Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Brazil

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Brazil

2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Significant Advancement

In 2015, Brazil made a significant advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government conducted 7,263 child labor inspections; of these, the mobile inspection group to combat child labor, established in 2014, conducted 34 inspection activities, and issued 53 penalties for child labor law violations. The state of Bahia passed a law that removes state tax and administrative benefits for companies that utilize forced labor and prohibits company owners and associates from opening a new business within 10 years. The city of São Paulo approved the Municipal Plan to Eradicate Forced Labor, which aims to create and maintain a central database for forced labor information and increase access to education and health services for victims of human trafficking and forced labor. In addition, the Government increased funding for the Family Stipend (Bolsa Família) program by $268 million. However, children are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in the production of tobacco and in commercial sexual exploitation. Brazil’s legal definition of trafficking in persons does not cover human trafficking for labor exploitation. In addition, social programs for child trafficking victims, including victims of commercial sexual exploitation, appear to be insufficient.

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Children in Brazil are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in the production of tobacco and in commercial sexual exploitation.(1-6) In 2015, the Government released the 2014 National Household Survey results, which found 3.3 million children ages 5 to 17 working in Brazil, a 4.5 percent increase from 2013. The study also found that 62 percent of child laborers ages 5 to 13 work in agriculture.(7) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Brazil.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

2.7 (839,620)

Working children by sector, ages 5 to 14 (%)

 

Agriculture

55.3

Industry

9.3

Services

35.4

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

97.6

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

3.1

Primary completion rate (%):

Unavailable

Primary completion rate was unavailable from UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(8)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD), 2013.(9)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of apples,* beans,* citrus,*† coffee,* corn,* cotton,† manioc, manioc flour,*† mate tea,* pineapple,† potatoes,* rice, sisal,† sugarcane,*† tobacco,† and tomatoes,* and processing cashews† (5, 6, 10-23)

Cattle ranching† and animal slaughter,† including for beef production† (6, 14, 22, 24)

Mollusk harvesting*† (15, 25)

Forestry,* including logging*† and charcoal production† (22, 26, 27)

Industry

Production of ceramics† and bricks† (6, 22, 27, 28)

Production of garments*† and footwear† (5, 18, 19, 21, 27, 29, 30)

Work in quarries*† (31)

Services

Street work,† including vending† and begging* (4, 32-34)

Garbage scavenging† (6, 32, 34)

Washing and repairing automobiles,* tractors,* and machines† (6, 22, 35, 36)

Work in markets and fairs,* including hauling fruits and vegetables* and transporting heavy loads* (30, 35-37)

Work in fast food establishments* (38)

Selling alcoholic beverages*† (5, 22)

Artistic work* and playing in soccer clubs* (21, 39-41)

Domestic work† (4, 5, 42)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1-3, 33, 34, 43, 44)

Domestic work, begging, and playing in soccer clubs, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking* (1, 45)

Use in illicit activities, including drug trafficking,* sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1, 4, 33)

Forced labor in agriculture, including in coffee,* manioc,* and mate tea* (11, 20, 33, 46)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

In Brazil, human trafficking is a problem, especially in border areas. Brazilian and Paraguayan indigenous children are trafficked for domestic work; Paraguayan indigenous children are trafficked for the purpose of begging; adolescents, including some from Haiti and South Korea, are trafficked to play in soccer clubs.(1, 45)

While there are no overall statistics available, the Government acknowledges that the commercial sexual exploitation of children is a problem throughout Brazil, especially in tourist areas in the cities of Fortaleza, Manaus, and in the slums (favelas) of Rio de Janeiro.(47) Child sex tourism is particularly common in tourist areas along the coast.(48)

In 2015, the results of the National School Census found that 4,084 rural schools closed in 2014.(49, 50) The states most affected by school closures are in the North and Northeast regions.(51) Many indigenous children are not registered at birth.(33) This may affect their ability to access education because birth registration documents are often necessary to enroll in school.(52)

Brazil has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

16

Article 403 of the Labor Code (53)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 2 of the Hazardous Work List (54)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Hazardous Work List (54)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 149, 231, and 231-A of the Penal Code (55)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 231 and 231-A of the Penal Code (55)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 218-A, 218-B, 227, and 228 of the Penal Code; Articles 240, 241, and 244A of the Child and Adolescent Statute (55, 56)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Articles 33 and 40 of the National System of Public Policies on Drugs; Article 244-B of the Child and Adolescent Statute (56, 57)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

Yes

18

Article 5 of the Military Service Law (58)

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

17

Article 5 of the Military Service Law (58)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

17

Article 208 of the Constitution (59)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 208 of the Constitution (59)

 

In January 2015, the state of Bahia passed Law 13.221, establishing harsher penalties for companies that utilize forced or exploitative labor directly or in their supply chains. The penalties remove tax or administrative benefits offered by the state and prohibit company owners and associates from opening a new business within 10 years.(60)

The Penal Code’s definition of trafficking in persons does not cover human trafficking for the purposes of labor.(43, 55) Although the Government drafted a bill in 2014 that aims to harmonize the trafficking in persons legal framework with international standards, the legislation was not approved during the reporting period.(43)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor and Social Security (MTPS)

Conduct labor inspections and enforce child and forced labor laws.(30) Labor inspections are planned by the 27 regional offices based on federal goals, analyses of labor market data, and available human and financial resources.(61, 62) In the case of the mobile inspection group, combat child labor by coordinating labor inspections with awareness-raising programs.(21) Additional mobile inspection units, located in every region, conduct unannounced inspections where forced labor, including forced child labor, is suspected.(21, 63) Mobile inspection units comprise labor inspectors, labor prosecutors, and Federal Police officers.(21) Refer cases involving the worst forms of child labor to the Ministry of Justice and other government agencies.(64) In 2015, the Ministry of Labor and Employment and the Ministry of Social Welfare were combined to form the Ministry of Labor and Social Security (MTPS).(21)

