Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Costa Rica

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Costa Rica

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Significant Advancement

In 2016, Costa Rica made a significant advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The National Institute of Statistics and Census conducted the National Household Survey, which contained a child labor module. The Ministry of Labor and Social Security launched a scholarship program with the Joint Institute for Social Aid to cover educational expenses for children engaged in child labor and signed agreements with El Salvador and Guatemala to work together to eradicate child labor in their countries. However, children in Costa Rica perform dangerous tasks in agriculture. Children also engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Existing social programs are insufficient to reach all child laborers, and resources for the Government’s child labor law enforcement agencies are inadequate.

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Children in Costa Rica perform dangerous tasks in agriculture. Children also engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking.(1-12) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Costa Rica.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

4.4 (34,494)

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

92.2

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

4.2

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

99.5

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2015, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(13)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 4 (MICS 4), 2011.(14)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Harvesting bananas and pineapple (15)

Picking coffee (2-4, 15-18)

Weeding, clearing land, and watering seeds (5)

Cattle raising (2, 4)

Fishing,† including shellfish extraction (1, 4, 6, 19)

Industry

Construction, activities unknown (1, 2, 19)

Manufacturing, activities unknown (1, 2)

Services

Commerce, including in stores, hotels, restaurants, and supermarkets (1, 2, 19, 20)

Street vending,† car washing, and repairing motor vehicles (2, 4, 6, 19, 21)

Domestic work (1, 2, 6, 19)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (4, 7-12, 19)

Use in the production of pornography (7, 10, 12, 22)

Forced labor in the agriculture, construction, fishing, street vending, and commercial sectors (8, 9, 12)

Domestic servitude (8, 9, 12)

Use in transporting or selling drugs (8, 11)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Research indicates that Ngäbe Buglé indigenous children in Costa Rica travel with their families to coffee farms. Coffee pickers are paid by the number of baskets they fill, and children reportedly participate in the coffee harvest with their families by collecting beans from the ground and from shorter plants.(3, 16-18) Access to education remains a challenge for children from indigenous and afro-descendant communities.(23, 24) Ngäbe Buglé children migrating with their families to coffee farms may face additional challenges accessing social services due to long distances to service providers, language barriers, and difficulties obtaining required documents from government institutions.(3, 16-18)

Costa Rica has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Costa Rica’s legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Articles 78 and 92 of the Childhood and Adolescence Code (25)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Articles 1 and 5 of Law 8922; Article 87 of the Labor Code (26, 27)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Article 94 of the Childhood and Adolescence Code; Article 5 of Law 8922; Article 88 of the Labor Code; Articles 5 and 6 of Regulation No. 36640 (25-28)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 20 and 56 of the Constitution; Article 8 of the Labor Code; Articles 7, 170–172, 189, 192, 376, 381, 383, and 384 of the Penal Code; Article 84 of Regulation No. 36659 (26, 29-32)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 7, 170–172, 189, 192, 376, 381, 383, and 384 of the Penal Code; Article 84 of Regulation No. 36659 (30-32)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 160, 168, and 170–174 of the Penal Code (30)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Articles 7, 188, 381, and 390 of the Penal Code; Article 77 of the Narcotics Law (30, 33)

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

N/A†

 

 

State Voluntary

N/A†

 

 

Non-state Compulsory

No

 

 

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

17‡

Articles 57 and 59 of the Childhood and Adolescence Code; Article 78 of the Constitution (6, 25, 29)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 59 of the Childhood and Adolescence Code; Article 8 of the Education Law; Article 78 of the Constitution (25, 29, 34)

† No standing military (29, 35)
‡ Age calculated based on available information (6, 25, 29)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor law and criminal law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor and Social Security (MTSS)

Investigate reports of child labor, including hazardous and forced child labor, and enforce child labor laws.(11, 19) Protect adolescent labor rights by conducting school and workplace visits, providing referrals to government services, and writing socio-labor studies and technical reports.(20, 25)

Prosecutor’s Office

Enforce criminal laws protecting children, including laws prohibiting forced child labor, human trafficking, commercial sexual exploitation, and the use of children in illicit activities. Administer the following investigative and prosecutorial units: the Specialized Prosecutorial Unit against Trafficking in Persons, the Organized Crime Unit, the Specialized Prosecutorial Unit for Gender Issues, and the Juvenile Justice Unit.(19)

