Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Brazil

Bananas
Bananas
Child Labor Icon
Beef
Beef
Child Labor Icon
Bricks
Bricks
Child Labor Icon
Cashews
Cashews
Child Labor Icon
Cattle
Cattle
Child Labor Icon
Forced Labor Icon
Ceramics
Ceramics
Child Labor Icon
Charcoal
Charcoal
Child Labor Icon
Forced Labor Icon
Cocoa
Cocoa
Child Labor Icon
Coffee
Coffee
Child Labor Icon
Corn
Corn
Child Labor Icon
Cotton
Cotton
Child Labor Icon
Fish
Fish
Child Labor Icon
Footwear
Footwear
Child Labor Icon
Garments
Garments
Forced Labor Icon
Hogs
Hogs
Child Labor Icon
Manioc/Cassava
Manioc/Cassava
Child Labor Icon
Pineapples
Pineapples
Child Labor Icon
Poultry
Poultry
Child Labor Icon
Rice
Rice
Child Labor Icon
Sheep
Sheep
Child Labor Icon
Sisal
Sisal
Child Labor Icon
Sugarcane
Sugarcane
Child Labor Icon
Forced Labor Icon
Timber
Timber
Forced Labor Icon
Tobacco
Tobacco
Child Labor Icon
Brazil
2018 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2018, Brazil made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. In January 2018, the state of Ceará signed a law requiring businesses to publicly display signs highlighting the dangers of child labor and establishing administrative fines for those who violate the law, as well as those who fail to display the required signage. Furthermore, Brazilian police conducted the largest operation to date to combat child pornography, resulting in 89 arrests in more than 24 states. The number of children removed from situations of forced child labor increased by 40 percent, from 1,008 children in 2017 to 1,854 in 2018. The government also adopted its third National Plan to Eradicate Child Labor, and its third National Plan to Combat Human Trafficking. However, children in Brazil engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation. Children also engage in child labor in agriculture, including in the production of coffee. Although Brazil made meaningful efforts in all relevant areas during the reporting period, the government has not established legislation in compliance with international standards related to child trafficking. In addition, there are not enough labor inspectors to provide sufficient coverage of the workforce, and local governments lack the capacity to fully implement and monitor the National Program to Eradicate Child Labor, Bolsa Família, and other social protection programs.

Children in Brazil engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation. (1-3)

Children also engage in child labor in agriculture, including in the production of coffee. (4,5) The 2016 National Household Survey, published in November 2017, estimated that 998,000 children ages 5 to 17 engaged in child labor: 190,000 children ages 5 to 13, and 808,000 adolescents ages 14 to 17. (6-8) The North and Northeast regions had the highest number of child laborers, with almost half working in agriculture. (6) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Brazil. Data on some of these indicators are not available from the sources used in this report.


Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

2.1 (638,943)

Working children by sector

5 to 14

 

Agriculture

 

56.5

Industry

 

8.2

Services

 

35.2

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

98.0

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

2.4

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

Unavailable

Primary completion rate was unavailable from UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2019. (9)

Source for all other data: International Labor Organization's analysis of statistics from Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD) Continua, 2015. (10)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.


Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of bananas, ceramics, citrus fruits,† cocoa, coffee, corn, cotton,† manioc, mate tea, pineapples,† rice, sisal,† soy, sugarcane,† and tobacco† (4,5,11-16)    

Cattle ranching and raising livestock, including hogs, poultry, and sheep (5,11,13,17)  

Fishing and harvesting mollusks† (5,13,18)

Forestry, including logging,† extracting carnauba palm leaves, and producing charcoal† (5,13,19-21)

Industry

Slaughtering animals,† including for beef production (22,23)

Processing manioc flour† and cashews† (24,25)

Production of bricks† (26,27) 

Production of footwear† and textiles, including garments (11,13,28) 

Services

Street work,† including vending,† washing cars,† and garbage scavenging† (29-32)

Work in markets and fairs, including hauling fruits and vegetables and transporting heavy loads (22,32,33)

Work in fast-food establishments (34)

Selling alcoholic beverages† (33)

Artistic and sports related activities and cultural work (11)

Domestic work† (33)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, including use in the production of pornography, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1-3,29-31)

Forced domestic work and playing in soccer clubs, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (29,35,36) 

Forced labor in agriculture, including in the production of coffee and manioc (4,29,37,38)

Use by gangs to perform illicit activities, including drug trafficking, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (29,31,33,39-42)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182. 

The overall scope and magnitude of commercial sexual exploitation of children is unknown, however in 2018, the Federal Highway Police, in collaboration with Childhood Brazil, published a report that identified 2,487 areas along highways in the country where children are vulnerable to commercial sexual exploitation. (1,43)

The states with the highest number of vulnerable areas for commercial sexual exploitation of children were Ceará, Goiás, Pará, Minas Gerais, and Paraná. In addition, the Northeast region was found to have the highest number of vulnerable areas in the country, followed by the South. (1,44) Child sex tourism is also particularly common in tourist and coastal areas, and girls from other South American countries are exploited for commercial sex in Brazil. (36)

In November 2018, the ILO and the Labor Prosecution Service (MPT) of Brazil published a report indicating that at least 8,000 children and adolescents were found to be working in the country in the production of cocoa. The study was conducted during the period of July 2017 to June 2018, and aims to expose companies and hold them accountable for their child labor and forced labor violations. (45,46)

Research found that schools, particularly those in rural areas, are overcrowded, have poor infrastructure, and lack basic resources and teachers. (29,31,47) In addition, children in remote rural areas, including approximately 11,000 indigenous children, do not have birth certificates, which may affect their ability to access education or social services because birth registration documents are required for school enrollment. (29,31,48) In November 2018, the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies deliberated over draft legislation approved by the Senate in 2016 that would alter the National Education Law to require schools to register children without birth certificates. (49) However, multiple state and municipal governments continued implementing a policy that required schools to guarantee school registration even in the absence of a birth certificate. (50)

Brazil has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).


Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Brazil’s legal framework to adequately protect children from the worst forms of child labor, including child trafficking for labor exploitation.


Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

16

Article 403 of the Labor Code (51)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 2 of the Hazardous Work List (52)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Hazardous Work List (52)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 149 and 149-A of the Penal Code (53,54)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

No

 

Article 149-A of the Penal Code; Article 244-A of the Child and Adolescent Statute (54,55)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 218-A, 218-B, and 227–228 of the Penal Code; Articles 240–241 and 244-A of the Child and Adolescent Statute (53,55)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Articles 33 and 40 of the National System of Public Policies on Drugs; Article 244-B of the Child and Adolescent Statute (55,56)

Minimum Age for Voluntary State Military Recruitment

Yes

17

Article 127 of the Military Service Regulation (57)

Prohibition of Compulsory Recruitment of Children by (State) Military

Yes

 

Article 5 of the Military Service Law (58)

Prohibition of Military Recruitment by Non-state Armed Groups

No

   

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

17

Article 4 of the National Education Law (59)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 4 of the National Education Law (59)

During the reporting period, the city of Fortaleza, in the state of Ceará in the Northeast region of the country, signed a law requiring businesses to publicly display signs highlighting the dangers of child labor and featuring the national Dial 100 human rights hotline. (60) The law also establishes administrative fines, ranging from $130 to $1,300, for those who violate child labor laws, as well as those who fail to display the required signage. (61) In addition, the Ministry of Labor (MTE) published a new version of the “Dirty List” in October 2018, comprising 209 employers found to be using slave labor. At the beginning of 2019, the Secretariat of Labor Inspection, now overseen by the new Ministry of Economy, added 202 employers to the list. (61-63)

Prohibitions against child trafficking for forced labor exploitation require the use of threats, violence, coercion, fraud, or abuse to be established for the crime of child trafficking, and therefore do not meet international labor standards. (54)

As the minimum age for work is lower than the compulsory education age, children may be encouraged to leave school before the completion of compulsory education. (51,59)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the operations of the MTE that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.


Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Economy

Oversees the Secretariat of Social Security and Labor, which is responsible for the enforcement of labor laws, including those related to child labor and forced labor. Mobile inspection units also conduct unannounced inspections at sites in which forced labor, including forced child labor, is suspected. (60) In January 2019, the President of Brazil restructured the executive branch of government. As a result, the responsibilities of the Ministry of Labor were transferred to the Ministry of Economy and the Ministry of Justice. (64) 

Labor Prosecution Service (MPT)

Prosecutes child labor and forced labor violations by working with prosecutors from its National Committee to Combat Child and Adolescent Labor, an in-house body that coordinates efforts to combat child labor. Collects fines for forced labor violations and allocates funds for initiatives that address child labor and forced labor. (65)

Military, Civil, and Federal Police

In the case of military police, operate at the local level and refer cases to the civil police for investigation. (60) Regarding federal police, work on interstate or international cases and maintain a database to track cases of human trafficking for sexual exploitation. (11,31) The Federal Highway Police help identify areas at high risk of commercial sexual exploitation. (66)

Ministry of Justice

Leads efforts to combat human trafficking, oversees the operations of Advanced Posts (Postos Avançados) and state-run Anti-Trafficking Coordination Centers (Núcleos de Enfrentamento). Provides guidance to federal, state, and local government officials on referrals for victims of human trafficking, including to Anti-Trafficking Coordination Centers, Specialized Social Assistance Reference Centers, and NGOs. (67) Twelve Advanced Posts operate throughout the country to identify human traffickers and potential victims in high-transit areas, including airports and bus stations. (67) 

Ministry of Human Rights

Administers Dial 100, a human rights violations hotline that directs child labor, child trafficking, and child sexual exploitation complaints to the appropriate institution for follow up. In 2018, Dial 100 received 1,860 calls reporting cases of child labor, 14 cases of child trafficking, and 2 cases of forced child labor. (60)  

National Forum of the Judiciary for Monitoring the Effectiveness of Policies on Forced Labor and Human Trafficking

Collects data on forced labor and human trafficking cases. Comprising 15 judges, including the president of the Supreme Federal Court, judges from the Supreme Labor Court, and 12 members of the National Council of Justice. (67) 

In January 2019, the President of Brazil restructured the executive branch of government. As a result, the responsibilities of the Ministry of Labor were transferred between the Ministry of Economy (MOE) and the Ministry of Justice. (64) The MOE subsequently created the Secretariat of Social Security and Labor, which is responsible for the enforcement of labor laws. (64) 

Labor Law Enforcement
In 2018, labor law enforcement agencies in Brazil took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the operations of the MTE that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including human resource allocation.


Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2017

2018

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$3,178,399 (68) 

$3,072,390 (68) 

Number of Labor Inspectors

2,387 (31) 

2,309 (60) 

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (31)

Yes (60) 

Initial Training for New Labor Inspectors

Yes (31) 

Yes (60)  

 

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Yes (31)

Yes (60) 

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (31)

Yes (60) 

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

205,979 (69) 

Unknown

 

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

10,092 (31)

13,887 (60) 

 

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown

Unknown (60) 

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that Were Collected

Unknown

Unknown

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (31)

Yes (60)  

 

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (31)

Yes (60) 

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (31)

Yes (60) 

 

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (31)

Yes (60) 

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (31)

Yes (60)  

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (31)

Yes (60)  

In May 2018, MTE's Secretariat for Labor Inspection launched a dashboard accessible to the public with data on labor inspections, including modules with disaggregated data on child labor and slave labor inspections; the child labor module was still under development by the end of the reporting period. The MPT also maintains an online platform with information on slave labor. (70,71)

Although the government had experienced significant funding issues limiting their ability to enforce child labor laws during the previous reporting period, reports indicate that the MTE was able to carry out all planned inspections during this reporting period resulting in a 40 percent increase in the number of children rescued from situations of forced labor—from 1,008 children in 2017 to 1,854 in 2018. In addition, the government conducted 9,898 child labor inspections, an increase from 7,491 inspections in 2017. (60) Labor inspectors also identified 1,700 cases of slave labor and rescued 1,133 victims during 231 inspections. (61) It is unknown how many of these victims were children as the majority of slave labor cases were found in rural areas, where the practice is historically common. (61,72) Upon finding children in hazardous working conditions, MTE officials immediately remove the children and return them to their families or refer them to social services providers. (60) The number of labor inspectors is likely insufficient for the size of Brazil’s workforce, which includes approximately 104.2 million workers. According to the ILO’s technical advice of a ratio approaching 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in industrializing economies, Brazil would employ about 6,947 labor inspectors. (73-75)]

Criminal Law Enforcement
In 2018, criminal law enforcement agencies in Brazil took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including holding violators of child labor laws accountable in accordance with the law.


Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2017

2018

Initial Training for New Criminal Investigators

Yes (31)

Yes (60)

 

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Yes (67)

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (31)

Yes (60) 

Number of Investigations

Unknown

29 (61) 

Number of Violations Found

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

32 (31)

10 (61) 

Number of Convictions

5 (31)

3 (61) 

Imposed Penalties for Violations Related to The Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown

Unknown

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (31)

Yes (60) 

In 2018, the Brazilian police conducted the largest operation to combat child pornography in the country's history, resulting in the arrest of 89 individuals for their involvement in the production, storage, and distribution of child pornography. (60) Law enforcement officials also received training on how to use the Child Protective System software to investigate cases of online child commercial sexual exploitation. (60,61) Moreover, in October 2018, Brazil and Argentina launched a joint police operation to combat the commercial sexual exploitation of children, which resulted in the identification and arrest of more than 30 perpetrators. (61)

Although the Federal Police claim to maintain a database to track cases of human trafficking for sexual exploitation, there is no process for collecting and tracking the data, and it is not disaggregated by victims’ ages. (76) In addition, according to the government, the judicial system does not sufficiently hold perpetrators accountable for child labor law violations, including forced child labor, which may lead to a sense of impunity among violators. (11)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8).


Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Committee for the Eradication of Child Labor

Leads the implementation of the National Plan for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor and the Protection of Working Adolescents. Led by the Ministry of Labor (MTE) and includes 17 government agencies and representatives from trade unions, business associations, and civil society organizations. (76,77) In 2018, the committee drafted the third National Action Plan to Eradicate Child Labor and Protect Adolescent Workers. (78)   

Inter-sectoral Commission to Combat Sexual Violence Against Children and Adolescents

Monitors implementation of the National Plan to Combat Sexual Violence Against Children and Adolescents. Led by the Ministry of Justice’s Special Secretariat for Human Rights (SDH). (79,80) In 2018, the Inter-sectoral Commission worked on a decree to legitimize the plan on the municipal level. This decree gives guidelines for social services and programs to guarantee the rights of children and adolescents. (68,81)  

National Committee to Combat Forced Labor

Coordinates and evaluates the implementation of the National Plan for the Eradication of Forced Labor and led by SDH. (82) From 2017 to 2018, the State Commission for the Eradication of Slave Labor in Bahia, the State Secretariat of Education, MPT, and the NGO Repórter Brasil implemented a joint project to raise awareness of forced labor that reached approximately 20,000 students and 655 educators in 90 schools in Bahia. (83)  

National Committee to Combat Trafficking in Persons

Coordinates activities to address human trafficking. Led by the Ministry of Justice. (84) In 2018, conducted awareness-raising events during the annual Trafficking in Persons Mobilization Week. (83)   

Inter-agency Committee to Implement Strategies to Ensure the Protection of Children’s and Adolescents’ Rights

Coordinates the implementation of policies to protect children’s and adolescents’ rights, including the National Plan for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor and the Protection of Working Adolescents. Led by SDH. (85) In 2018, created Resolutions 213–215 for the protection of children's and adolescent's rights, including protections against violence, child trafficking, exploitation, and abuse. (68,86-88)  

Labor Justice Commission for the Eradication of Child Labor and Protection of Working Adolescents

Coordinates efforts to eliminate child labor and ensure that adolescents have decent work opportunities. (89) Includes 11 representatives from the Superior Labor Court and regional labor courts. (90) Reports indicated that no activities were undertaken by the Labor Justice Commission for the Eradication of Child Labor and Protection of Working Adolescents during the reporting period. (68)  

Anti-Trafficking Coordination Centers (Núcleos de Enfrentamento)

Coordinates activities carried out by local, state, and federal agencies to combat human trafficking. Established in 16 states and the Federal District. (67) In 2018, conducted awareness-raising campaigns and seminars about human trafficking throughout the country and reached several thousand students, teachers, and civil society. (83,91-93)

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including funding and implementation.


Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Plan to Prevent and Eradicate Child Labor and Protect Adolescent Workers III (2019–2022)†

Aims to eradicate child labor by 2025 by increasing access to quality education and pathways for adolescents of minimum working age to enroll in apprenticeship programs. (61,94)  

National Plan to Combat Sexual Violence Against Children and Adolescents (2013–2020)

Identifies strategies to prevent the sexual exploitation of children, protect children’s rights, and assist child victims. (80) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement the National Plan to Combat Sexual Violence Against Children and Adolescents during the reporting period.

National Plan to Combat Human Trafficking III (2018–2022)†

Outlines Brazil's strategy to address human trafficking. Includes 58 goals that aim to increase victim assistance and prevention, raise public awareness, and improve information and policy management by 2022. (61,95) 

National Plan for the Eradication of Forced Labor

Establishes the policy framework to address forced labor. (96) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement the National Plan for the Eradication of Forced Labor during the reporting period.