Federal Labor Prosecutor’s Office

Prosecute child labor violations by working with prosecutors from the National Committee to Combat Child and Adolescent Labor, an in-house body that coordinates efforts to combat child labor.(65) Carry out awareness-raising campaigns and monitor whether municipalities budget the required 5 percent for initiatives to protect children’s rights.(30, 65, 66)

Federal Police

Investigate some cases of forced labor, human trafficking, and commercial sexual exploitation of children.(30) Maintain a database to track cases of human trafficking for sexual exploitation.(21)

Federal Public Ministry

Investigate and prosecute cases of forced labor and human trafficking.(67)

Ministry of Justice

Lead efforts to combat human trafficking and oversee Advanced Posts (Postos Avançados) and state-run Anti-Trafficking Coordination Centers (Núcleos de Enfrentamento).(43) Provide guidance to federal, state, and local government officials on referrals for victims of human trafficking, including to Anti-Trafficking Coordination Centers (Núcleos de Enfrentamento), Social Assistance Reference Centers, and NGOs.(43)

Ministry of Women, Racial Equality, and Human Rights

Coordinate efforts to protect human rights, including combating forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation. In 2015, the National Secretariats of Human Rights and Women’s Policies were unified with the Secretariat of Policies for Racial Equality, under the Ministry of Women, Racial Equality, and Human Rights.(68) The National Secretary of Human Rights (SDH) sponsors Dial 100, a human rights violation hotline that directs child labor complaints to appropriate institutions for follow-up.(30, 68) The National Secretary of Women’s Policies operates Dial 180, a hotline that receives complaints about violence against women.(69, 70) During the reporting period, the Government expanded the Dial 100 and Dial 180 hotlines, making them available at all hours, every day of the year.(43) In 2015, Dial 100 registered 121 human trafficking complaints and 307 forced labor complaints.(71) From January to June, Dial 180 received 176 human trafficking complaints.(72)

Federal Highway Police

Collaborate with the Federal Public Ministry and MTPS’s mobile inspection units to identify areas at high risk of forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation, with a focus on Brazil’s highways.(73, 74)

Advanced Posts (Postos Avançados)

Identify human traffickers and potential victims in high-transit areas, including airports and bus stations. There are 19 posts in areas with historically high rates of human trafficking. In October 2015, a new post opened in Manaus.(43)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2015, labor law enforcement agencies in Brazil took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown (75)

$809,345 (63)

Number of Labor Inspectors

2,711 (75)

2,500 (21)

Number of Child Labor Dedicated Inspectors

Unknown

Unknown

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (75)

Yes (21)

Training for Labor Inspectors

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (75)

Yes (21)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (75)

Yes (63)

Number of Labor Inspections

399,346 (76)

355,740 (76)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown

Unknown

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

5,522 (75)

7,200 (77)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown (75)

53 (21)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

Unknown (75)

Unknown (21)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (75)

Yes (21)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (75)

Yes (63)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (75)

Yes (21)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (63)

Yes (63)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (75)

Yes (21)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (75)

Yes (21)

 

According to the ILO’s recommendation of one inspector for every 15,000 workers in industrializing economies, Brazil should employ roughly 7,280 inspectors in order to adequately enforce labor laws throughout the country.(21, 78-80) In 2015, the Ministry of Labor and Social Security (MTPS) conducted 7,263 child labor inspections.(77) The majority of inspections occurred in the states of Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, Mato Grosso do Sul, Amazonas, and Rio Grande do Sul.(21) The states that registered the highest number of violations were Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais, Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, and Mato Grosso do Sul. In Amazonas, inspectors found 32 violations of child labor laws involving children ages 4 and younger.(77) In May, MTPS targeted the fast food industry for inspections due to the high number of complaints received about children working in this sector.(38) In October, the mobile inspection group to combat child labor conducted 34 inspection activities in Pará in response to the continued employment of children in carwashes and fairs, situations in which they may be exposed to chemicals and flammable and sharp materials.(36) The mobile inspection group found 81 children engaged in child labor and an additional 21 children above the minimum age engaged in hazardous work; 53 penalties were issued.(21, 36)

Upon finding children in hazardous working conditions, MTPS officials immediately remove the children and return them to their families or refer them to social service providers.(21) Between April 2014 and April 2015, labor inspectors removed 5,688 children from child labor. The states with the most rescued children were Pernambuco, Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso do Sul, Goiás, and Sergipe.(81) In 2015, MTPS’ labor inspectors and mobile inspection units removed 1,010 people from forced and exploitative labor conditions; 12 of these victims were children under age 16, and 28 were children between 16 and 17. The majority of victims were found in urban areas.(82)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2015, criminal law enforcement agencies in Brazil took actions to combat the worst forms of child

labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Yes (63)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (69)

Yes (43)

Number of Investigations

Unknown

Unknown (43)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown (69)

Unknown (43)

Number of Convictions

Unknown (69)

Unknown (43)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (75)

Yes (43)

 

In July 2015, the Government worked with UNODC to provide training on human trafficking issues to police officers, judges, and prosecutors.(43) The Ministry of Justice trained 40 metropolitan civil guards from São Paulo to detect and report cases of human trafficking for labor and sexual exploitation to MTPS and the Federal Police.(83)

From January to June 2015, self-reported data compiled from Anti-Trafficking Coordination Centers (Núcleos de Enfrentamento) and Advanced Posts (Postos Avançados) identified 170 victims of human trafficking for sexual exploitation and 2,145 victims of human trafficking for labor exploitation.(43) Research did not find disaggregated data for complaints regarding adult and child victims. The National Center for Cybercrime Complaints, a partnership between the Government and NGO SaferNet, receives online complaints about human rights violations, including child pornography and human trafficking, and refers cases to the Federal Public Ministry and Federal Police for investigation.(84, 85)

