Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - El Salvador

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

El Salvador

2017 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2017, El Salvador made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Labor Inspection Directorate changed inspectors’ daily inspections schedules in the agricultural sector to begin earlier in the morning to better verify possible child labor situations and included child labor specific items in interview checklists. In addition, the National Council for Children and Adolescents released a protocol to implement the National Policy for the Protection of Children and Adolescents. However, children in El Salvador engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in illicit activities, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Children also perform dangerous tasks in the harvesting of sugarcane. Law enforcement agencies continue to lack sufficient resources to fully enforce child labor laws, and no penalties for child labor violations were issued in 2017.

Expand All

Children in El Salvador engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in illicit activities, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Children also perform dangerous tasks in the harvesting of sugarcane. (1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in El Salvador.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

5.9 (68,431)

Working children by sector

 

 

Agriculture

 

47.5

Industry

 

14.2

Services

 

38.2

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

92.3

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

6.1

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

93.4

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2016, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2018. (7)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project's analysis of statistics from Encuesta de Hogares de Propósitos Múltiples (EHPM), 2015. (8)

 

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Harvesting sugarcane† and coffee,† and production of cereal grains (2; 3; 9; 10; 11; 12)

Cattle-raising† (12)   

Fishing,† including harvesting shellfish and mollusks† (2; 3; 4; 10; 13; 14)

Industry

Manufacturing fireworks† (2; 3; 11; 15; 14)

Production of baked goods (12)

Construction† (2; 10; 12; 16)

Services

Garbage scavenging† and street begging,† performing,† and vending† (2; 3; 11; 17)

Domestic work (2; 3; 11; 12; 18; 19)

Selling goods in markets or kiosks and working in restaurants (12)

Repairing motor vehicles† (12; 16; 20)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2; 14; 6)

Use by gangs to perform illicit activities, including committing homicides, extortion, and trafficking drugs, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (4; 21; 14; 6)

Forced begging, domestic work, and street work (2; 4; 6)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

 

Children in El Salvador often lack economic and educational opportunities and are vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor, including commercial sexual exploitation and recruitment by gangs for illicit activities, such as committing homicides and trafficking drugs. (22; 23; 24)  Children often emigrate to escape violence, extortion, and forced recruitment by gangs, in addition to seeking economic opportunities and family reunification. Once en route, they become vulnerable to human trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation. (4; 22; 23; 24; 27)

Child labor in El Salvador is predominantly male, with boys comprising approximately two-thirds of child laborers ages 5 to 17. (12; 28; 29; 30) However, girls comprise the majority of children engaged in domestic work in third-party homes. (2; 12; 18) At schools, children are recruited and harassed by gangs, which may cause children to stop attending school. Children who do not attend school are also more vulnerable to child labor, including its worst forms. (4; 5; 27; 31; 32; 33; 34; 35) Although government programs have expanded basic education coverage, gang violence, including the extortion of school children, has hindered efforts to increase school enrollment and decrease dropout rates. (34; 35; 36; 37) The Educated El Salvador Plan created 7 online study programs and outlined additional government efforts to address this problem. (35; 38; 39)

Multiple reports, including by a third-party monitoring group, indicate that the use of child labor in sugarcane harvesting has declined since 2010. (9; 40; 41) The latest government figures, taken by the Ministry of Education in 2015, counted 934 persons under age 18 engaged in the production of sugarcane. (42) The published report of the 2016 Multipurpose Household Survey does not contain information on the number of children working in the sugarcane sector or on the number of children engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in illicit activities. (19; 14)

El Salvador has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The government’s laws and regulations are in line with relevant international standards (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

 

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

 

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

14

Article 114 of the Labor Code; Article 38 of the Constitution; Article 59 of the Law for the Comprehensive Protection of Children and Adolescents (LEPINA) (43; 44; 45)

 

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 105 of the Labor Code; Article 38 of the Constitution; Article 2 of Agreement 241 of 2011 (43; 44; 46)

 

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Article 1 of Agreement 241 of 2011 (46)

 

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 3 and 54–55 of the Special Law Against Trafficking in Persons; Article 13 of the Labor Code; Article 56 of LEPINA; Articles 4 and 9 of the Constitution (43; 44; 45; 47)

 

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 3 and 54–55 of the Special Law Against Trafficking in Persons; Article 56 of LEPINA (45; 47)

