Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Brazil

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Brazil

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Significant Advancement

In 2016, Brazil made a significant advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government approved a new anti-trafficking in persons law that criminalizes child trafficking for labor and sexual exploitation; adopted a Federal Pact for the Eradication of Forced Labor to strengthen the implementation of forced labor policies at the state level and increase information sharing and interagency coordination; and established a national coordination body to collect data on forced labor and human trafficking cases. Criminal law enforcement officials initiated 950 cyber investigations on the commercial sexual exploitation of children. In addition, the Government developed a monitoring system for the National Program to Eradicate Child Labor, allowing state and municipal governments to track program targets. However, children are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in the production of coffee and in commercial sexual exploitation. There are not enough labor inspectors to provide sufficient coverage of the workforce, and there is a lack of specialized shelters for child victims of commercial sexual exploitation.

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Children in Brazil engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in the production of coffee and commercial sexual exploitation.(1-5) In 2016, the Government released the 2015 National Household Survey results, which found 412,000 children, ages 5 to 13, working in Brazil, a 25.6 percent decrease from 2014. The study also found that 65 percent of child laborers ages 5 to 13 work in agriculture.(6) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Brazil.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

2.9 (897,018)

Working children by sector

 

 

Agriculture

 

55.6

Industry

 

10.4

Services

 

33.9

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

97.8

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

3.4

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

Unavailable

Primary completion rate was unavailable from UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(7)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD), 2014.(8)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of apples, citrus,† coffee, corn, cotton,† manioc, manioc flour,† mate tea, pepper,† pineapple,† potatoes, rice, sisal,† sugarcane,† and tobacco;† processing cashews;† and extracting carnauba palm leaves (4, 5, 9-19)

Cattle ranching and raising livestock (14, 20)

Harvesting mollusks† (21, 22)

Forestry, including logging† and charcoal production† (15, 16, 23)

Industry

Slaughtering animals,† including for beef production (12, 15, 24, 25)

Production of ceramics† and bricks† (12, 15, 16, 26)

Production of garments and footwear† (13, 14, 16, 27-30)

Work in quarries† (31)

Services

Street work,† including begging, vending,† and garbage scavenging† (1, 12, 32-34)

Washing and repairing automobiles, tractors, and machines (12, 15, 35)

Work in markets and fairs, including hauling fruits and vegetables and transporting heavy loads (12, 25, 28, 35-38)

Work in fast food establishments (39)

Selling alcoholic beverages† (13, 15, 38)

Artistic work and playing in soccer clubs (14, 40-42)

Domestic work† (13, 32, 38, 43)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1-3, 33, 34, 44)

Domestic work, begging, and playing in soccer clubs, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1, 45)

Use by gangs to perform illicit activities, including drug trafficking, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1, 32, 33, 38, 46)

Forced labor in agriculture, including in coffee and manioc (4, 5, 9, 33)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

In Brazil, child trafficking is a problem, especially in border areas. Brazilian and Paraguayan indigenous children are trafficked for domestic work. Paraguayan indigenous children are trafficked for the purpose of begging. Adolescents, including some from Haiti and South Korea, are trafficked to play in soccer clubs.(1)

While the overall scope and magnitude of the commercial sexual exploitation of children is unknown, the Government acknowledges that it occurs throughout Brazil, with higher rates reported in the North and Northeast regions.(43, 47) Child sex tourism is particularly common in tourist and coastal areas.(43)

In 2016, the Government closed schools in some rural areas, causing students to travel great distances to access education and making them vulnerable to school drop-out.(48) There are low levels of birth registration among indigenous children, which may affect their ability to access education as birth registration documents are often necessary for school enrollment.(33, 49)

Brazil has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Brazil’s legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

16

Article 403 of the Labor Code (50)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 2 of the Hazardous Work List (51)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Hazardous Work List (51)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 149 and 149-A of the Penal Code (52, 53)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

No

 