Although the Federal Police maintain a database to track cases of human trafficking for sexual exploitation, no mechanism is in place to record violations related to the commercial sexual exploitation of children, including in prostitution and pornography.(43)

According to the Government, the judicial system does not adequately hold perpetrators of child labor law violations accountable, which may lead to a sense of impunity among violators.(21) Despite reported incidents of child sex tourism, research found no evidence that investigations, prosecutions, or convictions were undertaken during the reporting period. Furthermore, limited evidence suggests police officers and other government officials may be involved in child trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation.(33)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Committee for the Eradication of Child Labor

Lead the implementation of the National Plan for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor and the Protection of Working Adolescents. Led by MTPS, includes 17 government agencies and representatives from trade unions, business associations, and civil society organizations.(86, 87)

Intersectoral Commission to Combat Sexual Violence Against Children and Adolescents

Monitor implementation of the National Plan to Combat Sexual Violence Against Children and Adolescents. Led by the SDH and includes representatives from civil society, international organizations, Federal Public Ministry, and MTPS.(88, 89)

National Committee to Combat Trafficking in Persons

Coordinate activities to address human trafficking, including implementation of the Second Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons. Led by the Ministry of Justice, with 26 representatives from government agencies, civil society organizations, national councils, and academia.(90, 91)

National Council for the Rights of Children and Adolescents

Monitor policies to protect children’s rights, including the rights of working children. Includes 28 sitting Council members, 14 of whom are representatives from the Executive Branch and 14 of whom are NGO representatives.(92, 93)

Interagency Committee to Implement Strategies to Ensure the Protection of Children’s and Adolescents’ Rights

Coordinate the implementation of policies to protect children’s and adolescents’ rights, including the National Plan for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor and the Protection of Working Adolescents. Led by SDH, includes representatives from the National Council of the Federal Public Ministry, MTPS, and ministries of Justice, Education, Health, and Social Development and the Fight Against Hunger.(94)

Labor Justice Commission for the Eradication of Child Labor and Protection of Adolescent Decent Work

Organize efforts of the labor courts to eliminate child labor and ensure that adolescents have decent work opportunities.(95) Includes 11 representatives from the Superior Labor Court and regional labor courts.(96)

Anti-Trafficking Coordination Centers (Núcleos de Enfrentamento)

Coordinate activities carried out by local, state, and federal agencies to combat human trafficking. Established in 16 states.(67)

Judicial State Committees to Combat Trafficking in Persons

Coordinate data sharing on human trafficking cases among courts. Established in 15 states.(69)

The Government of Brazil has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Plan for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor and the Protection of Working Adolescents (2011–2015)

Guided the Government of Brazil’s efforts to combat child labor, including its worst forms.(97)

National Plan to Combat Sexual Violence Against Children and Adolescents (2013–2020)

Identifies strategies to prevent sexual violence, protect children’s rights, and assist child victims.(89)

National Policy on Human Rights for Children and Adolescents (2011–2020)

Outlines the policy framework to promote children’s rights and aims to expand actions to address child labor.(98)

Second Plan for the Eradication of Forced Labor

Establishes the policy framework to address forced labor.(54)

Second Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons (2012–2016)

Guides efforts to combat human trafficking, including child trafficking.(91) Focuses on prevention, assistance to victims, and suppression of criminal activity.(75) In 2015, the Ministry of Justice conducted a policy assessment and found successful progress in 82 of the plan’s 115 goals.(99)

Declaration of the Regional Initiative: Latin America and the Caribbean Free of Child Labor (2014–2020)

Aims to increase regional cooperation on eradicating child labor by 2020 through efforts by signatories to strengthen monitoring and coordination mechanisms, government programs, and South-South exchanges. Signed in 2014 at the ILO’s 18th Regional Meeting of the Americas in Lima, Peru, the initiative reaffirms commitments made in the Brasilia Declaration from the Third Global Conference on Child Labor.(100, 101)

MERCOSUR United Against Child Labor Campaign

Aims to develop public awareness about the need to combat child labor in MERCOSUR member countries. Addresses child labor in agriculture, domestic work, and sexual exploitation, with particular emphasis on communities along country borders.(102)

Second Presidential Declaration on the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor in MERCOSUR (2012)

Promotes greater coordination between governmental agencies, levels of government, and with civil society among MERCOSUR members.(103)

MERCOSUR Southern Child Initiative

Aims to defend the rights of children and adolescents in the region by raising awareness and seeking coordination among member states on the commercial sexual exploitation of children, child trafficking and pornography, child labor, and migrant labor; improving country legal frameworks to harmonize them with international conventions affecting children; and exchanging best practices.(104)

MERCOSUR Social Labor Declaration of 2015†

Aims to promote decent work and sustainable development in the five member states of MERCOSUR, in part through commitments to uphold core labor standards, including the elimination of forced labor, the prevention and elimination of child labor, and the protection of adolescent work. Signed in Brasilia, Brazil in July 2015.(105, 106)

Municipal Plan to Eradicate Forced Labor (2015–2017)†

Outlines 58 actions to prevent and eliminate forced labor, including forced child labor, in the city of São Paulo. Aims to conduct a study and risk assessment of forced labor, create and maintain a central database for forced labor information, and increase access to education and health services for victims of human trafficking and forced labor.(107) The Municipal Council for the Eradication of Forced Labor of São Paulo monitors the plan’s implementation.(107)

Decent Work National Plan

Outlines policies to provide decent work opportunities and increase access to education and vocational training.(108) Aims to include 90 percent of working children between the ages of 5 and 9, and 60 percent of working children between the ages of 10 and 13 in the National Program to Eradicate Child Labor (PETI) by 2015.(108)

National Education Plan (2014–2024)

Aims to expand access to education and improve the quality of education. Has 20 goals, including universal basic education; an end to illiteracy; conversion of 50 percent of public schools into full-time schools, extending the number of school hours to seven or more per day; and strengthening the support provided to children exposed to labor exploitation. Plans to allocate 10 percent of Brazil’s GDP to public education by 2024.(109-111)