 

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 3 and 54–55 of the Special Law Against Trafficking in Persons; Articles 169–173 of the Penal Code; Article 55 of LEPINA (45; 47; 48)

 

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Articles 3 and 54–55 of the Special Law Against Trafficking in Persons; Articles 214 and 345 of the Penal Code; Article 56 of LEPINA (45; 47; 48)

 

Prohibition of Military Recruitment

 

 

 

 

State Compulsory

Yes

18

Article 215 of the Constitution (43)

State Voluntary

Yes

16

Articles 2 and 6 of the Military Service Law (49)

Non-state

Yes

 

Article 345 of the Penal Code; Article 1 of the Law Prohibiting Gangs and Criminal Organizations; Article 7 of the Constitution (43; 48; 50)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

18‡

Articles 5, 18, 20, and 22 of the General Education Law; Article 82 of LEPINA; Article 56 of the Constitution (43; 45; 51)

 

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Articles 5, 18, 20, and 22 of the General Education Law; Article 82 of LEPINA; Article 56 of the Constitution (43; 45; 51)

 

‡ Age calculated based on available information (45; 51)

 

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare’s operations that hinder adequate child labor enforcement.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare (MTPS)

Inspect registered businesses for labor violations, including child labor. (10; 20; 14) Maintain a child labor unit dedicated to child labor law enforcement issues. (52) Refer cases of alleged crimes of the worst forms of child labor to the Office of the Attorney General. (10)

Office of the Attorney General (AG)

Enforce criminal laws related to the worst forms of child labor. Maintain the AG’s Special Unit on Trafficking in Persons and Related Crimes that consists of 12 prosecutors who investigate human trafficking and related crimes. (5; 10; 11; 47) Refer exploited children to the Salvadoran Institute for the Comprehensive Development of Children and Adolescents (ISNA) for social services. (10)

National Civilian Police (PNC)

Enforce criminal laws related to the worst forms of child labor. Maintain the PNC’s Special Unit on Trafficking in Persons and Related Crimes that investigates cases of human trafficking, including child trafficking. (10; 20; 47; 14) Maintain a hotline that receives complaints about human trafficking for sexual and labor exploitation. (53)

Salvadoran Institute for the Comprehensive Development of Children and Adolescents (ISNA)

Receive referrals from law enforcement agencies on cases of criminal exploitation of children, including for forced labor, human trafficking, and commercial sexual exploitation. Provide child victims with services, including shelter, medical attention, psychological help, and legal advice. (54) 

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2017, labor law enforcement agencies in El Salvador took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the operations of the Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including financial resource allocation.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$1,912,214 (5)

$1,696,239 (14)

Number of Labor Inspectors

183 (5)

181 (14)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (5)

Yes (14)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

N/A

N/A

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (5)

Yes (14)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

28,446 (55)

31,337 (56)

Number Conducted at Worksites

28,446 (55)

31,337 (56)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

8 (5)

2 (14)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties were Imposed

0 (5)

0 (14)

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that were Collected

0 (5)

0 (14)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (5)

Yes (14)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Unknown* (5)

Yes (14)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (5)

Yes (14)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (5)

Yes (14)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (5)

Yes (14)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (5)

Yes (14)

* The government does not publish this information.

 

In 2017, the Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare (MTPS) reported that its level of funding was inadequate and hampered the labor inspectorate’s capacity to enforce child labor laws. The Labor Inspection Directorate changed inspectors’ daily inspections schedules in the agricultural sector to begin earlier in the morning to better verify possible child labor situations and included child labor specific items in interview checklists. (14)

In 2017, the MTPS reported that it conducted 961 child labor-specific inspections across all 14 of El Salvador’s administrative regions, including some targeted inspections in the sugarcane and coffee sectors. (57) As of October 2017, the MTPS reported that inspections found 2 child labor violations. (14) No fines were collected, as MTPS reported all child labor issues were resolved upon re-inspection. (14)

The government reports that the Labor Committee of the Legislative Assembly is drafting an updated Labor Procedures Code, which will include provisions to streamline the issuance of penalties. (58; 59) The Salvadoran Institute for the Comprehensive Development of Children and Adolescents (ISNA) reported that in 2017 it assisted 14 children engaged in child labor, including 1 child engaged in dangerous work. (60)

