Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Brazil

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Brazil

2017 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Significant Advancement

In 2017, Brazil made a significant advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The government published an updated version of the “Dirty List,” which contains information on employers that the Ministry of Labor has found to be using slave labor, including that of children. Civil police officers from 24 states and the Federal District conducted a large operation to combat the sexual exploitation of children, including child pornography. The city of Campinas, the second largest city in Brazil’s largest state, São Paulo, approved a Municipal Plan for the Eradication of Child Labor. In addition, the Labor Prosecution Service launched the #StopChildLabor campaign, using celebrities to raise awareness of child labor throughout the country. However, children in Brazil engage in the worst forms of child labor in commercial sexual exploitation. Children also engage in child labor in agriculture, including in the production of coffee. From September to December, labor inspections were limited to state capitals or cities that have a regional Ministry of Labor office due to the lack of funds for vehicles, gasoline, air travel, and daily lodging and meals for labor inspectors. Furthermore, there are not enough labor inspectors to provide sufficient coverage of the workforce, and there is a lack of resources, including specialized shelters, for child victims of commercial sexual exploitation.

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Children in Brazil engage in the worst forms of child labor in commercial sexual exploitation. (1; 2; 3) Children also engage in child labor in the production of coffee. (4; 5) Although the government has not yet published an analysis of the results from the 2016 National Household Survey (PNAD), the survey found 998,000 children ages 5–17 in child labor, including 190,000 children ages 5–13 and 808,000 children ages 14–17. (6) The survey also found that 20 million children are engaged in domestic work, which includes children engaged in household chores as well as child labor. (7) The North and Northeast regions had the highest number of child laborers, and 48 percent of these child laborers ages 5–13 work in agriculture. (6) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Brazil.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

2.1 (638,943)

Working Children by Sector

5 to 14

 

Agriculture

 

56.5

Industry

 

8.2

Services

 

35.2

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

98.0

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

2.4

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

Unavailable

Primary completion rate was unavailable from UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2018. (8)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD), 2015. (9)

 

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of bananas, ceramics, citrus fruits,† cocoa, coffee, corn, cotton,† manioc, mate tea, pineapples,† rice, sisal,† soy, sugarcane,† and tobacco† (4; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 5)

Cattle ranching and raising livestock, including hogs, poultry, and sheep (12; 16; 5; 15)

Fishing and harvesting mollusks† (17; 5; 15; 18)

Forestry, including logging,† extracting carnauba palm leaves, and producing charcoal† (13; 19; 15; 5; 20; 21)

Industry

Slaughtering animals,† including for beef production (22; 23; 24)

Processing manioc flour† and cashews† (11; 25; 26; 27)

Production of bricks† (13; 28)

Production of footwear† and textiles, including garments (12; 13; 29; 15; 30)

Work in quarries† (31)

Services

Street work,† including vending,† washing cars,† and garbage scavenging† (32; 33; 34; 35; 36)

Work in markets and fairs, including hauling fruits and vegetables and transporting heavy loads (23; 36; 37; 38)

Work in fast-food establishments (39)

Selling alcoholic beverages† (38)

Artistic and cultural work and playing in soccer clubs (12; 40)

Domestic work† (32; 38)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, including use in the production of pornography, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1; 2; 33; 34; 3; 35)

Forced domestic work and playing in soccer clubs, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (41; 33; 42)

Forced labor in agriculture, including in the production of coffee and manioc (4; 43; 10; 33)

Use by gangs to perform illicit activities, including drug trafficking, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (32; 33; 38; 44; 35; 45; 46)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

 

While the overall scope and magnitude of the commercial sexual exploitation of children is unknown, the government acknowledges that it occurs throughout Brazil, with higher rates reported in the North and Northeast regions. (47; 42) Child sex tourism is particularly common in tourist and coastal areas. In addition, girls from other South American countries are exploited in commercial sex in Brazil. (42)

Research found that schools, particularly those in rural areas, are overcrowded, have poor infrastructure, and lack basic resources and teachers. (35; 48; 33) In addition, approximately 11,000 indigenous children in remote, rural areas do not have birth certificates, which may affect their ability to access education because birth registration documents are required for school enrollment. (33; 35; 49) The government is aware of the problem and drafted legislation that will alter the National Education Law and allow schools to register children without birth registration. (49)