4-Year Development Plan (2012–2015)*

Sought to achieve sustainable development in all regions and promoted social equality through access to quality education, technological innovation, and environmental sustainability. Aimed to lift 16 million people out of extreme poverty and build 2 million houses for low-income families.(112)

* Child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy.
† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

In December 2015, Brazil participated in the XIX Inter-American Conference of Ministers of Labor to promote decent work with social inclusion throughout the Americas. Held in Cancún, Mexico, participating countries adopted the Declaration of Cancún 2015 which aims in part to foster policies to eliminate labor exploitation, including child labor, and to promote education and vocational training for youth.(113, 114) Participating countries also adopted a Plan of Action that prioritizes the elimination of child labor, including through data collection, enforcement of labor laws, and the development of social protection policies for children and families.(113, 115)

In 2015, funding for the education sector was reduced by nearly $3 billion.(116) According to the National Education Council, the reduced funding may have resulted in delayed implementation of the National Education Plan.(117)

In 2015, the Government of Brazil funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

National Program to Eradicate Child Labor [Programa de Erradicação do Trabalho Infantil (PETI)]†

Ministry of Social Development and the Fight Against Hunger (MDS) social assistance program that combats child labor through awareness-raising activities, victim identification and protection, and conditional cash transfers.(63, 118) To receive program benefits, participants must ensure that children are not working and maintain at least 85 percent school attendance.(119) In 2015, 14,622 families received approximately $1.8 million in conditional cash transfers.(63) During the reporting period, a working group began redesigning the program based on an evaluation of its impact and the implementation of current policies.(63, 120)

Living Together and Strengthening Links Program [Serviço de Convivência e Fortalecimento de Vínculo (SCFV)]†

MDS social assistance program for vulnerable groups, including child laborers. Aims to strengthen familial and communal ties through sports and artistic and cultural activities. Offers services at Social Assistance Reference Centers and Living Centers.(121) In 2015, 141,436 victims of child labor received support services.(63)

Family Stipend (Bolsa Família)†

MDS program that supplements income through cash transfers for families living in poverty and extreme poverty.(4, 122) In 2015, the budget increased from $8.7 billion by $268 million.(75, 123) MDS reported that more than 96 percent of the 15.7 million monitored students achieved the minimum requirement of 85 percent school attendance.(123) During the reporting period, 136,195 families living in extreme poverty with a victim of child labor were identified as priority groups; these families received approximately $140 million in conditional cash transfers.(63)

Brazil Without Extreme Poverty (Brasil Sem Miséria)†

MDS program that aims to lift more than 16 million people out of extreme poverty by guaranteeing a minimum income; expanding access to public services, including education, health, and citizenship; and increasing job opportunities and income generation for the poorest families.(124) In 2015, the budget increased by 4.4 percent.(75) One program component, Caring Brazil (Brasil Carinhoso), targets Bolsa Família participants with children ages 0 to 15 with a monthly family income of less than $22 per person.(125)

National Program on Job Training and Employment (Programa Nacional de Acesso ao Ensino Técnico e Emprego)†

Ministry of Education job training program for high school students.(126, 127) In 2015, 1.3 million students were registered, and 342 public schools were built, renovated, and expanded to offer technical courses.(127)

More Education Program (Mais Educação)†

Ministry of Education program that provides after-school and remedial activities to students to reduce dropout rates and grade repetition, as well as combat child labor.(128) In 2015, the Ministry of Education provided $48 million to participating schools with less than $1,300 in their accounts.(129)

National Household Survey†

Government-funded annual national household survey that includes questions about child labor.(7)

South-South Cooperation Projects†

Government of Brazil-funded $461,862 project implemented by the ILO to combat child labor and promote South-South cooperation.(120) In June 2015, the Government announced a new $6.8 million South-South cooperation project to be implemented by the ILO to address child and forced labor in cotton production.(130)

Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues Project (2011–2017)

USDOL-funded project implemented by the ILO in approximately 40 countries to support the priorities of the Roadmap for Achieving the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor by 2016 established by The Hague Global Child Labor Conference in 2010. Aims to improve the evidence base on child labor and forced labor through data collection and research.(131)

Project to Consolidate Efforts to Combat Forced Labor in Brazil and Peru (2012–2017)

USDOL-funded, $6 million project implemented by the ILO for 5 years to combat forced labor, including forced child labor in Brazil and Peru, and to share Brazil’s best practices with the Government of Peru and Peruvian stakeholders.(132, 133) Coordinated with the Government of Brazil to include a set of forced labor questions in the 2015 National Household Survey.(68) In October 2015, Brazilian officials trained the Peruvian Government on the use of mobile inspection units to detect cases of forced labor.(134)

Protect Brazil Smartphone Application
(Proteja Brasil)†

Government- and UNICEF-sponsored smartphone and tablet application to report child labor abuses.(135)

Social Assistance Reference Centers†

MDS and SDH program that provides vulnerable populations, including victims of child labor and commercial sexual exploitation, with psychological, social, and legal services.(75, 136) In 2015, there were 2,453 centers located throughout the country, an increase from 2,440 centers in 2014; however, only 557 centers were certified to assist victims of human trafficking, and many centers were underfunded.(43, 48, 75)

† Program is funded by the Government of Brazil.