Article 627 of the Labor Code specifies a default fine of no more than $60 per violation of all labor laws, including child labor laws. (44) Reports indicate that this amount is insufficient to deter labor violations. (5) The government is currently reviewing national legislation to ensure that monetary penalties for all labor violations are proportionate to the nature of the offense. (58; 59; 61)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2017, criminal law enforcement agencies in El Salvador took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including financial resources.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Yes (5)

Yes (14)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (5)

Yes (14)

Number of Investigations

26 (5)

19 (14)

Number of Violations Found

35 (5)

77 (14)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown

9 (14)

Number of Convictions

6 (5)

0 (14)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (5)

Yes (14)

 

In 2017, the Office of the Attorney General (AG) provided training for investigators on the INTERPOL child sexual abuse database, conducted a regional workshop for combating child sexual abuse—an advanced regional workshop to combat child sexual abuse—and a regional workshop on coordination and investigation of online child sexual exploitation. The National Council for Children and Adolescents (CONNA) conducted trainings for 8,500 people on the Special Law for Comprehensive Protection of Children and Adolescents (LEPINA), and the guidelines for the National Protection Plan for Children and Adolescents. CONNA also conducted training for 25 sexual exploitation prevention specialists. (14; 62)

In 2017, the AG’s Trafficking in Persons Unit encountered 21 victims of child trafficking for sexual exploitation. This included 7 cases of child prostitution affecting 8 victims, 10 cases of pornography involving 11 victims, and 10 cases of payment for sexual acts with 11 victims. (14)

The AG reported that it lacks sufficient financial resources to maintain the level of staffing, training, and transportation required to meet its obligation to prosecute crimes, including the worst forms of child labor. (63; 14; 62) In addition, reports indicate that increased coordination between the PNC and the AG is needed to improve the investigation and prosecution of criminal child labor violations. (58)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role and Description

National Committee for the Eradication of Child Labor (CNETI)

Determine and implement government efforts to combat child labor, including the Roadmap to Make El Salvador a Country Free of Child Labor and its Worst Forms. Chaired by the MTPS, includes 12 government agencies, along with representatives from labor unions, business associations, and NGOs. (2; 12; 20; 64; 14) Maintain a web-based monitoring system that allows government agencies to share and analyze information to coordinate the implementation of the Roadmap. (65; 66; 67; 14)

National Council Against Trafficking in Persons

Coordinate government efforts to combat human trafficking and implement the National Policy Against Trafficking in Persons. (68; 14) Led by the Ministry of Justice and Public Security and composed of 11 government agencies. (1; 47; 69; 14)

National Council for Children and Adolescents (CONNA)

Develop policies to protect the rights of children, including those regarding child labor, and implement LEPINA and the National Policy for the Protection of Children and Adolescents (PNPNA). (45; 70; 71; 14) Composed of Departmental and Local Committees for Children’s and Adolescents’ Rights, ISNA, the Ministry of Public Security and Justice, the AG, the Human Rights Ombudsman, and other agencies. (14) In 2017, CONNA expanded its response network and youth protection programs, and enacted rules to coordinate protection programs for children and adolescents. (72; 14)

Departmental and Local Committees for Children’s and Adolescents’ Rights

Implement CONNA’s policies, including the PNPNA, at the departmental and municipal levels, as well as receive complaints of child rights violations at the departmental level. (45; 73; 74; 75; 14)

 

All coordinating bodies appeared to be active during the reporting period. (62)

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including with mainstreaming child labor issues into relevant policies.

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor‡

Policy

Description

Roadmap to Make El Salvador a Country Free of Child Labor and its Worst Forms

Serves as the government’s principal policy for eliminating the worst forms of child labor. Aims to eliminate all child labor by 2020, including by reducing poverty, improving education and health, protecting children’s rights, and raising awareness on child labor. (1; 12; 76; 77; 58)

National Policy for the Protection of Children and Adolescents (PNPNA) (2013–2023)

Sets government policies aimed at guaranteeing children’s rights and protecting them from violence and harm, including the worst forms of child labor. Other objectives include improving health services and access to quality education for children, including children with disabilities, and reducing poverty. (12; 71)

National Action Plan for the PNPNA (2014–2017)

