Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - El Salvador

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

El Salvador

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2016, El Salvador made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government approved regulations to facilitate the enforcement of the Special Law Against Trafficking in Persons, including on the referral of criminal child labor cases between law enforcement and social service agencies. The National Council for Children and Adolescents designed a mechanism to monitor the implementation of the National Policy for the Protection of Children and Adolescents. In addition, the Government passed the Educated El Salvador Plan, which aims in part to increase security in schools and improve access to education for vulnerable groups, including children engaged in child labor. However, children in El Salvador engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in the harvesting of sugarcane and in illicit activities, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Law enforcement agencies continue to lack sufficient resources to fully enforce child labor laws, and no penalties for child labor violations were issued in 2016.

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Children in El Salvador engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in the harvesting of sugarcane and in illicit activities, sometimes as a result of human trafficking.(1-6) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in El Salvador.

Table 1. Statistics on Children's Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

5.9 (68,431)

Working children by sector

 

 

Agriculture

 

47.5

Industry

 

14.2

Services

 

38.2

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

92.3

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

6.1

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

104.6

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2014, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(7)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children's Work Project's analysis of statistics from Encuesta de Hogares de Propósitos Múltiples (EHPM), 2015.(8)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children's Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Harvesting sugarcane† and coffee,† and production of cereal grains (2, 3, 9-12)

Cattle-raising† (12)

Fishing,† including harvesting shellfish and mollusks† (2, 3, 5, 10, 13, 14)

Industry

Manufacturing fireworks† (2, 3, 11, 13, 15, 16)

Production of baked goods (12)

Construction,† activities unknown (2, 10, 12, 17)

Services

Garbage scavenging† and street begging,† performing,† and vending† (2, 3, 11, 13, 16, 18)

Domestic work (2, 3, 11-13, 19)

Selling goods in markets or kiosks and working in restaurants (12)

Repairing motor vehicles† (12, 17, 20)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2, 4, 6)

Use by gangs to perform illicit activities, including committing homicides, extortion, and trafficking drugs, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (4-6, 13, 21-23)

Forced begging, domestic work, and street work (2, 5, 6, 11, 23)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

In 2016, El Salvador, like Honduras and Guatemala, continued to be a principal source of the high numbers of unaccompanied children from Central America who were found migrating to the United States.(24, 25) These children often lack economic and educational opportunities and are vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor, including commercial sexual exploitation and recruitment by gangs for illicit activities, such as committing homicides and trafficking drugs.(26-28) Children often emigrate to escape violence, extortion, and forced recruitment by gangs, in addition to seeking economic opportunities and family reunification. Once en route, they become vulnerable to human trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation.(5, 26-29)

Child labor in El Salvador is predominantly male, with boys comprising approximately two-thirds of child laborers ages 5 to 17.(12, 30-32) However, girls comprise the majority of children engaged in domestic service in third-party homes.(2, 12, 19) Children are recruited into gang activity or are threatened by gangs while at school, including through extortion, which may cause children to stop attending school. Children who do not attend school are also more vulnerable to child labor, including its worst forms.(5, 6, 21, 29, 33-37) Although government programs have expanded basic education coverage, gang violence, including the extortion of school children, has hindered efforts to increase school enrollment and decrease dropout rates.(36-40) The Educated El Salvador Plan, passed in 2016, outlines additional government efforts to address this problem.(37)

Multiple reports, including by a third-party monitoring group, indicate that the use of child labor in the sugarcane harvest has declined since 2010.(9, 41, 42) However, research could not find official government statistics on the number of children engaged in the production of sugarcane. The published report of the 2015 Multipurpose Household Survey does not contain information on the number of children working in this sector.(12) The Government does not appear to conduct research on hard-to-reach populations who are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in illicit activities.

El Salvador has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The legal framework in El Salvador appears to be sufficient to address and protect children from child labor (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

 

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

14

Article 114 of the Labor Code; Article 38 of the Constitution; Article 59 of the Law for the Comprehensive Protection of Children and Adolescents (LEPINA) (43-45)

 

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 105 of the Labor Code; Article 38 of the Constitution; Article 2 of Agreement 241 of 2011 (43, 44, 46)

 

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Article 1 of Agreement 241 of 2011 (46)

 

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 3 and 54–55 of the Special Law Against Trafficking in Persons; Article 13 of the Labor Code; Article 56 of LEPINA; Articles 4 and 9 of the Constitution (43-45, 47)

 

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 3 and 54–55 of the Special Law Against Trafficking in Persons; Article 56 of LEPINA (45, 47)

 

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 3 and 54–55 of the Special Law Against Trafficking in Persons; Articles 169–173 of the Penal Code; Article 55 of LEPINA (45, 47, 48)

 

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Articles 3 and 54–55 of the Special Law Against Trafficking in Persons; Articles 214 and 345 of the Penal Code; Article 56 of LEPINA (45, 47, 48)

 

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

 

 

 

 

State Compulsory

Yes

18

Article 215 of the Constitution (43)

State Voluntary

Yes

16

Articles 2 and 6 of the Military Service Law (49)

Non-state Compulsory

Yes

 

Article 345 of the Penal Code; Article 1 of the Law Prohibiting Gangs and Criminal Organizations; Article 7 of the Constitution (43, 48, 50)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

18‡

Articles 5, 18, 20, and 22 of the General Education Law; Article 82 of LEPINA; Article 56 of the Constitution (43, 45, 51)

 

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Articles 5, 18, 20, and 22 of the General Education Law; Article 82 of LEPINA; Article 56 of the Constitution (43, 45, 51)

 