Article 149-A of the Penal Code; Article 244A of the Child and Adolescent Statute (53, 54)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 218-A, 218-B, 227, and 228 of the Penal Code; Articles 240, 241, and 244A of the Child and Adolescent Statute (52, 54)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Articles 33 and 40 of the National System of Public Policies on Drugs; Article 244-B of the Child and Adolescent Statute (54, 55)

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

Yes

18

Article 5 of the Military Service Law (56)

State Voluntary

Yes

17

Article 127 of the Military Service Regulation (57

Non-State Compulsory

No

 

 

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

17

Article 4 of the National Education Law (58)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 4 of the National Education Law (58)

In October 2016, the Government passed a new anti-trafficking in persons law which criminalizes human trafficking for labor and sexual exploitation, and increases minimum sentences for human trafficking crimes.(53) However, the prohibitions against child trafficking for labor exploitation are insufficient because they require threats, the use of force, or coercion to be established for the crime of child trafficking.

In December 2016, the municipal government of São Paulo passed Law 16.606, establishing a fine of $32,000 to $32 million for establishments complicit in forced labor. In extremely serious cases, when a fine is not paid, or for recurrent offenses, the law provides for the cancellation of the operating license of the establishment and the guilty party is barred from obtaining a new business license for 5 to 10 years.(59) The Senate’s Constitution, Justice, and Citizenship Committee approved a bill which criminalizes any attempt to hire a child under age 14 for economic gain; the bill awaits approval from the Chamber of Deputies and President.(60) The Government also passed an inter-ministerial ordinance which updates the criteria for entry and removal from the register of employers caught with forced labor, known as the “Lista Suja” or “Dirty List”.(61) The List, which the Government had not issued since 2014, was published in March 2017 after a legal battle over its release. Although the initial listing contained 85 businesses, 17 were removed shortly after its publication.(62) According to the Ministry of Labor and Social Security, these businesses were removed because they were still appealing their inclusion on the List. The Federal Labor Prosecutor’s Office has asked the Ministry of Labor and Social Security for a more detailed explanation regarding the removals.(63)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor law and criminal law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor and Social Security

Conduct labor inspections and enforce child and forced labor laws.(28) The central labor inspection unit develops and proposes guidelines for the annual work plan while 27 decentralized regional units implement labor inspection activities.(64)  Additional mobile inspection units, located in every region, conduct inspections where forced labor, including forced child labor, is suspected.(14, 65) Mobile inspection units comprise labor inspectors, labor prosecutors, Federal Police officers, and other law enforcement officials.(14)

Federal Labor Prosecutor’s Office

Prosecute child labor and forced labor violations by working with prosecutors from the National Committee to Combat Child and Adolescent Labor, an in-house body that coordinates efforts to combat child labor. Collects fines for forced labor violations and allocates funds for initiatives that address child labor and forced labor.(66)

Federal Police

Investigate some cases of forced labor, human trafficking, and commercial sexual exploitation of children.(28) Maintain a database to track cases of human trafficking for sexual exploitation.(14)

Federal Public Ministry

Investigate and prosecute cases of forced labor and human trafficking.(67)

Ministry of Justice

Lead efforts to combat human trafficking and oversee Advanced Posts (Postos Avançados) and state-run Anti-Trafficking Coordination Centers (Núcleos de Enfrentamento). Advanced Posts (Postos Avançados) identify human traffickers and potential victims in high-transit areas, including airports and bus stations. There are 19 posts in areas with historically high rates of human trafficking.(68) Provide guidance to federal, state, and local government officials on referrals for victims of human trafficking, including to Anti-Trafficking Coordination Centers (Núcleos de Enfrentamento), Specialized Social Assistance Reference Centers, and NGOs.(68) The Secretariat for Human Rights coordinates efforts to protect human rights, including combating forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation. Sponsor Dial 100, a human rights violation hotline that directs child labor complaints to appropriate institutions for follow-up.(28, 69-72)