Sets a framework for implementing the PNPNA from 2014–2017. Aimed to address PNPNA objectives, including the prevention of violence, the promotion of access to quality education, and the elimination of child labor by focusing on children’s and adolescents’ rights, gender equality, and social inclusion. (12; 78; 79)

National Policy Against Trafficking in Persons

Defines a comprehensive plan to combat human trafficking of adults and children for labor and commercial sexual exploitation. Aims to improve prevention efforts, victim assistance, prosecution, interagency coordination, training, and anti-corruption efforts. (1; 80; 81)

Educated El Salvador Plan†

Outlines six priorities for improving El Salvador’s national education system, including increasing security in schools and improving access to education for vulnerable groups, including children engaged in child labor. (35; 14) In 2017, policy efforts led to better trained teachers, seven online study programs added, and with the help of foreign assistance, the reconstruction of several schools. (14; 37)

Alliance for Prosperity in the Northern Triangle

Aims to create economic growth, increase educational and vocational training opportunities for youth, and reduce violence in Honduras, Guatemala, and El Salvador.  Seeks to do this, in part, to reduce the number of unaccompanied minors who leave El Salvador, as well as Honduras and Guatemala, for the United States and who are vulnerable to human trafficking. Signed by the presidents of each country in 2014. (82; 83; 84)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.
‡ The government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor. (5; 85; 86; 87; 88; 89; 90; 91; 62)

 

The government has not incorporated child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the National Youth Policy (2010–2024). (92)

In 2017, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including the adequacy of programs to address the problem in all sectors.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

USDOL-funded Projects

Projects which aim to reduce the incidence of child labor, including: Youth Pathways–Central America (2015–2019), $16.5 million project implemented by Catholic Relief Services in El Salvador and Honduras; Global Research on Child Labor Measurement and Policy Development (2013–2018), $7 million project implemented by the ILO in 10 countries; and Reducing Incidence of Child Labor and Harmful Conditions of Work in Economic Strengthening Initiatives (RICHES) (2017–2021), $1.5 million project implemented by the Grameen Foundation in El Salvador and the Philippines. (93; 94; 95) More information is available on the USDOL website.

Public Awareness Campaigns†

Government public-awareness campaigns implemented by CONNA and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to raise awareness about the dangers of human trafficking. Includes CONNA’s “Don't Risk Your Lives” campaign, supported by UNICEF and IOM. (58; 59; 60) In 2017, CONNA announced the second phase of its “Protection Starts at Home” and “Talk to Me” awareness programs, which promote respect towards the physical, psychological, and sexual integrity of children and adolescents. (14; 60)

Public Awareness Campaigns on Child Labor†

Government public-awareness campaigns implemented by the Ministry of Education (MINED), the MTPS, the Ministry of Health, and CONNA to inform children about the dangers of child labor, including manufacturing and handling fireworks. (96; 63; 97; 98) Produced radio skits, print ads, and technical assistance information in 2017 in coordination with the ILO and FUNDAZUCAR, the social responsibility arm of the Association of Salvadoran Sugar Producers. (62)

Sustainable Families Programs*†

Set of existing and new government programs focused on improving health, education, productivity, security, and eliminating poverty through inclusive and sustainable economic growth and public services. Includes Health and Education Bonus Programs that assist families with cash transfers conditioned on children’s school attendance and health checkups. (99; 100; 1)

Solidarity Communities Programs†

Government programs that aimed to reduce social exclusion and boost household income by increasing access to public services and building human capital that ended in 2017. Included cash transfers conditioned on children’s school attendance and health checkups and the Temporary Income Support Program (PATI) that provided financial support and vocational training to beneficiaries ages 16 and older. (1; 101)

School Prevention and Security Plan†

Programs implemented by MINED, the Ministry of Justice and Public Security, and the PNC in schools with high levels of violence. Includes activities such as provision of psychological help, online classes, skills workshops for youth, and increased police patrols. (102; 103) Expanded in 2017 to operate in approximately 1,250 schools. (36; 104)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of El Salvador.
‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. (11; 89; 105; 106; 107; 108; 109)

 

The government joined UNODC’s Blue Heart Campaign to raise awareness against trafficking in persons. (109; 14) During the year, MTPS also increased the number of micro-enterprise advisers from 1 to 15 through the country’s provinces, enabling the Ministry to provide additional services for entrepreneurs, including youth. (110) The government implements several programs to reduce the worst forms of child labor by assisting poor families and school children; however, research found no evidence that the government has programs that assist child laborers who may not be living with their families and not attending school, such as children engaged in domestic work. Research could not determine whether the government’s efforts to prevent and eliminate child labor in the production of sugarcane addressed the full scope of the problem.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in El Salvador (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Enforcement

Provide sufficient funding and resources to the MTPS and criminal law enforcement agencies to fully enforce child labor laws.

