Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Brazil

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Brazil

2014 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Significant Advancement

In 2014, Brazil made a significant advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government created mobile inspection units to coordinate child labor law enforcement efforts between regional Ministry of Labor and other local inspectors. Law 12.978 was signed; it specifies penalties in the Penal Code for the commercial sexual exploitation of children. Inspectors carried out inspections targeting child labor in 165 commercial establishments in the state of Bahia during Brazil's Carnival season in February, and in many tourist sites during the World Cup in June. The National Education Plan was also signed, and an additional 9 million schools participated in the More Education (Mais Educação) program. However, children are engaged in child labor, including in agriculture, and in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Some local governments lack adequate resources to fully implement national programs to combat child labor, including programs to combat child trafficking.

 

Expand All

Children in Brazil are engaged in child labor, including in agriculture. Children are also engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation sometimes as a result of human trafficking.(1-5)

In 2014, the 2012 — 2013 National Household Survey results indicated that there were 486,000 child laborers (ages 5 to 17) in Brazil. This figure represents a 15 percent reduction in child labor, providing the lowest estimate of child labor in Brazil's history.(54) Results also indicate that 96percent of working children attended school.(6) More than 258,000 children ages 10 to 17 work in domestic service in third-party homes.(5) However, National Household Survey results exclude many vulnerable populations. The Government has not conducted in-depth research on hard-to-reach populations, such as children engaged in domestic work, drug trafficking, commercial sexual exploitation, or labor in indigenous communities. In 2014, the Federal Highway Police, the NGO Childhood Brazil, and the ILO mapped out 1,969 risk points for the commercial sexual exploitation of children in Brazil. The southeastern and northeastern regions of Brazil were identified as having the most risk points.(7, 8) Table1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Brazil.

Table 1. Statistics on Children's Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

3.5 (1,116,499)

Working children by sector, ages 5 to 14 (%)

 

Agriculture

56.4

Industry

9.9

Services

33.7

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

97.2

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

4.0

Primary completion rate (%):

Unavailable

Primary completion rate was unavailable from UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(9)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children's Work Project's analysis of statistics from PNAD Survey, 2011.(10)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children's Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of apples,*† Palm used to produce oil (babassu),*† beans,*† cashews,† citrus,*† coffee,*† corn,*† cocoa,*† cotton,† manioc,† mate tea,*† pineapple,† rice,† sisal,† sugarcane,*† tobacco,† tomatoes,*† charcoal,† and strawberries*† (11-39)

Cattle ranching† and animal slaughter,† including for beef production† (11, 40, 41)

Mollusk harvesting*† (24, 42)

Industry

Production of ceramics† and bricks† (43-45)

Production of garments,*† footwear,† and leather*† (25, 31, 38, 45-47)

Work in quarries*† (48, 49)

Services

Street work,† including vending, and begging (5, 50)

Garbage scavenging† (23, 50)

Automobile washing and repair† (25, 38, 51)

Work in markets,*† hauling fruits and vegetables (25, 51)

Artistic work and playing in soccer clubs* (52-54)

Domestic work† (5, 55)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1-4)

Domestic work, begging, and playing in soccer clubs as a result of human trafficking*† (1, 56, 57)

Used in illicit activities, including drug trafficking,*† sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1, 5)

Forced labor in the production of manioc*† (14)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

In Brazil, human trafficking is a problem in border areas. Brazilian and Paraguayan indigenous children are trafficked for domestic service; Paraguayan indigenous children are trafficked for the purpose of begging; adolescents, including some from Haiti and South Korea, are trafficked to play in soccer clubs.(1, 56)

While there are no overall statistics available, the commercial sexual exploitation of children is a large problem throughout Brazil, especially in tourist areas in the cities of Fortaleza, Manaus, Rio de Janeiro, and in the slums (favelas) of Rio de Janeiro.(58) Highway stops are areas for the commercial sexual exploitation of children. Young girls are victims of commercial sexual exploitation at rest-stop bars in Caracaraí, a highway stop on the route from Manaus, Brazil to Venezuela.(4)

Reports indicate that every day, on average, eight primary and secondary schools close in rural areas. In 2013, approximately 3,300 schools had closed because of high costs and infrastructure problems.(59, 60) In the last 5 years, at least 13,000 schools have closed for the same reason.(61)

Back to Top

Brazil has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

16

Article 7, Title II of the Constitution; Article 403 of the Labor Code (62, 63)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 7, Title II of the Constitution; Article 2 of Decree 6.481 of 2008 (62, 64)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Decree 6.481 of 2008 (64)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 149 of the Penal Code (65)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 231-A of the Penal Code (65, 66)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 218-B and 227 — 228 of the Penal Code; Articles 240 — 244A of the Statute of the Child and Adolescent (65, 67)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 4 of Decree No. 6.481 of 2008; Articles 33 — 40, Chapter II of Law 11.343 of 2006 (64, 68)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

Yes

18

Article 5 of Law 4.375 of 1964 (69)

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

17

Article 5 of Law 4.375 of 1964 (69)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

17

Article 208 of the Constitution (62)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 208 of the Constitution (62)

Although Brazil‘s legal minimum age for work is higher than the international standard, it includes an exemption for apprenticeships to begin at age 14. As of 2013, the labor justice system has sole authority to grant work permits, which includes authorizations for children ages 14 and 15 to work in apprenticeships.(70, 71) In 2014, the courts and the Public Ministry in the state of São Paulo issued recommendations to judges regarding granting work authorizations for children under 16.(72)

Brazil's definition of forced labor, which is broader than that of the ILO Conventions, includes strenuous work and unacceptable or degrading working conditions as a form of forced labor. However, the Penal Code's definition of trafficking in persons does not cover human trafficking for the purposes of labor, and only penalizes human trafficking cases in which the victim has been moved.(65, 66) Resolution 93 of 2010 allows officials to grant permanent visa status to foreign victims of human trafficking or labor exploitation, including of commercial sexual exploitation, forced labor, and indentured labor.(73) A new amendment to the Constitution, Amendment 81, which was approved on June 5 of 2014, permits the confiscation of urban or rural properties in which forced or slave labor is found, but it requires regulations in order to be implemented.(74)

