Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Kenya

Coffee
Coffee
Child Labor Icon
Fish
Fish
Child Labor Icon
Miraa (Stimulant Plant)
Miraa (Stimulant Plant)
Child Labor Icon
Rice
Rice
Child Labor Icon
Sand
Sand
Child Labor Icon
Sisal
Sisal
Child Labor Icon
Sugarcane
Sugarcane
Child Labor Icon
Tea
Tea
Child Labor Icon
Tobacco
Tobacco
Child Labor Icon
Kenya
2018 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Minimal Advancement

In 2018, Kenya made a minimal advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The government greatly increased the number of labor inspectors, inspections conducted, and child labor violations identified. However, children in Kenya engage in the worst forms of child labor in commercial sexual exploitation. Children also engage in child labor in agriculture. Kenya has yet to ratify the UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography. In addition, the minimum age for work law does not protect children working outside the scope of a formal employment contract or in circumstances in which children derive no benefit from their labor. The government has also not committed sufficient resources to child labor enforcement. 

Children in Kenya engage in the worst forms of child labor in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Children also engage in child labor in agriculture. (1,2) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Kenya. Data on some of these indicators are not available from the sources used in this report.


Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

35.6 (3,736,030)

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

85.8

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

23.0

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

102.0

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2016, published by the UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2019. (3)
Source for all other data: International Labor Organization's analysis of statistics from Population and Housing Census, 2009. (4)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.


Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Farming,† including the production of tea, coffee, miraa,† rice, sisal, sugarcane, tobacco, corn, flowers, and cotton (1,5-8)

Herding livestock† (1,5,6,8)

Fishing,† including for tilapia, sardines, and other fish (8-13)

Burning wood to produce charcoal (1,5)

Industry

Construction,† including carrying heavy loads (1,5,6,8)

Quarrying,† including for stones and coral (1,5,8)

Harvesting sand† (1,5,6,8,14,15)

Making bricks† (1,6,8)

Mining† for gold, tsavorite, tanzanite, ruby, sapphire, and salt (1,5,6,8)

Working in slaughterhouses,† including disposal of after-products and cleaning (1,16)

Services

Domestic work† (1,5,8-11,16)

Street work, including vending (1,2,6,8,16)

Transporting goods† and people† by bicycle, motorcycle, and handcart† (1,5,8)

Scavenging† for scrap materials (1,5,8,12,16)

Begging† (1,5,8,13,17)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1,5,17-22)

Use in illicit activities, including drug trafficking (1,6,23)

Begging, street vending, domestic service, herding livestock, fishing, and work on tobacco farms, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1,5,18,21,22,24,25)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Kenyan children are victims of human trafficking within and outside the country, and they are exploited to engage in domestic work, agricultural work, fishing, begging, and street vending. Children are also victims of commercial sexual exploitation in tourism-heavy areas, such as Nairobi and Kisumu, and on the coast in informal settings. (22,26,27) In rural areas, poverty drives some families to engage in trafficking children to urban centers for domestic work. (28) Children are also victims of commercial exploitation in drug production sites (khat), near gold mines, and along major highways; and they are sexually exploited by fishermen on Lake Victoria. (22) In addition, children in Kenya scavenge dumpsites and streets for scrap material, including metal and glass. (5) These children earn about $1 to $2 per day by sorting through waste, while often risking injury and exposing themselves to infectious diseases, such as tetanus. Evidence suggests that these children are also exposed to mercury due to e-waste recycling and gold mining. (5) Reports also indicate that children ages 10 to 17 mine or harvest sand and work in Busia, Homa Bay, Kilifi, Kitui, Machakos, and Nakuru counties, increasing their likelihood of developing aggravated asthma, lung or heart disease, and cancer. (10,14,29) Most children who are engaged in child labor, including commercial sexual exploitation, are girls; however, boys are also involved. (5, 30)