‡ Age calculated based on available information (45, 51)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor law and criminal law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare (MTPS)

Inspect registered businesses for labor violations, including child labor.(10, 20) Maintain a child labor unit dedicated to child labor law enforcement issues.(52) Refer cases of alleged crimes of the worst forms of child labor to the Office of the Attorney General.(10)

Office of the Attorney General (AG)

Enforce criminal laws related to the worst forms of child labor. Maintain the AG's Special Unit on Trafficking in Persons and Related Crimes that consists of 12 prosecutors who investigate human trafficking and related crimes.(6, 10, 11, 47) Refer exploited children to the Salvadoran Institute for the Comprehensive Development of Children and Adolescents (ISNA) for social services.(10)

National Civilian Police (PNC)

Enforce criminal laws related to the worst forms of child labor. Maintain the PNC's Special Unit on Trafficking in Persons and Related Crimes that investigates cases of human trafficking, including child trafficking.(10, 20, 47) Maintain a hotline that receives complaints about human trafficking for sexual and labor exploitation.(53)

Salvadoran Institute for the Comprehensive Development of Children and Adolescents (ISNA)

Receive referrals from law enforcement agencies on cases of criminal exploitation of children, including for forced labor, human trafficking, and commercial sexual exploitation. Provide child victims with services, including shelter, medical attention, psychological help, and legal advice.(54)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, labor law enforcement agencies in El Salvador took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$1,862,755 (11)

$1,912,214 (6)

Number of Labor Inspectors

186 (11)

183 (6)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (11, 16)

Yes (6)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (55)

N/A

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Yes (11)

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (11)

Yes (6)

Number of Labor Inspections

27,241 (56)

28,446 (57)

Number Conducted at Worksite

27,241 (55, 56)

28,446 (57)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

0 (55)

0 (6)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

11 (11)

8 (6)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

0 (11)

0 (6)

Number of Penalties Imposed that Were Collected

0 (11)

0 (6)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (11)

Yes (6)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Unknown

Unknown* (6)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (11, 16)

Yes (6)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Unknown

Yes (6)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (11, 16)

Yes (6)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (11)

Yes (6)

* The Government does not publish this information.

In 2016, the Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare (MTPS) reported that its level of funding was inadequate and hampered the labor inspectorate’s capacity to enforce child labor laws.(6) The number of labor inspectors is insufficient for the size of El Salvador's workforce, which includes more than 2.7 million workers. According to the ILO's recommendation of 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in industrializing economies, El Salvador should employ roughly 186 inspectors.(58-60) In 2016, the MTPS reported that it conducted 1,008 child labor-specific inspections, through which it found 8 child labor violations. Research did not find information on the sectors or geographical regions in which these inspections were conducted, or on the activities in which these children were engaged.(6)

Reports indicate that the inspection process, which may include complaint-driven and unannounced inspections, can entail multiple visits per site and that the MTPS's process to issue penalties can sometimes take up to 6 months. The Government reports that the Labor Committee of the Legislative Assembly is drafting an updated Labor Procedures Code, which will include provisions to streamline the issuance of penalties.(55, 61) The Salvadoran Institute for the Comprehensive Development of Children and Adolescents (ISNA) reported that in 2016 it assisted 14 children engaged in child labor, including 1 child engaged in dangerous work.(62)

Article 627 of the Labor Code specifies a default fine of no more than $60 per violation of all labor laws, including child labor laws.(44) Reports indicate that this amount is insufficient to deter labor violations.(6) The Government is currently reviewing national legislation to ensure that monetary penalties for all labor violations are proportionate to the nature of the offense.(55, 61, 63)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in El Salvador took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Yes (11)

Yes (6)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (64)

Yes (6)

Number of Investigations

43 (11)

26 (6)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown

35 (6)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Convictions

19 (11)

6 (6)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (11)

Yes (6)

 

In 2016, the Office of the Attorney General (AG) provided training on the 2014 Special Law Against Trafficking in Persons to the National Civilian Police (PNC), immigration officials, and child protection officials. The National Council for Children and Adolescents (CONNA) also provided trainings on human trafficking issues to immigration officials and trained 25 officials on child commercial sexual exploitation.(6)

In 2016, the AG reported that 6 defendants were convicted in 26 cases of child commercial sexual exploitation involving 35 female victims, with sentences ranging from 8 to 10 years of imprisonment.(6) Criminal law enforcement agencies in El Salvador have reported that they lack sufficient resources to fully investigate and prosecute crimes, including the worst forms of child labor.(16) In addition, reports indicate that increased coordination between the PNC and the AG is needed to improve the investigation and prosecution of criminal child labor violations.(55) In October 2016, the Government approved regulations to facilitate the enforcement of the Special Law Against Trafficking in Persons and the coordination between the PNC and the AG to improve the investigation and prosecution of criminal child labor violations. The regulations also facilitate the interagency referral of criminal child labor cases between law enforcement agencies and ISNA for social services.(6)

ISNA reported that in 2016 it assisted 40 children engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including 16 victims of human trafficking, 13 victims of commercial sexual exploitation, and 11 victims of forced begging.(62)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Committee for the Eradication of Child Labor (CNETI)

Determine and implement government efforts to combat child labor, including the Roadmap to Make El Salvador a Country Free of Child Labor and its Worst Forms. Chaired by the MTPS and includes 12 government agencies, along with representatives from labor unions, business associations, and NGOs.(2, 12, 20, 65) Use a Web-based monitoring system that allows government agencies to share and analyze information to coordinate the implementation of the Roadmap.(66-68)

National Council Against Trafficking in Persons (CNCTP)