2010 – 2017

Ensure that penalties are imposed and fines are collected for child labor violations.

2015 – 2017

Establish monetary penalties for child labor violations that are proportionate to the nature and seriousness of the offense.

2009 – 2017

Improve coordination between the National Civilian Police (PNC) and the Attorney General (AG) in their investigation and prosecution of criminal cases, including by implementing the regulations of the Special Law Against Trafficking in Persons.

2014 – 2017

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the National Youth Policy for 2010–2024.

2014 – 2017

Social Programs

Collect and publish government statistics on the number of children engaged in the production of sugarcane.

2016 – 2017

Conduct a study on the use of children in illicit activities.

2009 – 2017

Improve children’s access to education by ensuring that school children are safe in schools.

2011 – 2017

Implement programs to address child labor in domestic work and ensure programs to combat child labor in the production of sugarcane are sufficient to address the scope of the problem.

2017

1. UCW. Entendiendo los Resultados del Trabajo Infantil y el Empleo Juvenil en El Salvador. June 2013. http://www.ucw-project.org/attachment/trabajo_infantil_empleo_juvenil_el_Salvador_201320130912_132756.pdf.

2. Government of El Salvador. Respuesta a Cuestionario del Departamento de Trabajo de los Estados Unidos sobre Trabajo Infantil y Trabajo Forzoso. May 3, 2013. [Source on file].

3. Corado, Ileana. La erradicación del trabajo infantil, una deuda pendiente. Contrapunto. April 21, 2014. http://www.contrapunto.com.sv/archivo2016/sociedad-civil/la-erradicacion-del-trabajo-infantil-una-deuda-pendiente.

4. UN General Assembly. Report of the Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of slavery, including its causes and consequences, on her mission to El Salvador. August 3, 2016: A/HRC/33/46/Add.1. http://www.refworld.org/docid/57cd80fa4.html.

5. U.S. Embassy- San Salvador. Reporting, January 30, 2017.

6. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2017: El Salvador. Washington, DC. 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2017/271182.htm.

7. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed December 16, Accessed March 3, 2018. http://data.uis.unesco.org/. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

8. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Encuesta de Hogares de Propósitos Múltiples (EHPM), 2015. Analysis received December 15, Analysis received January 12, 2018. Please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

9. UL. The Sugar Association of El Salvador Case Study. 2013. https://www.ul.com/consumer-retail-services/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/EN_US_RS_CaseStudy_Sugar-Association-of-El-Salvador_JAN-2014_LT_WEB.pdf.

10. U.S. Embassy- San Salvador. Reporting, February 28, 2014.

11. —. Reporting, January 20, 2016.

12. ILO and DIGESTYC. Magnitud y características del trabajo infantil en El Salvador 2015: Resultados del módulo sobre trabajo infantil de la Encuesta de Hogares de Propósitos Múltiples (EHPM) de 2015. Organización Internacional del Trabajo, Servicio de principios y derechos fundamentales en el trabajo (FUNDAMENTALS), Dirección General de Estadística y Censos de El Salvador (DIGESTYC). 2016. http://www.ilo.org/ipec/Informationresources/WCMS_IPEC_PUB_28595/lang--es/index.htm.

13. ILO-IPEC. Síntesis - Diagnóstico de situación del trabajo infantil y sus peores formas en El Salvador. 2009. [Source on file].

14. U.S. Embassy- San Salvador. Reporting, January 16, 2018.

15. Flores, Ricardo. Dos niños quemados tras explosión de cohetería. La Prensa Grafica. December 24, 2014. http://www.laprensagrafica.com/2014/12/24/dos-nios-quemados-tras-explosion-de-coheteria.

16. Salvadoran Institute for the Comprehensive Development of Children and Adolescents (ISNA). Situación del trabajo infantil en el municipio de Juayúa. San Salvador, ISNA and ILO. 2012. http://siab.impactocreativo.com/isna/textocompleto/mfn259.pdf.