Kenyan law mandates free education and prohibits schools from charging tuition fees. However, the cost of unofficial school fees, books, and uniforms prevents some children from attending school. (14,31-35) The Births and Deaths Registration Act mandates birth registration; however, many children living in the country are not registered at birth. As a result, non-registered children have difficulty accessing services such as education because they must provide a birth certificate before enrolling in school or sitting for exams. (36-38) Teacher and school shortages further hinder children’s access to education. (1) Sources indicate that sexual abuse by teachers also negatively affects children’s school attendance. (39-41) In addition, in isolated cases, some school administrators deny pregnant girls admittance to schools. (42-44)

The government, in coordination with UNICEF, has previously published data on child poverty and its potential to increase vulnerability to engage in child labor. (8,45) The last national child labor survey was conducted in 2000. (4) As a result, data may no longer accurately reflect the current child labor situation in Kenya.

Kenya has ratified most key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).


Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

 

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

In 2000, Kenya signed but has not yet acceded to the UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography. Commercial sexual exploitation of children continues to be a serious problem in Kenya. (40)

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Kenya’s legal framework to adequately protect children from the worst forms of child labor, including the gap between the compulsory education age and minimum age for work.


Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

No

16

Section 56 of the Employment Act; Section 12 of the Employment (General) Rules; Section 10.4 of the Children Act (34,46,47)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Sections 2 and 53.1 of the Employment Act; Sections 2 and 10.1 of the Children Act (34,46)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Section 12 and the Fourth Schedule of the Employment (General) Rules; Section 10.1 of the Children Act (34,47)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 30 of the Constitution; Sections 4.1 and 53.1 of the Employment Act; Sections 174 and 254–266 of the Penal Code; Article 3 of the Counter-Trafficking in Persons Act; Article 13 of the Sexual Offences Act; Section 13.1 of the Children Act (34,46,48-51)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 3 of the Counter-Trafficking in Persons Act; Article 13 of the Sexual Offences Act; Section 13.1 of the Children Act; Section 53.1 of the Employment Act; Sections 174 and 254–263 of the Penal Code (34,46,49-51)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 8–9, 11–12, and 14–16 of the Sexual Offences Act; Sections 2 and 53.1 of the Employment Act; Section 15 of the Children Act (34,46,51)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Sections 2 and 53.1 of the Employment Act; Section 16 of the Children Act (34,46)

Minimum Age for Voluntary State Military Recruitment

Yes

18

Section 10.2 of the Children Act; Article 243 (1) of the Kenya Defence Forces Act (34,52)

Prohibition of Compulsory Recruitment of Children by (State) Military

N/A*

 

Article 243 (1) of the Kenya Defence Forces Act (52)

Prohibition of Military Recruitment by Non-state Armed Groups

Yes

 

Article 3 of the Counter-Trafficking in Persons Act (50)

Compulsory Education Age

No

14‡

Sections 28 and 30 of the Basic Education Act (33)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Section 7.2 of the Children Act; Sections 28–29 and 32 of the Basic Education Act; Article 53(b) of the Constitution (33,34,48)

* No conscription (52)
‡ Age calculated based on available information (53)

In 2018, Kenya began implementing free secondary education for all Kenyans. (40) In 2017, the Parliament drafted the Children Bill; however, during the reporting period, it had not yet come into effect. (40) The proposed law prohibits child labor, hazardous work for children, the use of children in armed conflict, and the use, procurement, and offering of children for forced labor, slavery, and debt bondage. (54) However, the proposed bill has the same gap as the current law regarding coverage of children working without a formal contract. (54) The current Children Act does not prohibit child labor for children employed outside of the scope of a contractual agreement or in circumstances in which children derive no benefit from their work directly or indirectly. (34,46) In addition, the Employment Act applies only to workers who perform work under a formal employment agreement, which does not conform to international standards that require all children to be protected by the minimum age. (46)

The government has reported that children are required to attend school only until age 14, making children ages 14 and 15 vulnerable to child labor because they are not required to attend school, yet cannot legally work. (53)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the operations of the Ministry of Labor, Social Security and Services (MLSSS); the National Police Service; and the Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.


Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor, Social Security and Services (MLSSS)

Enforces labor laws, including those related to child labor, through county labor officers in Kenya’s 47 counties. (5,55) Directs activities to eliminate child labor through its Child Labor Division. Coordinates services provided to children to ensure that child protection activities are being implemented countrywide, and maintains records on children and the services provided to them. (5)

National Police Service

Enforces laws related to the worst forms of child labor. (5) Includes a unit focused on the prevention of commercial sexual exploitation of children, child trafficking, and the use of children in illicit activities. (40) The Tourism Police Unit addresses commercial sexual exploitation of children in the tourism industry. (8)

Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions

Enforces laws through the prosecution of criminal offenses, including labor-related offenses. (1)

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2018, labor law enforcement agencies in Kenya took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the operations of the MLSSS that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including the authority to assess penalties.


Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2017

2018

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown (8)

Unknown (40)

Number of Labor Inspectors

84 (8)

112 (40)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (2)

No (2,46)

Initial Training for New Labor Inspectors

N/A (8)

Unknown (40)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Yes (8)

Unknown (40)

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown (8)

Yes (40)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

9,214† (8)

39,890‡ (40,56)

Number Conducted at Worksite

9,214† (8,57)

39,890‡ (40,56)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

1,215† (8,57)

10,708‡ (40,56)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

N/A (8)

N/A (40)

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that Were Collected

N/A (8)

N/A (40)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (8)

Yes (40)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (8)

Yes (40)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (8)

Yes (40)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (8)

Yes

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (8)

Yes (40)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (8)

Yes (40)

† Data are from July 1, 2016 to June 30, 2017.
‡ Data are from July 1, 2017 to June 30, 2018.

The number of labor inspectors is likely insufficient for the size of Kenya’s workforce, which includes more than 19 million workers. According to the ILO’s technical advice of a ratio approaching 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in developing economies, Kenya would employ about 1,321 labor inspectors. (58-60) Reports suggest that the MLSSS budget is inadequate and hampers the labor inspectorate’s capacity to enforce child labor laws. (2,5,40,61) Labor inspectors cannot issue fines or penalties, but they can send a compliance letter to employers stipulating how long the employer has to correct the violation. (2) In May 2018, MLSSS reported conducting capacity training for 30 labor inspectors. Between July 1, 2017, and June 30, 2018, MLSSS hired 25 new labor inspectors with plans to have at least 1 labor inspector in each county. (40) The government operates an emergency, toll-free, nationwide child hotline to report child abuse, including child labor, and refers callers to organizations for social protection services. (5,62) The government did not provide information about its labor inspectorate funding and training for inclusion in this report. (40)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2018, criminal law enforcement agencies in Kenya took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the National Police Service and the Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including investigation planning.


Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2017

2018

Initial Training for New Criminal Investigators

Yes (8)

Yes (40)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Yes (8)

Unknown (40)

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown (8)

Yes (40)

Number of Investigations

Unknown (8)

Unknown (40)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown (8)

Unknown (40)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown (8)

Unknown (40)

Number of Convictions

Unknown (8)

Unknown (40)

Imposed Penalties for Violations Related to The Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown

Unknown

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (8)

Yes (40)

Reports indicate that during the 2017 elections, women and girls were subjected to gender-based violence, including sexual exploitation, and that the government has still not properly investigated nor prosecuted suspected perpetrators. (63-65) In past years, the government allocated funds to anti-human trafficking efforts; however, no allocation was made to address child labor. Information on funding is not available for the reporting period. (8,40)

The government did not provide complete information on its criminal enforcement efforts for inclusion in this report. (40)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including efficacy in accomplishing mandates.


Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Steering Committee on Child Labor

Oversees efforts to eliminate child labor. (5) Comprising government agencies, private employers, workers’ organizations, and civil society organizations. Chaired by the Permanent Secretary, with coordination duties performed by the MLSSS Child Labor Division. (16) Research could not determine whether the committee met during the year.