Coordinate government efforts to combat human trafficking and implement the National Policy Against Trafficking in Persons.(69) Led by the Ministry of Justice and Public Security and composed of 11 government agencies.(1, 47, 70)

National Council for Children and Adolescents (CONNA)

Develop policies to protect the rights of children, including those regarding child labor, and implement LEPINA and the National Policy for the Protection of Children and Adolescents (PNPNA).(45, 71, 72) Composed of Departmental and Local Committees for Children's and Adolescents' Rights, ISNA, the Ministry of Public Security and Justice, the AG, the Human Rights Ombudsman, and other agencies.(20) In 2016, provided technical assistance in developing Departmental and Local Committees for Children's and Adolescents' Rights, per LEPINA, and reviewed and created a model to monitor PNPNA implementation.(6, 73)

Departmental and Local Committees for Children's and Adolescents' Rights

Implement CONNA’s policies, including the PNPNA, at the departmental and municipal levels, as well as receive complaints of child rights violations at the departmental level.(45, 74-76)

The Government has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

Roadmap to Make El Salvador a Country Free of Child Labor and its Worst Forms

Serves as the Government's principal policy for eliminating the worst forms of child labor. Aims to eliminate all child labor by 2020, including by reducing poverty, improving education and health, protecting children's rights, and raising awareness on child labor.(1, 12, 77, 78)

National Policy for the Protection of Children and Adolescents (PNPNA) (2013–2023)

Sets government policies aimed at guaranteeing children's rights and protecting them from violence and harm, including the worst forms of child labor. Other objectives include improving health services and access to quality education for children, including children with disabilities, and reducing poverty.(12, 72)

National Action Plan for the PNPNA (2014–2017)

Sets a framework for implementing the PNPNA for 2014–2017. Aims to address PNPNA objectives, including the prevention of violence, the promotion of access to quality education, and the elimination of child labor by focusing on children's and adolescents' rights, gender equality, and social inclusion.(12, 79, 80)

National Policy Against Trafficking in Persons

Defines a comprehensive plan to combat human trafficking of adults and children for labor and commercial sexual exploitation. Aims to improve prevention efforts, victim assistance, prosecution, interagency coordination, training, and anti-corruption efforts.(1, 81, 82)

Educated El Salvador Plan†

Outlines six priorities for improving El Salvador's national education system, including increasing security in schools and improving access to education for vulnerable groups, including children engaged in child labor.(37) The Legislative Assembly has yet to fund the plan.(6)

Alliance for Prosperity in the Northern Triangle

Aims to create economic growth, increase educational and vocational training opportunities for youth, and reduce violence in Honduras, Guatemala, and El Salvador, in part to reduce the number of unaccompanied minors who leave El Salvador and these countries for the United States and who are vulnerable to human trafficking. Signed by the presidents of each country in 2014.(83-85)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.
‡ The Government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor.(6, 86-92)

The Government has not included child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the National Youth Policy (2010–2024).(93)

In 2016, the Government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

USDOL-Funded Projects

USDOL-funded, $14 million Eliminating Child Labor in El Salvador Through Economic Empowerment and Social Inclusion (2010–2016), $13 million Youth Pathways–Central America (2015–2019), and Global Research on Child Labor Measurement and Policy Development. Additional information is available on the USDOL Web site.

Don't Risk Your Lives Public Awareness Campaign†

CONNA campaign that educates children and their families to the dangers of irregular and unaccompanied migration, including the risks of being trafficked and forced to engage in commercial sexual exploitation. Supported by UNICEF and the IOM.(55, 61, 94)

Public Awareness Campaigns on Child Labor†

Government public-awareness campaigns implemented by the Ministry of Education (MINED), the MTPS, the Ministry of Health, and CONNA to inform children about the dangers of child labor, including manufacturing and handling fireworks.(13, 16, 95, 96) During the reporting period, the MTPS, with the support of the EU and CARE International, and the Ministries of Governance and Agriculture, each conducted awareness campaigns.(13)

Public Awareness Campaign on Dangers of Irregular Migration†

Ministry of Foreign Affairs campaign to raise public awareness about the dangers of irregular migration, including the risk of human trafficking. Conducted through traditional and social media channels.(62)

Solidarity Communities Programs†

Government programs that aim to reduce social exclusion and boost household income by increasing access to public services and building human capital. Includes Health and Education Bonus Programs that assist families with cash transfers conditioned on children's school attendance and health checkups.(1, 97) Includes the Temporary Income Support Program (PATI) that provides financial support and vocational training to beneficiaries ages 16 and older.(1, 97) In 2016, program assisted families across 125 municipalities with the highest rates of poverty.(98)

School Prevention and Security Plan†

Programs implemented by MINED, the Ministry of Justice and Public Security, and the PNC in schools with high levels of violence. Includes activities such as the provision of psychological help, skills workshops for youth, and increased police patrols.(99, 100) Expanded in 2015–2016 to operate in approximately 1,000 schools.(40)

† Program is funded by the Government of El Salvador.
‡ The Government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms.(11, 16, 90, 99, 101-107)

The Government implements several programs to reduce the worst forms of child labor by assisting poor families and school children; however, research found no evidence that the Government has programs that assist child laborers who may not be living with their families or attending school, such as children engaged in domestic work. Research could also not determine whether the Government's efforts to prevent and eliminate child labor in the production of sugarcane addressed the full scope of the problem.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in El Salvador (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Enforcement

Provide sufficient funding and resources to the MTPS and criminal law enforcement agencies to fully enforce child labor laws.

2010 – 2016

Ensure that the number of labor inspectors is sufficient to fully enforce child labor laws.