Judicial Investigative Police

Conduct investigations of child labor violations, including child trafficking, child commercial sexual exploitation, and the use of children in illicit activities.(11, 19)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, labor law enforcement agencies in Costa Rica took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$11,000,000 (36)

$11,500,000 (4, 37)

Number of Labor Inspectors

89 (10)

93 (4)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (21)

No (4)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

No (10)

Yes (4)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

No (10)

No (4)

Number of Labor Inspections

13,152 (38)

17,728 (4)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown

17,728 (4)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown

0 (4)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

207 (39)

437 (40)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

1 (10)

2 (4)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

0 (10)

3 (41)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (10)

Yes (37)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (10)

Yes (37)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (21)

Yes (4)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Unknown

Yes (4)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (21)

Yes (4)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (10)

Yes (4)

 

In 2016, enforcement of child labor laws remained a challenge due to the lack of resources for inspections, including for transportation.(4) The number of labor inspectors is insufficient for the size of Costa Rica’s workforce, which includes over 2 million workers. According to the ILO’s recommendation of 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in developing economies, Costa Rica should employ roughly 153 inspectors.(42-44) The Ministry of Labor and Social Security reported it had insufficient personnel and transportation resources to enforce labor laws. Government monitoring and enforcement of child labor laws was particularly limited in the informal sector, where much of child labor, especially hazardous adolescent work, occurs.(2, 4, 10, 39, 45) Informal work is more common in agriculture than in other sectors in Costa Rica.(2)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in Costa Rica took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Yes (46)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (10)

Yes (4)

Number of Investigations

50 (47)

128 (4)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown

128 (4)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

10 (47)

0 (46)

Number of Convictions

17 (10)

2 (4)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (10)

Yes (4)

 

The Judicial Investigative Police reported an inadequate number of investigators, resulting in the slow processing of trafficking cases.(4)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

MTSS Office for the Eradication of Child Labor and Protection of the Adolescent Worker (OATIA)

Coordinate government policies and programs to combat child labor.(2, 5, 6) Monitor implementation of the Roadmap Towards the Elimination of Child Labor in Costa Rica. Provide technical assistance to government ministries and design social programs to combat child labor.(48) Oversee the Inter-Institutional Coordinating Protocol for the Protection of Working Minors.(6, 49) In 2016, OATIA provided child labor training and consultation services to 2,464 individuals, including through partnerships with the Ministries of Agriculture and Culture, and signed a cooperative agreement with the Social Welfare Institute (IMAS) on the eradication of child labor.(37, 40)

National Committee for the Elimination of Child Labor and the Protection of Adolescent Work

Develop and promote policy and program initiatives focused on eliminating child labor and regulating adolescent work. Overseen by OATIA and includes a technical secretariat that comprises representatives from various sectors.(5, 6)

National Child Welfare Agency (PANI)

Ensure child labor victims receive interagency social services, including temporary shelter, legal advice, and victim counseling. Responsible for reintegrating child labor victims into the educational system.(11, 25)

National Commission to Combat the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children and Adolescents (CONACOES)

Address child trafficking and the commercial sexual exploitation of minors.(11, 19) Report to the National Council of Childhood and Adolescence with legal standing under PANI, the body’s lead agency.(19, 37)

 

The Office for the Eradication of Child Labor and Protection of the Adolescent Worker (OATIA) indicated that staff turnover and weak implementation of relevant protocols limit the Government’s ability to address child labor, noting staff need a national child labor database to strengthen coordination and additional training on applying manuals and protocols.(5)

The Government has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

2010–2020 Roadmap Towards the Elimination of Child Labor in Costa Rica

Aims to eradicate all forms of child labor in Costa Rica by 2020 by strengthening anti-poverty, health, and educational programs and policies, and by raising awareness on child labor.(50-52)

Inter-Institutional Coordinating Protocol for the Protection of Working Minors

Outlines service provision for child laborers through collaboration between the MTSS, PANI, the Ministry of Education, and IMAS, as well as their regional and local agencies and the private sector.(2, 5, 53)

National Plan for Development (2015–2018)