National Council for Children’s Services

Coordinates government efforts on child-related issues, including child labor. (5) Operates the National Children Database, which collects comprehensive data on children, including child labor. (5) Research could not determine whether the committee met during the year.

National Labor Board

Advises the Cabinet Secretary of Labor, Social Security and Services on all issues related to labor and employment, including legal and policy issues. (16) Research could not determine whether the committee met during the year.

Counter-Trafficking in Persons Advisory Committee

Coordinates the implementation of policies related to human trafficking and provide prevention and protection services to victims under the Counter-Trafficking in Persons Act. (50) Comprising multiple government agencies, private employers, workers’ organizations, and civil society organizations. (26) Research could not determine whether the committee met during the year.

Local, Advisory, and District Child Labor Committees

Coordinate activities to eliminate child labor at the local level. (5) Research could not determine whether the committee met during the year.

Although the government has coordination mechanisms, research could not find information about their accomplishments during the year.

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including funding and mainstreaming child labor issues into relevant policies.


Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Policy on the Elimination of Child Labor (2016)

Proposes strategies to prevent, identify, withdraw, rehabilitate, and reintegrate children involved in child labor, including its worst forms. (66) Under this policy, the government has established 12 out of 13 desired child labor-free zones. (28) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement the National Policy on the Elimination of Child Labor during the reporting period.

National Employment Policy (2017)

Mandates reporting on the number of children withdrawn from child labor and the progress of child labor-free zones. (40) Research was unable to determine whether activities were taken to implement the National Employment Policy during the reporting period.

Framework for the National Child Protection System for Kenya (2011)

Describes the laws and policies that protect children from violence and exploitation, and the roles and responsibilities of the government to protect children from exploitative work. (67) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement the Framework for the National Child Protection System for Kenya during the reporting period.

County Integrated Development Plans

Serves as a guide for a county’s development planning processes. Required of all counties in Kenya. (68) For example, 2013-2017 plans addressed child labor on coffee and tea estates in Kiambu County and the issue of street children in Turkana County; however, research could not determine if updated plans covering 2018-2022 address child labor. (69,70,71) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement County Integrated Development Plans during the reporting period.

‡ The government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor. (72)

The National Plan of Action Against Sexual Exploitation of Children in Kenya did not include a corresponding budget. (62) Child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to be integrated into the UN Development Assistance Framework, the Policy for Alternative Provision of Basic Education and Training, the Kenya National Social Protection Policy, or the National Education Sector Support Program. (2,73,74)

In 2018, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including the adequacy of programs to address the full scope of the problem.


Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Projects to Combat Child Labor and Increase Education Access†

Government programs that aim to combat child labor, including its worst forms, such as commercial sexual exploitation of children and child trafficking. Child Protection and Rescue Centers temporarily house child victims and provide counseling and reintegration services for children; Kitui County Child Rescue Center withdraws and rehabilitates child laborers and provides counseling and life skills training. (2) The School Meals Program serves hot lunch to 2 million vulnerable children, resulting in improved school attendance. (1,5,75) The Government of Kenya provided safe custody of children in need of special protection. Services were provided for children who were abandoned, sexually abused, rescued from trafficking, and in need of rehabilitation. (8)

National Safety Net Program for Results†

Includes $411 million, government-funded, 5-year cash transfer and social safety net program, with support from the World Bank. Benefitted 353,000 households by assisting families of working children, orphans, and vulnerable children to meet their basic needs and pay for school-related costs. For fiscal 2017 and 2018, the government allocated $93 million for orphans and vulnerable children. (8)

USDOL-Funded Projects to Combat Child Labor and Support Youth Apprenticeships

USDOL-funded projects to combat child labor and support youth apprenticeships. Includes $3 million Better Utilization of Skills for Youth (BUSY) Through Quality Apprenticeships (2016–2020), and $1.4 million Promoting Apprenticeship as a Path for Youth Employment in Kenya Through Global Apprenticeship Network (GAN) National Networks (2016–2018). Additional information is available on the USDOL website.