On May 21, 2014, Law 12.978 was signed, changing the legal title of Article 218-B of the Penal Code to further specify that children and adolescents are protected as vulnerable people from commercial sexual exploitation. The penalty for this crime is 4 to 10 years in prison and the crime cannot be expunged from the perpetrator's record.(75) On August 4, 2014, Law 6742/2014 was passed in Rio de Janeiro, specifying the City Government's plan for eradicating the commercial sexual exploitation of children and adolescents, which entails the creation of public policies and interagency coordination, research, and awareness-raising campaigns, as well as increasing victim protection rights.(76)

On December 1, 2014, the Government signed Decree 13.046, which alters Law No. 8.069 (the Child Statute), stipulating that all public and private entities who work in child care must have trained professionals who can identify and report suspected situations of abuse of children and adolescents.(77)

Back to Top

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor and Employment (MTE)

Conduct labor inspections, enforce child and forced labor laws, and monitor child and forced labor cases.(25) Labor inspections are planned by regional offices based on MTE's goals, analyses of labor market data, and available human and financial resources.(78) Has special units composed of labor inspectors, the Federal Police, and federal labor prosecutors, to conduct forced labor inspections.(25) Work with the Ministry of Justice and other government agencies when they find foreign workers who have been trafficked and work under forced labor conditions.(79) In 2014, created the Mobile Inspection Group to Combat Child Labor, which promotes initial connections and coordinates with child protection networks about activities against child labor and the worst forms of child labor, along with regional MTE representatives, and also with the MTE, the State Prosecutor, Child Protection councils, and City Halls.(57)

Federal Labor Prosecutor's Office (MPT)

Prosecute child labor violations by working with 24 prosecutors from the National Committee to Combat Child and Adolescent Labor, (COORDINFÂNCIA), an in-house body that directs the MPT's efforts to combat child labor.(80, 81) Carry out awareness-raising campaigns. Monitor whether child labor policies are implemented and whether municipalities budget the required 5 percent for initiatives to protect children's rights.(25, 81, 82)

Federal Police

Investigate some cases of forced labor, human trafficking, and commercial sexual exploitation of children.(25)

Federal Public Ministry (MPF)

Investigate and prosecute cases of forced labor and human trafficking.(23)

Ministry of Justice (MOJ)

Lead efforts to combat human trafficking. Oversees state-run centers (núcleos) for addressing local anti-trafficking strategies in 16 states.(83)

Office of the President's Secretariat of Human Rights (SDH)

Coordinate efforts to protect human rights, including combating forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation. Sponsor Dial 100, a human rights violation hotline which directs complaints to appropriate institutions for follow-up.(25)

Office of the President's Secretariat for Women's Policies

Operate Dial 180, a hotline that receives complaints about violence against women.(7, 84)

Federal Highway Police

Collaborate with the MPF and MTE mobile inspection units in identifying risk points for forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation, with a focus on the highway system.(85, 86)

Advanced Posts and Nucleus (Núcleos)

Refer human trafficking victims to services. Also, as of January 2014, these interagency units assisting possible human trafficking victims, at transit points now produce and publish quarterly progress reports.(83)

* Agency responsible for child labor enforcement was created during the reporting period.

Law enforcement agencies in Brazil took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms.

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2014, the Ministry of Labor and Employment (MTE) had 2,711 labor inspectors who worked in all 26 states. The MTE's budget reached $29.8 billion, a $2 billion increase over its 2013 budget.(83) Reports indicate that while funding is sufficient for inspections, the number of labor inspectors is too low.(83)

During the reporting period, the MTE carried out 9,798 child labor inspections, an increase from 8,339 child labor inspections in 2013. Of the 9,798 child labor inspections, 3,241 inspections involved the worst forms of child labor.(83) No information is available on how many inspections had occurred as a result of complaints.(57) The majority of the inspections were carried out in the states of Bahia, Goias, Minas Gerais, Pernambuco, and Rio de Janeiro. Inspectors are able to make unannounced visits and inspections take place within a large range of economic activities in both the formal and informal sectors.(83) However, inspectors are not permitted to enter private homes and family farms where child labor may be found.(83)

Prior to the start of the FIFA (soccer) World Cup in Brazil, the Government and different civil society members launched many awareness-raising campaigns about preventing the commercial sexual exploitation of children. The Office of the President's Secretariat of Human Rights (SDH) allocated approximately $3.4 million in funding for projects to fight the commercial sexual exploitation of children.(7, 87) Targeted child labor inspections also took place in the state of Bahia in 165 commercial establishments during Brazil's Carnival season, from February 24 to 26, and in many tourist sites during the FIFA World Cup, from June 12 to June 17.(88, 89) During the 2014 FIFA World Cup season, Dial100 received 726 complaint calls related to child labor.(57) In addition, states have established mechanisms to receive child labor complaints. For example, the Secretariat for Social Development in the state of Minas Gerais receives such complaints through its human rights hotline.(83, 90)

In 2014, the MTE removed 5,522 children from child labor and removed 1,509 individuals from forced and exploitative labor conditions. No information is available on how many children were rescued from forced and exploitative labor.(83, 91) Between January and September 2014, the Pernambuco Regional Office removed 843 children and adolescents from conditions of child labor, resulting in the highest number of children found and rescued from child labor in any one state in Brazil.(92) In 2014, in two separate cases, individuals were convicted for violating child labor laws. Total fines issued for these cases were $223,474.(57) Research did not uncover how many children were referred to social services.

Criminal Law Enforcement

For 2014, no information is available on the number of investigators responsible for enforcing criminal laws related to the worst forms of child labor. Research did not uncover how many investigations on the worst forms of child labor were carried out during the reporting period.

The Secretariat for Women's Policies Dial 180 hotline (renamed Disque-Denúncia in March 2014) received 485,105 calls in 2014, 140 of which were human trafficking complaints, compared with 263 complaints during the same period in 2013.(93, 94) State nucleuses reported having identified 170 victims of sex trafficking and 2,145 victims of human trafficking for the purpose of labor exploitation; many of the latter had been identified by the MTE.(7, 57) The Government does not distinguish between adult trafficking and child trafficking cases in its public reporting, so it is difficult to discern how many of these victims were children.