Federal Highway Police

Identify areas at high risk of commercial sexual exploitation.(73)

In 2016, two labor inspector strikes spanned a total of 8 months, which may have impacted the Government’s ability to enforce child labor laws. According to the labor inspector union, the strikes were a result of alleged low pay, little opportunity for career advancement, heavy workload, and lack of adequate security during enforcement activities in remote regions.(74) In December 2016, the Government approved an increase in government employees’ salaries, including labor inspectors.(75)

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, labor law enforcement agencies in Brazil took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$809,345 (65)

Unknown

Number of Labor Inspectors

2,545 (76)

2,525 (75)

Number of Child Labor Dedicated Inspectors

Unknown

Unknown

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (14)

Yes (75)

Training for Labor Inspectors

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (14)

N/A

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A

Yes (75)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (65)

Yes (75)

Number of Labor Inspections

355,740 (76)

Unknown

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown

Unknown

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

7,200 (77)

2,496 (20)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

53 (14)

Unknown

Number of Penalties Imposed that Were Collected

Unknown (14)

Unknown

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (14)

Yes (75)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (65)

Yes (75)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (14)

Yes (75)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (65)

Yes (75)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (14)

Yes (75)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (14)

Yes (75)

During the reporting period, the labor inspectorate had a budget of $186,911 for child labor inspections.(20) The number of labor inspectors is insufficient for the size of Brazil’s workforce, which includes over 110 million workers. According to the ILO’s recommendation of 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in industrializing economies, Brazil should employ roughly 7,360 labor inspectors.(78-80)

In 2016, the Government conducted 5,376 child labor inspections, a decrease from 7,263 inspections in 2015.(14, 20) The states with the most cases of child labor violations include Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso do Sul, Paraná, and Rio de Janeiro.(20)

Upon finding children in hazardous working conditions, Ministry of Labor and Social Security officials immediately remove the children and return them to their families or refer them to social service providers.(14) In 2016, inspectors removed 2,483 children who were found working in violation of the minimum age law from their workplace.(72)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in Brazil took actions to combat the worst forms of child

labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (65)

Yes (72)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

Yes (81)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (44)

Yes (75)

Number of Investigations

Unknown (44)

950 (75)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown (44)

Unknown

Number of Convictions

Unknown (44)

Unknown

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (44)

Yes (75)

Although the Federal Police maintain a database to track cases of human trafficking for sexual exploitation, no mechanism is in place to record violations related to other forms of commercial sexual exploitation of children, including in prostitution and pornography.(44)

In 2016, 120 state police officers received training on the investigation of child sexual exploitation on the internet; the training led officials to initiate 950 cyber investigations.(68)

According to the Government, the judicial system does not sufficiently hold perpetrators of child labor law violations accountable, which may lead to a sense of impunity among violators.(14) Furthermore, evidence suggests some police officers and other government officials may be involved in the commercial sexual exploitation of children and are not held accountable in accordance with the law.(3, 68)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Committee for the Eradication of Child Labor

Lead the implementation of the National Plan for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor and the Protection of Working Adolescents. Led by the Ministry of Labor and Social Security, includes 17 government agencies and representatives from trade unions, business associations, and civil society organizations.(82, 83)

Intersectoral Commission to Combat Sexual Violence Against Children and Adolescents

Monitor implementation of the National Plan to Combat Sexual Violence Against Children and Adolescents. Led by the Ministry of Justice’s Special Secretariat for Human Rights (SDH).(84, 85)

National Committee to Combat Forced Labor

Coordinate and evaluate the implementation of the National Plan for the Eradication of Forced Labor. Led by SDH.(86)

National Committee to Combat Trafficking in Persons

Coordinate activities to address human trafficking, including implementation of the Second Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons. Led by the Ministry of Justice.(87, 88) In 2016, monitored and evaluated the Plan, and began developing the third national action plan.(89)

