de trabajo infantil y adolescente en Costa Rica, IPEC, [online] [cited January 7, 2016]; http://white.oit.org.pe/ipec/alcencuentros/interior.php?notCodigo=813.

46.       Ministerio de Trabajo y Seguridad Social. Evaluación semestral 2013: trabajo infantil y trabajo adolescente. San José. [source on file].

47.       Government of Costa Rica. Decreto 34423-MTSS, enacted February 12, 2008. http://white.lim.ilo.org/ipec//documentos/protocolo_inter_costa_rica_2008.pdf.

48.       ILO-IPEC. Hoja de ruta para hacer de Costa Rica un pais libre de trabajo infantil y sus peores formas: Documento Estrategico. Geneva; January 2, 2010. http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/viewProduct.do?productId=12713.

49.       ILO-IPEC. Hoja de ruta para hacer de Costa Rica un pais libre de trabajo infantil y sus peores formas. Geneva; March 2011. http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/viewProduct.do?productId=16357.

50.       Government of Costa Rica. Plan Nacional de Desarrollo 2011-2014. San José; December 2010. http://documentos.mideplan.go.cr/alfresco/d/d/workspace/SpacesStore/122fcd1c-53a7-47a7-a0ad-84cac6f1d7b9/PND-2011-2014-Maria-Teresa-Obregon-Zam.

51.       U.S. Department of State. "Costa Rica," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2012. Washington, DC; June 19, 2012; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/192594.pdf.

52.       ILO. "18th American Regional Meeting - Latin America and Caribbean sign a declaration to free the region from child labour." ilo.org [online] October 17, 2014 [cited December 1, 2014]; http://www.ilo.org/caribbean/WCMS_314428/lang--en/index.htm [source on file].

53.       United Nations News Centre. "At UN-backed forum, Latin American, Caribbean nations pledge robust efforts against child labour." un.org [online] October 15, 2014 [cited 2015]; http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=49082#.VHyeYdLF98E.

54.       Organization of American States. Meeting of the XIX Inter-American Conference of Ministers of Labor (IACML)- List of Participants, OAS, [previously online] [cited December 15, 2015]; http://www.oas.org/en/sedi/dsi/labor_and_employment/pages/cpo_trab_IIPreparatoryXIX_IACML.asp [source on file].

55.       Organization of American States. Meeting of the XIX Inter-American Conference of Ministers of Labor (IACML) - Declaration of Cancún 2015: "Achieving Decent Work with Social Inclusion and Sustainable Development in the Americas", OAS, [previously online] [cited December 15, 2015]; https://www.oas.org/en/sedi/dsi/labor_and_employment/pages/cpo_trab_XIX_cimt.asp#DOCUMENTS1 [source on file].

56.       Organization of American States. Meeting of the XIX Inter-American Conference of Ministers of Labor (IACML) - Plan of Action of Cancún: "Achieving Decent Work with Social Inclusion and Sustainable Development in the Americas", OAS, [previously online] [cited December 15, 2015]; https://www.oas.org/en/sedi/dsi/labor_and_employment/pages/cpo_trab_XIX_cimt.asp#DOCUMENTS1 [source on file].

57.       Government of Costa Rica. Puente al desarrollo, Government of Costa Rica, [blog] March 27, 2015 [cited February 10, 2016]; http://presidencia.go.cr/blog-presidencia/puente-al-desarrollo-estrategia-nacional-reduccion-de-la-pobreza/.

58.       Regional Conference on Migration. The Regional Conference on Migration or Puebla Process, RCM, [online] [cited March 2, 2016]; http://www.rcmvs.org/Descripcion.htm.

59.       Regional Conference on Migration. Meeting of the Vice-Ministers of the XX Regional Conference on Migration - Declaration in Mexico City 2015: "Return and Social and Productive Reintegration of Migrants"; November 12, 2015. http://www.rcmvs.org/Eventos/CRM_GRCM/XX_RCM.docx.

60.       IOM. IOM, partners work with the Americas to protect migrant children. Press Release. El Salvador; August 21, 2015. http://www.iom.int/news/iom-partners-work-americas-protect-migrant-children.

61.       Ministerio de Trabajo y Seguridad Social de la República de Costa Rica y Ministerio de Trabajo y Desarrollo Laboral de la República de Panamá. Acuerdo relativo al mecanismo de coordinación para flujos migratorios con fines de empleo y ocupación entre el Ministerio de Trabajo y Seguridad Social de la República de Costa Rica y el Ministerio de Trabajo y Desarrollo Laboral de la República de Panamá San Jose; September 17. 2015.

62.       ILO-IPEC Geneva official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. January 9, 2015.

63.       UNICEF. Términos de referencia para concurso http://www.unicef.org/costarica/TORS_Concurso_Institucional_mediacion_pedagogica2.pdf.

64.       UNICEF. UNICEF Annual Report 2014- Costa Rica. http://www.unicef.org/about/annualreport/files/Costa_Rica_Annual_Report_2014.pdf.

65.       UNICEF Costa Rica. CAI Casas de la Alegria Coto Brus [YouTube Video]; January 13, 2016, 7 min., 29 sec., May 6, 2016; https://youtu.be/AMTYpx4JK6w.

66.       FONABE. Tipos de becas, FONABE, [online] [cited January 6, 2016]; http://www.fonabe.go.cr/Becas/TiposBecas/Paginas/TiposBecas.aspx.

67.       FONABE. Siempre ayudando a cristalizar sueños, Government of Costa Rica, [online] [cited January 30, 2014]; http://www.fonabe.go.cr/Paginas/Home.aspx.

68.       Government of Costa Rica. Informe de seguimiento y monitoreo del cumplimiento de la hoja de ruta para hacer de Costa Rica un país libre de trabajo infantil y sus peores formas: Periodo 2011-2012-2013. San José; June 2013. [source on file].

69.       IMAS. ¿Qué es el programa Avancemos?, Instituto Mixto de Ayuda Social, [online] [cited April 17, 2012]; http://www.imas.go.cr/ayuda_social/avancemos.html.

70.       Ministerio de Educación Pública, Departamento de Análisis Estadístico. Proyecto Aula Abierta, Matrícula Inicial 2012. http://www.mep.go.cr/indicadores_edu/BOLETINES/08_10.pdf.

71.       Ross, A. "Escolares que tienen sobreedad recibirán clases todos los días." La Nación, San José, January 30, 2013. http://www.nacion.com/nacional/comunidades/Escolares-sobreedad-recibiran-clases-dias_0_1320668032.html.

72.       Ministerio de Educación Pública. Colegio Nacional Virtual Marco Tulio Salazar (Programa Nuevas Oportunidades para Jóvenes), Government of Costa Rica, [online] [cited February 10, 2016]; http://www.mep.go.cr/programas-y-proyectos/yo-me-apunto/cnvmts.

73.       ILO. EMPLEATE: Costa Rica lanza iniciativa público-privada para el empleo juvenilILO; October 7, 2011. http://www.adapt.it/boletinespanol/fadocs/22_60.pdf.

74.       Ministerio de Trabajo y Seguridad Social. EMPLEATE, Government of Costa Rica, [online] [cited January 30, 2014]; http://www.empleate.cr/.

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