Brazil has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Brazil’s legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor, including child trafficking for labor exploitation.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

16

Article 403 of the Labor Code (50)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 2 of the Hazardous Work List (51)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Hazardous Work List (51)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 149 and 149-A of the Penal Code (52; 53)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

No

 

Article 149-A of the Penal Code; Article 244A of the Child and Adolescent Statute (53; 54)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 218-A, 218-B, and 227–228 of the Penal Code; Articles 240–241 and 244A of the Child and Adolescent Statute (52; 54)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Articles 33 and 40 of the National System of Public Policies on Drugs; Article 244-B of the Child and Adolescent Statute (54; 55)

Prohibition of Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

Yes

18

Article 5 of the Military Service Law (56)

State Voluntary

Yes

17

Article 127 of the Military Service Regulation (57)

Non-state

No

 

 

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

17

Article 4 of the National Education Law (58)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 4 of the National Education Law (58)

 

In October, the Ministry of Labor (MTE) published a new version of the “Dirty List” which comprised 131 employers found to be using slave labor. (59) In addition, during the reporting period, Espírito Santo state signed Law 10.755, which establishes the month of June as “Red June.” Starting in 2018, this month will be dedicated to the prevention and eradication of child labor. (60)

Prohibitions against child trafficking for forced labor exploitation do not meet international standards because they require the use of threats, violence, coercion, fraud, or abuse to be established for the crime of child trafficking. (53)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the operations of the MTE that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor (MTE)

Conduct labor inspections and enforce child and forced labor laws. (61) Mobile inspection units comprising labor inspectors, labor prosecutors, Federal Police officers, and other law enforcement officials conduct inspections at sites in which forced labor, including forced child labor, is suspected. (12; 62)

Labor Prosecution Service (MPT)

Prosecute child labor and forced labor violations by working with prosecutors from MPT’s National Committee to Combat Child and Adolescent Labor, an in-house body that coordinates efforts to combat child labor. Collects fines for forced labor violations and allocates funds for initiatives that address child labor and forced labor. (63) In 2017, held trainings on child labor for municipal guardianship counselors (conselheiros tutelares) in all states and coordinated with the ILO to launch the Slave Labor Global Observatory, an interactive platform that integrates several government databases to promote the development of policies and programs to prevent and eliminate forced labor. (64; 35)

Military, Civil, and Federal Police

Military police operate at the local level and act as first responders. They refer cases to the civil police for investigation. (35) Federal police work on interstate or international cases and maintain a database to track cases of human trafficking for sexual exploitation. (12; 35) Federal Highway Police identify areas at high risk of commercial sexual exploitation. (65)

Ministry of Justice

Lead efforts to combat human trafficking and coordinate Advanced Posts (Postos Avançados) and state-run Anti-Trafficking Coordination Centers (Núcleos de Enfrentamento). There are 12 Advanced Posts (Postos Avançados) that identify human traffickers and potential victims in high-transit areas, including airports and bus stations. (66) Provide guidance to federal, state, and local government officials on referrals for victims of human trafficking, including to Anti-Trafficking Coordination Centers (Núcleos de Enfrentamento), Specialized Social Assistance Reference Centers, and NGOs. (66)

Ministry of Human Rights

Administer Dial 100, a human rights violation hotline that directs child labor complaints to the appropriate institution for follow up. In the first half of 2017, Dial 100 received 2,739 calls reporting child labor; 2,067 calls for commercial sexual exploitation of children, including 301 calls for child pornography and 13 calls for child sex tourism; 39 calls for child trafficking; and 7 calls for forced child labor. (35)

National Forum of the Judiciary for Monitoring the Effectiveness of Policies on Forced Labor and Human Trafficking (FONTET)

Collect data on forced labor and human trafficking cases. Comprises 15 judges, including the president of the Supreme Federal Court, judges from the Supreme Labor Court, and 12 members of the National Council of Justice. (66)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2017, labor law enforcement agencies in Brazil took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the operations of the MTE that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including financial resource allocation.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown

$165,749 (35)

Number of Labor Inspectors

2,525 (67)

2,367 (68)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (67)

Yes (35)

Training for Labor Inspectors

   

Initial Training for New Employees

N/A

N/A

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Yes (67)

Yes (35)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (67)

Yes (35)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

264,562 (68)

205,979 (68)

Number Conducted at Worksites

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

2,496 (16)

10,092 (35)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties were Imposed

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that were Collected

Unknown

Unknown

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (67)

Yes (35)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (67)

Yes (35)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (67)

Yes (35)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (67)

Yes (35)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (67)

Yes (35)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (67)

Yes (35)

 

In 2017, the government conducted 7,491 child labor inspections, an increase from 5,376 inspections in 2016; however, research found that the Labor Inspectorate experienced significant funding issues, which limited their ability to enforce child labor laws. (16; 35; 46) In July, inspectors declined requests from the Labor Prosecution Service (MPT) to conduct labor inspections in the states of São Paulo and Rio Grande do Norte due to a lack of funding. (69) From September to December, labor inspections were limited to state capitals or cities that have a regional MTE office due to the lack of funds for vehicles, gasoline, air travel, and daily lodging and meals for labor inspectors. In addition, MTE’s mobile inspection units did not conduct child labor and forced labor inspections during this four-month period. (70; 71) Furthermore, the number of labor inspectors is likely insufficient for the size of Brazil’s workforce, which includes approximately 110 million workers. According to the ILO’s technical advice of a ratio approaching 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in industrializing economies, Brazil would employ about 7,360 labor inspectors. (72; 73; 74)

Upon finding children in hazardous working conditions, MTE officials immediately remove the children and return them to their families or refer them to social services providers. In 2017, inspectors removed 2,078 children in child labor from their workplaces, a decrease from 2,483 children removed in 2016. (35; 75)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2017, criminal law enforcement agencies in Brazil took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including holding violators of child labor laws accountable in accordance with the law.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (75)

Yes (35)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Yes (76)

Yes (66)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (67)

Yes (35)

Number of Investigations

950 (67)

Unknown

Number of Violations Found

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown

32 (35)

Number of Convictions

Unknown

5 (35)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (67)

Yes (35)

 

In October 2017, more than 1,000 civil police from 24 states and the Federal District conducted a large operation to combat the sexual exploitation of children, including child pornography. More than 150 search warrants were executed, and over 100 individuals were arrested for their involvement in producing, storing, and sharing child pornography. (77; 78) During the reporting period, MPT initiated 19 criminal prosecutions for child labor violations in São Paulo, 10 in Santa Catarina, and 3 in Paraná. MPT won three convictions for child labor violations in São Paulo and two in Santa Catarina. (35) Although the Federal Police claim to maintain a database to track cases of human trafficking for sexual exploitation, there is no process for collecting and tracking the data, and it is not disaggregated by victims’ ages. (79)

According to the government, the judicial system does not sufficiently hold perpetrators accountable for child labor law violations, including forced child labor, which may lead to a sense of impunity among violators. (12)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role and Description

National Committee for the Eradication of Child Labor

Lead the implementation of the National Plan for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor and the Protection of Working Adolescents. Led by the MTE, includes 17 government agencies and representatives from trade unions, business associations, and civil society organizations. (80; 81)

Intersectoral Commission to Combat Sexual Violence Against Children and Adolescents

Monitor implementation of the National Plan to Combat Sexual Violence Against Children and Adolescents. Led by the Ministry of Justice’s Special Secretariat for Human Rights (SDH). (82; 83)

National Committee to Combat Forced Labor

Coordinate and evaluate the implementation of the National Plan for the Eradication of Forced Labor. Led by the SDH. (84)

National Committee to Combat Trafficking in Persons

Coordinate activities to address human trafficking. Led by the Ministry of Justice. (85) In 2017, continued to monitor and evaluate the results of the Second Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons, which ended in 2016, and developed the third national action plan. (42)

Interagency Committee to Implement Strategies to Ensure the Protection of Children’s and Adolescents’ Rights