The Government did not report comprehensive data on human trafficking prosecutions and convictions in Brazil. However, as part of the Second National Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons, there are concentrated efforts on data collection.(7) In 2014, Brazil's National Council of Justice created 15 Judicial State Committees to Combat Trafficking in Persons which aim to coordinate data sharing among the courts.(7)

There is no central database to record violations of the laws against the commercial sexual exploitation of children, including in child prostitution and pornography.(83) The Government did not report the number of children identified or rescued from commercial sexual exploitation in 2014.(57) Safernet Brazil, a partnership between the Government and an NGO, receives online complaints about human rights violations, including about child pornography and human trafficking. Safernet Brazil hosts a helpline to provide counseling support and a one-stop Web site with information about cybercrimes in Brazil.(95, 96) In 2014, Safernet received more than 189,211 complaints, 51,553 of which pertained to child pornography.(97)

Brazil faces challenges in collecting comprehensive data on human trafficking because of the lack of legislation that covers all forms of human trafficking.(98) Furthermore, most local governments lack adequate resources to combat human trafficking and assist human trafficking victims, including victims of commercial sexual exploitation.(23)

Back to Top

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Council for the Rights of Children and Adolescents (CONANDA)

Monitor policies to protect children's rights, including the rights of working children. Includes 28 sitting council members, 14 of whom are representatives from the Executive Branch and 14 are NGO representatives.(99, 100)

Interagency Committee to Implement Strategies to Ensure the Protection of Children's and Adolescents' Rights

Coordinate the implementation of policies to protect children's and adolescents' rights, including the National Plan for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor and the Protection of Working Adolescents. Composed of nine government entities, including the National Council of the Federal Public Ministry and the Labor Justice Commission, and led by the SDH.(101)

National Committee for the Eradication of Child Labor (CONAETI)

Lead the implementation of the National Plan for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor and the Protection of Working Adolescents. Coordinated by the MTE; includes 17 government agencies, as well as representatives from trade unions, business associations, and civil society organizations.(102, 103)

Intersectoral Committee to Combat Sexual Violence Against Children and Adolescents

Monitor the implementation of the National Plan to Combat Sexual Violence Against Children. Led by the SDH.(104)

National Commission to Combat Human Trafficking

Coordinate the implementation of the Second National Plan to Combat Human Trafficking. Chaired by the MOJ.(7)

Labor Justice Commission for the Eradication of Child Labor and the Protection of Adolescent Decent Work

Direct efforts led by the Labor Courts (Justiça do Trabalho) to eradicate child labor.(105)

Anti-Trafficking Interagency Coordination Centers (Núcleos)

Coordinate activities carried out by local, state, and federal agencies to combat human trafficking. There are currently 16 states with coordination centers.(23)

A source indicates that state-level coordinating committees on trafficking in persons have faced challenges due to a lack of funding. The state of Pernambuco's Committee on Combating Trafficking in Persons stopped meeting in the first quarter of 2014; it officially dissolved during the reporting period due to financial and administrative setbacks.(7)

Back to Top

The Government of Brazil has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table7).

Table 7. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Plan for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor and the Protection of Working Adolescents (2011–2015)

Guides the Government of Brazil's efforts to combat child labor, including its worst forms.(106, 107)

National Plan to Combat Sexual Violence Against Children and Adolescents (2011–2020)

Lays out a set of strategies to prevent sexual violence, protect children's rights, and assist child victims of sexual violence, as well as their families. Discussed throughout Brazil, harmonized with other child-related policies.(108)

National Plan for Children and Adolescents (2011–2020)

Outlines the policy framework to promote children's rights. Aims to expand and coordinate policies and actions to address child labor.(109) In January 2014, the National Council for the Rights of Children and Adolescents established guidelines for states and municipalities to develop 10-year plans for children and adolescents based on the goals and objectives of the National Plan.(110)

Second Plan to Combat Forced Labor (2012–2016)

Establishes the policy framework to address forced labor, including forced child labor.(108, 111)

Second Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons (2012–2016)

Guides efforts to combat human trafficking, including child trafficking.(112) Focuses on prevention, assistance to victims, and suppression of criminal activity.(83)

Decent Work National Plan and the Decent Work Agenda for Youth

Outlines policies to provide decent work opportunities and increase access to education and vocational training.(113, 114)

National Educational Plan (2014–2024)†

Aims to expand access to education and improve the quality of education. Has 20 goals, including universal basic education; an end to illiteracy; and conversion of 50 percent of public schools into full-time schools, extending the number of school hours to 7 or more per day. Under the Plan, 10 percent of Brazil's GDP will be allocated to education.(115-117)

4-Year Development Plan (2012–2015)

Seeks to achieve sustainable development that reaches all regions and promotes social equality through access to quality education, technological innovation, and environmental sustainability. Aims to lift 16 million people out of extreme poverty, and build 2 million houses for low-income families.(118)

Declaration of the Regional Initiative: Latin America and the Caribbean Free of Child Labor (2014 — 2020)†

Aims to increase regional cooperation on eradicating child labor by 2020 through signatories' efforts to strengthen monitoring and coordination mechanisms, government programs, and South-South exchanges. Reaffirms commitments made in the Brasilia Declaration from the Third Global Conference on Child Labor (October 2013), and signed by Brazil at the ILO's 18th Regional Meeting of the Americas in Lima, Peru (October 2014).(119-121)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

In September 2014, Brazil participated in the First Meeting of the Working Groups of the XVIII Inter-American Conference of Ministers of Labor to foster continued dialogue and cooperation on labor issues throughout the Americas. Held in Bridgetown, Barbados, these discussions promoted the exchange of information on policies and programs that seek to formalize the informal sector, uphold workers' rights, and prevent and eliminate child labor.(122)

Back to Top

In 2014, the Government of Brazil funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms. The Government has other programs that may have an impact on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

National Plan to Eradicate Child Labor (Programa de Erradicação do Trabalho Infantil [PETI])‡

