Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

El Salvador

Coffee
Coffee
Child Labor Icon
Fireworks
Fireworks
Child Labor Icon
Shellfish
Shellfish
Child Labor Icon
Sugarcane
Sugarcane
Child Labor Icon
Cattle
Cattle
Child Labor Icon
Baked Goods
Baked Goods
Child Labor Icon
Cereal Grains
Cereal Grains
Child Labor Icon
El Salvador
2018 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Significant Advancement

In 2018, El Salvador made a significant advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The government extended its National Action Plan for the Protection of Children and Adolescents into 2019 and modified its process for granting adolescents work permits, both with the goal of aligning laws and policies with international standards and national legislation. El Salvador also published its Annual Household Survey with data on child labor, as well as a guide highlighting efforts to combat child labor in the sugarcane industry. In addition, the government launched the local government component of its Sustainable Families Strategy in 16 municipalities and implemented an inter-agency protocol to improve coordination of services for human trafficking victims. However, children in El Salvador engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in illicit activities, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Children also perform dangerous tasks in the harvesting of coffee. Law enforcement agencies continue to lack sufficient resources to fully enforce child labor laws.

Children in El Salvador engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in illicit activities, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Children also perform dangerous tasks in the harvesting of coffee. (1-5) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in El Salvador.


Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

5.9 (68,431)

Working children by sector

   

Agriculture

 

47.5

Industry

 

14.2

Services

 

38.2

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

92.3

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

6.1

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

90.8

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2017, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2019. (6)
Source for all other data: International Labor Organization's analysis of statistics from Encuesta de Hogares de Propósitos Múltiples (EHPM), 2015. (7)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.


Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Harvesting sugarcane† and coffee,† and production of cereal grains (2,8-10)

Cattle-raising† (10)

Fishing,† including harvesting shellfish and mollusks† (2,3,8,11-13)

Industry

Manufacturing fireworks† (2,9,11,13,14)

Production of baked goods (10)

Construction† (8,10,11,15)

Services

Garbage scavenging,† street begging,† performing,† and vending† (2,9,11,16)

Domestic work (2,9-11,17,18)

Selling goods in markets or kiosks and working in restaurants (10)

Repairing motor vehicles† (10,15)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (4,11,13)

Use by gangs to perform illicit activities, including committing homicides, extortion, and trafficking drugs, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (3,4,13)

Forced begging, domestic work, and street work (3,4,11)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Children in El Salvador often lack economic and educational opportunities and are vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor, including commercial sexual exploitation. They are also recruited by gangs for illicit activities such as delivering threats, collecting extortion money, serving as surveillance, trafficking drugs, and committing homicides. (1,5,19,20) Children often emigrate to escape violence, extortion, and forced recruitment by gangs, in addition to seeking economic opportunities and family reunification. Once en route, they become vulnerable to human trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation. (3,5,19,21) El Salvador's Trafficking in Person's Special Prosecutor indicated that girls between the ages of 10 and 17 were the most at risk of being trafficked. (5)

In 2018, El Salvador published the results of the 2017 El Salvador Annual Household Survey, which reflected a 1.3 percent reduction in child labor compared to 2016. (1) Child labor in El Salvador is predominantly male, with boys comprising approximately two-thirds of child laborers ages 5 to 17. (10,22-24) However, girls comprise the majority of children engaged in domestic work in third-party homes. (10,11,17)

Multiple reports, including by a third-party monitoring group, indicate that the use of child labor in sugarcane harvesting has decreased since 2010. (1,25-27) In 2018, the government cooperated with the ILO and FUNDAZUCAR, a corporate social responsibility entity of the Sugar Association of El Salvador, to publish a guide detailing efforts to combat child labor in the sugar industry. However, supporting data demonstrating the impact from these efforts have not been published. (1)

At schools, children are recruited, extorted, and harassed by gangs, which may cause them to stop attending school. Children who do not attend school are more vulnerable to child labor, including its worst forms. (1,3,21,28-33) Poverty, particularly in rural areas, also presents a barrier to education in El Salvador because children leave school to contribute to family incomes. Furthermore, poor families may find it difficult to obtain the required birth certificates to enroll children in school. (1) Limited reporting also indicates that children from indigenous communities disproportionately lack access to education. (1)

El Salvador has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).


Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

The government’s laws and regulations are in line with relevant international standards (Table 4).


Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

14

Article 114 of the Labor Code; Article 38 of the Constitution; Article 59 of the Law for the Comprehensive Protection of Children and Adolescents (LEPINA) (34-36)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 105 of the Labor Code; Article 38 of the Constitution; Article 2 of Agreement 241 of 2011 (34,35,37)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Article 1 of Agreement 241 of 2011 (37)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 3 and 54–55 of the Special Law Against Trafficking in Persons; Article 13 of the Labor Code; Article 56 of LEPINA; Articles 4 and 9 of the Constitution (34-36,38)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 3 and 54–55 of the Special Law Against Trafficking in Persons; Article 56 of LEPINA (36,38)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 3 and 54–55 of the Special Law Against Trafficking in Persons; Articles 169–173 of the Penal Code; Article 55 of LEPINA (36,38,39)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Articles 3 and 54–55 of the Special Law Against Trafficking in Persons; Articles 214 and 345 of the Penal Code; Article 56 of LEPINA (36,38,39)