Federal Pact for the Eradication of Forced Labor

Aims to establish a forced labor database to share research and data, create state-level plans to combat forced labor, and strengthen inter-agency coordination. Led by the Ministry of Justice’s SDH, and signed by 15 states. (97,98) As of the reporting period, the Federal Pact has been signed by 23 states, up from 15 states in 2016. (97-100)  

National Education Plan (2014–2024)

Aims to expand access to education and improve the quality of education. Plans to allocate 10 percent of Brazil’s gross domestic product to public education by 2024. (101) Although progress has been made across many of the 20 goals, only 1 goal was completed during the reporting period. Research indicates that five goals were due to be completed as of 2016. (60,102)  

National Policy to Promote Full-Time Schools

Aims to combat child labor by implementing longer school hours and providing academic and vocational training. (103)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.
‡ The government had other policies which may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor. (104)

During the reporting period, the state of Pará approved a plan to address slave labor. The policy seeks to promote the creation of municipal plans and committees to combat slave labor. (105)

In May 2018, a regional court, São Paulo City Hall, and Infraero, the company that operates Congonhas Airport, the third busiest airport in the country, reached an agreement to eradicate child labor from the airport. The agreement was the final step of a process that began in 2013, when seven children were found during labor inspections working as shoe shiners in the airport. Under the agreement, Infraero will provide training to airport employees on combating child labor, maintain a permanent space for children to receive social assistance, and create an apprenticeship program for qualifying youth who are of the minimum working age. (61,106) São Paulo City Hall also will provide a team of social workers to facilitate the child social assistance space. (61)

Research found that greater resources are needed to ensure adequate implementation of the National Education Plan. (104,107)

In 2018, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including the adequacy of programs to assist child victims of human trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation.


Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

National Program to Eradicate Child Labor (Programa de Erradicação do Trabalho Infantil [PETI])

Ministry of Citizenship (MOC) social assistance program that combats child labor through awareness-raising activities, victim identification and protection, and conditional cash transfers. (108,109) To receive program benefits, family participants must ensure that children are not working and maintain at least 85 percent school attendance. (110) In 2018, PETI developed a step-by-step guide to help municipalities to implement the program, and removed 11,625 children and adolescents from child labor. (60,111) By the end of 2018, more than 83,000 families had participated in the program. (111)  

#StopChildLabor Campaign (#ChegaDeTrabalhoInfantil)

MPT campaign that uses celebrities to raise awareness of child labor. (112) In March 2018, the Public Labor Ministry in Porto Alegre, in Rio Grande do Sul, partnered with the city's running club for three runs leading up to the city's international marathon in June to raise awareness of child labor. (60) 

Living Together and Strengthening Links Program (Serviço de Convivência e Fortalecimento de Vínculo)

MOC social assistance program for vulnerable groups, including child laborers. Aims to strengthen familial and communal ties through sports, artistic, and cultural activities. Offers services at Social Assistance Reference Centers and Living Centers. (113) Active in 2018. (60)

Social Assistance Reference Centers†

MOC program that provides vulnerable populations, including victims of child labor and commercial sexual exploitation, with psychological, social, and legal services. (114,115) Active in 2018. (60)  

Family Stipend (Bolsa Família)

MOC program that provides families living in poverty and extreme poverty with cash transfers. (39,116) During the reporting period, 14 million families participated in Bolsa Familia. (117) 

Brazil Without Extreme Poverty (Brasil Sem Miséria)

MOC program that lifts people out of extreme poverty by guaranteeing a minimum income; expanding access to public services, including education, health, and citizenship; and increasing job opportunities and income generation for the poorest families. (118) One program component, Caring Brazil (Brasil Carinhoso),focuses on Bolsa Família participants with children ages 0 to 15 and a monthly family income of less than $22 per person. (119) In 2018, the government approved an increase in funds for the program Caring Brazil, and distributed several educational kits to pre-schools around the country. (120-122)

National Program on Job Training and Employment (Programa Nacional de Acesso ao Ensino Técnico e Emprego)

Ministry of Education program that provides job training and employment opportunities to workers and social program recipients, including high school students. (123,124) Active in 2018. (60) 

South-South Cooperation Projects†

Government of Brazil-funded projects implemented by ILO to combat child labor and promote South-South cooperation. (125) In July 2018, the Government of Brazil and ILO provided technical assistance and funding to the Ministry of Labor and Social Services of Jamaica to host a 5-day national training of trainers workshop on labor inspection, with a focus on child labor. The workshop aimed to promote a better understanding of the importance of labor inspections in the prevention and elimination of child labor, and in the enforcement of national laws on child labor. (126)   

USDOL-Funded Projects

USDOL-funded projects implemented by ILO that aim to combat child labor and forced labor. Consolidating and Disseminating Efforts to Combat Forced Labor in Brazil and Peru (2012–2018) is a $6.8 million project that combats forced labor, and shares Brazil's best practices with the Government of Peru and Peruvian stakeholders. TheMeasurement, Awareness-Raising, and Policy Engagement Project on Child Labor and Forced Labor (MAP16) conducts research and develops new survey methodologies, improves awareness, strengthens policies and government capacity, and promotes partnerships to combat child labor and forced labor. In 2018, MAP 16 supported development of a forced labor questionnaire module that will be attached to the 2019 National Health Survey. Additional information is available on the USDOL website.

† Program is funded by the Government of Brazil.
‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. (127,128)  

In 2018, the state of Maranhão created a program to provide victims of slave labor with protection and reintegration services, raise awareness of slave labor, and promote coordination amongst state government agencies. (129) The state of Maranhão also partnered with NGO Repórter Brasil to raise awareness of forced labor in schools and reached more than 109,000 children, teachers, and school personnel in 2018. (130)  

Because the National Program to Eradicate Child Labor and Bolsa Família are decentralized, municipal governments are responsible for their implementation and monitoring, and some municipalities struggle to carry them out. The challenges include responding to the needs of program participants, complex local contexts and geographic areas, excessive program requirements, and high staff turnover. (39) In addition, many states report a lack of resources to adequately assist victims of human trafficking, and research found a lack of specialized shelters for child victims of commercial sexual exploitation. (29,36)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Brazil (Table 11).


Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that laws do not require the use of threats, violence, coercion, fraud, or abuse to establish the crime of child trafficking for forced labor exploitation.

2016 – 2018

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under age 18 by non-state armed groups.

2016 – 2018

 

Raise the minimum age for work to the age up to which education is compulsory.

2018

Enforcement

Publish information regarding the number of labor inspections conducted, number of labor inspections conducted at worksites, number of child labor penalties imposed that were collected, number of criminal investigations conducted, and number of violations found.

2012 – 2018

Significantly increase the number of labor inspectors to meet the ILO’s technical advice.

2014 – 2018

Impose penalties for convictions related to the worst forms of child labor.

2018

Collect and track data on cases regarding human trafficking for sexual exploitation and ensure that the data are disaggregated by victims’ ages.