Ministry of Social Development and the Fight Against Hunger (MDS) conditional cash transfer program that combats child labor by working with families who commit to keep their children in school and out of work. Beneficiaries receive tailored social services based on their needs and vulnerability.(107, 123, 124) Implemented in more than 3,500 municipalities and more than 820,000 children benefit from the program. Tracks project beneficiaries through a national monitoring system.(107, 124)

Family Grant (Bolsa Família)

MDS anti-poverty program that supplements family income, targeting rural and urban areas where child labor is prevalent. One condition for family participation is that children under age 18 attend school regularly.(125, 126) In 2014, 14 million families participated, and funding for families has increased by 44 percent in the past 3years.(127) In 2014, the budget was $8.7 billion.(83) To address noncompliance with the school attendance requirements, the Ministry of Education, the MDS, and local and state governments track school attendance every 2 months. Beginning in December 2014, the municipality of São Paulo expanded the program to include foreign recipients residing in the municipality.(128)

Caring Brazil Program (Brasil Carinhoso)*‡

MDS program to combat extreme poverty among participants of Bolsa Familia, whose monthly income per capita is less than $137. Brasil Carinhoso targets families with children ages 0 to 15, and benefits 16.4 million people.(129, 130)

Brazil Without Extreme Poverty (Brasil sem Miséria)‡

MDS program that aims to lift more than 16 million people out of extreme poverty by expanding access to social protection programs, improving productivity and providing access to basic services.(131) The budget was extended into 2015 with a 4.4 percent increase in funding.(83)

National Program on Job Training and Employment (Programa Nacional de Acesso ao Ensino Técnico e Emprego [(PRONATEC)*‡

Ministry of Education job training and employment program for youth older than age 16. Program goal for 2014 was $5 billion, providing 8 million openings for professional courses.(132, 133) Program also included PRONATEC Cup, a special training course for the 2014 World Cup held in Brazil, which included training courses for 240,000 students, and courses for 32,000 students in sign language and in English and Spanish.(133)

More Education Program (Mais Educação)‡

Ministry of Education educational services program. Offers after-school activities and remedial activities to reduce dropout rates and grade repetition, as well as to combat child labor. In 2014, 58,000 schools participated in the program, an increase from 49,000 schools in 2013.(127, 134, 135)

National Household Survey‡

Government-funded annual national household survey that includes child labor.(136)

South-South Cooperation Project‡

A $461,862 Government of Brazil-funded projects to combat child labor, implemented by the ILO-IPEC to promote South-South cooperation.(137) In most of the project countries in 2014, an awareness-raising campaign named Pinwheel Caravan — Africa Free of Child Labor was conducted.(142)

Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues Project (2011–2016)

USDOL-funded project implemented by the ILO in approximately 40 countries to support the priorities of the Roadmap for Achieving the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor by 2016 established by The Hague Global Child Labor Conference in 2010. In Brazil, aims to improve the evidence base on child labor and the worst forms of child labor through data collection and research.(138)

Project to Consolidate Efforts to Combat Forced Labor in Brazil and Peru (2012–2016)

A $6 million, USDOL-funded, 4-year project implemented by the ILO to combat forced labor, including forced child labor in Brazil and Peru, and to share Brazil's good practices with the Government of Peru and Peruvian stakeholders. In 2014, began to develop a monitoring tool to track the implementation of the National Plan to Combat Forced Labor, and it supported activities to promote the exchange of good practices among State Commissions to Combat Forced Labor.(139-141) Also carried out an exchange activity between the Brazilian and Peruvian Commissions to Combat Forced Labor to share good practices and develop an agenda for further information-sharing activities. In the state of Mato Grosso, will provide livelihood services to 650 victims of forced labor.(141)

Protect Brazil Smartphone Application (Proteja Brasil)‡

Government- and UNICEF-sponsored smartphone and tablet application to report child labor abuses. Launched in 2014.(142)

Social Assistance Reference Centers

MDS and SDH program that provides vulnerable populations, including victims of child labor and human trafficking victims of commercial sexual exploitation, with psychological, social, and legal services. In 2014, there were 2,440 centers, an increase from 2,316 in 2013.(83, 143) Funding also increased to $15.2 billion in 2014 from $13.7 billion in 2013.(83) Only 557 centers were certified to assist trafficking in persons victims.(57)

* The impact of this program on child labor does not appear to have been studied.
‡ Program is funded by the Government of Brazil.

Although the National Plan to Eradicate Child Labor (PETI) and Family Grant (Bolsa Família) have reduced child labor in Brazil, challenges remain.(106, 144) Some PETI beneficiaries are not fully complying with program requirements; reports claim that some children do not attend school, while others combine school and work.(145, 146) Because of decentralization of PETI and Bolsa Família, local communities are responsible for their implementation; however, they do not have the resources to fully implement and monitor the programs. Despite the increased funding from the Central Government, in some cases, the operational costs of these programs exceed the funding provided by the Federal Government or local governments lack the institutional capacity to implement them.(5, 147, 148) More than 3,200 municipalities in Brazil carry out policies and programs to combat child labor, but the Government does not have in place an effective monitoring system to track their implementation.

Back to Top

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Brazil (Table 9).

Table 9. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that the definition of trafficking in persons is consistent with international standards.

2011–2014

Enforcement

Increase the number of labor inspectors responsible for enforcing laws related to child labor in order to provide adequate coverage of the workforce.

2014

Make information publicly available on the number, cases of child trafficking and forced labor, including the number of rescued children, investigations, prosecutions, convictions, and children who received social services.

2012–2014

Make information publicly available on the number of criminal investigators for the worst forms of child labor.

2014

Provide adequate resources to local governments to combat human trafficking and assist victims.

2012–2014

Social Programs

Develop a monitoring system to track the implementation of child labor policies and programs.

2009–2014

Make publically available the number of children who received social services.

2014

Expand efforts to improve access to primary and secondary education, particularly in rural areas.

2013–2014

Carry out more in-depth research on the worst forms of child labor, particularly with regard to children engaged in domestic work, drug trafficking, and commercial sexual exploitation, as well as child victims of forced labor and child labor in indigenous communities.