Minimum Age for Voluntary State Military Recruitment

Yes

16

Articles 2 and 6 of the Military Service Law (40)

Prohibition of Compulsory Recruitment of Children by (State) Military

Yes

 

Article 215 of the Constitution; Decree N. 298 (34,41)

Prohibition of Military Recruitment by Non-state Armed Groups

Yes

 

Article 345 of the Penal Code; Article 1 of the Law Prohibiting Gangs and Criminal Organizations; Article 7 of the Constitution (34,39,42)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

18‡

Articles 5, 18, 20, and 22 of the General Education Law; Article 82 of LEPINA; Article 56 of the Constitution (34,36,43)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Articles 5, 18, 20, and 22 of the General Education Law; Article 82 of LEPINA; Article 56 of the Constitution (34,36,43)

‡ Age calculated based on available information (36,43)

In 2018, the Ministry of Labor and Social Security (MTPS) modified its questionnaire for granting labor permits to adolescents to comply with its legislation on Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children. The MTPS also advised the Ministry of the Treasury on ILO rules on Sustainable Criteria to Prevent and Eliminate Child Labor from Public Acquisitions. (1)

In addition, as the minimum age for work is lower than the compulsory education age, children may be encouraged to leave school before the completion of compulsory education. (34-36,43)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the operations of the MTPS that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.


Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare (MTPS)

Inspects registered businesses for labor violations, including child labor. (8,13) Maintains a child labor unit dedicated to child labor law enforcement issues. (44) Refers cases of alleged crimes of the worst forms of child labor to the Office of the Attorney General (AG). (8)

AG

Enforces criminal laws related to the worst forms of child labor. Maintains AG’s Special Unit on Trafficking in Persons and Related Crimes that consists of 12 prosecutors who investigate human trafficking and related crimes. (8,9,28,38) Refers exploited children to the Salvadoran Institute for the Comprehensive Development of Children and Adolescents (ISNA) for social services. (8)

National Civilian Police (PNC)

Enforces criminal laws related to the worst forms of child labor. Maintains PNC’s Special Unit on Trafficking in Persons and Related Crimes that investigates cases of human trafficking, including child trafficking. (8,13,38) Maintains a hotline that receives complaints about human trafficking for sexual and labor exploitation. (45)

ISNA

Receives referrals from law enforcement agencies on cases of criminal exploitation of children, including for forced labor, human trafficking, and commercial sexual exploitation. Provides child victims with services, including shelter, medical attention, psychological help, and legal advice. (46)

* Agency was created during the reporting period.

Labor Law Enforcement
In 2018, labor law enforcement agencies in El Salvador took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the operations of the MTPS that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including financial resource allocation.


Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2017

2018

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$1,696,239 (13)

Unknown

Number of Labor Inspectors

181 (13)

104 (1)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (13)

Yes (1)

Initial Training for New Labor Inspectors

N/A

Yes (1)

 

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A

Yes (1)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (13)

Yes (1)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

31,337 (47)

1,440 (1)

 

Number Conducted at Worksite

31,337 (47)

585 (1)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

2 (13)

3 (1)

 

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

0 (13)

3 (1)

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that Were Collected

0 (13)

0 (48)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (13)

Yes (1)

 

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (13)

Yes (1)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (13)

Yes (1)

 

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (13)

Yes (1)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (13)

Yes (1)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (13)

Yes (1)

In 2018, the MTPS published a comprehensive report detailing its activities targeting child labor from 2009 until 2018, including targeted inspection data on the worst forms of child labor in the fireworks, coffee, and sugar industries from 2017 through May 2018. (1) The Ministry indicated that in 2018, the labor inspectorate changed its work schedule to conduct inspections in the agricultural sector early in the morning to identify child labor. (1)

During the reporting period, 82 of El Salvador's 104 inspectors received training on International Law and National Legislation, the ILO and its Normative Systems, the Application of International Law and ILO Jurisprudence, Freedom of Association and Collective Bargaining, and Compliance with Equality Conventions. (1)

The MTPS indicated that its budget is insufficient to address workers' rights and expressed concern that the Ministry's proposed 2019 budget does not include funds to specifically combat child labor. (1) The labor inspectorate employed fewer inspectors in 2018 than in 2017, and inspectors focus primarily on the formal sector due to resource constraints, despite the size of El Salvador's informal sector. In 2018, the Ministry did not report any inspection activities targeting the categorically worst forms of child labor, such as forced begging and forced domestic work, and instead limited inspections to known problem areas such as car washes, street vendors, and some farms. (1,48) Furthermore, the number of labor inspectors is likely insufficient for the size of El Salvador's workforce, which includes more than 2.7 million workers. According to the ILO’s technical advice of a ratio approaching of 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in industrializing economies, El Salvador would employ about 164 labor inspectors. (49)

The MTPS identified three child labor violations in 2018, but no penalties were issued because the cases were reportedly resolved upon re-inspection. (1)

Article 627 of the Labor Code specifies a default fine of no more than $60 per violation of all labor laws, including child labor laws. (1,35) Reports indicate that this amount is insufficient to deter labor violations. (5,28) In 2018, the MTPS imposed approximately $13,000 worth of labor fines, but information was not available to determine how much was collected overall and how much was collected for child labor violations. (1)

Criminal Law Enforcement
Criminal law enforcement agencies in El Salvador took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including allocating financial resources.


Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2017

2018

Initial Training for New Criminal Investigators

Unknown

Yes (1)

 

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Yes (13)

N/A (1)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (13)

Yes (1)

Number of Investigations

19 (13)

40 (1)

Number of Violations Found

77 (13)

14 (48)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

9 (13)

9 (1)

Number of Convictions

0 (13)

0 (1)

Imposed Penalties for Violations Related to The Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown

Yes (1)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (13)

Yes (1)

In 2018, the Office of the Attorney General (AG) reported prosecuting 8 cases of sexual exploitation of minors involving 24 victims and 16 defendants, with 4 defendants receiving sentences of 10 to 12 years. (1) ISNA reported that police rescued 17 adolescent victims of human trafficking and placed them in the ISNA Regional Trafficking in Persons Shelter. (1)

Prosecutors in El Salvador received a range of refresher trainings on human trafficking issues, including 9 prosecutors trained in trafficking in persons and modalities of trafficking in persons, 37 prosecutors trained in cyber-crimes and trafficking, and 7 prosecutors trained in history of gang evolution and trafficking. (1)

The AG reported that the Ministry of Justice and Public Security is underfunded and unable to field a sufficient number investigators to collect and analyze evidence to process case backlogs. (1) In addition, reports indicate that increased coordination between the National Civilian Police and the AG is needed to improve the investigation and prosecution of criminal child labor violations. (51)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including information sharing among agencies.


Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Committee for the Eradication of Child Labor

Determines and implements government efforts to combat child labor, including the Roadmap to Make El Salvador a Country Free of Child Labor and its Worst Forms. Chaired by MTPS, includes 12 government agencies, along with representatives from labor unions, business associations, and NGOs. (10,11,13,52) Maintains a web-based monitoring system that allows government agencies to share and analyze information to coordinate the implementation of the Roadmap. (13,53,54) Research was unable to identify specific activities undertaken during the reporting period.

National Council Against Trafficking in Persons

Coordinates government efforts to combat human trafficking and implement the National Policy Against Trafficking in Persons. (13,55) Led by the Ministry of Justice and Public Security and composed of 11 government agencies. (13,38,56) In 2019, launched the Inter-Institutional Operation Protocol for the Immediate Attention to Trafficking Victims to establish an inter-agency coordination mechanism and expedite care to trafficking victims from multiple agencies. (5)

National Council for Children and Adolescents (CONNA)

Develops policies to protect the rights of children, including those regarding child labor, and implement LEPINA and the National Policy for the Protection of Children and Adolescents (PNPNA). (13,36,57,58) Composed of Departmental and Local Committees for Children’s and Adolescents’ Rights, ISNA, the Ministry of Public Security and Justice, the AG, the Human Rights Ombudsman, and other agencies. (13) In 2018, distributed guidelines for coordinating efforts in cases of sexual violence against children and adolescents. (5)

Departmental and Local Committees for Children’s and Adolescents’ Rights

Implement CONNA’s policies, including PNPNA, at the departmental and municipal levels, as well as receive complaints of child rights violations at the departmental level. (13,36,59-61) Research was unable to identify specific activities undertaken during the reporting period.

Salvadoran police chiefs and prosecutors indicated that difficulties in collecting, sharing and gaining actionable insights from investigative information remain a challenge, especially because investigative bodies lack the capabilities to share information electronically. (5)

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including mainstreaming child labor issues into relevant national policies.


Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

PNPNA (2013–2023)

Sets government policies aimed at guaranteeing children’s rights and protecting children from violence and harm, including the worst forms of child labor. Other objectives include improving health services and access to quality education for children, including children with disabilities, and reducing poverty. (10,58) In 2018, the government launched the National Strategy for the Critical Development of Early Infancy as part of PNPNA. (63)

National Action Plan for the PNPNA (2014–2019)

Sets a framework for implementing the PNPNA from 2014 to 2017. Aims to address PNPNA objectives, including the prevention of violence, the promotion of access to quality education, and the elimination of child labor by focusing on children’s and adolescents’ rights, gender equality, and social inclusion. (10,64,65) During the reporting period, the action plan was extended into 2019 as part of an effort to bring El Salvador's laws and policies into compliance with international standards. (1)

National Policy Against Trafficking in Persons

Defines a comprehensive plan to combat human trafficking of adults and children for labor and commercial sexual exploitation. Aims to improve prevention efforts, victim assistance, prosecution, interagency coordination, training, and anti-corruption efforts. (66,67) As part of the policy, El Salvador launched an interagency protocol to improve victim assistance, which resulted in trafficking victims receiving expedited medical and psychological care during the reporting period. (5) Also under the policy, the Anti-Trafficking Council continued to operate 19 offices that provided information and referrals for trafficking victims in 15 municipalities across the country. (48)

Educated El Salvador Plan

Outlines six priorities for improving El Salvador’s national education system, including increasing security in schools and improving access to education for vulnerable groups, including children engaged in child labor. (13,33) The government indicated in a December 2018 progress report that fewer schools were in gang-controlled communities and that the overall high school dropout rate had decreased. (1)

‡ The government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor. (1,5,28,68-78)

In 2018, the Ministry of Labor highlighted ongoing social programs aimed at providing children access to education and the increase in the minimum wage as key actions taken during the reporting period that directly or indirectly impacted the prevalence of child labor in El Salvador. (79) The government has not incorporated child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the National Youth Policy (2010–2024). (80)

In 2018, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including the adequacy of programs to address the problem in all sectors.


Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

USDOL-funded Projects

Projects which aim to reduce the incidence of child labor, including: Youth Pathways–Central America (2015–2019), $16.5 million project implemented by Catholic Relief Services in El Salvador and Honduras; Global Research on Child Labor Measurement and Policy (MAP) Development (2013–2018), $7 million project implemented by ILO in 10 countries; and Reducing Incidence of Child Labor and Harmful Conditions of Work in Economic Strengthening Initiatives (RICHES) (2017–2021), $1.5 million project implemented by the Grameen Foundation in El Salvador and the Philippines. (81-84) As part of the MAP project, USDOL is working with local stakeholders in El Salvador to ensure that the 2017 Annual Household Survey published in 2018 is accurate and consistent. (85) Additional information is available on the USDOL website.

Human Trafficking Public Awareness Campaigns†

Government public-awareness campaigns implemented by CONNA and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to raise awareness about the dangers of human trafficking. Includes CONNA’s “Don't Risk Your Lives” campaign, supported by UNICEF and IOM, and the “Protection Starts at Home” and “Talk to Me” awareness programs, which promote respect towards the physical, psychological, and sexual integrity of children and adolescents. (13,50,51,81) In 2018, launched a public awareness campaign in cooperation with the UNODC Blue Heart Campaign that included outdoor billboards and broadcast media, as well as training for hotel operators and bus drivers. (5) Also launched a public awareness campaign to promote the Crime Stoppers tip line. (5)

Sustainable Families Programs†

Set of government programs focused on improving health, education, productivity, and security, and eliminating poverty through inclusive and sustainable economic growth and public services. Includes Health and Education Bonus Programs that assist families with cash transfers conditioned on children’s school attendance and health checkups. (66,89,90) In 2018, 16 municipalities were incorporated into the Financial and Productive Inclusion component of the strategy, which aims to engage local governments in pursuing the goals of the strategy. (91) The EU contributed $11 million in 2018 to support the strategy in 2019. (92)

School Prevention and Security Plan†

Programs implemented by MINED, the Ministry of Justice and Public Security, and the PNC in schools with high levels of violence. Includes activities such as provision of psychological help, online classes, skills workshops for youth, and increased police patrols. (94,95) In 2018, MINED opened 76 training centers and accelerated learning centers targeting secondary school students. (1)

† Program is funded by the Government of El Salvador.
‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. (1,5,9,95-99)

Although the government implements several programs to reduce the worst forms of child labor by assisting poor families and school children, research found no evidence that the government has programs that assist child laborers who may not be living with their families and not attending school, such as children engaged in domestic work.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in El Salvador (Table 11).

Publish or make publicly available the labor inspectorate's level of funding.

Provide sufficient funding and resources to the Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare and criminal law enforcement agencies to fully enforce child labor laws, including in the informal sector.


Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Raise the minimum age for work from 14 years to the age up to which education is compulsory.

2018

Enforcement

Publish or make publicly available the labor inspectorate's level of funding.

2018

Provide sufficient funding and resources to the Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare and criminal law enforcement agencies to fully enforce child labor laws, including in the informal sector.

2010 – 2018

Ensure that the labor inspectorate has the resources to adequately investigate all cases of child labor, including in the informal sector, and increase the number of labor inspectors to meet the ILO's technical advice.

2018

Ensure that all inspectors receive regular refresher training and training on new laws related to the worst forms of child labor.

2018

Ensure that penalties are imposed, and publish information about fines collected for child labor violations.

2015 – 2018

Establish monetary penalties for child labor violations that are proportionate to the nature and seriousness of the offense.

2009 – 2018

Improve coordination between the National Civilian Police and the Attorney General in their investigation and prosecution of criminal cases related to the worst forms of child labor.

2014 – 2018

Coordination

Document and publish information regarding actions taken by the National Committee for the Eradication of Child Labor and the Departmental and Local Committees for Children's and Adolescents' Rights.

2018

Develop information-sharing capabilities to improve coordination among criminal investigative agencies.

2018

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the National Youth Policy for 2010–2024.

2014 – 2018

Social Programs

Collect and publish government statistics evaluating the impact of collaborative projects targeting child labor in sugarcane production.

2016 – 2018

Remove barriers to education, such as birth registration requirements, and ensure access for all children, including students of indigenous descent.

2011 – 2018

Implement programs to address child labor for children not living with their parents, such as child labor in domestic work.

2017 – 2018

1

U.S. Embassy- San Salvador. Reporting. February 4, 2019.

2

Corado, Ileana. La erradicación del trabajo infantil, una deuda pendiente. Contrapunto, April 21, 2014. Source on file.

3

UN General Assembly. Report of the Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of slavery, including its causes and consequences, on her mission to El Salvador. A/HRC/33/46/Add.1. August 3, 2016.
http://www.refworld.org/docid/57cd80fa4.html.

4

U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2017: El Salvador. Washington, DC, 2017.
https://www.state.gov/reports/2017-trafficking-in-persons-report/el-salvador/.

5

U.S. Embassy- San Salvador. Reporting. March 1, 2019.

6

UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed December 16, Accessed March 3, 2019. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.
http://data.uis.unesco.org/.