17. Unimer El Salvador. Diagnóstico socioeconómico de niños y niñas del municipio de San Salvador en conexión con la calle. 2016. [Source on file].

18. Peñate, Susana. El reto de erradicar trabajo infantil: OIT. La Prensa Gráfica. June 12, 2015. http://www.laprensagrafica.com/2015/06/12/el-reto-de-erradicar-trabajo-infantil-oit.

19. Dirección General de Estadística y Censos (DIGESTYC). Encuesta de Hogares de Propositos Multiples 2016. http://www.digestyc.gob.sv/index.php/temas/des/ehpm/publicaciones-ehpm.html?download=616%3Apublicacion-ehpm-2016.

20. U.S. Embassy- San Salvador. Reporting, February 1, 2013.

21. El Diario de Hoy. Maras aún reclutan a menores de edad para delinquir. January 21, 2013. http://www.elsalvador.com/noticias/nacional/99523/maras-aun-reclutan-a-menores-de-edad-para-delinquir/.

22. Stinchcomb, Dennis, and Hershberg, Eric. Unaccompanied Migrant Children from Central America: Context, Causes, and Responses. CLALS Working Paper Series No. 7 (2014). http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2524001.

23. United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. Mission to Central America: The Flight of Unaccompanied Children to the United States. November 2013. http://www.usccb.org/about/migration-policy/upload/Mission-To-Central-America-FINAL-2.pdf.

24. UN Human Rights Council. Written statement submitted by Human Rights Advocates Inc., a non-governmental organization in special consultative status A/HRC/28/NGO/29. February 19, 2015. http://daccess-ods.un.org/access.nsf/Get?Open&DS=A/HRC/28/NGO/29&Lang=E.

25. Markon, Jerry, and Partlow, Joshua. Unaccompanied children surging anew across Southwest U.S. border. The Washington Post. December 16, 2015. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/federal-eye/wp/2015/12/16/unaccompanied-children-crossing-southern-border-in-greater-numbers-again-raising-fears-of-new-migrant-crisis/.

26. U.S. Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Customs and Border Protection. United States Border Patrol Southwest Family Unit Subject and Unaccompanied Alien Children Apprehensions Fiscal Year 2017. 2017. https://www.cbp.gov/newsroom/stats/usbp-sw-border-apprehensions-fy2017.

27. Albaladejo, Angelika. No Life Here: Internal Displacement in El Salvador. Latin America Working Group. February 18, 2016. http://lawg.org/action-center/lawg-blog/69-general/1588-no-life-here-internal-displacement-in-el-salvador.

28. Dirección General de Estadística y Censos (DIGESTYC). Encuesta de Hogares de Propósitos Múltiples 2013. 2014. http://www.digestyc.gob.sv/index.php/temas/des/ehpm/publicaciones-ehpm.html.

29. ILO-IPEC. Niños, Niñas y Adolescentes Migrantes Trabajadores en Zonas Fronterizas en Centroamérica y Panamá. November 2014. http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/viewProduct.do?productId=25695.

30. Dirección General de Estadística y Censos (DIGESTYC). Encuesta de Hogares de Propósitos Múltiples, 2014. 2015. http://www.digestyc.gob.sv/index.php/temas/des/ehpm/publicaciones-ehpm.html?download=559%3Apublicacion-ehpm-2014.

31. El Mundo. Simeduco denuncia acoso de pandillas y falta de presupuesto. March 17, 2015. http://simeduco.org/noticias/simeduco-denuncia-acoso-de-pandillas-y-falta-de-presupuesto/.

32. Chávez, Gerson and Garcia, Enrique. Estudiantes abandonan escuela ante supuestas amenazas. El Mundo. March 18, 2015. [Source on file].

33. La Página. Pandilleros de Apopa reclutan a niños desde cuarto grado. September 30, 2013. [Source on file].

34. Moloney, Anastasia. Schoolchildren, Teachers at Mercy of Gangs in Violent El Salvador. September 17, 2015. http://www.reuters.com/article/2015/09/17/us-el-salvador-education-violence-idUSKCN0RH14M20150917.

35. National Education Council (CONED). Plan El Salvador Educado - Por el derecho a una educación de calidad. 2016. https://www.mined.gob.sv/jdownloads/Institucional/Plan_El_Salvador_Educado.compressed.pdf.