2009–2014

Provide local governments with the resources and capacity to fully implement and monitor PETI and Bolsa Família, identify technical assistance needed by communities, and raise awareness.

2009–2014

Ensure that families participating in PETI comply with program requirements to keep children in school and out of work.

2009–2014

 

Back to Top

1.Ministry of Justice. Diagnóstico sobre Tráfico de Pessoas nas Áreas de Fronteira no Brasil. Brasilia; 2013.

2.Childhood Brazil, ILO, Ministry of Justice and Highway Police, and Special Secretariat of Human Rights (SDH). Mapeamento dos Pontos Vulneráveis a Exploração Sexual de Crianças e Adolescentes nas Rodavias Federais Brasileiras. Brasilia; 2012.

3.Profissão Repórter. Menores de Idade se Prostituem em Estradas no Nordeste do Brasil [TV]: Globo; October 4, 2011, 20.01 min, [cited March 4, 2014];.

4.Rafael Da Silva Oliveira. "Las redes de prostitución y tráfico de mujeres en la Frontera Brasil-Venezuela por las Carreteras BR-174 y Troncal 10." Espacio Abierto Cuaderno Venezolano de Sociología, 21(2):325 (2012); hardcopy on file.

5.Repórter Brasil. Brasil Livre de Trabalho Infantil. São Paulo; 2013. http://reporterbrasil.org.br/trabalhoinfantil/livro/.

6.Government of Brazil. Trabalho infantil registra menor taxa da história October 23, 2014 [cited January 2, 2015];.

7.U.S. Embassy- Brasilia. reporting, March 12, 2015.

8.Childhood pela proteção da infância. Mapeamento identifica 1.969 pontos vulneráveis à exploração sexual de crianças e adolescentes nas rodovias brasileiras [online ] [cited March 22, 2015];

9.UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed January 16, 2015];. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. For more information, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.

10.UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Analysis received January 16, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children's work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.

11.A Liga. Trabalho Infantil (Parte 2) [TV]: Grupo Bandeirantes de Comunicação; March 23, 2011, 10 min., 18 sec., [cited March 4, 2014];.

12.Santini, D. "Crianças Sem Identidade, o Trabalho Infantil na Produção de Castanha de Caju." [online] September 19, 2013 [cited March 3, 2014]; http://bit.ly/1pXeBcx.

13.Ana Lucia Kassouf, and Andrea Rodrigues Ferro. O Trabalho Infantil no Ramo Agrícola Brasileiro. Brasilia, ILO; 2004.

14.Santini, D. "Adolescentes Paraguaios Escravizados São Forçados a Deixar o País." [online ] March 21, 2013 [cited March 4, 2014]; http://bit.ly/133x7UI.

15.Duran, S. "As Piores Formas de Trabalho Infantil." [online] February 21, 2013 [cited March 3, 2014]; http://bit.ly/YHtHU6.

16.ILO-IPEC. Trabalho Infantil na Cultura do Abacaxi no Município de Santa Rita, PB. Brasilia; 2006.

17.Pyl, B. "Crianças e Adultos Colhem Fumo em Condições de Escravidão." [online] January 26, 2011 [cited March 4, 2014]; http://bit.ly/1gNOmyJ.

18.AGRONLINE. Indústria de Fumo Explora Trabalho no Sul, AGRONLINE, [online] January 5, 2009 [cited March 4, 2014];.

19.Santiado, H. "Em Dez Anos 108 Mil Deixam Trabalho Infantil na Paraíba." [online] October 17, 2010 [cited March 3, 2014];.

20."Em Pato Branco, Sesc Discute Trabalho Infantil no Paraná." [online] June 17, 2010 [cited March 3, 2014];.

21."Crianças Trabalham como Carregadores." Jornal da Cidade, February 8, 2012.

22.Guilherme Sedlacek, and Emily Gustafsson-Wright. Brazil, Eradicating Child Labor in Brazil. Washington, DC, World Bank; December 6, 2001. Report No. 21858-BR.

23.U.S. Embassy- Brasilia. reporting, February 19, 2014.

24.Profissão Repórter. Trabalho Infantil [TV]: Globo; July 10, 2012, 22 min., 18 sec., [cited March 4, 2014];.

25.U.S. Embassy- Brasilia. reporting, January 17, 2014.

26.Martini, M. "Lançada Campanha de Erradicação do Trabalho Infantil no RS." [online] June 11, 2012 [cited April 11, 2014];.

27.Leite de Sousa, E. "Infância em Pedaços: O Trabalho das Crianças Quebradeiras de Coco Babaçu no Maranhão," in Fazendo Gênero 9: Diasporas, Diversidades, Deslocamentos; August 23-26, 2010; Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina;.

28.Pyl, B. "Fiscalização Encontra Escravos na Região da "Chacina de Unaí"." [online] January 12, 2011 [cited March 3, 2014]; http://www.reporterbrasil.org.br/exibe.php?id=1838.

29.Pyl, B. "Trabalho Infantil e Escravo é Flagrado na Colheita de Cacau." [online] June 28, 2010 [cited March 3, 2014]; http://www.reporterbrasil.org.br/exibe.php?id=1763.

30.Pyl, B. "PM Encontra Crianças Colhendo Limão em Cabreúva." [online] July 15, 2009 [cited March 3, 2014]; http://www.reporterbrasil.org.br/pacto/noticias/view/163.

31.Melo, J. O Trabalho Infantil que Santa Catarina Não Vê: Não é Brincadeira; 2014, 17 min., 01 sec., [cited January 31, 2014];.

32.Dutra, FNX. "Exploração do Trabalho Infanto-Juvenil nas Usinas de Açúcar e Álcool do Estado de Alagoas." [online] November 2010 [cited March 3, 2014];.

33."Fiscalização Flagra Trabalho Infantil em Lavouras de São Paulo." O Globo, Rio de Janeiro, October 28, 2011.

34.Rocha, R. "Adolescentes e Outros 43 São Libertados do Cultivo de Morangos." [online] August 2, 2010 [cited March 3, 2014]; http://bit.ly/10sZdpE.