7

ILO. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Encuesta de Hogares de Propósitos Múltiples (EHPM), 2015. Analysis received December 15, Analysis received January 12, 2018. Please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

8

U.S. Embassy- San Salvador. Reporting. February 28, 2014.

9

U.S. Embassy- San Salvador. Reporting. January 20, 2016.

10

ILO and DIGESTYC. Magnitud y características del trabajo infantil en El Salvador 2015: Resultados del módulo sobre trabajo infantil de la Encuesta de Hogares de Propósitos Múltiples (EHPM) de 2015. Organización Internacional del Trabajo, Servicio de principios y derechos fundamentales en el trabajo (FUNDAMENTALS), Dirección General de Estadística y Censos de El Salvador (DIGESTYC). 2016.
http://www.ilo.org/ipec/Informationresources/WCMS_IPEC_PUB_28595/lang--es/index.htm.

11

Government of El Salvador. Respuesta a Cuestionario del Departamento de Trabajo de los Estados Unidos sobre Trabajo Infantil y Trabajo Forzoso. May 3, 2013. Source on file.

12

ILO-IPEC. Síntesis - Diagnóstico de situación del trabajo infantil y sus peores formas en El Salvador. 2009. Source on file.

13

U.S. Embassy- San Salvador. Reporting. January 16, 2018.

14

Flores, Ricardo. Dos niños quemados tras explosión de cohetería. La Prensa Grafica, December 24, 2014.
http://www.laprensagrafica.com/2014/12/24/dos-nios-quemados-tras-explosion-de-coheteria.

15

Instituto Salvadoreño para el Desarrollo Integral de la Niñez y la Adolescencia (ISNA) Situación del trabajo infantil en el municipio de Juayúa. San Salvador, ISNA and ILO, 2012. Source on file.

16

Unimer El Salvador. Diagnóstico socioeconómico de niños y niñas del municipio de San Salvador en conexión con la calle. 2016. Source on file.

17

Peñate, Susana. El reto de erradicar trabajo infantil: OIT. La Prensa Gráfica, June 12, 2015.
http://www.laprensagrafica.com/2015/06/12/el-reto-de-erradicar-trabajo-infantil-oit.

18

Dirección General de Estadística y Censos (DIGESTYC). Encuesta de Hogares de Propositos Multiples 2016.
http://www.digestyc.gob.sv/index.php/temas/des/ehpm/publicaciones-ehpm.html?download=616:publicacion-ehpm-2016.

19

Stinchcomb, Dennis, and Hershberg, Eric. Unaccompanied Migrant Children from Central America: Context, Causes, and Responses. CLALS Working Paper Series No. 7 (2014).
http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2524001.

20

UN Human Rights Council. Written statement submitted by Human Rights Advocates Inc., a non-governmental organization in special consultative status A/HRC/28/NGO/29. February 19, 2015.
http://daccess-ods.un.org/access.nsf/Get?Open&DS=A/HRC/28/NGO/29&Lang=E.

21

Albaladejo, Angelika. No Life Here: Internal Displacement in El Salvador. Latin America Working Group, February 18, 2016.
http://lawg.org/action-center/lawg-blog/69-general/1588-no-life-here-internal-displacement-in-el-salvador.

22

Dirección General de Estadística y Censos (DIGESTYC). Encuesta de Hogares de Propósitos Múltiples 2013. 2014.
http://www.digestyc.gob.sv/index.php/temas/des/ehpm/publicaciones-ehpm.html.

23

ILO-IPEC. Niños, Niñas y Adolescentes Migrantes Trabajadores en Zonas Fronterizas en Centroamérica y Panamá. November 2014.
http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/viewProduct.do?productId=25695.

24

Dirección General de Estadística y Censos (DIGESTYC). Encuesta de Hogares de Propósitos Múltiples, 2014. 2015.
http://www.digestyc.gob.sv/index.php/temas/des/ehpm/publicaciones-ehpm.html?download=559:publicacion-ehpm-2014.

25

UL. The Sugar Association of El Salvador Case Study. 2013.
https://www.ul.com/consumer-retail-services/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/EN_US_RS_CaseStudy_Sugar-Association-of-El-Salvador_JAN-2014_LT_WEB.pdf.

26

Valle, Alejandra. Trabajo infantil en caña de azúcar disminuyó en 91.3 %. La Prensa Gráfica, June 29, 2015.
http://www.laprensagrafica.com/2015/06/29/trabajo-infantil-en-caa-de-azucar-disminuyo-en-913.

27

Inter Press Service. Los niños trabajadores salen de los cañaverales salvadoreños. March 26, 2015.
http://www.ipsnoticias.net/2015/03/los-ninos-trabajadores-salen-de-los-canaverales-salvadorenos/.

28

U.S. Embassy- San Salvador. Reporting. January 30, 2017.

29

El Mundo. Simeduco denuncia acoso de pandillas y falta de presupuesto. March 17, 2015.
http://simeduco.org/noticias/simeduco-denuncia-acoso-de-pandillas-y-falta-de-presupuesto/.

30

Chávez, Gerson and Garcia, Enrique. Estudiantes abandonan escuela ante supuestas amenazas. El Mundo, March 18, 2015. Source on file.

31

La Página. Pandilleros de Apopa reclutan a niños desde cuarto grado. September 30, 2013. Source on file.