2014 – 2016

Publish information on whether routine inspections are targeted to high-risk sectors, as well as on the sectors and geographical regions in which inspections are conducted and on the activities in which children are engaged as a result of inspections.

2014 – 2016

Strengthen enforcement of child labor and other laws by streamlining the labor inspection process and the issuance of fines.

2009 – 2016

Ensure that penalties are imposed and fines are collected for child labor violations.

2015 – 2016

Ensure that monetary penalties for child labor violations are proportionate to the nature and seriousness of the offense.

2009 – 2016

Publish information on the number of criminal prosecutions related to the worst forms of child labor.

2015 – 2016

Improve coordination between the PNC and the AG in their investigation and prosecution of criminal cases, including by implementing the regulations of the Special Law Against Trafficking in Persons.

2014 – 2016

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the National Youth Policy for 2010–2024.

2014 – 2016

Social Programs

Collect and publish government statistics on the number of children engaged in the production of sugarcane.

2016

Conduct a study on the use of children in illicit activities.

2009 – 2016

Improve children's access to education by ensuring that school children are safe in schools.

2011 – 2016

Implement programs to address child labor in domestic work and expand programs to combat child labor in the production of sugarcane.

2014 – 2016

1.         UCW. Entendiendo los Resultados del Trabajo Infantil y el Empleo Juvenil en El Salvador  Rome; June 2013. http://www.ucw-project.org/attachment/trabajo_infantil_empleo_juvenil_el_Salvador_201320130912_132756.pdf.

2.         Government of El Salvador. Respuesta a Cuestionario del Departamento de Trabajo de los Estados Unidos sobre Trabajo Infantil y Trabajo Forzoso. San Salvador; May 3, 2013.

3.         Contrapunto. "La erradicación del trabajo infantil, una deuda pendiente." [online] April 21, 2014 [cited July 20, 2015]; http://www.contrapunto.com.sv/sociedad-civil/la-erradicacion-del-trabajo-infantil-una-deuda-pendiente.

4.         U.S. Department of State. "El Salvador," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016. Washington, DC; June 2016; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/258879.pdf.

5.         UN General Assembly. Report of the Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of slavery, including its causes and consequences, on her mission to El Salvador New York, NY; August 03, 2016. Report No. A/HRC/33/46/Add.1. https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G16/170/23/PDF/G1617023.pdf?OpenElement.

6.         U.S. Embassy- San Salvador. reporting, January 30, 2017.

7.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed December 16, 2016; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary education. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. The calculation includes all new entrants to the last grade (regardless of age). Therefore, the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

8.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Encuesta de Hogares de Propósitos Múltiples (EHPM), Analysis received December 15, 2016. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report,  please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

9.         UL. The Sugar Association of El Salvador Case Study; 2013. http://www.ul.com/global/documents/verificationservices/businesssegments/RS/MC202_AAES_CaseStudy_F_Web.pdf.

10.       U.S. Embassy- San Salvador. reporting, February 28, 2014.

11.       U.S. Embassy- San Salvador. reporting, January 20, 2016.

12.       ILO and DIGESTYC. Magnitud y características del trabajo infantil en El Salvador 2015: Resultados del módulo sobre trabajo infantil de la Encuesta de Hogares de Propósitos Múltiples (EHPM) de 2015. Geneva, Organización Internacional del Trabajo, Servicio de Principios y derechos fundamentales en el trabajo (FUNDAMENTALS), Dirección General de Estadística y Censos de El Salvador (DIGESTYC); 2016. http://www.ilo.org/ipec/Informationresources/WCMS_IPEC_PUB_28595/lang--es/index.htm.

13.       U.S. Department of State. "El Salvador," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2015. Washington, DC; April 13, 2016; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/253225.pdf.

14.       ILO-IPEC. Síntesis - Diagnóstico de situación del trabajo infantil y sus peores formas en El Salvador. source on file; 2009.

15.       La Prensa Gráfica, R Flores. "Dos niños quemados tras explosión de cohetería." laprensagrafica.com [online] December 24, 2014 [cited January 5, 2015]; http://www.laprensagrafica.com/2014/12/24/dos-nios-quemados-tras-explosion-de-coheteria.

16.       U.S. Embassy- San Salvador. reporting, January 8, 2015.

17.       Salvadoran National Institute for the Full Development of Children (ISNA). Situación del trabajo infantil en el municipio de Juayúa. San Salvador, ISNA and ILO; 2012. http://bit.ly/12LlqPk.

18.       Unimer El Salvador. Diagnóstico socioeconómico de niños y niñas del municipio de San Salvador en conexión con la calle. source on file; 2016.

19.       Peñate, S. "El reto de erradicar trabajo infantil: OIT." La Prensa Gráfica, June 12, 2015. http://www.laprensagrafica.com/2015/06/12/el-reto-de-erradicar-trabajo-infantil-oit.

20.       U.S. Embassy- San Salvador. reporting, February 1, 2013.

21.       AFP. ""Maras" salvadoreñas confirman inédita tregua y declaran escuelas como "zonas de paz"." El Mercurio, Santiago, May 3, 2012; Mundo. http://www.emol.com/noticias/internacional/2012/05/03/538611/maras-salvadorenas-confirman-inedita-tregua-y-declaran-escuelas-como-zonas-de-paz.html.

22.       El Diario de Hoy. "Maras aún reclutan a menores de edad para delinquir." elsalvador.com [online] January 21, 2013 [cited December 11, 2014]; http://www.elsalvador.com/mwedh/nota/nota_completa.asp?idCat=47859&idArt=7622016.