2009 – 2018

Ensure that all violators of child labor laws, including the worst forms of child labor, are held accountable in accordance with the law.

2015 – 2018

Coordination

Ensure the Labor Justice Commission for the Eradication of Child Labor and Protection of Working Adolescents is active.

2018

Government Policies

Provide adequate resources to ensure that the goals outlined in the National Education Plan are achieved.

2015 – 2018

Social Programs

Remove barriers to education, including by ensuring an adequate number of trained teachers, improving school infrastructure, and taking steps to enroll children in rural areas.

2013 – 2018

Expand the accessibility of birth registration services in remote areas and ensure that indigenous communities are aware of the benefits of birth registration.

2013 – 2018

Support local governments in the implementation and monitoring of PETI and Bolsa Família.

2009 – 2018

Provide adequate resources to state governments to ensure that child trafficking victims receive appropriate social services, and ensure the availability of specialized shelters for child victims of commercial sexual exploitation.

2012 – 2018

  1. Policia Rodoviária Federal, et. al. 7º Mapeamento dos Pontos Vulneráveis à Exploração Sexual de Crianças e Adolescentes nas Rodovias Federais Brasileiras. MAPEAR. May 2018.
    https://www.prf.gov.br/agencia/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/Mapear-Cartilha.pdf.

  2. Consultor Jurídico. Compete à Justiça do Trabalho Julgar Exploração Sexual Infantil. May 25, 2016.
    http://www.conjur.com.br/2016-mai-25/compete-justica-trabalho-julgar-exploracao-sexual-infantil.

  3. Cunha, Joana. Pará é emblema da exploração sexual; conheça o drama das ribeirinhas. Epoca. May 22, 2017.
    http://www1.folha.uol.com.br/seminariosfolha/2017/05/1885719-para-e-emblema-da-exploracao-sexual-conheca-o-drama-de-meninas-a-beira-dos-rios.shtml.

  4. Danwatch. Bitter Coffee: Slavery-like Working Conditions and deadly Pesticides on Brazilian Coffee Plantations. March 2016.
    https://www.danwatch.dk/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/Danwatch-Bitter-Coffee-MARCH-2016.pdf.

  5. ABRINQ Foundation. O Trabalho Infantil no Brasil. 2017.
    http://www.chegadetrabalhoinfantil.org.br/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Versão-Final-Trabalho-Infantil-no-Brasil-Desafio-Trab-Inf-Ativ-Agrícolas-1.pdf.

  6. Silveira, Daniel. Trabalho infantil: quase 1 milhão de menores trabalham em situação ilegal no Brasil, aponta IBGE. November 29, 2017.
    https://g1.globo.com/economia/noticia/trabalho-infantil-quase-1-milhao-de-menores-trabalham-em-situacao-ilegal-no-brasil-aponta-ibge.ghtml.

  7. Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios Contínua: Trabalho infantil 2016. Brasilia. January 9, 2018.
    https://biblioteca.ibge.gov.br/visualizacao/livros/liv101388_informativo.pdf.

  8. Gomes, Irene. Trabalho infantil: mais de 20 milhões de crianças realizavam tarefas domésticas. IBGE - Agência de Notícias. November 29, 2017.
    https://agenciadenoticias.ibge.gov.br/agencia-noticias/2012-agencia-de-noticias/noticias/18384-trabalho-infantil-mais-de-20-milhoes-de-criancas-realizavam-tarefas-domesticas.

  9. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed: March 16, 2019. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.
    http://data.uis.unesco.org/.

  10. ILO. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD) Continua, 2015. Analysis received March 12, 2019. Please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

  11. U.S. Embassy- Brasilia. Reporting. January 15, 2016.

  12. Vinicius, Cassius. O Sabor Amargo do Trabalho Escravo na Extração da Erva-mate. August 30, 2016.
    http://www.esquerdadiario.com.br/O-sabor-amargo-do-trabalho-escravo-na-extracao-da-erva-mate.

  13. Fórum Nacional de Prevenção e Erradicação do Trabalho Infantil (FNPETI). O TRABALHO INFANTIL NOS PRINCIPAIS GRUPAMENTOS DE ATIVIDADES ECONÔMICAS DO BRASIL December 2016.
    http://www.tst.jus.br/documents/2237892/0/estudo/2802c7cc-36a1-c216-cfca-328630c73119.

  14. Santiado, Henriqueta. Em Dez Anos 108 Mil Deixam Trabalho Infantil na Paraíba. Portal CZN. October 18, 2010.
    http://portalczn.com.br/em-dez-anos-108-mil-deixam-trabalho-infantil-na-paraiba/.

  15. U.S. Embassy- Brasilia. Reporting. November 6, 2017.

  16. Melo, Jessica. Não é brincadeira: O trabalho infantil que Santa Catarina não vê. Rádio AL, April 25, 2014.
    http://agenciaal.alesc.sc.gov.br/index.php/radioal/noticia_single_radioal/naeo-e-brincadeira-o-trabalho-infantil-que-santa-catarina-naeo-ve.

  17. U.S. Embassy Brasilia official. Email communication to USDOL official. March 31, 2017.

  18. Câmera Record. No Alagoas, crianças abandonam os estudos para trabalhar na produção de sururu. June 26, 2017.
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FTLhAC-yK0w.

  19. Ojeda, Igor, and Stefano Wrobleski. Paulistano Usa Carvão Feito com Trabalho Escravo e Infantil. Reporter Brasil, January 24, 2014.
    http://reporterbrasil.org.br/2014/01/paulistano-usa-carvao-feito-com-trabalho-escravo-e-infantil/.

  20. Câmera Record. Carvoaria de Minas Gerais contrata mão de obra infantil por R$ 20. June 26, 2017.
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-_xh62DaNR8.

  21. Hanson, Hilary. Workers Who Help Make Haribo Gummies Kept In ‘Slave’-Like Conditions, Says Report. October 26, 2017.
    https://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/haribo-slave-conditions-labor-animal-cruelty_us_59f20663e4b077d8dfc80bc2?ncid=inblnkushpmg00000009&link_id=83&can_id=facb138fb6be3a66213f845403005bd4&source=email-media-mentions-october-26-2017&email_referrer=email_253.