32

Moloney, Anastasia. Schoolchildren, Teachers at Mercy of Gangs in Violent El Salvador. September 17, 2015.
http://www.reuters.com/article/2015/09/17/us-el-salvador-education-violence-idUSKCN0RH14M20150917.

33

Consejo Nacional de Educacion (CONED). Plan El Salvador Educado - Por el derecho a una educación de calidad. 2016.
https://www.mined.gob.sv/jdownloads/Institucional/Plan_El_Salvador_Educado.compressed.pdf.

34

Government of El Salvador. Constitución de la República de El Salvador (with reforms until 2009). Enacted: 1983.
https://www.asamblea.gob.sv/sites/default/files/documents/decretos/171117_072857074_archivo_documento_legislativo.pdf.

35

Government of El Salvador. Código de Trabajo, No. 15. Enacted: June 23, 1972.
https://www.asamblea.gob.sv/sites/default/files/documents/decretos/171117_072951854_archivo_documento_legislativo.pdf.

36

Government of El Salvador. Ley de Protección Integral de la Niñez y la Adolescencia. Enacted: 2009.
https://www.asamblea.gob.sv/sites/default/files/documents/decretos/FC3868B6-5FEA-440B-9949-414222C42FFD.pdf.

37

Government of El Salvador. Acuerdo No. 241. Enacted: July 8, 2011. Source on file.

38

Government of El Salvador. Ley Especial Contra la Trata de Personas, No. 824. Enacted: November 14, 2014.
http://www.sipi.siteal.iipe.unesco.org/normativas/1321/decreto-no-8242014-ley-especial-contra-la-trata-de-personas.

39

Government of El Salvador. Código Penal (with modifications until 2010), No. 1030. Enacted: June 15, 1974.
http://www.oas.org/dil/esp/Codigo_Penal_El_Salvador.pdf.

40

Government of El Salvador. Ley del Servicio Militar y Reserva de la Fuerza Armada, No. 298 de 1992. Enacted: July 30, 1992.
http://www.refworld.org/docid/4c73c69d2.html.

41

Governmemt of El Salvador. Decree N. 298. Enacted August 10, 1992
https://www.asamblea.gob.sv/sites/default/files/documents/decretos/171117_072922265_archivo_documento_legislativo.pdf.

42

Government of El Salvador. Decreto No. 458 - Ley de Proscripción de Maras, Pandillas, Agrupaciones, Asociaciones y Organizaciones de Naturaleza Criminal. Enacted: September 10, 2010.
https://www.asamblea.gob.sv/sites/default/files/documents/decretos/171117_073001876_archivo_documento_legislativo.pdf.

43

Government of El Salvador. Ley General de Educación, No. 917. Enacted: 1996.
http://www.sipi.siteal.iipe.unesco.org/sites/default/files/sipi_normativa/el_salvador_decreto_nro_917_1996.pdf.

44

Ministerio de Trabajo y Prevision Social (MTPS). Presentación de Toda La Estructura Institutional del Ministerio de Trabajo y Previsión Social. 2017.
https://www.transparencia.gob.sv/institutions/mtps/documents/209718/download.

45

Flores, Henry. Consejo Nacional contra la Trata de Personas pide a población denunciar casos. Transparencia Activa, September 5, 2014.
http://www.transparenciaactiva.gob.sv/consejo-nacional-contra-la-trata-de-personas-pide-a-poblacion-denunciar-casos/.

46

Instituto Salvadoreño para el Desarrollo Integral de la Niñez y la Adolescencia (ISNA). Competencias de Trabajo. 2016.
http://www.isna.gob.sv/ISNANEW/?page_id=144.

47

Ministerio de Trabajo y Prevision Social (MTPS). Anuario Estadisticio 2017.
http://www.mtps.gob.sv/wp-content/uploads/descargas/InformesEstadisticos/mtps-anuario-estadistico-2017.pdf.

48

U.S. Embassy- San Salvador official. Email communication to USDOL official. July 11, 2019.

49

CIA World Fact Book. Central America: El Salvador
https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/print_es.html.

50

U.S. Embassy- San Salvador official. Email communication to USDOL official. May 22, 2017.

51

U.S. Embassy- San Salvador official. Email communication to USDOL official. May 26, 2016.

52

Ministerio de Trabajo y Prevision Social (MTPS). Se reactiva Comité Nacional para la Erradicación de las Peores Formas de Trabajo Infantil. November 13, 2014.
http://www.mtps.gob.sv/noticias/se-reactiva-comite-nacional-para-la-erradicacion-de-las-peores-formas-de-trabajo-infantil/.

53

Ministerio de Trabajo y Prevision Social (MTPS). Lanzamiento de Sistema de Monitoreo y Evaluación del Trabajo Infantil. June 28, 2013. Source on file.

54

Ministerio de Trabajo y Prevision Social (MTPS). Ministro Centeno preside reunión del Comité Nacional Erradicación Trabajo Infantil. May 29, 2013: Press Release. Source on file.

55

Government of El Salvador. Decreto No. 90. Enacted: August 26, 2011. Source on file.

56

U.S. Embassy- San Salvador. Reporting. February 17, 2015.

57

Consejo Nacional de la Niñez y de la Adolescencia (CONNA). Quienes Somos. January 16, 2012. Source on file.

58

Consejo Nacional de la Niñez y de la Adolescencia (CONNA). Política Nacional de Protección Integral de la Niñez y de la Adolescencia en El Salvador. May 16, 2013.
http://asp.salud.gob.sv/regulacion/pdf/politicas/politica_nacional_pnpna.pdf.