35.Simon Schwartzman, and Felipe Schwartzman. O Trabalho Infantil no Brasil. Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Estudos do Trabalho e Sociedade; June 2004.

36."PB Integra Rota do Trabalho Infantil; Patos é o Principal Polo Exportador." Jornal da Paraíba, June 9, 2011.

37.Federal Labor Prosecutor's Office of Minas Gerais. "MG: Justiça Condena Empregador por Trabalho Infantil em Lavoura de Café." [online] May 27, 2010 [cited March 3, 2014];.

38.Ministry of Social Development and Fight Against Hunger. Programa de Erradicação do Trabalho Infantil (PETI): Redesenho Pactuado na CIT e Aprovado no CNAS em Abril de 2013. Brasilia; 2013. http://bit.ly/1oQvpnp.

39.Igor Ojeda, and Stefano Wrobleski. "Paulistano Usa Carvão Feito com Trabalho Escravo e Infantil." [online] January 24, 2014 [cited January 31, 2014]; http://reporterbrasil.org.br/2014/01/paulistano-usa-carvao-feito-com-trabalho-escravo-e-infantil/.

40.Vidal, B. "Trabalhadores São Libertados de Fazendas de Pecuária." [online] November 19, 2010 [cited March 3, 2014]; http://bit.ly/X9d31C.

41.Santini, D. "Violência Crua, um Flagrante de Trabalho Infantil em Matadouro." [online] September 5, 2013 [cited March 3, 2014]; http://bit.ly/1pY0Aew.

42.Ojeda, I. "Crianças Catam Sururu que Abastece Quiosques e Restaurantes do Recife." [online] June 27, 2013 [cited April 11, 2014]; http://reporterbrasil.org.br/trabalhoinfantil/criancas-catam-sururu-que-abastece-quiosques-e-restaurantes-do-recife/.

43."Jovens São Flagrados Trabalhando Irregularmente em Fábrica de Tijolos em Campos." [online] March 2, 2011 [cited March 3, 2014];.

44.Lázaro Jr. "Trabalho Infantil Ainda Existe na Região " Folha da Região, Aracatuba, June 12, 2009.

45."Reportagens Retratam Trabalho Infantil em Santa Catarina." [online] January 20, 2014 [cited January 31, 2014]; http://reporterbrasil.org.br/2014/01/reportagens-retratam-trabalho-infantil-em-santa-catarina/.

46.Damázio, M. "Acidentes de Trabalho Atingem 8 Mil Crianças e Adolescentes em SP desde 2006." [online] October 1, 2013 [cited March 13, 2014];.

47.de Souza Lourenço, E. Trabalho de Crianças e Adolescentes: Desafios para o Programa de Erradição do Trabalho Infantil (PETI) e para o trabalho profissional do Serviço Social Brasília; 2013.

48."PM Ambiental Flagra Exploração de Trabalho Infantil em Pedreira." Folha do Oeste, São Miguel do Oeste, March 29, 2010.

49.Globo Repórter. Globo Repórter Mostra Imagens de Trabalho Infantil no Estado do Piauí, Globo Repórter, [online] August 8, 2013 [cited March 3, 2014];.

50.META- Instituto de Pesquisa de Opinião. Primeira Pesquisa Censitária Nacional sobre Crianças e Adolescentes em Situação de Rua; March 2011.

51.Brandão, L. "Ruas do Centro de Salvador Têm Trabalho Infantil e Muita Sujeira." Tribuna da Bahia, August 27, 2013.

52.Martins, MR. "MP Investiga Exploração de Trabalho Infantil em Tradicional Espetáculo de Natal em Curitiba." [online] July 28, 2012 [cited March 4, 2014];.

53.Santini, D. "Contra Trabalho Infantil no Futebol, OIT Cobra Mudanças nas Categorias de Base." [online] February 25, 2012 [cited March 4, 2014]; http://bit.ly/WSNJx6.

54.Federal Labor Prosecutor's Office. Medida Pretende Combater a Exploração de Crianças e Adolescentes nas Categorias de Base. Campo Grande; February 15, 2013.

55.Ministério Público do Trabalho e da Associação Nacional dos Procuradores do Trabalho. Trabalho Legal-Trabalho Infantil Doméstico: TV Justiça; September 10, 2011, 01 min., 52 sec., [cited March 3, 2014];.

56.Dimmi, A. "Pesquisa Aponta Tráfico de Pessoas no Brasil até para Futebol." Folha de São Paulo, Brasilia, October 18, 2013.

57.U.S. Embassy- Brasilia official. E-mail comunication to USDOL official. March 27, 2015.

58.Defense for Children. Sexual exploitation of children in Brazil: putting a spot on the problem Netherlands 2014.

59.Cancían, N. "Brasil Fecha, em Média, Oito Escolas por Dia na Região Rural." Folha de São Paulo, São Paulo, March 3, 2014.

60.Ministry of Education. "Comissão do Senado Aprova Projeto que Dificulta Fechamento de Escolas Rurais." [online] February 25, 2014 [cited May 13, 2014];.

61.Agência Brasil. "Sancionada lei que dificulta fechamento de escolas rurais e quilombolas " [online ] May 31, 2014 [cited April 8, 2015];.

62.Government of Brazil. Constitução da República Federativa do Brasil de 1988 (with modifications), enacted October 5, 1998.

63.Government of Brazil. Consolidação das Leis do Trabalho (with modifications until October 2013), Decreto-Lei No. 5.452, enacted May 1, 1943.

64.Government of Brazil. Decreto No. 6.481, enacted June 12, 2008.

65.Government of Brazil. Código Penal (with modifications until 2013), No. 2.848, enacted December 7, 1940.

66.U.S. Embassy- São Paulo. reporting, January 18, 2012.

67.Government of Brazil. Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente (with modifications until 2012), Lei 8.069, enacted July 13, 1990.

68.Government of Brazil. Lei 11.343 (with modifications until 2010), enacted August 23, 2006.

69.Government of Brazil. Lei do Servico Militar, Lei No 4.375, De 17 de Agosto de 1964, enacted August 17,1946.

70.Supreme Labor Court. "Justiça do Trabalho Estabelece sua Competência para Autorizar Trabalho de Menores." [online] December 17, 2013 [cited April 10, 2014];.