National Council for the Rights of Children and Adolescents

Monitor policies to protect children’s rights, including the rights of working children. Includes representatives from the Executive Branch and NGOs.(90, 91)

Interagency Committee to Implement Strategies to Ensure the Protection of Children’s and Adolescents’ Rights

Coordinate the implementation of policies to protect children’s and adolescents’ rights, including the National Plan for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor and the Protection of Working Adolescents. Led by SDH.(92)

Labor Justice Commission for the Eradication of Child Labor and Protection of Adolescent Decent Work

Organize efforts of the labor courts to eliminate child labor and ensure that adolescents have decent work opportunities.(93) Includes 11 representatives from the Superior Labor Court and regional labor courts.(94)

Anti-Trafficking Coordination Centers (Núcleos de Enfrentamento)

Coordinate activities carried out by local, state, and federal agencies to combat human trafficking. Established in 16 states and the Federal District.(68)

National Forum of Judiciary Power for Monitoring Demands Related to Labor Exploitation and Human Trafficking (FONTET)*

Collect data on forced labor and human trafficking cases.(68) Represented by the National Judiciary Committee and Judicial State Committees to Combat Forced Labor and Trafficking in Persons.(95) During the reporting period, collected data on 85 million legal cases and uploaded the information into a searchable database.(68)

* Mechanism to coordinate efforts to address child labor was created during the reporting period.

The Government has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Plan for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor and the Protection of Working Adolescents (2011–2015)

Guided the Government’s efforts to combat child labor, including its worst forms.(96) Although it expired in 2015, the Government continued to implement the Plan during the reporting period, and worked on drafting the next edition.(97)

National Plan to Combat Sexual Violence Against Children and Adolescents (2013–2020)

Identifies strategies to prevent the sexual exploitation of children, protect children’s rights, and assist child victims.(85)

Second Plan for the Eradication of Forced Labor

Establishes the policy framework to address forced labor.(98)

Federal Pact for the Eradication of Forced Labor†

Aims to establish a forced labor database to share research and data, create state-level plans to combat forced labor, and strengthen interagency coordination. Led by the Ministry of Justice’s Special Secretariat for Human Rights, and signed by 15 states.(99, 100)

Second National Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons (2013–2016)

Guides efforts to combat human trafficking, including child trafficking.(88)

National Education Plan (2014–2024)

Aims to expand access to education and improve the quality of education. Plans to allocate 10 percent of Brazil’s GDP to public education by 2024.(101)

Integrated Work Plan for the Brazil-Uruguay Border†

Aims to improve collaboration between Government initiatives in border regions; plans to create a Binational Committee for the Prevention and Elimination of Child Labor to plan and implement awareness campaigns.(102)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.
‡ The Government has other policies which may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor.(103)

In 2016, the Government passed a Constitutional amendment that restricts primary spending increases for the next 20 years; the spending cap can only increase by the previous year’s rate of inflation. The Government excluded health and education expenses from the ceiling until 2018.(104) According to the National Campaign for the Right to Education, this change in funding will further prevent the Government from meeting the National Education Plan’s objectives.(105)

In 2016, the Government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

National Program to Eradicate Child Labor [Programa de Erradicação do Trabalho Infantil (PETI)]†

Ministry of Social Development and the Fight Against Hunger (MDS) social assistance program that combats child labor through awareness-raising activities, victim identification and protection, and conditional cash transfers.(65, 106) To receive program benefits, participants must ensure that children are not working and maintain at least 85 percent school attendance.(107) In 2016, MDS launched a monitoring system to allow state and municipal governments to track program targets.(108)

Living Together and Strengthening Links Program [Serviço de Convivência e Fortalecimento de Vínculo (SCFV)]†

MDS social assistance program for vulnerable groups, including child laborers. Aims to strengthen familial and communal ties through sports and artistic and cultural activities. Offers services at Social Assistance Reference Centers and Living Centers.(109)