In December 2015, MTPS and the Ministry of Social Development and the Fight Against Hunger (MDS) signed an agreement that outlines activities related to the provision of reintegration services for victims of forced labor, including the Family Stipend (Bolsa Família) program.(137) Although the National Program to Eradicate Child Labor (PETI) and  Family Stipend (Bolsa Família) have reduced child labor in Brazil, challenges remain.(97, 138) Some PETI beneficiaries are not fully compliant with program requirements; reports indicate some children do not regularly attend school, and other children work.(37, 139) Limited evidence indicates difficulties in monitoring children’s school attendance and after-school activities. Furthermore, penalties for failure to comply with the programs’ conditions are rarely enforced.(4) Because PETI and Bolsa Família are decentralized, local governments are responsible for their implementation. Some municipalities do not have the necessary human and financial resources to fully implement and monitor these programs.(4, 140)

Many states report a lack of resources to adequately assist victims of human trafficking.(43) Furthermore, research found a lack of specialized shelters for child victims of commercial sexual exploitation.(33, 48)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Brazil (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that the definition of trafficking in persons is consistent with international standards.

2011 – 2015

Enforcement

Make information publicly available regarding the number of child labor dedicated inspectors, labor inspections conducted at worksites and by desk review, and penalties imposed that were collected; as well as the number of criminal investigations conducted, violations found, prosecutions initiated, and convictions achieved.

2012 – 2015

Increase the number of labor inspectors in order to provide adequate coverage of the workforce.

2014 – 2015

Collect data on all commercial sexual exploitation cases, including child prostitution and pornography.

2015

Ensure that violators of child labor laws, including the worst forms of child labor, are held accountable in accordance with the law.

2015

Conduct investigations of child sex tourism and child trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation and prosecute the alleged perpetrators.

2015

Government Policies

Provide adequate resources to ensure that the goals outlined in the National Education Plan are achieved.

2015

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into existing development policies.

2015

Social Programs

Conduct research on the commercial sexual exploitation of children.

2009 – 2015

Expand efforts to improve access to primary and secondary education, particularly in rural areas and among indigenous children.

2013 – 2015

Ensure that families participating in PETI and Bolsa Família comply with program requirements to keep children in school and out of work.

2009 – 2015

Provide local governments with the necessary resources to fully implement and monitor PETI and Bolsa Família.

2009 – 2015

Provide adequate resources to state governments to ensure that child trafficking victims receive social services. Ensure the availability of specialized shelters for child victims of commercial sexual exploitation.

2012 – 2015

1.         Ministry of Justice. Diagnóstico sobre Tráfico de Pessoas nas Áreas de Fronteira no Brasil. Brasilia; 2013. http://issuu.com/justicagovbr/docs/diagnostico_trafico_pessoas_frontei.

2.         Profissão Repórter. Menores de Idade se Prostituem em Estradas no Nordeste do Brasil [TV]: Globo; October 4, 2011, 20.01 min, [cited March 4, 2014]; http://g1.globo.com/profissao-reporter/index.html.

3.         Rafael Da Silva Oliveira. "Las redes de prostitución y tráfico de mujeres en la Frontera Brasil-Venezuela por las Carreteras BR-174 y Troncal 10." Espacio Abierto Cuaderno Venezolano de Sociología, 21(2):325 (2012); hardcopy on file

4.         Repórter Brasil. Brasil Livre de Trabalho Infantil. São Paulo; 2013. http://reporterbrasil.org.br/trabalhoinfantil/livro/.

5.         Martini, M. "Lançada Campanha de Erradicação do Trabalho Infantil no RS." mprs.mp.br [online] June 11, 2012 [cited April 11, 2014]; http://www.mprs.mp.br/noticias/id28586.htm.

6.         "Crianças Trabalham como Carregadores." Jornal da Cidade, February 8, 2012. http://www.jornaldacidade.net/noticia-leitura/66/23006/criancas-trabalham-como-carregadores.html.

7.         Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE). Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD). Rio de Janeiro; 2015. http://biblioteca.ibge.gov.br/visualizacao/livros/liv94935.pdf.

8.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed December 16, 2015]; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. Because the calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age), the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

9.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD), 2013. Analysis received December 18, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

10.       "Crianças Sem Identidade, o Trabalho Infantil na Produção de Castanha de Caju." [online] September 21, 2013 [cited March 3, 2014]; http://www.diarioliberdade.org/brasil/laboral-economia/41956-crian%C3%A7as-sem-identidade,-o-trabalho-infantil-na-produ%C3%A7%C3%A3o-de-castanha-de-caju.html.

11.       Santini, D. "Adolescentes Paraguaios Escravizados São Forçados a Deixar o País." [online ] March 21, 2013 [cited March 4, 2014]; http://meiainfancia.reporterbrasil.org.br/adolescentes-paraguaios-escravizados-sao-forcados-a-deixar-o-pais/.

12.       Duran, S. "As Piores Formas de Trabalho Infantil." reporterbrasil.org.br [online] February 21, 2013 [cited March 3, 2014]; http://bit.ly/YHtHU6.

13.       Jornal CORREIO. "Em Dez Anos 108 Mil Deixam Trabalho Infantil na Paraíba." portalczn.com.br [online] October 18, 2010 [cited March 3, 2014]; http://portalczn.com.br/site/?p=326.

14.       "Em Pato Branco, Sesc Discute Trabalho Infantil no Paraná." oalvo.com.br [online] June 17, 2010 [cited March 3, 2014]; http://bit.ly/XC3hqd.

15.       Profissão Repórter. Trabalho Infantil [TV]: Globo; July 10, 2012, 22 min., 18 sec., [cited March 4, 2014]; http://g1.globo.com/profissao-reporter/videos/t/programas/v/trabalho-infantil-parte-1/2034343/.

16.       Pyl, B. "Crianças e Adultos Colhem Fumo em Condições de Escravidão." reporterbrasil.org.br [online] January 26, 2011 [cited March 4, 2014]; http://bit.ly/1gNOmyJ.

17.       Pyl, B. "Fiscalização Encontra Escravos na Região da "Chacina de Unaí"." reporterbrasil.org.br [online] January 12, 2011 [cited March 3, 2014]; http://www.reporterbrasil.org.br/exibe.php?id=1838.