Coordinate the implementation of policies to protect children’s and adolescents’ rights, including the National Plan for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor and the Protection of Working Adolescents. Led by the SDH. (86)

Labor Justice Commission for the Eradication of Child Labor and Protection of Working Adolescents

Organize efforts of the labor courts to eliminate child labor and ensure that adolescents have decent work opportunities. (87) Includes 11 representatives from the Superior Labor Court and regional labor courts. (88)

Anti-Trafficking Coordination Centers (Núcleos de Enfrentamento)

Coordinate activities carried out by local, state, and federal agencies to combat human trafficking. Established in 16 states and the Federal District. (66)

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor.

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor‡

Policy

Description

National Plan to Combat Sexual Violence Against Children and Adolescents (2013–2020)

Identifies strategies to prevent the sexual exploitation of children, protect children’s rights, and assist child victims. (83)

National Plan for the Eradication of Forced Labor

Establishes the policy framework to address forced labor. (89)

Federal Pact for the Eradication of Forced Labor

Aims to establish a forced labor database to share research and data, create state-level plans to combat forced labor, and strengthen interagency coordination. Led by the Ministry of Justice’s SDH, and signed by 15 states. (90; 91)

National Education Plan (2014–2024)

Aims to expand access to education and improve the quality of education. Plans to allocate 10 percent of Brazil’s GDP to public education by 2024. (92)

‡ The government had other policies which may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor. (93)

 

In April, the city of Campinas, the second largest city in Brazil’s largest state, São Paulo, launched a Municipal Plan for the Eradication of Child Labor. (35) An analysis of the National Education Plan found that only 6 of the 20 targets that should have been met by the end of 2017 were totally or partially achieved. Research found that greater resources are needed to ensure adequate implementation. (94) Although the government has adopted the National Plan to Combat Sexual Violence Against Children and Adolescents, research found no evidence of a policy on other worst forms of child labor.

In 2017, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including the adequacy of programs to assist child victims of commercial sexual exploitation.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor‡

Program

Description

National Program to Eradicate Child Labor [Programa de Erradicação do Trabalho Infantil (PETI)]†

Ministry of Social Development (MDS) social assistance program that combats child labor through awareness-raising activities, victim identification and protection, and conditional cash transfers. (62; 95) To receive program benefits, participants must ensure that children are not working and maintain at least 85 percent school attendance. (96)

 #StopChildLabor Campaign* (#ChegaDeTrabalhoInfantil)

MPT campaign that uses celebrities to raise awareness of child labor. (97)

Living Together and Strengthening Links Program [Serviço de Convivência e Fortalecimento de Vínculo (SCFV)]†

MDS social assistance program for vulnerable groups, including child laborers. Aims to strengthen familial and communal ties through sports, artistic, and cultural activities. Offers services at Social Assistance Reference Centers and Living Centers. (98)

Social Assistance Reference Centers†

MDS and SDH program that provides vulnerable populations, including victims of child labor and commercial sexual exploitation, with psychological, social, and legal services. (99; 100) In 2017, there were 2,521 Specialized Social Assistance Reference Centers located throughout the country; however, many centers lacked necessary funds to sufficiently serve clients’ needs. (42; 66)

Family Stipend (Bolsa Família)†

MDS program that provides families living in poverty and extreme poverty with cash transfers. (32; 101) In 2017, 93.1 percent of children ages 6–15 met the minimum requirement of 85 percent school attendance; 82.3 percent of children ages 16–17 met the minimum requirement of 75 percent school attendance. (102; 103)

Brazil Without Extreme Poverty (Brasil Sem Miséria)†

MDS program that lifts people out of extreme poverty by guaranteeing a minimum income; expanding access to public services, including education, health, and citizenship; and increasing job opportunities and income generation for the poorest families. (104) One program component, Caring Brazil (Brasil Carinhoso), focuses on Bolsa Família participants with children ages 0–15 with a monthly family income of less than $22 per person. (105)

National Program on Job Training and Employment (Programa Nacional de Acesso ao Ensino Técnico e Emprego)†

Ministry of Education program that provides job training and employment opportunities to workers and social program recipients, including high school students. (106; 107)