Social Assistance Reference Centers†

MDS and SDH program that provides vulnerable populations, including victims of child labor and commercial sexual exploitation, with psychological, social, and legal services.(110, 111) In 2016, there were 2,374 Specialized Social Assistance Reference Centers located throughout the country, a decrease from 2,453 centers in 2015; only 675 centers were certified to assist victims of human trafficking, and many centers lacked necessary funds.(43, 68, 72)

Family Stipend (Bolsa Família)†

MDS program that supplements income through cash transfers for families living in poverty and extreme poverty.(32, 112) In 2016, budget increased by $513 million. As of July 2016, 87.5 percent of children ages 6-15 and 76.8 percent of children ages 16-17 met the school attendance requirement.(75) During the reporting period, MDS improved control mechanisms for participation; six federal databases allowed the Government to cross-check data to reduce fraud and ensure only intended program participants receive payments.(75)

Brazil Without Extreme Poverty (Brasil Sem Miséria)†

MDS program that lifts people out of extreme poverty by guaranteeing a minimum income; expanding access to public services, including education, health, and citizenship; and increasing job opportunities and income generation for the poorest families.(113) One program component, Caring Brazil (Brasil Carinhoso), targets Bolsa Família participants with children ages 0 to 15 with a monthly family income of less than $22 per person.(114)

Ministry of Education programs†

National Program on Job Training and Employment (Programa Nacional de Acesso ao Ensino Técnico e Emprego) for workers and social program recipients, including high school students.(115, 116)

National Household Survey†

Government-funded annual national household survey that includes questions about child labor.(6)

South-South Cooperation Projects†

Government of Brazil-funded projects implemented by the ILO to combat child labor and promote South-South cooperation.(117) The Support to Caribbean States* project builds the capacity of participating Caribbean countries to enhance the school-to-work transition of youth.(118)

USDOL-funded Projects

USDOL-funded projects implemented by the ILO that aim to combat child labor and forced labor. The Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues Project improves the evidence base on child labor and forced labor through data collection and research.(119) The Project to Consolidate Efforts to Combat Forced Labor in Brazil and Peru combats forced labor, including forced child labor in Brazil and Peru, and shares Brazil’s best practices with the Government of Peru and Peruvian stakeholders.(120, 121) For additional information about USDOL’s work, please visit our Web site.

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Brazil.
‡ The Government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms.(122, 123)

Because PETI and Bolsa Família are decentralized, local governments are responsible for their implementation. Some municipalities do not have the necessary human and financial resources to fully implement and monitor these programs.(32) Many states also report a lack of resources to adequately assist victims of human trafficking.(68) Research found a lack of specialized shelters for child victims of commercial sexual exploitation.(33, 43)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Brazil (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that laws do not require threats, the use of force, or coercion to be established for the crime of child trafficking for labor exploitation.

2016

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under 18 by non-state armed groups.

2016

Ensure that the removal of businesses from the register of employers caught with forced labor is implemented transparently and in accordance with the established criteria.

2016

Enforcement

Publish information regarding the labor inspectorate’s funding, number of child labor dedicated inspectors, number of labor inspections conducted, number of child labor violations for which penalties were imposed, number of penalties imposed that were collected; as well as the number of criminal violations found, prosecutions initiated, and convictions achieved.

2012 – 2016

Increase the number of labor inspectors in order to provide sufficient coverage of the workforce. Provide suitable pay and security protection for inspections in remote regions to ensure the continuity of the labor inspection function.

2014 – 2016

Collect and track data on cases regarding the commercial sexual exploitation of children, including child prostitution and pornography.

2009 – 2016

Ensure that all violators of child labor laws, including the worst forms of child labor, are held accountable in accordance with the law.

2015 – 2016

Government Policies

Monitor the impact of the education sector’s spending cap on children’s access to education.

2016

Provide adequate resources to ensure that the goals outlined in the National Education Plan are achieved.