Incorporates efforts to decrease child labor into national education and poverty reduction strategies.(21, 54)

Bridge to Development (2015–2018)

Aims to reduce poverty and eliminate vulnerability, including child labor, by providing social services to families in poor communities.(5, 10, 52, 55)

 

In 2016, the Ministry of Labor of Costa Rica signed agreements with Guatemala and El Salvador to work together to eradicate child labor in their countries, including through a knowledge exchange on Costa Rica’s implementation of a business network against child labor and El Salvador’s child labor monitoring and evaluation system.(37, 40, 56) The Coordination Agreement on Labor Migration between the Ministries of Labor of Costa Rica and Panama aims to strengthen dialog on labor migration between the two countries, with an emphasis on indigenous Panamanian migrant workers and their families; however, child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been fully integrated into this policy.(57)

In 2016, the Government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

2016 National Household Survey*†

National Institute of Statistics and Census survey, with child labor module, conducted in July 2016.(3, 4, 58)

Child Labor Awareness Campaign

MTSS and Ministry of Education public-private partnership supported by Fundación Telefónica to raise awareness of child labor through social media.(48)

Face of Justice Shelter*†

NGO-run shelter for child victims of human trafficking that provides PANI-funded monthly subsidies to victims and care from full-time staff, including a trauma psychologist and health practitioner.(12)

Houses of Joy (Casas de la Alegría)†

Public-private alliance that provides culturally sensitive daycare and meals to indigenous children whose parents work on coffee farms in Coto Brus and Los Santos. Aims to promote social inclusion and developmental opportunities for indigenous children and provide an alternative to child labor in the coffee harvest.(3, 10, 16, 59-61) IMAS funds meals, caregiver salaries, and training; farm owners provide the land and classroom, with financial contributions from UNICEF for building and teaching materials. Began as a pilot in 2014 with 6 centers serving 175 children; by 2016, expanded to 17 centers serving 600 children.(10, 16, 37, 46, 59-61)

Let’s Get Ahead Program (Avancemos)†

IMAS program that provides monthly conditional cash transfers to low-income families to keep children in school and out of exploitative work.(2, 11, 19, 62, 63) In 2016, launched a new scholarship program by the MTSS and IMAS that provides monthly education subsidies to families with children engaged in child labor.(64, 65)

Age Classroom (Aula Edad)†

Ministry of Education program that targets children and adolescents who have never been to school or who dropped out, adolescent mothers and workers, and foreign migrant adolescents to help them complete primary school.(10, 66, 67)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Costa Rica.

While the Government continues to support initiatives to eradicate child labor, current programming does not reach all children who are engaged in the worst forms of child labor in commercial sexual exploitation or in dangerous labor in agriculture. According to OATIA, existing social programs were insufficient to fully address the problem of child labor, including its worst forms, and additional staff and funding are required to assist children engaged in child labor and their families.(5, 10)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Costa Rica (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under 18 by non-state armed groups.

2016

Enforcement

Increase the number of labor inspectors trained and responsible for providing enforcement of child labor laws to meet international standards.

2015 – 2016

Increase child labor inspections in the informal sector, particularly in agriculture.

2015 – 2016

Strengthen the labor inspectorate by permitting inspectors to determine and assess penalties for child labor violations.

2014 – 2016

Ensure adequate funding for human resources, transportation, and training for labor and criminal law enforcement agencies.

2013 – 2016

Coordination

Strengthen coordination mechanisms by providing additional training on protocols.

2015 – 2016

Increase coordination and information sharing between government agencies responsible for monitoring and evaluating child labor cases.

2015 – 2016

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the Coordination Agreement on Labor Migration between the Ministries of Labor of Costa Rica and Panama.

2015 – 2016

Social Programs

Enhance efforts to eliminate barriers and make education accessible for all children, including children from indigenous and afro-descendant communities, by expanding existing social programs to strengthen school retention and completion for children and adolescents, particularly at the secondary level.

2015 – 2016

Increase access to education and other services for indigenous children in coffee growing areas to ensure they have alternatives to participating in the coffee harvest.

2015 – 2016

Expand programs to reach more children working in agriculture and being subjected to commercial sexual exploitation.