South-South Cooperation Projects†

Government of Brazil-funded projects implemented by the ILO to combat child labor and promote South-South cooperation. (108) In 2017, the government hosted representatives from six countries to discuss ILO’s child labor predictor model and the redesign of the PETI program. (109)

USDOL-Funded Projects

USDOL-funded projects implemented by the ILO that aim to combat child labor and forced labor. The Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues Project is implemented by the ILO in approximately 40 countries to support the priorities of the Roadmap for Achieving the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor by 2016, established by the Hague Global Child Labor Conference in 2010. (110) Consolidating and Disseminating Efforts to Combat Forced Labor in Brazil and Peru (2012–2018) is a $6.8 million project that combats forced labor, including forced child labor, in Brazil and Peru, and shares Brazil’s best practices with the Government of Peru and Peruvian stakeholders. (111; 112) Additional information is available on the USDOL website.

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Brazil.
‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. (113; 114)

 

Because the National Program to Eradicate Child Labor (PETI) and Bolsa Família are decentralized, municipal governments are responsible for their implementation. Some municipalities do not have the necessary human and financial resources to fully implement and effectively monitor these programs. (32) Many states also report a lack of resources to adequately assist victims of human trafficking. (42) In addition, research found a lack of specialized shelters for child victims of commercial sexual exploitation. (33; 42)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Brazil (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that laws do not require the use of threats, violence, coercion, fraud, or abuse to establish the crime of child trafficking for forced labor exploitation.

2016 – 2017

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under age 18 by non-state armed groups.

2016 – 2017

Enforcement

Publish information regarding the number of labor inspections conducted at worksites, number of child labor violations for which penalties were imposed, number of penalties imposed that were collected; and the number of criminal investigations conducted and violations found.

2012 – 2017

Significantly increase the number of labor inspectors to meet the ILO’s technical advice.

2014 – 2017

Ensure that the labor inspectorate receives adequate funding to conduct child labor and forced labor inspections throughout the year in all areas of Brazil.

2017

Systematically collect and track data on cases regarding human trafficking for sexual exploitation and ensure the data is disaggregated by victims’ ages.

2009 – 2017

Ensure that all violators of child labor laws, including the worst forms of child labor, are held accountable in accordance with the law.

2015 – 2017

Government Policies

Provide adequate resources to ensure that the goals outlined in the National Education Plan are achieved.

2015 – 2017

Adopt a policy that addresses all relevant worst forms of child labor, such as children engaged in hazardous work.

2017

Social Programs

Ensure that schools have an adequate number of trained teachers and basic resources, and improve school infrastructure to ensure all children, particularly those in rural areas, have access to education.

2013 – 2017

Expand the accessibility of birth registration services in remote areas and ensure indigenous communities are aware of the benefits of birth registration.

2013 – 2017

Provide local governments with the necessary resources to fully implement and monitor PETI and Bolsa Família.

2009 – 2017

Provide adequate resources to state governments to ensure that child trafficking victims receive appropriate social services; and ensure the availability of specialized shelters for child victims of commercial sexual exploitation.

2012 – 2017

1. Policia Rodoviária Federal, et. al. 6º Mapeamento dos Pontos Vulneráveis à Exploração Sexual de Crianças e Adolescentes nas Rodovias Federais Brasileiras. 2014. http://www.childhood.org.br/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/Mapeamento_2013_2014.pdf.

2. Consultor Jurídico. Compete à Justiça do Trabalho Julgar Exploração Sexual Infantil. May 25, 2016. http://www.conjur.com.br/2016-mai-25/compete-justica-trabalho-julgar-exploracao-sexual-infantil.

3. Cunha, Joana. Pará é emblema da exploração sexual; conheça o drama das ribeirinhas. Epoca. May 22, 2017. http://www1.folha.uol.com.br/seminariosfolha/2017/05/1885719-para-e-emblema-da-exploracao-sexual-conheca-o-drama-de-meninas-a-beira-dos-rios.shtml.