18.       Jessica Melo, and Jéssica Butzge. Não é brincadeira: O Trabalho infantil que Santa Catarina não vê. Florianópolis: Rádio AL; April 25, 2014, 17 min., 01 sec., [cited January 31, 2014]; http://agenciaal.alesc.sc.gov.br/index.php/radioal/noticia_single_radioa....

19.       "PB Integra Rota do Trabalho Infantil; Patos é o Principal Polo Exportador." Jornal da Paraíba, June 9, 2011. http://bit.ly/yF0Odg.

20.       Pyl, B. "Erva-mate: cinco casos de trabalho escravo em 20 dias." reporterbrasil.org.br [online] July 22, 2011 [cited March 1, 2016]; http://reporterbrasil.org.br/2011/07/erva-mate-cinco-casos-de-trabalho-escravo-em-20-dias/.

21.       U.S. Embassy- Brasilia. reporting, January 15, 2016.

22.       Ministry of Labor and Employment, Sistema de Informações sobre Focos de Trabalho Infantil. Relatório [Estados e Municípios com Quantitativo]; accessed March 1, 2016; http://sistemasiti.mte.gov.br/main_report.aspx.

23.       Pyl, B. "Crianças são libertadas de trabalho escravo em São Carlos." reporterbrasil.org.br [online] November 10, 2011 [cited March 1, 2016]; http://reporterbrasil.org.br/2011/11/criancas-sao-libertadas-de-trabalho-escravo-em-sao-carlos/.

24.       Santini, D. "Violência Crua, um Flagrante de Trabalho Infantil em Matadouro." [online] September 5, 2013 [cited March 3, 2014]; http://meiainfancia.reporterbrasil.org.br/violencia-crua-um-flagrante-de-trabalho-infantil-em-matadouro/.

25.       Ojeda, I. "Crianças Catam Sururu que Abastece Quiosques e Restaurantes do Recife." reporterbrasil.org.br [online] June 27, 2013 [cited April 11, 2014]; http://reporterbrasil.org.br/trabalhoinfantil/criancas-catam-sururu-que-abastece-quiosques-e-restaurantes-do-recife/.

26.       Igor Ojeda, and Stefano Wrobleski. "Paulistano Usa Carvão Feito com Trabalho Escravo e Infantil." reporterbrasil.org.br [online] January 24, 2014 [cited January 31, 2014]; http://reporterbrasil.org.br/2014/01/paulistano-usa-carvao-feito-com-trabalho-escravo-e-infantil/.

27.       "Reportagens Retratam Trabalho Infantil em Santa Catarina." reporterbrasil.org.br [online] January 20, 2014 [cited January 31, 2014]; http://reporterbrasil.org.br/2014/01/reportagens-retratam-trabalho-infantil-em-santa-catarina/.

28.       "Jovens São Flagrados Trabalhando Irregularmente em Fábrica de Tijolos em Campos." noticias.r7.com [online] March 2, 2011 [cited March 3, 2014]; http://bit.ly/zoavxl.

29.       de Souza Lourenço, E. Trabalho de Crianças e Adolescentes: Desafios para o Programa de Erradição do Trabalho Infantil (PETI) e para o trabalho profissional do Serviço Social  Brasília; 2013. http://periodicos.ufes.br/temporalis/article/download/6277/4947.

30.       U.S. Embassy- Brasilia. reporting, January 17, 2014.

31.       "Globo Repórter mostra imagens de trabalho infantil no estado do Piauí." globo.com [online] August 12, 2013 [cited April 8, 2016]; http://redeglobo.globo.com/pi/redeclube/noticia/2013/08/globo-reporter-mostra-imagens-de-trabalho-infantil-no-estado-do-piaui.html.

32.       META- Instituto de Pesquisa de Opinião. Primeira Pesquisa Censitária Nacional sobre Crianças e Adolescentes em Situação de Rua; March 2011. http://bit.ly/eIWHpM.

33.       UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Concluding observations on the combined second to fourth periodic reports of Brazil*. Geneva; October 2, 2015. Report No. CRC/C/BRA/CO/2-4. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fBRA%2fCO%2f2-4&Lang=en.

34.       Transforming Childhoods Research Network, University of Dundee. ‘Let’s Win This Game Together’ Documenting violations of children’s rights around the 2014 FIFA World Cup in Brazil; 2015. http://www.childrenwin.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/15337-SoE-Let%C2%B9s-Win-This-Game-Together-Report-A4.pdf.

35.       Brandão, L. "Ruas do Centro de Salvador Têm Trabalho Infantil e Muita Sujeira." Tribuna da Bahia, August 27, 2013. http://www.tribunadabahia.com.br/2013/08/27/ruas-do-centro-de-salvador-tem-trabalho-infantil-muita-sujeira.

36.       Ministry of Labor and Employment. "Grupo Móvel de Combate ao Trabalho Infantil obtém sucesso em sua primeira operação." November 13, 2015 [cited February 26, 2016]; http://mte.gov.br/index.php/noticias-mte/inspecao-do-trabalho/1311-grupo-movel-de-combate-ao-trabalho-infantil-obtem-sucesso-em-sua-primeira-operacao.

37.       Natan, É. "Conselho Tutelar fará campanha contra trabalho de menores na feira livre." radiosantacruzam.com.br [online] March 16, 2012 [cited March 4, 2014]; http://bit.ly/HSnksr.

38.       A Economia. "Em 1 ano, 5.688 crianças foram resgatadas de trabalho infantil, diz governo." economia.uol.com.br [online] June 22, 2015 [cited November 2, 2015]; http://economia.uol.com.br/empregos-e-carreiras/noticias/redacao/2015/06/09/em-1-ano-5688-criancas-foram-resgatadas-de-trabalho-infantil-diz-governo.htm#fotoNav=6.

39.       Martins, MR. "MP Investiga Exploração de Trabalho Infantil em Tradicional Espetáculo de Natal em Curitiba." uol.com.br [online] July 28, 2012 [cited March 4, 2014]; http://bit.ly/XjiJmq.