59

Consejo Nacional de la Niñez y de la Adolescencia (CONNA). 20 Municipios de El Salvador cuentan con Comités Locales de Derechos de la Niñez y de la Adolescencia. September 22, 2015.
http://www.conna.gob.sv/?p=1239.

60

Consejo Nacional de la Niñez y de la Adolescencia (CONNA). Avanza proceso de instalación de Comités Locales de Derechos en Municipios. November 18, 2014.
http://www.conna.gob.sv/?p=769.

61

Consejo Nacional de la Niñez y de la Adolescencia (CONNA). CONNA inauguró Junta de Protección de la Niñez y de la Adolescencia Dos en el departamento de San Salvador. March 21, 2014.
http://www.conna.gob.sv/?p=1115.

62

Ministerio de Trabajo y Prevision Social (MTPS). Hoja de ruta para hacer de El Salvador un país libre de trabajo infantil y sus peores formas - Programación 2015 – 2017. 2015.
http://white.lim.ilo.org/ipec/documentos/hoja_ruta_els.pdf.

63

Government of El Salvador. Gobierno Salvadoreno Presenta Estrategia Nacional Para el Desarrollo Integral de La Primera Infancia. September 5, 2018.
http://www.conna.gob.sv/?p=3224.

64

Consejo Nacional de la Niñez y de la Adolescencia (CONNA). Plan Nacional de Acción de la Política Nacional de Protección Integral de la Niñez y de la Adolescencia, 2014-2017. December 2015.
http://asp.salud.gob.sv/regulacion/pdf/politicas/politica_nacional_pnpna.pdf.

65

Consejo Nacional de la Niñez y de la Adolescencia (CONNA). CONNA presentó Plan Nacional de Acción 2014-2017, de la Política Nacional de Protección Integral de la Niñez y de la Adolescencia. December 15, 2015.
http://www.conna.gob.sv/?p=1281.

66

UCW. Entendiendo los Resultados del Trabajo Infantil y el Empleo Juvenil en El Salvador. June 2013.
http://www.ucw-project.org/attachment/trabajo_infantil_empleo_juvenil_el_Salvador_201320130912_132756.pdf.

67

Government of El Salvador. Política Nacional contra la Trata de Personas de El Salvador. 2012.
http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/Treaties/CMW/Shared Documents/SLV/INT_CMW_ADR_SLV_16594_S.doc.

68

The White House - Office of the Press Secretary. Fact Sheet: Support for the Alliance for Prosperity in the Northern Triangle. March 3, 2015.
https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2015/03/03/fact-sheet-support-alliance-prosperity-northern-triangle.

69

Inter-American Development Bank. Presidentes de El Salvador, Guatemala y Honduras presentan plan de Alianza para Prosperidad en Triángulo Norte. November 14, 2014.
http://www.iadb.org/es/noticias/comunicados-de-prensa/2014-11-14/presidents-del-triangulo-norte-presentan-plan,10987.html.

70

Governments of El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. Plan of the Alliance for Prosperity in the Northern Triangle: A Road Map. September 2014.
http://idbdocs.iadb.org/wsdocs/getdocument.aspx?docnum=39224238.

71

Government of Guatemala and Government of El Salvador. Memorandum de Entendimiento entre la República de El Salvador y la República de Guatemala para la Protección de las Víctimas de la Trata de Personas y del Tráfico Ilícito de Migrantes. 2011.
https://www.oas.org/dil/esp/Memorandum_de_Entendimiento_Guatemala_El_Salvador_Trata_de_Persona.pdf.

72

Ministerio de Trabajo y Prevision Social (MTPS). Renovación del convenio de cooperación para la erradicación del trabajo infantil en caña de azúcar. June 29, 2015.
http://www.mtps.gob.sv/noticias/renovacion-del-convenio-de-cooperacion-para-la-erradicacion-del-trabajo-infantil-en-cana-de-azucar/.

73

U.S. Embassy- San Salvador official. Email communication to USDOL official. June 26, 2018.

74

UNDAF. MEMORANDUM DE ENTENDIMIENTO: Marco de Asistencia de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo - UNDAF 2016-2020. 2015.
https://www.unicef.org/about/execboard/files/El_Salvador_DPDCPSLV3_UNDAF_2016-2020-FINAL-13_05_2015.pdf.

75

Government of El Salvador. Plan Quinquenal de Desarrollo (2014-2019).
http://www.presidencia.gob.sv/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/Plan-Quinquenal-de-Desarrollo.pdf.

76

La Tribuna. Asociación azucarera y gobierno buscan erradicar trabajo infantil en El Salvador. June 29, 2015.
http://www.latribuna.hn/2015/06/29/asociacion-azucarera-y-gobierno-buscan-erradicar-trabajo-infantil-el-salvador/.

77

Belloso, Mariana. Constructoras Buscan Prevenir Trabajo Infantil. La Prensa Gráfica, April 24, 2015.
http://www.laprensagrafica.com/2015/04/24/constructoras-buscan-prevenir-trabajo-infantil.

78

Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores de Colombia. Colombia y El Salvador unen esfuerzos para prevenir y enfrentar la trata de personas. September 27, 2013.
http://www.cancilleria.gov.co/newsroom/news/colombia-y-salvador-unen-esfuerzos-prevenir-y-enfrentar-la-trata-personas.