4. Danwatch. Bitter Coffee: Slavery-like Working Conditions and deadly Pesticides on Brazilian Coffee Plantations. March 2016. https://www.danwatch.dk/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/Danwatch-Bitter-Coffee-MARCH-2016.pdf.

5. ABRINQ Foundation. O Trabalho Infantil no Brasil. 2017. http://www.chegadetrabalhoinfantil.org.br/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Vers%C3%A3o-Final-Trabalho-Infantil-no-Brasil-Desafio-Trab-Inf-Ativ-Agr%C3%ADcolas-1.pdf.

6. Silveira, Daniel. Trabalho infantil: quase 1 milhão de menores trabalham em situação ilegal no Brasil, aponta IBGE. November 29, 2017. https://g1.globo.com/economia/noticia/trabalho-infantil-quase-1-milhao-de-menores-trabalham-em-situacao-ilegal-no-brasil-aponta-ibge.ghtml.

7. Ministério Público do Trabalho em São Paulo. MPT pede esclarecimentos ao IBGE sobre nova metodologia da PNAD. http://www.prt2.mpt.mp.br/521-mpt-pede-esclarecimentos-ao-ibge-sobre-nova-metodologia-da-pnad.

8. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed: March 3, 2018. http://data.uis.unesco.org/. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

9. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD), 2015. Analysis received January 12, 2018. Please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

10. Santini, Daniel. Adolescentes Paraguaios Escravizados São Forçados a Deixar o País. March 21, 2013. http://meiainfancia.reporterbrasil.org.br/adolescentes-paraguaios-escravizados-sao-forcados-a-deixar-o-pais/.

11. Duran, Sabrina. As Piores Formas de Trabalho Infantil. February 21, 2013. http://meiainfancia.reporterbrasil.org.br/as-piores-formas-de-trabalho-infantil/.

12. U.S. Embassy- Brasilia. Reporting, January 15, 2016.

13. Melo, Jessica. Não é brincadeira: O trabalho infantil que Santa Catarina não vê. Rádio AL. April 25, 2014. http://agenciaal.alesc.sc.gov.br/index.php/radioal/noticia_single_radioal/naeo-e-brincadeira-o-trabalho-infantil-que-santa-catarina-naeo-ve.

14. Vinicius, Cassius. O Sabor Amargo do Trabalho Escravo na Extração da Erva-mate. August 30, 2016. http://www.esquerdadiario.com.br/O-sabor-amargo-do-trabalho-escravo-na-extracao-da-erva-mate.

15. Fórum Nacional de Prevenção e Erradicação do Trabalho Infantil (FNPETI). O TRABALHO INFANTIL NOS PRINCIPAIS GRUPAMENTOS DE ATIVIDADES ECONÔMICAS DO BRASIL. December 2016. http://www.tst.jus.br/documents/2237892/0/estudo/2802c7cc-36a1-c216-cfca-328630c73119.

16. U.S. Embassy Brasilia official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 31, 2017.

17. Ojeda, Igor. Crianças Catam Sururu que Abastece Quiosques e Restaurantes do Recife. June 27, 2013. http://meiainfancia.reporterbrasil.org.br/criancas-catam-sururu-que-abastece-quiosques-e-restaurantes-do-recife/.

18. Câmera Record. No Alagoas, crianças abandonam os estudos para trabalhar na produção de sururu. June 26, 2017. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FTLhAC-yK0w.

19. Ojeda, Igor, and Stefano Wrobleski. Paulistano Usa Carvão Feito com Trabalho Escravo e Infantil. Reporter Brasil. January 24, 2014. http://reporterbrasil.org.br/2014/01/paulistano-usa-carvao-feito-com-trabalho-escravo-e-infantil/.

20. Câmera Record. Carvoaria de Minas Gerais contrata mão de obra infantil por R$ 20. June 26, 2017. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-_xh62DaNR8.

21. Hanson, Hilary. Workers Who Help Make Haribo Gummies Kept In ‘Slave’-Like Conditions, Says Report. October 26, 2017. https://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/haribo-slave-conditions-labor-animal-cruelty_us_59f20663e4b077d8dfc80bc2?ncid=inblnkushpmg00000009&link_id=83&can_id=facb138fb6be3a66213f845403005bd4&source=email-media-mentions-october-26-2017&email_referrer=email_253.