2009 – 2016

Increase the financial and human resources dedicated to key social programs to address child labor.

2009 – 2016

1.         ILO-IPEC. Magnitud y características del trabajo infantil y adolescente en Costa Rica- Informe 2011. Geneva; 2012. http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/viewProduct.do?productId=20655.

2.         UCW. Entender el trabajo infantil y el empleo juvenil en Costa Rica. Rome, Understanding Children’s Work (UCW) Programme; October 2015. http://www.ucw-project.org/attachment/CostaRica_trabajo_infantil_empleo_juvenil20160408_160553.pdf.

3.         Government of Costa Rica. Consideraciones respecto al informe Child Labor and Forced Labor Report. San José, Ministry of Labor and Social Security; November 21, 2016.

4.         U.S. Embassy- San Jose. reporting, January 27, 2017.

5.         Government of Costa Rica. Información sobre trabajo infantil para el departamento de trabajo de los Estados Unidos. San José, Ministry of Labor and Social Security; December 21, 2015. [source on file].

6.         Government of Costa Rica. Preguntas para el informe del 2013 sobre las peores formas de trabajo infantil. San José; February 18, 2014.

7.         Araya, D. "La pornografía infantil existe en Costa Rica." Costa Rica Hoy, San José, February 16, 2012. http://www.crhoy.com/la-pornografia-infantil-existe-en-costa-rica/.

8.         U.S. Department of State. "Costa Rica," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016. Washington, DC; June 30, 2016; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2016/258749.htm.

9.         U.S. Department of State. "Costa Rica," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2015. Washington, DC; April 13, 2016; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/253215.pdf.

10.       U.S. Embassy- San Jose. reporting, January 19, 2016.

11.       U.S. Embassy- San Jose. reporting, January 31, 2013.

12.       U.S. Embassy- San Jose. reporting, February 22, 2017.

13.       UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed December 16, 2016; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary education. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. The calculation includes all new entrants to the last grade (regardless of age). Therefore, the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see “Children’s Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

14.       UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from MICS 4, 2011. Analysis received December 15, 2016. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children’s Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

15.       U.S. Embassy- San Jose. reporting, December 12, 2014.

16.       Costa Rican Social Security Employee. Interview with USDOL official. December 7, 2015.

17.       IOM. We improve the human security of the indigenous migrants Ngäbe and Buglé, IOM Regional Office for Central America, North America and the Caribbean, [previously online] [cited January 22, 2016]; http://costarica.iom.int/en/costa_rica/81/ [source on file].

18.       Abelardo Morales Gamboa, and Diego Lobo Montoya. Mejorando la situación sociolaboral de la población móvil Ngabe Buglé en Costa Rica y en Panamá. San José, Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales- Sede Costa Rica; May 2013. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---americas/---ro-lima/---sro-san_jose/documents/publication/wcms_250207.pdf.

19.       U.S. Embassy- San Jose. reporting, January 27, 2014.

20.       U.S. Embassy- San Jose official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 24, 2015.

21.       U.S. Embassy- San Jose. reporting, January 15, 2015.

22.       Arias, L. "Costa Rica toughens legislation on child pornography." ticotimes.net [online] October 29, 2013 [cited 2013]; http://www.ticotimes.net/2013/10/29/costa-rica-toughens-legislation-on-child-pornography.

23.       UN Human Rights Committee. Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 40 of the Convention: Concluding Observations: Costa Rica,. Geneva; April 22, 2016. Report No. CCPR/C/CRI/CO/6*. http://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2fPPRiCAqhKb7yhsmeyzlWnPEw50wdOC4PJZQ0WtpVN0FDEDmm1YLuIEDCGzdExTk0QEulWplyJnoR5oZKVuaVLeMBPWw3iaIrPadPNd8cju%2fw%2bL9GidLsyboh5.

24.       U.S. Embassy- San Jose. reporting, July 1, 2016.

25.       Government of Costa Rica. Código de la Niñez y la Adolescencia, Ley Nº 7739, enacted 1998 [updated 2002]. http://ministeriopublico.poder-judicial.go.cr/normativa/nacional/general/05-Codigo_Ninez_Adolescencia.pdf.