71."TRT da 2ª Região Institui Regras para Autorização de Trabalho a Crianças e Adolescentes." [online] January 26, 2014 [cited April 10, 2014];.

72.Fórum Nacional de Prevenção e Erradicação do Trabalho Infantil (FNPETI). "Decisão inédita sobre autorizações judiciais para o trabalho de crianças e adolescentes " 2014 [cited March 22, 2015];.

73.Government of Brazil. Resolução Normativa nº 93, enacted December 23, 2010.

74.Government of Brazil. Emenda Constitucional Nº 81, de 5 de Junho de 2014 enacted June 5, 2014.

75.Government of Brazil Lei Nº 12.978, de 21 de Maio de 2014., enacted May 21, 2014.

76.Government of Brazil Lei Nº 6742 de 8 de Abril de 2014, enacted April 8, 2014.

77.Government of Brazil Lei Nº 13.046, de 1º de dezembro de 2014, enacted December 1, 2014.

78.Government of Brazil. Portaria no. 546, enacted March 11, 2010.

79.Government of Brazil. Instrução Normativa No. 91, enacted October 5, 2011.

80.Federal Labor Prosecutor's Office. Área de Atuação Criança e Adolescente - Membros, Government of Brazil, [online] [cited March 4, 2014]; .

81.Federal Labor Prosecutor's Office. Área de atuação Criança e Adolescente, Federal Labor Prosecutor's Office,, [online] [cited April 10, 2014];.

82.Federal Labor Prosecutor's Office. Plano de Projeto: Orçamento Público e Políticas Públicas de Prevenção e Erradicação do Trabalho Infantil e Proteção do Adolescente Trabalhador 2011; 2011.

83.U.S. Embassy- Brasilia. reporting, February 13, 2015.

84.Portal Brasil. Ligue 180 amplia o atendimento para mais 13 países, [online ] March 10, 2015 [cited March 22, 2015];.

85.Government of Brazil Federal Highway Police. Enfrentamento à exploração sexual de crianças e adolescentes [online] [cited February 24, 2015];.

86.Government of Brazil. "Grupo Móvel de Fiscalização resgata 17 trabalhadores no Ceará." Portal MTE [online] September 26, 2014 [cited February 20, 2015];.

87.Reuters. "FEATURE-Brazil's child sex trade thrives as World Cup looms." [online ] December 3, 2013 [cited April 29, 2015];.

88.Government of Brazil. "Trabalho Infantil: BA e RJ também realizaram ações." March 11, 2014 [cited February 25, 2015];.

89.Government of Brazil. "Superintendência da Bahia realiza mais de 40 ações para combater trabalho infantil na Copa " June 20, 2014 [cited February 25, 2015];.

90.Government of Minas Gerais. Encaminhamento e Monitoramento de Denúncias de Violação dos Direitos Humanos- Disque Direitos Humanos, Government of Minas Gerais, [online ] March 10, 2014 [cited April 10, 2014];.

91.Ministry of Labor and Employment. Quadro Comparativo da Fiscalização do Trabalho 2003 a 2013, Government of Brazil, [online] [cited March 3, 2014];.

92.Government of Brazil. Pernambuco marcha contra o trabalho infantil, [online] October 15, 2014 [cited February 25 2015];.

93.Portal Brasil. Ligue 180 amplia o atendimento para mais 13 países, [online ] March 10, 2015 [cited March 22, 2015];.

94.Government of Brazil. "Balanço 180." 2015 [cited April 9, 2015];.

95.Government of Brazil. Internet Segura: Denuncie Government of Brazil, [online] [cited January 29, 2014];.

96.Safernet Brasil. O que e o Helpline.Br?, Safernet Brasil, [online] [cited April 10, 2014];.

97.Safernet. Indicadores da Central Nacional de Denúncias de Crimes Cibernéticos, [online] [cited February 25 2015];.

98.Ministry of Justice and UNODC. Relatório Nacional sobre Tráfico de Pessoas: Consolidação dos Dados de 2005 a 2011. Brasilia; 2013..

99.Government of Brazil. Lei 8.242, enacted October 12, 1991.

100.Government of Brazil. Conselho Nacional dos Direitos da Criança e do Adolescente (Conanda), [online] [cited March 30, 2015];.

101.Government of Brazil. Carta de Constituição de Estratégias em Defesa da Proteção Integral dos Direitos da Criança e do Adolescente. Brasilia; October 9, 2012.

102.Ministry of Labor and Employment. Finalidade da CONAETI, Government of Brazil, [online] [cited March 4, 2014];.

103.Ministry of Labor and Employment. Órgãos e Entidades que Compõem a CONAETI, Government of Brazil, [online] [cited March 4, 2014];.

104.Brazilian Secretariat of Human Rights. Comissão Intersetorial de Enfrentamento da Violência Sexual de Crianças e Adolescentes, Government of Brazil, [online] [cited March 4, 2014]; http://bit.ly/1jQ5gzm.

105.Government of Brazil. Ato Conjunto nº 21/TST.CSJT.GP, enacted July 19, 2012.

106.National Council for the Eradication of Child Labor. Plano Nacional de Prevenção e Erradicação do Trabalho Infantil- Segunda Edição (2011-2015). Brasilia, Ministry of Employment and Labor; December 2011.

107.Ministry of Social Development and Fight Against Hunger. Programa de Erradicação do Trabalho Infantil (PETI), Government of Brazil, [online] [cited March 4, 2014]; http://www.mds.gov.br/assistenciasocial/peti.

108.Graca Gadelha, Fernando Luz Carvalho, Joseleno Vieira Santos, Karina Figueiredo, and Leila Paiva. Plano Nacional de Enfrentamento da Violência Sexual contra as Crianças e Adolescentes. Brasilia, Government of Brazil; May 2013.

109.National Council for the Rights of Children and Adolescents. Política Nacional dos Direitos Humanos de Crianças e Adolescentes e o Plano Decenal dos Direitos Humanos de Crianças e Adolescentes 2011-2020. Brasilia; October 2010. http://bit.ly/1ql28hT.