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23. Villela, Sumaia. Despite Strict Laws, Child Labor in Brazil Is Not Going Away. August 11, 2016. http://www.brazzil.com/23990-despite-strict-laws-child-labor-in-brazil-is-not-going-away.

24. Câmera Record. Em Pernambuco, crianças trabalham em matadouros em condições insalubres. June 26, 2017. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rpd7xy4G3mY.

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26. Globo Repórter. Reportagem denuncia exploração de crianças na extração da castanha de caju. May 4, 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Iblz7rM-Ouc.

27. Câmera Record. Crianças deixam de frequentar a escola para trabalhar em tempo integral. June 26, 2017. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zcBg_bQudVk.

28. Associação Nacional de Medicina do Trabalho (ANAMT). MPT quer o fim do trabalho infantil em olarias de Cabreúva. October 23, 2015. https://www.anamt.org.br/portal/2015/10/29/mpt-quer-o-fim-do-trabalho-infantil-em-olarias-de-cabreuva/.

29. de Souza Lourenço, Edvânia. Trabalho de Crianças e Adolescentes: Desafios para o Programa de Erradição do Trabalho Infantil (PETI) e para o Trabalho Profissional do Serviço Social. 2013. http://periodicos.ufes.br/temporalis/article/download/6277/4947.

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31. Globo Repórter. Globo Repórter Mostra Imagens de Trabalho Infantil no Estado do Piauí. August 12, 2013. http://redeglobo.globo.com/pi/redeclube/noticia/2013/08/globo-reporter-mostra-imagens-de-trabalho-infantil-no-estado-do-piaui.html.

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33. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Concluding Observations on the Combined Second to Fourth Periodic Reports of Brazil. October 30, 2015: CRC/C/BRA/CO/2-4. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fBRA%2fCO%2f2-4&Lang=en.

34. Transforming Childhoods Research Network, and University of Dundee. ‘Let’s Win This Game Together’ Documenting Violations of Children’s Rights Around the 2014 FIFA World Cup in Brazil. 2015. http://www.childrenwin.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/15337-SoE-Let%C2%B9s-Win-This-Game-Together-Report-A4.pdf.

35. U.S. Embassy- Brasilia. Reporting, January 16, 2018.

36. Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego. Grupo Móvel de Combate ao Trabalho Infantil Obtém Sucesso em sua Primeira Operação. November 12, 2015. http://www.fnpeti.org.br/noticia/1524-grupo-movel-de-combate-ao-trabalho-infantil-obtem-sucesso-em-sua-primeira-operacao.html.

37. Brandão, Leidiane. Ruas do Centro de Salvador Têm Trabalho Infantil e Muita Sujeira. Tribuna da Bahia. August 27, 2013. http://www.tribunadabahia.com.br/2013/08/27/ruas-do-centro-de-salvador-tem-trabalho-infantil-muita-sujeira.

38. Agência Brasil. Trabalho Infantil no Nordeste Perpetua o Ciclo da Pobreza e Miséria. O POVO Online. June 12, 2016. http://www.opovo.com.br/app/maisnoticias/brasil/2016/06/12/noticiasbrasil,3623300/trabalho-infantil-no-nordeste-perpetua-o-ciclo-da-pobreza-e-miseria.shtml.

39. UOL Economia. Em 1 Ano, 5.688 Crianças Foram Resgatadas de Trabalho Infantil, Diz Governo. June 22, 2015. http://economia.uol.com.br/empregos-e-carreiras/noticias/redacao/2015/06/09/em-1-ano-5688-criancas-foram-resgatadas-de-trabalho-infantil-diz-governo.htm#fotoNav=6.

40. Ministério Público do Trabalho Procuradoria-Geral. Medida Pretende Combater a Exploração de Crianças e Adolescentes nas Categorias de Base. February 15, 2013. [Source on file].

41. Pires, Breiller. Abuso Sexual e Tráfico de Crianças Ainda Assombram o Futebol Brasileiro. September 12, 2016. http://www.vice.com/pt_br/read/abuso-sexual-e-trafico-de-criancas-ainda-assombram-o-futebol-brasileiro.

42. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2017: Brazil. Washington, DC. June 27, 2017. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/271341.pdf.

43. Ministério Público do Trabalho em Minas Gerais. Operação Conjunta Flagra Exploração de Trabalho Análogo ao de Escravo na Colheita de Café. August 13, 2015. http://www.prt3.mpt.gov.br/procuradorias/prt-belohorizonte/484-operacao-conjunta-flagra-exploracao-de-trabalho-analogo-ao-de-escravo-na-colheita-de-cafe.

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45. Corréa, Hudson. Traficantes cariocas recrutam e armam criancas cada vez mais novas para o crime. Epoca. January 16, 2017. http://epoca.globo.com/brasil/noticia/2017/01/traficantes-cariocas-recrutam-e-armam-criancas-cada-vez-mais-novas-para-o-crime.html.

46. Fórum Nacional de Prevenção e Erradicação do Trabalho Infantil (FNPETI). Trabalho Infantil nos ODS. October 2017. http://www.fnpeti.org.br/arquivos//biblioteca/84f6ae8786c869b86174ff76d8a66a93.pdf.

47. Terre des Hommes, et. al. Sexual Exploitation of Children in Brazil: Putting a Spot on the Problem. May 9, 2014. http://www.childrenwin.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/140509_Sexual-exploitation-of-children-in-Brazil_putting-a-spot-on-the-p....pdf.

48. de Oliveira, Cida. Fechamento de escolas rurais obriga crianças a passar mais tempo na estrada que em aula. Rede Brasil Atua. March 9, 2017. http://www.redebrasilatual.com.br/educacao/2017/03/fechamento-de-escolar-rurais-obriga-criancas-a-passar-mais-tempo-na-estrada-do-que-em-sala-de-aula.

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59. Vassallo, Luiz. Governo publica ‘lista suja’ do trabalho escravo. October 27, 2017. http://politica.estadao.com.br/blogs/fausto-macedo/governo-publica-lista-suja-do-trabalho-escravo/.

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69. Mariz, Renata. Ministério do Trabalho nega pedidos de fiscalização por falta de recurso, diz MPT. O GLOBO. July 26, 2017. https://oglobo.globo.com/brasil/ministerio-do-trabalho-nega-pedidos-de-fiscalizacao-por-falta-de-recurso-diz-mpt-21634439.

70. Institute for Socioeconomic Studies (INESC). Acabou o dinheiro para combater o trabalho escravo e infantil no Brasil. August 22, 2017. http://www.inesc.org.br/noticias/noticias-do-inesc/2017/agosto/acabou-o-dinheiro-para-combater-o-trabalho-escravo-e-infantil-no-brasil.

71. Sakamoto, Leonardo. Governo paralisa combate a trabalho escravo e infantil por falta de verba. Blog do Sakamoto. August 19, 2017. https://blogdosakamoto.blogosfera.uol.com.br/2017/08/19/governo-paralisa-combate-a-trabalho-escravo-e-infantil-por-falta-de-verba/.

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98. Ministério do Desenvolvimento Social. Convivência e Fortalecimento de Vínculos. June 22, 2015. http://mds.gov.br/assistencia-social-suas/servicos-e-programas/servicos-de-convivencia-e-fortalecimento-de-vinculos.

99. U.S. Embassy- Brasilia. Reporting, February 13, 2015.

100. Boqnews. Novo Centro de Referência Atende Vítimas de Violência. September 4, 2014. http://www.boqnews.com/cidades/inaugurado-equipamento-que-atende-vitimas-de-violencia/.

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107. Ministério da Educação. Pronatec. Accessed: April 1, 2016. http://portal.mec.gov.br/pronatec.

108. ILO-IPEC Geneva official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 10, 2018.

109. ONU Brasil. Brasil e outros seis países latino-americanos. September 20, 2017. https://nacoesunidas.org/brasil-e-outros-seis-paises-latino-americanos-testam-ferramenta-estatistica-sobre-trabalho-infantil/.

110. ILO-IPEC. Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues. April 2014: Technical Progress Report.

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