  22. Villela, Sumaia. Despite Strict Laws, Child Labor in Brazil Is Not Going Away. August 11, 2016.
    http://www.brazzil.com/23990-despite-strict-laws-child-labor-in-brazil-is-not-going-away.

  23. Câmera Record. Em Pernambuco, crianças trabalham em matadouros em condições insalubres. June 26, 2017.
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rpd7xy4G3mY.

  24. Globo Repórter. Reportagem denuncia exploração de crianças na extração da castanha de caju. May 4, 2016.
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Iblz7rM-Ouc.

  25. Câmera Record. Crianças deixam de frequentar a escola para trabalhar em tempo integral. June 26, 2017.
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zcBg_bQudVk.

  26. Associação Nacional de Medicina do Trabalho (ANAMT). MPT quer o fim do trabalho infantil em olarias de Cabreúva. October 23, 2015.
    https://www.anamt.org.br/portal/2015/10/29/mpt-quer-o-fim-do-trabalho-infantil-em-olarias-de-cabreuva/.

  27. Associação Nacional de Medicina do Trabalho. MPT quer o fim do trabalho infantil em olarias de Cabreúva. October 23, 2015.
    https://www.anamt.org.br/portal/2015/10/29/mpt-quer-ofim-do-trabalho-infantil-em-olarias-de-cabreuva/.

  28. Sindicato dos Trabalhadores(as) nas Indústrias de Calçados de Jaú. Governo Temer prepara o terreno para aumento do trabalho infantil. June 12, 2017.
    https://trabalhadoresdejau.com/2017/06/12/governo-temer-prepara-o-terreno-para-aumento-do-trabalho-infantil/.

  29. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Concluding Observations on the Combined Second to Fourth Periodic Reports of Brazil. October 30, 2015: CRC/C/BRA/CO/2-4.
    http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC/C/BRA/CO/2-4&Lang=en.

  30. Transforming Childhoods Research Network, and University of Dundee. ‘Let’s Win This Game Together’ Documenting Violations of Children’s Rights Around the 2014 FIFA World Cup in Brazil. 2015.
    http://www.childrenwin.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/15337-SoE-Let¹s-Win-This-Game-Together-Report-A4.pdf.

  31. U.S. Embassy- Brasilia. Reporting. January 16, 2018.

  32. Government of Brazil. Grupo Móvel de Combate ao Trabalho Infantil Obtém Sucesso em sua Primeira Operação. Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego. November 12, 2015.
    http://www.fnpeti.org.br/noticia/1524-grupo-movel-de-combate-ao-trabalho-infantil-obtem-sucesso-em-sua-primeira-operacao.html.

  33. Agência Brasil. Trabalho Infantil no Nordeste Perpetua o Ciclo da Pobreza e Miséria. O POVO Online, June 12, 2016.
    http://www.opovo.com.br/app/maisnoticias/brasil/2016/06/12/noticiasbrasil,3623300/trabalho-infantil-no-nordeste-perpetua-o-ciclo-da-pobreza-e-miseria.shtml.

  34. UOL Economia. Em 1 Ano, 5.688 Crianças Foram Resgatadas de Trabalho Infantil, Diz Governo. June 22, 2015.
    http://economia.uol.com.br/empregos-e-carreiras/noticias/redacao/2015/06/09/em-1-ano-5688-criancas-foram-resgatadas-de-trabalho-infantil-diz-governo.htm#fotoNav=6.

  35. Pires, Breiller. Abuso Sexual e Tráfico de Crianças Ainda Assombram o Futebol Brasileiro. September 12, 2016.
    http://www.vice.com/pt_br/read/abuso-sexual-e-trafico-de-criancas-ainda-assombram-o-futebol-brasileiro.

  36. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2018: Brazil. Washington, DC. June 28, 2018.
    https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-trafficking-in-persons-report/brazil/.

  37. Ministério Público do Trabalho em Minas Gerais. Operação Conjunta Flagra Exploração de Trabalho Análogo ao de Escravo na Colheita de Café. August 13, 2015.
    http://www.prt3.mpt.gov.br/procuradorias/prt-belohorizonte/484-operacao-conjunta-flagra-exploracao-de-trabalho-analogo-ao-de-escravo-na-colheita-de-cafe.

  38. Câmera Record. Câmera Record mostra crianças manuseando faca em trabalho agrícola. June 27, 2017.
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=63eikBctC-c.

  39. Ferreira Moura, James. Síntese da Pesquisa de Avaliação das Boas práticas das Ações Estratégicas do Programa de Erradicação do Trabalho Infantil. Brasilia. October 2017.
    http://mds.gov.br/assuntos/assistencia-social/servicos-e-programas/peti/apresentacoes.

  40. Diplomacia Civil. Existem Crianças Soldado no Brasil e na América Latina? May 27, 2016.
    http://diplomaciacivil.org.br/criancas-soldado-nao-estao-apenas-em-conflitos-africanos-america-latina-tem-parcela-de-culpa/.

  41. Corréa, Hudson. Traficantes cariocas recrutam e armam criancas cada vez mais novas para o crime. Epoca, January 16, 2017.
    http://epoca.globo.com/brasil/noticia/2017/01/traficantes-cariocas-recrutam-e-armam-criancas-cada-vez-mais-novas-para-o-crime.html.

  42. Fórum Nacional de Prevenção e Erradicação do Trabalho Infantil (FNPETI). Trabalho Infantil nos ODS. October 2017.
    http://www.fnpeti.org.br/arquivos//biblioteca/84f6ae8786c869b86174ff76d8a66a93.pdf.

  43. Terre des Hommes, et. al. Sexual Exploitation of Children in Brazil: Putting a Spot on the Problem. May 9, 2014.
    http://www.childrenwin.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/140509_Sexual-exploitation-of-children-in-Brazil_putting-a-spot-on-the-p....pdf.

  44. Government of Brazil. Mapeamento mostra pontos vulneráveis à exploração sexual de crianças e adolescentes nas rodovias federais. Ministério da Mulher, da Família e dos Direitos Humanos. May 23, 2018.
    https://www.mdh.gov.br/todas-as-noticias/2018/maio/mapeamento-mostra-pontos-vulneraveis-a-exploracao-sexual-de-criancas-e-adolescentes-nas-rodovias-federais.