110.National Council for the Rights of Children and Adolescents. CONANDA Define Diretrizes para Plano dos Direitos de Crianças e Adolescentes; 2014.

111.Government of Brazil. 2º Plano Nacional para a Erradicação do Trabalho Escravo. Brasília; 2008. http://bit.ly/10mXbsu.

112.Government of Brazil. II Plano Nacional de Enfrentamento ao Tráfico de Pessoas 2013.

113.Government of Brazil. Plano Nacional de Emprego e Trabalho Decente. Brasília; 2010.

114.Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego. Agenda Nacional de Trabalho Decente para a Juventude no Brasil. Brasilia, Government of Brazil; 2010.

115.Aquino, Y. "Governo e Movimentos Sociais Querem Aprovação do PNE pelo Senado em 2013." [online] December 29, 2012 [cited March 4, 2014];.

116.Brazilian Chamber of Deputies. "Plano Nacional de Educação Apresenta 20 Metas." [online] October 22, 2012 [cited March 4, 2014];.

117.Government of Brazil. Plano Nacional de Educação (PNE), Lei Nº 8.035-B de 2010 enacted.

118.Government of Brazil. Plano Plurianual: Dimensão Estratégica. Brasilia; January 2012. http://bit.ly/1528JDj.

119.ILO. "Declaración de Constitución de la Iniciativa Regional América Latina y el Caribe Libre de Trabajo Infántil, signed at the ILO's 18th Regional Meeting of the Americas, October 14, 2014." October 14, 2014 [cited November 17, 2014];.

120.UN News Centre. "At UN-backed forum, Latin American, Caribbean nations pledge robust efforts against child labour." [cited].

121.ILO. "18th American Regional Meeting - Latin America and Caribbean Sign a Declaration to Free the Region from Child Labour." October 17, 2014, [cited November 17, 2014.

122.OAS. Agenda, First Meeting of the Working Group of the XVIII IACML; 2014..

123.Ministry of Social Development and Fight Against Hunger. Serviços de Convivência e Fortalecimento de Vínculos Government of Brazil, [online] [cited March 4, 2014]; http://bit.ly/wpAUDQ.

124.Ministry of Social Development and Fight Against Hunger. PETI Condicionalidades Government of Brazil, [online] [cited March 14, 2014]; http://bit.ly/1gxHofW.

125.Ministry of Social Development and Fight Hunger. Bolsa Família, Government of Brazil, [online] [cited March 4, 2014]; http://www.mds.gov.br/bolsafamilia.

126.Ministry of Social Development and Fight Against Hunger. Condicionalidades do Bolsa Família, Government of Brazil, [online] [cited March 4, 2014]; http://bit.ly/1kXkoek.

127.Government of Brazil. Plano Brasil Sem Miséria- Caderno de Resultados 2011-2014; 2014. http://www.mds.gov.br/documentos/Caderno_BSM3%2C5%20anos_20112014.pdf.

128.Municipality of São Paulo. Prefeitura de São Paulo cadastrará estrangeiros para receber o Bolsa Família, [cited December 29, 2014];.

129.Government of Brazil. Brasil Carinhoso, Government of Brazil, [online] [cited March 14, 2014];.

130.Priscilla Mendes, and Nathalia Passarinho. Dilma Amplia Faixa Etária do Brasil Carinhoso para até 15 Anos, G1, [online ] November 29, 2012 [cited March 4, 2014];.

131.Ministry of Social Development and Fight Against Hunger. Plano Brasil sem Miséria, [online] [cited April 10, 2014];http://www.mds.gov.br/falemds/perguntas-frequentes/superacao-da-extrema-pobreza%20/plano-brasil-sem-miseria-1/plano-brasil-sem-miseria.

132.Government of Brazil. Lei nº 12.816 enacted June 5, 2013.

133.Government of Brazil. PRONATEC 2014 — 2015 [cited December 23 2014, ];.

134.Ministry of Education. Escolas com Maioria de Alunos do Bolsa Família Aderem ao Programa Mais Educação, Ministry of Education, [online] September 2, 2013 [cited February 3, 2014];.

135.Government of Brazil. Portaria Normativa Interministerial nº 17, enacted April 26, 2007.

136.Junior, C. "IBGE: 554 Mil Crianças Entre 5 e 13 Anos Trabalham no País." [online] September 27, 2013 [cited March 11, 2014];.

137.ILO-IPEC Geneva official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. January 9, 2015.

138.ILO-IPEC. Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues. Technical Progress Report. Geneva; October 2014.

139.USDOL, and ILO. Cooperative Agreement No. IL 23986-13-75-K. Washington, DC; December 18, 2012.

140.ILO. Consolidating and Disseminating Efforts to Combat Forced Labour in Brazil and Peru. Grant Modification No. 2; July 18, 2014.

141.ILO. Consolidating and Disseminating Efforts to Combat Forced Labor in Brazil and Peru Technical Progress Report; October 2014.

142.Government of Brazil. Brasil vai exportar aplicativo que ajuda a combater violência contra crianças e adolescentes June 24, 2014 [cited January 2 2015, ];.

143.Boqnews. "Novo Centro de Referência atende vítimas de violência " [online ] September 4, 2014 [cited April 13, 2015];.

144.Medeiros, M. "Análise Trabalho Infantil: Problema Está Ligado a Questão Cultural, e Não à Baixa Renda Familiar." Folha de São Paulo, São Paulo, December 28, 2011.

145.Simplício, A. "35% das Crianças do Peti Não Comparecem às Aulas em CG." Jornal da Paraíba, January 10, 2012. .

146.Rádio Santa Cruz. Conselho Tutelar fará campanha contra trabalho de menores na feira livre, Rádio Santa Cruz, [online] March 16, 2012 [cited March 4, 2014];.

147.National Confederation of Municipalities. Os Programas Governamentais e sua Aplicabilidade nos Municípios; June 2009.

148.de Jesus, AC. Desafios e Diversidades na Gestão Programa Bolsa Família em Pequenos e Médios Municípios. Sao Luis, Maranhão, V Jornada Internacional de Políticas Públicas; August 2011.