2015 – 2016

Social Programs

Expand efforts to improve access to primary and secondary education, particularly in rural areas. Expand the accessibility of birth registration services in remote areas and ensure indigenous communities are aware of the benefits of birth registration.

2013 – 2016

Provide local governments with the necessary resources to fully implement and monitor PETI and Bolsa Família.

2009 – 2016

Provide adequate resources to state governments to ensure that child trafficking victims receive social services. Ensure the availability of specialized shelters for child victims of commercial sexual exploitation.

2012 – 2016

1.         Ministry of Justice. Diagnóstico sobre Tráfico de Pessoas nas Áreas de Fronteira no Brasil. Brasilia; 2013. http://issuu.com/justicagovbr/docs/diagnostico_trafico_pessoas_frontei.

2.         Childhood Brazil, Public Ministry of Labor, ILO, Federal Highway Police, and President's Secretariat for Human Rights. Mapeamento dos Pontos Vulneráveis à Exploração Sexual de Crianças e Adolescentes nas Rodovias Federais Brasileiras; 2014. http://www.childhood.org.br/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/Mapeamento_2013_2014.pdf.

3.         Consultor Jurídico. "Compete à Justiça do Trabalho Julgar Exploração Sexual Infantil." conjur.com [online] May 25, 2016 [cited November 10, 2016]; http://www.conjur.com.br/2016-mai-25/compete-justica-trabalho-julgar-exploracao-sexual-infantil.

4.         Danwatch. Bitter Coffee; March 2016. https://www.danwatch.dk/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/Danwatch-Bitter-Coffee-MARCH-2016.pdf.

5.         Ministério Público do Trabalho em Minas Gerais. Operação Conjunta Flagra Exploração de Trabalho Análogo ao de Escravo na Colheita de Café. August 13, 2015. http://www.prt3.mpt.gov.br/procuradorias/prt-belohorizonte/484-operacao-conjunta-flagra-exploracao-de-trabalho-analogo-ao-de-escravo-na-colheita-de-cafe.

6.         Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE). Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD). Rio de Janeiro; 2016. http://biblioteca.ibge.gov.br/visualizacao/livros/liv98887.pdf.

7.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed December 16, 2016; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary education. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. The calculation includes all new entrants to the last grade (regardless of age). Therefore, the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

8.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD), 2014. Analysis received December 15, 2016. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information,  please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

9.         Santini, D. "Adolescentes Paraguaios Escravizados São Forçados a Deixar o País." [online ] March 21, 2013 [cited March 4, 2014]; http://meiainfancia.reporterbrasil.org.br/adolescentes-paraguaios-escravizados-sao-forcados-a-deixar-o-pais/.

10.       Duran, S. "As Piores Formas de Trabalho Infantil." Meia Infância [online] February 21, 2013 [cited March 3, 2014]; http://meiainfancia.reporterbrasil.org.br/as-piores-formas-de-trabalho-infantil/.

11.       Santini, D. "Crianças Sem Identidade, o Trabalho Infantil na Produção de Castanha de Caju." [online] September 21, 2013 [cited March 3, 2014]; http://meiainfancia.reporterbrasil.org.br/criancas-sem-identidade-o-trabalho-infantil-na-producao-de-castanha-de-caju/.

12.       "Crianças Trabalham como Carregadores." [online] February 8, 2012 [cited June 14, 2017]; http://www.jornaldacidade.net/noticia-leitura/66/23006/criancas-trabalham-como-carregadores.html.

13.       Martini, M. "Lançada Campanha de Erradicação do Trabalho Infantil no RS." mprs.mp.br [online] June 11, 2012 [cited April 11, 2014]; http://www.mprs.mp.br/noticias/id28586.htm.

14.       U.S. Embassy- Brasilia. reporting, January 15, 2016.

15.       Ministry of Labor and Employment. Relatório (Estados e Municípios com Quantitativo); accessed March 1, 2016; [Source on file].

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