  45. Console, Luciana. "Chocolate à venda no Brasil está contaminado por trabalho infantil", diz pesquisador. December 4, 2018.
    https://www.brasildefato.com.br/2018/12/04/todo-chocolate-a-venda-no-brasil-esta-contaminado-pelo-trabalho-infantil-entenda/index.html?fbclid=IwAR2Rx9i0xoSpo1Nbv0DWKDx_kpsg9FtfEHd_Xuqj9PWbYgQuMfzRWBQ6q0w.

  46. Government of Brazil. Relatório sobre trabalho escravo e infantil na cadeia produtiva do cacau será lançado nesta sexta (30). Ministério Público do Trabalho. November 26, 2018.
    https://mpt.mp.br/pgt/noticias/relatorio-sobre-trabalho-escravo-e-infantil-na-cadeia-produtiva-do-cacau-sera-lancado-nesta-sexta-30.

  47. de Oliveira, Cida. Fechamento de escolas rurais obriga crianças a passar mais tempo na estrada que em aula. Rede Brasil Atua. March 9, 2017.
    http://www.redebrasilatual.com.br/educacao/2017/03/fechamento-de-escolar-rurais-obriga-criancas-a-passar-mais-tempo-na-estrada-do-que-em-sala-de-aula.

  48. UOL. Projeto beneficia 11 mil crianças indígenas. April 8, 2016.
    http://noticias.band.uol.com.br/noticias/100000801370/projeto-beneficia-11-mil-criancas-indigenas.html.

  49. Câmara dos Deputados. Educação aprova matrícula em escola sem apresentar certidão de nascimento ou identidade. Brasilia. November 9, 2018.
    https://www2.camara.leg.br/camaranoticias/noticias/EDUCACAO-E-CULTURA/565317-EDUCACAO-APROVA-MATRICULA-EM-ESCOLA-SEM-APRESENTAR-CERTIDAO-DE-NASCIMENTO-OU-IDENTIDADE.html.

  50. Winkel, Sophia. As crianças sem registro. April 26, 2018.
    https://gestaoescolar.org.br/conteudo/1904/as-criancas-sem-registro.

  51. Government of Brazil. Decreto-Lei Nº 5.452, Consolidação das Leis do Trabalho (with modifications until October 2013). Presidência da República. Enacted: May 1, 1943.
    http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/decreto-lei/Del5452.htm.

  52. Government of Brazil. Decreto Nº 6.481. Presidência da República. Enacted: June 12, 2008.
    http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_Ato2007-2010/2008/Decreto/D6481.htm.

  53. Government of Brazil. Código Penal (with modifications until 2013). Nº 2.848. Presidência da República. Enacted: December 7, 1940.
    http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/Decreto-Lei/Del2848compilado.htm.

  54. Government of Brazil. Lei Nº 13.344, amending the Penal Code. Presidência da República. Enacted: October 6, 2016.
    http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_Ato2015-2018/2016/Lei/L13344.htm.

  55. Government of Brazil. Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente. Lei Nº 8.069. Presidência da República. Enacted: July 13, 1990.
    http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/leis/L8069.htm.

  56. Government of Brazil. Lei Nº 11.343. Presidência da República. Enacted: August 23, 2006.
    http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_ato2004-2006/2006/lei/l11343.htm.

  57. Government of Brazil. Decreto Nº 57.654. Presidência da República. Enacted: January 20, 1966.
    http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/decreto/d57654.htm.

  58. Government of Brazil. Lei Nº 4.375, Lei do Serviço Militar. Presidência da República. Enacted: August 17,1964.
    http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/leis/l4375.htm.

  59. Government of Brazil. Lei Nº 9.394. Presidência da República. Enacted: December 20, 1996.
    http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/Leis/L9394.htm.

  60. U.S. Embassy- Brasilia. Reporting. January 29, 2019.

  61. U.S. Embassy- Brasilia. Reporting. February 28, 2019.

  62. Agência Brasil. Nova lista suja de trabalho escravo denuncia 209 empresas. Sindicato dos Comerciários. October 9, 2018.
    https://ocomerciario.com.br/index.php/2018/10/09/nova-lista-suja-de-trabalho-escravo-denuncia-209-empresas/.

  63. Costa, Daiane. Nova lista suja do trabalho escravo tem 202 empregadores. Confira quem são. January 21, 2019.
    https://oglobo.globo.com/economia/nova-lista-suja-do-trabalho-escravo-tem-202-empregadores-confira-quem-sao-23389860.

  64. CBPI. Realocação das estruturas do extinto Ministério do Trabalho nos organogramas do Novo Governo. January 2019.
    http://segtrabcampo.blogspot.com/2019/01/realocacao-das-estruturas-do-extinto.html.

  65. Government of Brazil. Criança e Adolescente. Ministério Público do Trabalho Procuradoria-Geral. March 8, 2016.
    http://portal.mpt.mp.br/wps/portal/portal_mpt/mpt/area-atuacao/crianca-adolescente.

  66. Polícia Rodoviária Federal. Enfrentamento à exploração sexual de crianças e adolescentes. Accessed: February 24, 2017.
    https://www.prf.gov.br/portal/policiamento-e-fiscalizacao/atuacao-em-direitos-humanos/denuncia-de-ponto-de-exploracao-sexual.

  67. U.S. Embassy- Brasilia. Reporting. February 8, 2018.

  68. U.S. Embassy Brasilia official. Email communication to USDOL official. July 8, 2019.

  69. Escola Nacional da Inspeção do Trabalho (ENIT). Inspeção do Trabalho realizou 205.979 fiscalizações em 2017. January 31, 2018.
    https://enit.trabalho.gov.br/portal/index.php/arquivo-de-noticias/293-inspecao-do-trabalho-realizou-205-979-fiscalizacoes-em-2017.