UN Agency-Implemented Projects

Humanitarian Assistance Program, UNICEF-implemented program provided educational services to 156,000 children and nutritional services to 189,000 children in 2018. (76) The Ministry of Public Service, Youth, and Gender Affairs collaborates with the UN Population Fund to establish gender-based violence recovery centers for victims, including children. (8)

Child Labor Free Supply Chain Certifications

Government program supported by the EU and Cesvi, an NGO. Develops child labor-free supply chain certifications. (5,8,77)

† Program is funded by the Government of Kenya.
‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. (1,78-80)

Although Kenya has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem, especially the commercial sexual exploitation of children.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Kenya (Table 11).


Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ratify the CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography.

2013 – 2018

Ensure that minimum age laws apply to children working in non-contractual employment.

2011 – 2018

Raise the compulsory education age to 16 to be equivalent to the minimum age for work.

2013 – 2018

Enforcement

Authorize labor inspectors to assess penalties for labor law violations.

2010 – 2018

Publish information about labor inspectorate funding, training provided to labor inspectors on the worst forms of child labor, and the number of child labor violations imposed and penalties collected.

2009 – 2018

Ensure the Ministry of Labor, Social Security and Services has sufficient financial and human resources to address labor violations.

2017 – 2018

Publish information about criminal law enforcement’s efforts to investigate, prosecute, and convict perpetrators of the worst forms of child labor, and training held related to the worst forms of child labor.

2009 – 2018

Increase the number of labor inspectors to meet the ILO's technical advice.

2015 – 2018

Coordination

Publish information about child labor coordination activities, including meetings during the year, and efforts to address child labor issues.

2016 – 2018

Government Policies

Ensure that child labor policies are implemented, and publish information about activities under these policies, such as the National Plan of Action Against Sexual Exploitation of Children in Kenya.

2017 – 2018

Ensure that County Integrated Development Plans address child labor.

2018

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the UNDAF, National Education Sector Support Program, Kenya National Social Protection Policy, and Policy for Alternative Provision of Basic Education and Training.

2013 – 2018

Include a budget in the National Plan of Action Against Sexual Exploitation of Children in Kenya.

2013 – 2018

Social Programs

Update data on child labor by conducting a national child labor survey.

2014 – 2018

Ensure that children can attend primary school, either by ensuring that school is free of fees or by subsidizing or defraying the cost of school fees, books, and uniforms.

2010 – 2018

Improve access to education by training new teachers, ensure that pregnant girls can remain in school, address sexual abuse by teachers in schools, and increase birth registrations for children.

2010 – 2018

Expand existing programs to address the scope of the child labor problem, including children engaged in commercial sexual exploitation.

2009 – 2018

1

U.S. Embassy- Nairobi Reporting March 16, 2016

2

U.S. Embassy- Nairobi. Reporting. February 13, 2017.

3

UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed March 16, 2019 Please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.
http://data.uis.unesco.org/.

4

ILO. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Population and Housing Census, 2009. Analysis received January 12, 2018. Please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

5

U.S. Embassy- Nairobi. Reporting. February 11, 2014.

6

ILO. Integrated area-based approach as a strategy for laying foundations for child labour-free zones - A case of Busia, Kilifi and Kitui Districts in Kenya. November 15, 2013.
http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/download.do?type=document&id=23676.

7

Ndunda, Joseph. 1.5 Million Kids Do Not School - CS. The Star, October 3, 2015.
http://allafrica.com/stories/201510060940.html.

8

U.S. Embassy- Nairobi. Reporting. February 13, 2018.

9

ILO. Situation analysis on conducive learning environment for children withdrawn and prevented from child labour - A case of Busia District in Kenya. November 15, 2013.
http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/download.do?type=document&id=23677.

10

ILO-IPEC. Kenya labour market survey for older children withdrawn from worst forms of child labour: Kitui district report. February 2012.
http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/download.do?type=document&id=19556.

11

Schallhorn, Kaitlyn. In Kenya, educators are becoming the front line of defense against child trafficking. The Blaze, April 18, 2017.
http://www.theblaze.com/news/2017/04/18/in-kenya-educators-are-becoming-the-front-line-of-defense-against-child-trafficking.