23.       U.S. Department of State. "El Salvador," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015. Washington, DC; July 27, 2015; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/243559.pdf.

24.       Jerry Markon and Joshua Partlow. "Unaccompanied children surging anew across Southwest U.S. border." The Washington Post, December 16, 2015; Americas. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/federal-eye/wp/2015/12/16/unaccompanied-children-crossing-southern-border-in-greater-numbers-again-raising-fears-of-new-migrant-crisis/.

25.       U.S. Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Customs and Border Protection. "United States Border Patrol Southwest Family Unit Subject and Unaccompanied Alien Children Apprehensions Fiscal Year 2016." [online] 2017 [cited February 5, 2017]; https://www.cbp.gov/newsroom/stats/southwest-border-unaccompanied-children/fy-2016.

26.       Dennis Stinchcomb and Eric Hershberg. Unaccompanied Migrant Children from Central America: Context, Causes, and Responses. Center for Latin American & Latino Studies, American University; 2014. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2524001.

27.       United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. Mission to Central America: The Flight of Unaccompanied Children to the United States; November 2013. http://www.usccb.org/about/migration-policy/upload/Mission-To-Central-America-FINAL-2.pdf.

28.       UN Human Rights Council. Written statement submitted by Human Rights Advocates Inc., a non-governmental organization in special consultative status February 19, 2015. http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G15/028/98/PDF/G1502898.pdf?OpenElement.

29.       Albaladejo, A. No Life Here: Internal Displacement in El Salvador, Latin America Working Group, [online] February 18, 2016 [cited October 26, 2016]; http://lawg.org/action-center/lawg-blog/69-general/1588-no-life-here-internal-displacement-in-el-salvador.

30.       Government of El Salvador - Dirección General de Estadística y Censos. "Encuesta de Hogares de Propósitos Múltiples 2013." digestyc.gob.sv [online] 2014 [cited December 11, 2014]; http://www.digestyc.gob.sv/index.php/temas/des/ehpm/publicaciones-ehpm.html.

31.       ILO-IPEC. Niños, Niñas y Adolescentes Migrantes Trabajadores en Zonas Fronterizas en Centroamérica y Panamá. San Jose; November 2014. http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/viewProduct.do?productId=25695.

32.       Government of El Salvador - Dirección General de Estadística y Censos. Encuesta de Hogares de Propósitos Múltiples, 2014. online; 2015. http://www.digestyc.gob.sv/index.php/novedades/avisos/555-ya-se-encuentra-disponible-la-publicacion-ehpm-2014.html.

33.       El Mundo. "Simeduco denuncia acoso de pandillas y falta de presupuesto." elmundo.com [online] March 17, 2015 [cited April 21, 2015]; http://elmundo.com.sv/simeduco-denuncia-acoso-de-pandillas-y-falta-de-presupuesto/.

34.       El Mundo. "Estudiantes abandonan escuela ante supuestas amenazas." elmundo.com [online] March 18, 2015 [cited April 21, 2015]; http://elmundo.com.sv/estudiantes-abandonan-escuela-ante-supuestas-amenazas/.

35.       La Página. "Pandilleros de Apopa reclutan a niños desde cuarto grado." [online] September 30, 2013 [cited January 15, 2016]; http://www.lapagina.com.sv/nacionales/87403/2013/09/27/Pandilleros-de-Apopa-reclutan-a-ninos-desde-cuarto-grado.

36.       Moloney, A. "Schoolchildren, Teachers at Mercy of Gangs in Violent El Salvador." [online] September 17, 2015 [cited February 9, 2016]; http://www.reuters.com/article/2015/09/17/us-el-salvador-education-violence-idUSKCN0RH14M20150917.

37.       Government of El Salvador, National Education Council (CONED). Plan El Salvador Educado - Por el derecho a una educación de calidad; 2016. https://www.mined.gob.sv/jdownloads/Institucional/Plan_El_Salvador_Educado.compressed.pdf.

38.       Hernández, C. "Reconocen que la violencia influye en baja de escolares." El Mundo, San Salvador, May 30, 2012. http://elmundo.com.sv/reconocen-que-la-violencia-influye-en-baja-de-escolares.

39.       Morán, O. "Inseguridad, principal causa de deserción escolar en el país según Educación." Diario La Página, San Salvador, May 30, 2012. http://www.lapagina.com.sv/ampliar.php?id=67087.

40.       Peñate, S. "Clases inician junto a plan de prevención escolar." La Prensa Gráfica, January 19, 2016. http://www.laprensagrafica.com/2016/01/19/clases-inician-junto-a-plan-de-prevencion-y-seguridad-escolar.

41.       Valle, A. "Trabajo infantil en caña de azúcar disminuyó en 91.3 %." La Prensa Gráfica, June 29, 2015. http://www.laprensagrafica.com/2015/06/29/trabajo-infantil-en-caa-de-azucar-disminuyo-en-913.

42.       Inter Press Service. "Los niños trabajadores salen de los cañaverales salvadoreños." [online] March 26, 2015 [cited April 8, 2015]; http://www.ipsnoticias.net/2015/03/los-ninos-trabajadores-salen-de-los-canaverales-salvadorenos/.

43.       Government of El Salvador. Constitución de la República de El Salvador (with reforms until 2009), enacted 1983. http://bit.ly/11XqQew.

44.       Government of El Salvador. Código de Trabajo, No. 15, enacted June 23, 1972. http://www.asamblea.gob.sv/eparlamento/indice-legislativo/buscador-de-documentos-legislativos/codigo-de-trabajo.