26.       Government of Costa Rica. Código de Trabajo, Ley No. 2, enacted 1943 [updated 2010]. http://www.asamblea.go.cr/Centro_de_informacion/biblioteca/Centro_Dudas/Lists/Formule%20su%20pregunta/Attachments/943/LEY%202%20codigo%20de%20trabajo.pdf.

27.       Government of Costa Rica. Prohibición del Trabajo Peligroso e Insalubre para Personas Adolescentes Trabajadoras, Law 8922, enacted February 3, 2011. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/86385/97460/F112157985/CRI86385.pdf.

28.       Government of Costa Rica. Reglamento a la Ley Sobre Prohibición del Trabajo Peligroso e Insalubre para Personas Adolescentes Trabajadoras y Reforma Reglamento para la Contratación Laboral y Condiciones de Salud Ocupacional de las Personas Adolescentes, No. 36640-MTSS, enacted June 22, 2011. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/88852/101726/F662984233/CRI88852.pdf.

29.       Government of Costa Rica. Constitución Política de la República de Costa Rica, enacted 1949 [Updated January 1, 2014]. http://www.cesdepu.com/xn/Constitucion-Politica-2014-rsv.pdf.

30.       Government of Costa Rica. Código Penal, Ley 4573, enacted 1970 [updated 2013]. http://ministeriopublico.poder-judicial.go.cr/normativa/nacional/general/02-Codigo_Penal.pdf.

31.       Government of Costa Rica. Ley contra la trata de personas y creacion de la coalicion nacional contra el trafico ilicito de migrantes y la trata de personas (CONATT), Ley 9095, enacted February 8, 2013. http://www.migracion.go.cr/institucion/Trata/Ley%20Trata%20de%20Personas%20%28difusion%20digital%29.pdf.

32.       Government of Costa Rica. Reglamento para la aplicación de la ley general de migración y extranjería número 8764 a las personas menores de edad, No. 36659, enacted May 2011. http://www.migracion.go.cr/institucion/leyes%20migratorias/reglamentos/Reglamento%20de%20Personas%20Menores%20de%20Edad.pdf.

33.       Government of Costa Rica. Reforma integral Ley sobre estupefacientes, sustancias psicotrópicas, drogas de uso no autorizado, actividades conexas, legitimación de capitales y financiamiento al terrorismo, No. 8204, enacted December 26, 2001.

34.       Government of Costa Rica. Ley Fundamental de Educación, Public Law Number 2160, enacted 1957 [updated 2001]. http://portal.unesco.org/education/en/files/27617/10717533461Costa_Rica.doc/Costa+Rica.doc.

35.       Child Soldiers International. "Appendix II: Data Summary on Recruitment Ages of National Armies," in Louder than Words: An Agenda for Action to end State Use of Soldiers. London; 2012; https://www.child-soldiers.org/shop/louder-than-words-1.

36.       U.S. Embassy- San Jose official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 13, 2016.

37.       U.S. Embassy- San Jose official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 10, 2017.

38.       Secretaría del Trabajo y Previsión Social. Banco de Buenas Practicas Sobre Inspección Laboral en Iberoamérica - Costa Rica - Ficha del país; accessed December 9, 2016; http://bancoinspeccioniberoamerica.stps.gob.mx/Publico/Index.aspx.

39.       Government of Costa Rica. Informe institucional 2015 trabajo infantil San José, Ministry of Labor and Social Security; 2015.

40.       Government of Costa Rica. Informe institucional 2016 trabajo infantil San José, Ministry of Labor and Social Security; 2016.

41.       U.S. Embassy- San Jose official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 17, 2017.

42.       CIA. The World Factbook, [online] [cited April 5, 2017]; https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors based on the country’s level of development as determined by the UN.

43.       ILO. Strategies and practice for labour inspection. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a “sufficient number” of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a “sufficient” number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

44.       UN. World economic situation and prospects 2012 statistical annex. New York; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies; “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies, and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

45.       U.S. Department of State. "Costa Rica," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2016. Washington, DC; March 3, 2017; https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265788.pdf.

46.       U.S. Embassy- San Jose official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 23, 2017.

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49.       Government of Costa Rica. Decreto 34423-MTSS, enacted February 12, 2008. http://white.lim.ilo.org/ipec//documentos/protocolo_inter_costa_rica_2008.pdf.