12

ILO. Situation analysis on conducive learning environment for children withdrawn and prevented from child labour - A case of Kitui District in Kenya. November 15, 2013.
http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/download.do?type=document&id=23679.

13

Kigai, Eudias. Trafficking handicapped children and the economy of misery. Pambazuka News, July 29, 2013.
https://www.pambazuka.org/human-security/trafficking-handicapped-children-and-economy-misery.

14

Mutiso Veronicah Nthambi, and Professor John Aluko Orodho. Impact of Sand Harvesting on Education of Pupils in Public Primary Schools in Kathiani Division, Kathiani District, Machakos County, Kenya. 2014. Source on file.

15

Kibet, Robert. The Deadly Occupation Attracting Kenya's Youth. Inter Press Service News Agency, 2015.
http://www.ipsnews.net/2014/08/the-deadly-occupation-attracting-kenyas-youth/.

16

U.S. Embassy- Nairobi. Reporting. February 24, 2015.

17

Mkongo, Malemba. Students fight sex slavery and forced labour among children in Mombasa. The Star, November 3, 2017.
https://www.the-star.co.ke/news/2017/11/03/students-fight-sex-slavery-and-forced-labour-among-children-in-mombasa_c1658639.

18

U.S. Embassy- Nairobi. Reporting. March 4, 2014.

19

Onyulo, Tonny. Baby trafficking is a lucrative business in Kenya. USA Today, February 28, 2015.
http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/world/2015/02/28/kenya-stolen-baby-trafficking/23927517/.

20

Damary, Rita and Joseph Kiir. Muslim Cleric Jailed 10 Years for Child Sex Trafficking. The Star, July 7, 2015.
http://allafrica.com/stories/201507071381.html.

21

U.S. Embassy- Nairobi. Reporting. February 26, 2016.

22

U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2017: Kenya. Washington, DC. June 27, 2017.
https://www.state.gov/reports/2017-trafficking-in-persons-report/kenya/.

23

Mwangi, James Nairobi drug dealers employ street kids to sell guns, heroin Nairobi: The Nairobian November, 2018.
https://www.sde.co.ke/thenairobian/article/2001303713/nairobi-drug-dealers-employ-street-kids-to-sell-guns-heroin.

24

UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Concluding observations on the initial report of Kenya. September 4, 2015: Report number CRPD/C/KEN/CO/1.
http://www.refworld.org/pdfid/55eed6bc3.pdf.

25

Solomon, Salem. Food Insecurity, Poverty Force Kenyan Girls Into 'Survival Sex.' Voice of America News, August 21, 2017.
https://www.voanews.com/a/food-insecurity-poverty-force-kenayn-girls-in-survidal-sex/3994855.html.

26

U.S. Embassy- Nairobi. Reporting. December 28, 2015.

27

Sanga, Benard and Ongala, Maureen Sex tourism, Western philanthropy and widespread child sexual abuse in Coast Nairobi; The Standard 05, 27, 2018.
https://www.standardmedia.co.ke/article/2001281874/sex-tourism-western-philanthropy-and-widespread-child-sexual-abuse-in-coast.

28

U.S. Embassy- Nairobi. Reporting. May 23, 2018.

29

Peters, T, PhD, CIH. Sand Mining and Transport: Potential Health Effects. Midwest Environmental Health Policy Summit: Iowa City. University of Iowa, February 2014. Source on file.

30

UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women. List of issues and questions in relation to the eighth periodic report of Kenya. March 13, 2017: Report number CEDAW/C/KEN/Q/8.
http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CEDAW/C/KEN/Q/8&Lang=en.

31

ILO. Situation analysis on conducive learning environment for children withdrawn and prevented from child labour - A case of Kilifi District in Kenya. November 15, 2013.
http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/download.do?type=document&id=23678.

32

Onyango, Phillista and Arne Tostensen. The Situation of Youth and Children in Kibera. Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI), March 2015.
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33

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