45.       Government of El Salvador. Ley de Protección Integral de la Niñez y la Adolescencia, enacted 2009. http://www.asamblea.gob.sv/eparlamento/indice-legislativo/buscador-de-documentos-legislativos/ley-de-proteccion-integral-de-la-ninez-y-adolecencia.

46.       Government of El Salvador. Acuerdo No. 241, enacted July 8, 2011. http://www.diariooficial.gob.sv/diarios/do-2011/08-agosto/15-08-2011.pdf.

47.       Government of El Salvador. Ley Especial Contra la Trata de Personas, No. 824, enacted November 14, 2014. http://www.asamblea.gob.sv/eparlamento/indice-legislativo/buscador-de-documentos-legislativos/ley-especial-contra-la-trata-de-personas.

48.       Government of El Salvador. Código Penal (with modifications until 2010), No. 1030, enacted June 15, 1974. http://www.oas.org/dil/esp/Codigo_Penal_El_Salvador.pdf.

49.       Government of El Salvador. Ley del Servicio Militar y Reserva de la Fuerza Armada, No. 298 de 1992, enacted July 30, 1992. http://www.refworld.org/docid/4c73c69d2.html.

50.       El Salvador. Decreto No. 458 - Ley de Proscripción de Maras, Pandillas, Agrupaciones, Asociaciones y Organizaciones de Naturaleza Criminal, enacted September 10, 2010. http://www.asamblea.gob.sv/eparlamento/indice-legislativo/buscador-de-documentos-legislativos/ley-de-proscripcion-de-maras-pandillas-agrupaciones-asociaciones-y-organizaciones-de-naturaleza-criminal.

51.       Government of El Salvador. Ley General de Educación, No. 917, enacted 1996. http://www.asamblea.gob.sv/eparlamento/indice-legislativo/buscador-de-documentos-legislativos/ley-general-de-educacion.

52.       Ministerio de Trabajo y Previsión Social. "Organigrama - Seccion para la erradicación del trabajo infantil." [online] [cited April 3, 2017]; http://publica.gobiernoabierto.gob.sv/institution_organizational_structures/9347.

53.       Flores, H. "Consejo Nacional contra la Trata de Personas pide a población denunciar casos." Transparencia Activa, September 5, 2014. http://www.transparenciaactiva.gob.sv/consejo-nacional-contra-la-trata-de-personas-pide-a-poblacion-denunciar-casos/.

54.       ISNA - El Instituto Salvadoreño para el Desarrollo Integral de la Niñez y Adolescencia. "Competencias de Trabajo." [online] 2016 [cited December 30, 2016]; http://www.isna.gob.sv/ISNANEW/?page_id=144.

55.       U.S. Embassy official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 26, 2016.

56.       Secretaría del Trabajo y Previsión Social Banco de Buenas Practicas Sobre Inspección Laboral en Iberoamérica. El Salvador - Ficha de país; accessed July 14, 2016; http://bancoinspeccioniberoamerica.stps.gob.mx/Publico/PublicoFichaContacto.aspx?pais_id=1013.

57.       Ministerio de Trabajo y Previsión Social. Anuario Estadístico 2016. source on file.

58.       CIA. The World Factbook, [online] [cited March 18, 2017]; https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors based on the country’s level of development as determined by the UN.

59.       ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a “sufficient number” of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a “sufficient” number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

60.       UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex. New York; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies; “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies, and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

61.       U.S. Embassy official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 22, 2017.

62.       U.S. Embassy- San Salvador. reporting, February 13, 2017.

63.       Ministerio de Trabajo y Prevision Social. "Titulares de Trabajo presentan Anteproyecto de Ley ante Comisión de Trabajo de Asamblea." mtps.gob.sv [online ] May 1, 2014 [cited December 11, 2014]; http://www.mtps.gob.sv/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1787:titulares-de-trabajo-presentan-anteproyecto-de-ley-ante-comision-de-trabajo-de-asamblea&catid=1:noticias-ciudadano&Itemid=77.

64.       U.S. Embassy- San Salvador. reporting, February 4, 2016.

65.       Ministerio de Trabajo y Prevision Social. "Se reactiva Comité Nacional para la Erradicación de las Peores Formas de Trabajo Infantil." mtps.gob.sv [online] November 13, 2014 [cited December 10, 2014]; http://www.mtps.gob.sv/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2051:se-reactiva-comite-nacional-para-la-erradicacion-de-las-peores-formas-de-trabajo-infantil&catid=1:noticias-ciudadano&Itemid=77.

66.       ILO-IPEC. Eliminating Child Labour in El Salvador through Economic Empowerment and Social Inclusion. Technical Progress Report. Geneva; October, 2013.

67.       Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare. Ministro Centeno preside reunión del Comité Nacional Erradicación Trabajo Infantil. Press Release. San Salvador; May 29, 2013. http://www.mtps.gob.sv/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1518:ministro-centeno-preside-reunion-del-comite-nacional-erradicacion-trabajo-infantil&catid=1:noticias-ciudadano&Itemid=77.

68.       Ministerio de Trabajo y Prevision Social. "Lanzamiento de Sistema de Monitoreo y Evaluación del Trabajo Infantil." mtps.gob.sv [online] June 28, 2013 [cited December 10, 2014]; http://www.mtps.gob.sv/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1563:lanzamiento-de-sistema-de-monitoreo-y-evaluacion-del-trabajo-infantil&catid=1:noticias-ciudadano&Itemid=77.

69.       Government of El Salvador. Decreto No. 90, enacted August 26, 2011. http://www.diariooficial.gob.sv/diarios/do-2011/08-agosto/26-08-2011.pdf.