40.       Santini, D. "Contra Trabalho Infantil no Futebol, OIT Cobra Mudanças nas Categorias de Base." reporterbrasil.org.br [online] February 25, 2012 [cited March 4, 2014]; http://reporterbrasil.org.br/2012/02/contra-trabalho-infantil-no-futebol-oit-cobra-mudancas-nas-categorias-de-base/.

41.       Federal Labor Prosecutor's Office. Medida Pretende Combater a Exploração de Crianças e Adolescentes nas Categorias de Base. Campo Grande; February 15, 2013. http://bit.ly/Zly4so.

42.       Ministério Público do Trabalho, and Associação Nacional dos Procuradores do Trabalho. Trabalho Legal - Trabalho infantil doméstico: TV Justiça; September 13, 2011, 01 min., 52 sec., [cited March 3, 2014]; http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FYm8A9FXTts.

43.       U.S. Embassy- Brasilia. reporting, February 5, 2016.

44.       Childhood Brazil, Public Ministry of Labor, ILO, Federal Highway Police, and President's Secretariat for Human Rights. Mapeamento dos Pontos Vulneráveis à Exploração Sexual de Crianças e Adolescentes nas Rodovias Federais Brasileiras; 2014. http://www.childhood.org.br/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/Mapeamento_2013_2....

45.       Dimmi, A. "Pesquisa Aponta Tráfico de Pessoas no Brasil até para Futebol." Folha de São Paulo, Brasilia, October 18, 2013. http://bit.ly/1fW7Ip5.

46.       Ministério Público do Trabalho em Minas Gerais. Operação conjunta flagra exploração de trabalho análogo ao de escravo na colheita de café. August 13, 2015. http://www.prt3.mpt.gov.br/procuradorias/prt-belohorizonte/484-operacao-....

47.       Marcel Hazeu, and Frans van Kranen. Sexual exploitation of children in Brazil: putting a spot on the problem ECPAT, Terre des Hommes, Free a Girl, and Plan Netherlands; May 9, 2014. www.defenceforchildren.nl/images/13/3096.pdf.

48.       U.S. Department of State. "Brazil," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015. Washington, DC; July 27, 2015; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/243558.pdf.

49.       Cancían, N. "Brasil Fecha, em Média, Oito Escolas por Dia na Região Rural." Folha de São Paulo, São Paulo, March 3, 2014. http://www1.folha.uol.com.br/educacao/2014/03/1420332-pais-fecha-oito-escolas-por-dia-na-zona-rural.shtml.

50.       Maura Silva. "Mais de 4 mil escolas do campo fecham suas portas em 2014." [online] June 24, 2015 [cited April 15, 2016]; http://www.mst.org.br/2015/06/24/mais-de-4-mil-escolas-do-campo-fecham-suas-portas-em-2014.html.

51.       Silva, M. "Mais de 4 mil escolas do campo fecham suas portas em 2014." mst.org.br [online] June 24, 2015 [cited April 15, 2016]; http://www.mst.org.br/2015/06/24/mais-de-4-mil-escolas-do-campo-fecham-suas-portas-em-2014.html.

52.       U.S. Department of State. "Brazil," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practice- 2014. Washington, DC; June 25, 2015; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/236882.pdf.

53.       Government of Brazil. Consolidação das Leis do Trabalho (with modifications until October 2013), Decreto-Lei No. 5.452, enacted May 1, 1943. http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/decreto-lei/Del5452.htm.

54.       Government of Brazil. Decreto No. 6.481, enacted June 12, 2008. http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_Ato2007-2010/2008/Decreto/D6481.htm.

55.       Government of Brazil. Código Penal (with modifications until 2013), No. 2.848, enacted December 7, 1940. http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/Decreto-Lei/Del2848compilado.htm.

56.       Government of Brazil. Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente, Lei 8.069, enacted July 13, 1990. http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/leis/L8069.htm.

57.       Government of Brazil. Lei 11.343, enacted August 23, 2006. http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_ato2004-2006/2006/lei/l11343.htm.

58.       Government of Brazil. Lei do Servico Militar, Lei No 4.375, De 17 de Agosto de 1964, enacted August 17,1946. http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/leis/l4375.htm.

59.       Government of Brazil. Constitução da República Federativa do Brasil de 1988 (with modifications), enacted October 5, 1998. http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/constituicao/constituicao.htm.

60.       Government of Brazil, State of Bahia. Lei Nº 13.221, enacted January 12, 2015. http://www.sefaz.ba.gov.br/contribuinte/tributacao/legest_2015_13221.pdf.

61.       Government of Brazil. Portaria no. 546, enacted March 11, 2010. http://bit.ly/zn1W8v.

62.       LABADMIN. Structure and organization of the Labour Inspection, [online] [cited November 3, 2015]; http://www.ilo.org/labadmin/info/WCMS_114935/lang--en/index.htm.

63.       U.S. Embassy- Brasilia official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 21, 2016.

64.       Government of Brazil. Instrução Normativa No. 91, enacted October 5, 2011. http://bit.ly/Az5DQ1.

65.       Federal Labor Prosecutor's Office. Criança e Adolescente, [online] [cited March 8, 2016]; http://portal.mpt.mp.br/wps/portal/portal_mpt/mpt/area-atuacao/crianca-adolescente/!ut/p/z1/pZDBCoJAEIafxqszlqV02yjEJDIotLmExrYK6sq65eu30ikoPTS3Gb6Pf_iBIAVqsmcpMl3KJqvMfqHl1QnQDdcHjIIo9pAdnf02DJxZdPIgGQXcBdA_vgEGH38MQ-PTaMTGmwCGF6dCdkCikvm7D9bkc18AKX7niiv7ocy50LrtVhZa2Pe9LaQUFbdvsrbwm1LITkP6SUJbn1Ms4zrxO_YCT3lClw!!/dz/d5/L2dBISEvZ0FBIS9nQSEh/.