36. Peñate, Susana. Clases inician junto a plan de prevención escolar. La Prensa Gráfica. January 19, 2016. https://www.laprensagrafica.com/elsalvador/Clases-inician-junto-a-plan-de-prevencion-y-seguridad-escolar-20160119-0033.html.

37. La Prensa Grafica. MINED Reporta Desercion de 12000 estudiantes. August 26, 2017. https://www.laprensagrafica.com/elsalvador/MINED-reporta-desercion-de-12000-estudiantes-20170826-0046.html.

38. —. Estos son los logros conseguidos en el primer año de Plan El Salvador Educado. 2017. https://www.laprensagrafica.com/elsalvador/Estos-son-los-logros-conseguidos-en-el-primer-ano-de-Plan-El-Salvador-Educado-20170622-0003.html.

39. Ministry of Education. Consejo Nacional de Educacion Presenta al Presidente los Avances del Plan El Salvador Educado. July 18, 2017. http://www.mined.gob.sv/index.php/noticias/item/8881-consejo-nacional-de-educacion-presenta-al-presidente-los-avances-del-plan-el-salvador-educado.

40. Valle, Alejandra. Trabajo infantil en caña de azúcar disminuyó en 91.3 %. La Prensa Gráfica. June 29, 2015. http://www.laprensagrafica.com/2015/06/29/trabajo-infantil-en-caa-de-azucar-disminuyo-en-913.

41. Inter Press Service. Los niños trabajadores salen de los cañaverales salvadoreños. March 26, 2015. http://www.ipsnoticias.net/2015/03/los-ninos-trabajadores-salen-de-los-canaverales-salvadorenos/.

42. U.S. Embassy- San Salvador. Reporting, May 14, 2018.

43. Government of El Salvador. Constitución de la República de El Salvador (with reforms until 2009). Enacted: 1983. https://www.asamblea.gob.sv/sites/default/files/documents/decretos/171117_072857074_archivo_documento_legislativo.pdf.

44. —. Código de Trabajo, No. 15. Enacted: June 23, 1972. https://www.asamblea.gob.sv/sites/default/files/documents/decretos/171117_072951854_archivo_documento_legislativo.pdf.

45. —. Ley de Protección Integral de la Niñez y la Adolescencia. Enacted: 2009. https://www.asamblea.gob.sv/sites/default/files/documents/decretos/FC3868B6-5FEA-440B-9949-414222C42FFD.pdf.

46. —. Acuerdo No. 241. Enacted: July 8, 2011. http://www.diariooficial.gob.sv/diarios/do-2011/08-agosto/15-08-2011.pdf.

47. —. Ley Especial Contra la Trata de Personas, No. 824. Enacted: November 14, 2014. http://www.sipi.siteal.iipe.unesco.org/normativas/1321/decreto-no-8242014-ley-especial-contra-la-trata-de-personas.

48. —. Código Penal (with modifications until 2010), No. 1030. Enacted: June 15, 1974. http://www.oas.org/dil/esp/Codigo_Penal_El_Salvador.pdf.

49. —. Ley del Servicio Militar y Reserva de la Fuerza Armada, No. 298 de 1992. Enacted: July 30, 1992. http://www.refworld.org/docid/4c73c69d2.html.

50. —. Decreto No. 458 - Ley de Proscripción de Maras, Pandillas, Agrupaciones, Asociaciones y Organizaciones de Naturaleza Criminal. Enacted: September 10, 2010. https://www.asamblea.gob.sv/sites/default/files/documents/decretos/171117_073001876_archivo_documento_legislativo.pdf.

51. —. Ley General de Educación, No. 917. Enacted: 1996. http://www.sipi.siteal.iipe.unesco.org/sites/default/files/sipi_normativa/el_salvador_decreto_nro_917_1996.pdf.

52. Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare (MTPS). Presentación de Toda La Estructura Institutional del Ministerio de Trabajo y Previsión Social. 2017. https://www.transparencia.gob.sv/institutions/mtps/documents/209718/download.

53. Flores, Henry. Consejo Nacional contra la Trata de Personas pide a población denunciar casos. Transparencia Activa. September 5, 2014. http://www.transparenciaactiva.gob.sv/consejo-nacional-contra-la-trata-de-personas-pide-a-poblacion-denunciar-casos/.