79

Government of El Salvador. MTPS organiza foro: Acciones realizadas en torno a la erradicacion del trabajo infantil. July 5, 2018.
http://www.mtps.gob.sv/noticias/mtps-organiza-foro-acciones-realizadas-torno-la-erradicacion-del-trabajo-infantil/.

80

Government of El Salvador. Política Nacional de Juventud 2010-2024 y Plan Acción 2010-2014. August 2010. Source on file.

81

U.S. Embassy- San Salvador. Reporting. February 13, 2017.

82

National Council for Children and Adolescents (CONNA) Acuerdo 1, Reglamento Programas de Atencion Niñez, Adolescencia. 2017.
http://www.diariooficial.gob.sv/diarios/do-2017/04-abril/28-04-2017.pdf.

83

Catholic Relief Services. Youth Pathways - Central America Project Summary. 2017.
https://www.dol.gov/agencies/ilab/youth-pathways-central-america.

84

ILO. Global Research on Child Labor Measurement and Policy Development (MAP) - Project Summary. 2013.
https://www.dol.gov/ilab/projects/summaries/GlobalResearchMAP_FY13.pdf.

85

US Department of Labor. Leveraging Data to Build and Efficient Labor Market in the Northern Triangle.
https://www.dol.gov/agencies/ilab/leveraging-data-build-efficient-labor-market-northern-triangle.

86

U.S. Embassy- San Salvador. Reporting. January 8, 2015.

87

Consejo Nacional de la Niñez y de la Adolescencia (CONNA). CONNA participa en pre lanzamiento de campaña de prevencion de lesiones por polvora. October 1, 2017.
http://www.conna.gob.sv/?p=2951.

88

Ventura, Ana Maria. Lanzan campaña para sensibilizar sobre el riesgo del uso de la pólvora. Radio Nacional de El Salvador, November 19, 2014.
http://www.radionacional.gob.sv/2014/11/19/lanzan-campana-para-sensibilizar-sobre-el-riesgo-del-uso-de-la-polvora/.

89

Secretaria Tecnica y Planificacion. Familias Sostenibles. 2017.
http://www.secretariatecnica.gob.sv/familias-sostenibles/.

90

Fondo de Inversion Social para el Desarrollo Local de El Salvador. FISDL asume con el mayor de los compromisos el reto de ser la principal institucion ejecutora de la estrategia familias sostenibles. November 20, 2017.
http://www.fisdl.gob.sv/novedades/ciudadano/11083-fisdl-asume-con-el-mayor-de-los-compromisos-el-reto-de-ser-la-principal-institucion-ejecutora-de-la-estrategia-familias-sostenibles#.WteY3KjwaUk.

91

Government of El Salvador. Gobierno Apoyara Poblacion Emprendedora de 16 Municipios del Pais a Traves de Inclusion Financiera. June 26, 2018.
http://www.secretariatecnica.gob.sv/gobierno-apoyara-poblacion-emprendedora-de-16-municipios-del-pais-a-traves-de-inclusion-financiera/.

92

Rivas, Violeta. Unión Europea entrega segundo desembolso de ayuda social al país ElSalvador.com December 20, 2018.
https://www.elsalvador.com/noticias/nacional/union-europea-entrega-segundo-desembolso-de-ayuda-social-al-pais/551240/2018/.

93

Asamblea Legislativa de El Salvador. Incorporan recursos para Programa de Comunidades Solidarias en El Salvador. August 17, 2016.
https://www.asamblea.gob.sv/node/2747.

94

Ministerio de Educacion. Plan de Prevención y Seguridad Escolar en Chalatenango. March 4, 2014.
http://www.mined.gob.sv/index.php/zona-de-contrataciones-institucionales/item/6824-plan-de-prevención-y-seguridad-escolar-en-chalatenango.html.

95

Ministerio de Educacion. Consejo Nacional de Seguridad anuncia la realización de la Semana por la seguridad y la convivencia ciudadana. November 1, 2017.
http://www.mined.gob.sv/index.php/noticias/item/9106-consejo-nacional-de-seguridad-anuncia-la-realizacion-de-la-semana-por-la-seguridad-y-la-convivencia-ciudadana.

96

Alvarado, Teresa. Programa de Escuelas a Tiempo Pleno se extiende a 2,285 centros educativos. Transparencia Activa, July 25, 2014.
http://www.transparenciaactiva.gob.sv/programa-de-escuelas-a-tiempo-pleno-se-extiende-a-2285-centros-educativos/.

97

Ministerio de Educacion. Convenio para el beneficio de niñez y adolescencia. June 3, 2015.
http://www.mined.gob.sv/index.php/noticias/item/7560-convenio-para-el-beneficio-de-niñez-y-adolescencia.

98

Díaz, Juan Carlos. Insisten en prevenir la migración de los centroamericanos a EUA. La Prensa Grafica. May 5, 2017.
http://www.laprensagrafica.com/2016/10/18/lanzan-campaa-para-prevenir-la-migracion-irregular.

99

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. El Salvador joins UNODC's Blue Heart campaign to end human trafficking. 2017.
https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/frontpage/2017/November/el-salvador-joins-unodcs-blue-heart-campaign-to-end-human-trafficking.html?ref=fs1.