70.       U.S. Embassy- San Salvador. reporting, February 17, 2015.

71.       Government of El Salvador. CONNA, Quienes Somos, [online] January 16, 2013 [cited April 10, 2014]; http://www.conna.gob.sv/index.php/institucion/marco-institucional.html.

72.       Government of El Salvador. Política Nacional de Protección Integral de la Niñez y de la Adolescencia. San Salvador, National Council for Children and Adolescents; May 16, 2013. http://centroamericajoven.org/sites/default/files/POLITICA_NIEZ_Y_ADOLESCENCIA_version_final.pdf.

73.       National Council for Children and Adolescents. "Suchitoto Creó Comité Local de Derechos de su Municipio." [online] October 3, 2016 [cited December 30, 2016]; http://www.conna.gob.sv/?p=2274.

74.       National Council for Children and Adolescents. "Avanza proceso de instalación de Comités Locales de Derechos en Municipios." conna.gob.sv [online] November 18, 2014 [cited December 10, 2014]; http://www.conna.gob.sv/index.php/novedades/noticias/item/180-avanza-proceso-de-instalaci%C3%B3n-de-comit%C3%A9s-locales-de-derechos-en-municipios.html.

75.       National Council for Children and Adolescents. "CONNA inauguró Junta de Protección de la Niñez y de la Adolescencia Dos en el departamento de San Salvador." conna.gob.sv [online] March 21, 2014 [cited December 10, 2014]; http://www.conna.gob.sv/index.php/novedades/noticias/item/135-conna-inaugur%C3%B3-junta-de-protecci%C3%B3n-de-la-ni%C3%B1ez-y-de-la-adolescencia-dos-en-el-departamento-de-san-salvador.html.

76.       National Council for Children and Adolescents. "20 Municipios de El Salvador cuentan con Comités Locales de Derechos de la Niñez y de la Adolescencia." [online] September 22, 2015 [cited February 8, 2016]; http://www.conna.gob.sv/index.php/component/k2/item/199-20-municipios-de-el-salvador-cuentan-con-comit%C3%A9s-locales-de-derechos-de-la-ni%C3%B1ez-y-de-la-adolescencia.html.

77.       ILO-IPEC. Hoja de Ruta para hacer de El Salvador un País Libre de Trabajo Infantil y sus Peores Formas. Geneva; 2009. http://white.oit.org.pe/ipec/pagina.php?pagina=337.

78.       Ministerio de Trabajo y Previsión Social. Hoja de ruta para hacer de El Salvador un país libre de trabajo infantil y sus peores formas - Programación 2015 – 2017. source on file; 2015.

79.       National Council for Children and Adolescents. "Plan Nacional de Acción de la Política Nacional de Protección Integral de la Niñez y de la Adolescencia, 2014-2017." [online] December 2015 [cited February 8, 2016]; http://www.conna.gob.sv/index.php/novedades/noticias/item/220-plan-nacional-de-acci%C3%B3n-2014-2017.html?tmpl=component&print=1.

80.       National Council for Children and Adolescents. "CONNA presentó Plan Nacional de Acción 2014-2017, de la Política Nacional de Protección Integral de la Niñez y de la Adolescencia." [online] December 15, 2015 [cited February 8, 2016]; http://www.conna.gob.sv/index.php/component/k2/item/219-conna-present%C3%B3-plan-nacional-de-acci%C3%B3n-2014-2017-de-la-pol%C3%ADtica-nacional-de-protecci%C3%B3n-integral-de-la-ni%C3%B1ez-y-de-la-adolescencia.html.

81.       Government of El Salvador. Política Nacional contra la Trata de Personas de El Salvador. San Salvador; 2012. http://bit.ly/Tw111L.

82.       U.S. Embassy- San Salvador. reporting, February 15, 2013.

83.       Inter-American Development Bank. Presidentes de El Salvador, Guatemala y Honduras presentan plan de Alianza para Prosperidad en Triángulo Norte; November 14, 2014 http://www.iadb.org/es/noticias/comunicados-de-prensa/2014-11-14/presidents-del-triangulo-norte-presentan-plan,10987.html.

84.       Governments of El Salvador Guatemala and Honduras. Plan of the Alliance for Prosperity in the Northern Triangle: A Road Map; September 2014. http://idbdocs.iadb.org/wsdocs/getdocument.aspx?docnum=39224238.

85.       The White House - Office of the Press Secretary. "Fact Sheet: Support for the Alliance for Prosperity in the Northern Triangle." whitehouse.gov [online] March 3, 2015 [cited March 24, 2015]; https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2015/03/03/fact-sheet-support-alliance-prosperity-northern-triangle.

86.       Colombian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Colombia y El Salvador unen esfuerzos para prevenir y enfrentar la trata de personas, Colombian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, [online] September 27, 2013 [cited April 10, 2014]; http://www.cancilleria.gov.co/newsroom/news/colombia-y-salvador-unen-esfuerzos-prevenir-y-enfrentar-la-trata-personas

87.       Government of Guatemala and Government of El Salvador. Memorandum de Entendimiento entre la República de El Salvador y la República de Guatemala para la Protección de las Víctimas de la Trata de Personas y del Tráfico Ilícito de Migrantes. San Salvador and Guatemala City; 2011. https://www.oas.org/dil/esp/Memorandum_de_Entendimiento_Guatemala_El_Salvador_Trata_de_Persona.pdf.

88.       La Tribuna. "Asociación azucarera y gobierno buscan erradicar trabajo infantil en El Salvador." [online] June 29, 2015 [cited January 15, 2016]; http://www.latribuna.hn/2015/06/29/asociacion-azucarera-y-gobierno-buscan-erradicar-trabajo-infantil-el-salvador/.