  70. Government of Brazil. Radar SIT: Painel de Informações e Estatísticas da Inspeção do Trabalho no Brasil. Secretaria da Inspeção do Trabalho. Accessed 2019.
    https://sit.trabalho.gov.br/radar/

  71. Government of Brazil. Observatório do Trabalho Escravo. Ministério Público do Trabalho. Accessed 2018.
    https://observatorioescravo.mpt.mp.br/

  72. O Globo. Em 2018, fiscais identificaram 1,7 mil casos de trabalho escravo no Brasil. January 28, 2019.
    https://oglobo.globo.com/economia/em-2018-fiscais-identificaram-17-mil-casos-de-trabalho-escravo-no-brasil-23409423.

  73. CIA. The World Factbook. Accessed: January 19, 2018. Please see "Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.
    https://www.cia.gov/Library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2095rank.html.

  74. UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2017 Statistical Annex. New York, 2017. Please see "Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.
    https://www.un.org/development/desa/dpad/wp-content/uploads/sites/45/publication/2017wesp_full_en.pdf.

  75. ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva: Committee on Employment and Social Policy, November 2006. Please see "Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions" in the References Materials section of this report.
    http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf.

  76. Government of Brazil. Finalidade da CONAETI. Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego. March 4, 2014. Source on file.

  77. Government of Brazil. Órgãos e Entidades que Compõem a CONAETI. Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego. February 29, 2016. Source on file.

  78. U.S. Embassy Brasilia official. Email communication to USDOL official. May 10, 2019.

  79. Government of Brazil. Comissão Intersetorial de Enfrentamento da Violência Sexual contra Crianças e Adolescentes. Secretaria de Direitos Humanos da República. Accessed: February 29, 2016. Source in file.

  80. Government of Brazil. Plano Nacional de Enfrentamento da Violência Sexual contra as Crianças e Adolescentes. Gadelha, Graça, et al. May 2013.
    http://www.crianca.mppr.mp.br/arquivos/File/publi/sedh/08_2013_pnevsca.pdf.

  81. Government of Brazil. Ações do MDH para enfrentamento à violência sexual são apresentadas na Câmara dos Deputados. Ministry of Women, Family and Human Rights. September 9, 2018.
    https://www.mdh.gov.br/todas-as-noticias/2018/setembro/acoes-do-mdh-para-enfrentamento-a-violencia-sexual-sao-apresentadas-na-camara-dos-deputados.

  82. Government of Brazil. Combate ao Trabalho Escravo. Ministério da Justiça e Cidadania. Accessed: March 13, 2017.
    http://www.sdh.gov.br/assuntos/conatrae/programas/comissao-nacional-para-a-erradicacao-do-trabalho-escravo.

  83. U.S. Embassy Brasilia official. Email communication to USDOL official. May 8, 2019.

  84. Government of Brazil. Comitê Nacional de Enfrentamento ao Tráfico de Pessoas. Ministério da Justiça. Accessed: March 8, 2018.
    http://www.justica.gov.br/sua-protecao/trafico-de-pessoas/politica-brasileira/conatrap.

  85. Government of Brazil. Carta de Constituição de Estratégias em Defesa da Proteção Integral dos Direitos da Criança e do Adolescente. Conselho Superior da Justiça, et al. October 9, 2012.
    https://www.tjdft.jus.br/cidadaos/infancia-e-juventude/publicacoes/publicacoes-1/carta-de-constituicao-de-estrategias-em-defesa-da-protecao-integral-dos-direitos-da-crianca-e-do-adolescente.

  86. Government of Brazil. RESOLUÇÃO Nº 213, DE 20 DE NOVEMBRO DE 2018. November 20, 2018.
    https://www.direitosdacrianca.gov.br/conanda/resolucoes/resolucao-no-213-de-20-de-novembro-de-2018/view.

  87. Government of Brazil. RESOLUÇÃO Nº 214, DE 22 DE NOVEMBRO DE 2018. November 22, 2018.
    https://www.direitosdacrianca.gov.br/conanda/resolucoes/resolucao-no-214-de-22-de-novembro-de-2018/view.

  88. Government of Brazil. RESOLUÇÃO N° 215, DE 22 DE NOVEMEBRO DE 2018. November 22, 2018.
    https://www.direitosdacrianca.gov.br/conanda/resolucoes/resolucao-no-215-de-22-de-novembro-de-2018/view.

  89. Government of Brazil. Ato Conjunto Nº 21/TST.CSJT.GP. Tribunal Superior do Trabalho, and Conselho Superior da Justiça. Enacted: July 19, 2012.
    http://bit.ly/1etKFvP.

  90. Government of Brazil. Ato Conjunto Nº 6/TST.CSJT.GP. Conselho Superior da Justiça do Trabalho. Enacted: March 10, 2014.
    http://aplicacao.tst.jus.br/dspace/bitstream/handle/1939/36779/2014_atc0006_tst_csjt.pdf?sequence=1.

  91. PBAGORA. Comitê de Enfrentamento ao Tráfico de Pessoas e PRF realizam ação na PB. Paraíba. July 20, 2019.
    https://www2.pbagora.com.br/noticia/paraiba/20180720164537/comite-de-enfrentamento-ao-traficode-pessoas-e-prf-realizam-acao-na-pb.

  92. Portal da Cidade - Foz do Iguaçu. IDESF faz ação na Ponte da Amizade em campanha contra o tráfico de pessoas. October 22, 2018.
    https://foz.portaldacidade.com/noticias/cidade/idesf-faz-acao-na-ponte-da-amizade-em-campanha-contra-o-trafico-de-pessoas.

  93. Circuito do Mato Grosso. Exposição sobre trabalho escravo e tráfico de pessoas será aberta hoje. July 25, 2018.
    http://circuitomt.com.br/editorias/cultura/132049-exposicao-sobre-trabalho-escravo-e-trafico-de-pessoas-sera-aberta-hoje.html.

  94. Government of Brazil. III Plano Nacional de Prevenção e Erradicação do Trabalho Infantil e Proteção ao Adolescente Trabalhador (2019–2022). November 29, 2018.
    https://www.mdh.gov.br/todas-as-noticias/2018/novembro/lancado-3o-plano-nacional-de-prevencao-e-erradicacao-do-trabalho-infantil/copy_of_PlanoNacionalversosite.pdf.

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