66.       Federal Labor Prosecutor's Office. Plano de Projeto: Orçamento Público e Políticas Públicas de Prevenção e Erradicação do Trabalho Infantil e Proteção do Adolescente Trabalhador 2011; 2011. http://bit.ly/1eeJJ4m.

67.       U.S. Embassy- Brasilia. reporting, February 19, 2014.

68.       ILO. Consolidating and Disseminating Efforts to Combat Forced Labour in Brazil and Peru. Technical Progress Report; October 2015. hardcopy on file.

69.       U.S. Embassy- Brasilia. reporting, March 12, 2015.

70.       Portal Brasil. "Ligue 180 amplia o atendimento para mais 13 países." brasil.gov.br [online] March 6, 2015 [cited March 22, 2015]; http://traficodepessoas.org/site/2015/03/10/ligue-180-amplia-o-atendimento-para-mais-13-paises/.

71.       Secretaria de Direitos Humanos. Balanço das Denúncias de Violações de Direitos Humanos 2015; 2016. http://www.sdh.gov.br/noticias/2016/janeiro/ApresentaoDisque100.pdf.

72.       Ligue 180, Central de Atendimento à Mulher. Balanço 1° Semestre; 2015. http://www.spm.gov.br/assuntos/violencia/ligue-180-central-de-atendimento-a-mulher/balanco1sem2015-versao-final.pdf.

73.       The Federal Highway Police. Enfrentamento à exploração sexual de crianças e adolescentes Ministry of Justice, [online] [cited February 24, 2015]; https://www.prf.gov.br/portal/policiamento-e-fiscalizacao/atuacao-em-direitos-humanos/denuncia-de-ponto-de-exploracao-sexual.

74.       Portal Brasil. "Grupo Móvel de Fiscalização resgata 17 trabalhadores no Ceará." brasil.gov.br [online] September 29, 2014 [cited February 20, 2015]; http://portal.mte.gov.br/imprensa/grupo-movel-de-fiscalizacao-resgata-17-trabalhadores-no-ceara/palavrachave/escravo.htm.

75.       U.S. Embassy- Brasilia. reporting, February 13, 2015.

76.       Secretaría del Trabajo y Previsión Social Banco de Buenas Practicas Sobre Inspección Laboral en Iberoamérica. Brasil - Ficha de país; accessed July 14, 2016; http://bancoinspeccioniberoamerica.stps.gob.mx/Publico/Index.aspx.

77.       Ministry of Labor and Employment. "Trabalho Infantil: Ações de fiscalização alcançaram 7.200 crianças e adolescentes em 2015." mtps.gov.br [online] January 13, 2016 2016 [cited March 1, 2016]; http://www.mte.gov.br/index.php/component/content/article?id=1463.

78.       CIA. The World Factbook, [online] [cited March 18, 2016]; https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors based on the country’s level of development as determined by the UN.

79.       Committee on Employment and Social Policy. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva, ILO; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a “sufficient number” of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a “sufficient” number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

80.       UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex. New York; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies; “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies, and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

81.       Portal Brasil. "Ministério do Trabalho resgata mais de 5,6 mil crianças do trabalho infantil." brasil.gov.br [online] June 8, 2015 [cited March 1, 2016]; http://www.brasil.gov.br/cidadania-e-justica/2015/06/ministerio-do-trabalho-resgata-mais-de-5-6-mil-criancas-do-trabalho-infantil.

82.       Portal Brasil. "Brasil resgatou mais de mil trabalhadores do trabalho escravo em 2015." brasil.gov.br [online] January 28, 2016 [cited March 31, 2016]; http://www.brasil.gov.br/cidadania-e-justica/2016/01/brasil-resgatou-mais-de-mil-trabalhadores-do-trabalho-escravo-em-2015.

83.       "Guardas civis de SP serão treinados para combater tráfico de pessoas." Folha de São Paulo, São Paulo, July 28, 2015. http://www1.folha.uol.com.br/cotidiano/2015/07/1661292-guardas-civis-de-sp-serao-treinados-para-combater-trafico-de-pessoas.shtml.

84.       President's Secretariat for Human Rights. Internet Segura: Denuncie Government of Brazil, [online] [cited January 29, 2014]; http://www.sdh.gov.br/assuntos/criancas-e-adolescentes/internet-dh/denuncie.

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87.       Ministry of Labor and Employment. Órgãos e Entidades que Compõem a CONAETI, Government of Brazil, [online] [cited February 29, 2016]; http://www.mte.gov.br/fiscalizacao-combate-trabalho-infantil/comissao-nacional-de-erradicacao-do-trabalho-infantil-conaeti/orgaos-e-entidades-que-compoem-a-conaeti.

88.       President's Secretariat for Human Rights. Comissão Intersetorial de Enfrentamento da Violência Sexual contra Crianças e Adolescentes, [online] [cited February 29, 2016]; http://www.sdh.gov.br/assuntos/criancas-e-adolescentes/programas/enfrentamento-a-violencia-sexual/comissao-intersetorial-de-enfrentamento-da-violencia-sexual-contra-criancas-e-adoelscentes-duas-paginas-dentro-de-programas-do-item-combate-as-violacoes.

89.       Graca Gadelha, Fernando Luz Carvalho, Joseleno Vieira Santos, Karina Figueiredo, and Leila Paiva. Plano Nacional de Enfrentamento da Violência Sexual contra as Crianças e Adolescentes. Brasilia, Government of Brazil; May 2013. http://www.comitenacional.org.br/files/anexos/08-2013_PNEVSCA-2013_f19r3....

90.       Government of Brazil, Ministry of Justice. Comitê Nacional de Enfrentamento ao Tráfico de Pessoas, [online] [cited March 8, 2016]; http://www.justica.gov.br/sua-protecao/trafico-de-pessoas/politica-brasileira/conatrap.

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