89.       Mariana Belloso. "Constructoras Buscan Prevenir Trabajo Infantil." La Prensa Gráfica, April 24, 2015; Economía. http://www.laprensagrafica.com/2015/04/24/constructoras-buscan-prevenir-trabajo-infantil.

90.       Ministerio de Trabajo y Previsión Social. "Renovación del convenio de cooperación para la erradicación del trabajo infantil en caña de azúcar." [online] June 29, 2015 [cited January 15, 2016]; http://www.mtps.gob.sv/noticias/renovacion-del-convenio-de-cooperacion-para-la-erradicacion-del-trabajo-infantil-en-cana-de-azucar/.

91.       UNDAF. MEMORANDUM DE ENTENDIMIENTO: Marco de Asistencia de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo - UNDAF 2016-2020. El Salvador, Naciones Unidas; 2015. https://undg.org/home/country-teams/latin-america-the-carribean/el-salvador/.

92.       Government of El Salvador. Plan Quinquenal de Desarrollo (2014-2019). http://www.presidencia.gob.sv/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/Plan-Quinquenal-de-Desarrollo.pdf.

93.       Government of El Salvador. Política Nacional de Juventud 2010-2024 y Plan Acción 2010-2014. San Salvador; August 2010. http://bit.ly/AyWlEE.

94.       National Council for Children and Adolescents. "CONNA acompaña presentación de campaña “No pongas en riesgo sus vidas”." conna.gob.sv [online] July 15, 2014 [cited December 10, 2014]; http://www.conna.gob.sv/index.php/novedades/noticias/item/158-conna-acompa%C3%B1a-presentaci%C3%B3n-de-campa%C3%B1a-%E2%80%9Cno-pongas-en-riesgo-sus-vidas%E2%80%9D.html.

95.       National Council for Children and Adolescents. CONNA participa en pre lanzamiento de campaña "No existe pólvora segura". Press Release. San Salvador; October 1, 2013. http://www.conna.gob.sv/index.php/novedades/noticias/item/116-campaña.html.

96.       Ventura, AM. Lanzan campaña para sensibilizar sobre el riesgo del uso de la pólvora Radio Nacional de El Salvador; November 19, 2014. http://rnes.sv/lanzan-campana-para-sensibilizar-sobre-el-riesgo-del-uso-de-la-polvora/.

97.       Presidencia de la República. Avances en la implementación de Comunidades Solidarias, Presidencia de la Republica, [online] [cited April 10, 2014]; http://bit.ly/11gvmFa.

98.       Government of El Salvador - Asamblea Legislativa. "Incorporan recursos para Programa de Comunidades Solidarias en El Salvador." [online] August 17, 2016 [cited April 3, 2017]; http://www.asamblea.gob.sv/noticias/archivo-de-noticias/%20incorporan-recursos-para-programa-de-comunidades-solidarias-en-el-salvador.

99.       Ministerio de Educación. Prevención y protección escolar, Ministerio de Educación, [online] January 30, 2012 [cited December 12, 2014]; http://www.mined.gob.sv/index.php/novedades/noticias/item/5387-prevenci%C3%B3n-y-protecci%C3%B3n-escolar.html.

100.     Ministerio de Educación. "Plan de Prevención y Seguridad Escolar en Chalatenango." mined.gob.sv [online] March 4, 2014 [cited December 12, 2014]; http://www.mined.gob.sv/index.php/ints/item/6824-plan-de-prevenci%C3%B3n-y-seguridad-escolar-en-chalatenango.html.

101.     Ministerio de Educación. "Programa de Alimentación y Salud Escolar." mined.gov.sv [online] March 14, 2012 [cited December 12. 2014]; http://www.mined.gob.sv/index.php/temas/programas-del-plan-social-educativo/item/5480-programa-de-alimentaci%C3%B3n-y-salud-escolar.html.

102.     Ministerio de Educación. "Programa Presidencial de Dotación de Paquetes Escolares." mined.gob.sv [online] March 14, 2012 [cited December 12, 2014]; http://www.mined.gob.sv/index.php/temas/programas-del-plan-social-educativo/item/5479-programa-presidencial-de-dotaci%C3%B3n-de-paquetes-escolares.html.

103.     Alvarado, T. "Escuelas a Tiempo Pleno un modelo transformador de la educación." Transparencia Activa, January 23 2013. http://www.transparenciaactiva.gob.sv/escuelas-a-tiempo-pleno-un-modelo-transformador-de-la-educacion/.

104.     Alvarado, T. "Programa de Escuelas a Tiempo Pleno se extiende a 2,285 centros educativos." Transparencia Activa, July 25, 2014. http://www.transparenciaactiva.gob.sv/programa-de-escuelas-a-tiempo-pleno-se-extiende-a-2285-centros-educativos/.

105.     Ministerio de Educación. "Convenio para el benefcio de niñez y adolescencia." [online] June 3, 2015 [cited February 8, 2016]; http://www.mined.gob.sv/index.php/noticias/item/7560-convenio-para-el-beneficio-de-ni%C3%B1ez-y-adolescencia.

106.     Segura, B. "MINED expandirá el Sistema Integrado de Escuela Inclusiva de Tiempo Pleno a 900 escuelas en 2013." Diario Co Latino, San Salvador, November 3, 2012. http://bit.ly/Vwgvoj.

107.     La Prensa Gráfica, Juan Carlos Díaz. "Lanzan campaña para prevenir la migración irregular." [online] 2016 [cited May 30, 2017]; http://www.laprensagrafica.com/2016/10/18/lanzan-campaa-para-prevenir-la-migracion-irregular.

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