50.       ILO-IPEC. Hoja de ruta para hacer de Costa Rica un pais libre de trabajo infantil y sus peores formas: Documento Estrategico. Geneva; January 2, 2010. http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/viewProduct.do?productId=12713.

51.       ILO-IPEC. Hoja de ruta para hacer de Costa Rica un pais libre de trabajo infantil y sus peores formas. Geneva; March 2011. http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/viewProduct.do?productId=16357.

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53.       Government of Costa Rica. PROTOCOLO DE COORDINACIÓN INTERINSTITUCIONAL PARA LA ATENCIÓN DE LAS PERSONAS TRABAJADORAS MENORES DE EDAD. San José; February 12, 2008. http://www.mtss.go.cr/tramites-servicios/formularios/Decreto-Protocolo-Interinstitucional.doc.

54.       Government of Costa Rica. Plan Nacional de Desarrollo 2011-2014. San José; December 2010. http://documentos.mideplan.go.cr/alfresco/d/d/workspace/SpacesStore/122fcd1c-53a7-47a7-a0ad-84cac6f1d7b9/PND-2011-2014-Maria-Teresa-Obregon-Zam.

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56.       MINISTERIO DE TRABAJO Y PREVISIÓN SOCIAL. El Salvador y Costa Rica suscriben convenio en materia de erradicación de Trabajo Infantil, MINISTERIO DE TRABAJO Y PREVISIÓN SOCIAL, [online] [cited February 2, 2017]; http://www.mtps.gob.sv/noticias/salvador-costa-rica-suscriben-convenio-materia-erradicacion-trabajo-infantil/.

57.       Ministerio de Trabajo y Seguridad Social de la República de Costa Rica y Ministerio de Trabajo y Desarrollo Laboral de la República de Panamá. Acuerdo relativo al mecanismo de coordinación para flujos migratorios con fines de empleo y ocupación entre el Ministerio de Trabajo y Seguridad Social de la República de Costa Rica y el Ministerio de Trabajo y Desarrollo Laboral de la República de Panamá San Jose; September 17. 2015.

58.       INEC. Encuesta Nacional de Hogares medirá pobreza y desigualdad, Instituto Nacional de Estadistica y Censos, [online] [cited December 13, 2016]; http://www.inec.go.cr/noticia/encuesta-nacional-de-hogares-medira-pobreza-y-desigualdad.

59.       UNICEF. Términos de referencia para concurso http://www.unicef.org/costarica/TORS_Concurso_Institucional_mediacion_pedagogica2.pdf.

60.       UNICEF. UNICEF Annual Report 2014- Costa Rica. http://www.unicef.org/about/annualreport/files/Costa_Rica_Annual_Report_2014.pdf.

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62.       IMAS. ¿Qué es el programa Avancemos?, Instituto Mixto de Ayuda Social, [online] [cited April 17, 2012]; http://www.imas.go.cr/ayuda_social/avancemos.html.

63.       Government of Costa Rica. Informe de seguimiento y monitoreo del cumplimiento de la hoja de ruta para hacer de Costa Rica un país libre de trabajo infantil y sus peores formas: Periodo 2011-2012-2013. San José; June 2013. [source on file].

64.       Anders, W. "Costa Rica Aims to End Child Labor Through Subsidies to Students." The Costa Rica Star, San Jose, October 12, 2016. https://news.co.cr/costa-rica-aims-end-child-labor-subsidies-students/51927/.

65.       ILO-IPEC. Como acción concreta en la política pública Costa Rica aumenta presupuesto para luchar contra el trabajo infantil en el país; October 24, 2016. http://white.lim.ilo.org/ipec/alcencuentros/interior.php?notCodigo=2186.

66.       Ministerio de Educación Pública, Departamento de Análisis Estadístico. Proyecto Aula Abierta, Matrícula Inicial 2012. http://www.mep.go.cr/indicadores_edu/BOLETINES/08_10.pdf.

67.       Ross, A. "Escolares que tienen sobreedad recibirán clases todos los días." La Nación, San José, January 30, 2013. http://www.nacion.com/nacional/comunidades/Escolares-sobreedad-recibiran-clases-dias_0_1320668032.html.

 

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