54. Salvadoran Institute for the Comprehensive Development of Children and Adolescents (ISNA). Competencias de Trabajo. 2016. http://www.isna.gob.sv/ISNANEW/?page_id=144.

55. Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare (MTPS). Anuario Estadístico 2016. http://www.mtps.gob.sv/wp-content/uploads/descargas/InformesEstadisticos/mtps-anuario-estadistico-2016.pdf.

56. —. Anuario Estadisticio 2017. http://www.mtps.gob.sv/wp-content/uploads/descargas/InformesEstadisticos/mtps-anuario-estadistico-2017.pdf.

57. U.S. Embassy- San Salvador official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. July 6, 2018.

58. —. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 26, 2016.

59. —. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 22, 2017.

60. U.S. Embassy- San Salvador. Reporting, February 13, 2017.

61. Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare (MTPS). Titulares de Trabajo presentan Anteproyecto de Ley ante Comisión de Trabajo de Asamblea. May 1, 2014. [Source on file].

62. U.S. Embassy- San Salvador official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 26, 2018.

63. U.S. Embassy- San Salvador. Reporting, January 8, 2015.

64. Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare (MTPS). Se reactiva Comité Nacional para la Erradicación de las Peores Formas de Trabajo Infantil. November 13, 2014. http://www.mtps.gob.sv/noticias/se-reactiva-comite-nacional-para-la-erradicacion-de-las-peores-formas-de-trabajo-infantil/.

65. ILO-IPEC. Eliminating Child Labour in El Salvador through Economic Empowerment and Social Inclusion. Technical Progress Report. October 2013. [Source on file].

66. Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare (MTPS). Ministro Centeno preside reunión del Comité Nacional Erradicación Trabajo Infantil. May 29, 2013: Press Release. [Source on file].

67. —. Lanzamiento de Sistema de Monitoreo y Evaluación del Trabajo Infantil. June 28, 2013. [Source on file].

68. Government of El Salvador. Decreto No. 90. Enacted: August 26, 2011. http://www.diariooficial.gob.sv/diarios/do-2011/08-agosto/26-08-2011.pdf.

69. U.S. Embassy- San Salvador. Reporting, February 17, 2015.

70. National Council for Children and Adolescents (CONNA). Quienes Somos. January 16, 2012. [Source on file].

71. —. Política Nacional de Protección Integral de la Niñez y de la Adolescencia en El Salvador. May 16, 2013. http://asp.salud.gob.sv/regulacion/pdf/politicas/politica_nacional_pnpna.pdf.

72. —. Acuerdo 1, Reglamento Programas de Atencion Niñez, Adolescencia. 2017. http://www.diariooficial.gob.sv/diarios/do-2017/04-abril/28-04-2017.pdf.

73. —. Avanza proceso de instalación de Comités Locales de Derechos en Municipios. November 18, 2014. http://www.conna.gob.sv/?p=769.

74. —. CONNA inauguró Junta de Protección de la Niñez y de la Adolescencia Dos en el departamento de San Salvador. March 21, 2014. http://www.conna.gob.sv/?p=1115.

75. —. 20 Municipios de El Salvador cuentan con Comités Locales de Derechos de la Niñez y de la Adolescencia. September 22, 2015. http://www.conna.gob.sv/?p=1239.

76. ILO-IPEC. Hoja de Ruta para hacer de El Salvador un País Libre de Trabajo Infantil y sus Peores Formas. 2009. http://white.lim.ilo.org/ipec/documentos/hoja_ruta_els.pdf.

77. Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare (MTPS). Hoja de ruta para hacer de El Salvador un país libre de trabajo infantil y sus peores formas - Programación 2015 – 2017. 2015. http://white.lim.ilo.org/ipec/documentos/hoja_ruta_els.pdf.

78. National Council for Children and Adolescents (CONNA). Plan Nacional de Acción de la Política Nacional de Protección Integral de la Niñez y de la Adolescencia, 2014-2017. December 2015. http://asp.salud.gob.sv/regulacion/pdf/politicas/politica_nacional_pnpna.pdf.

79. —. CONNA presentó Plan Nacional de Acción 2014-2017, de la Política Nacional de Protección Integral de la Niñez y de la Adolescencia. December 15, 2015. http://www.conna.gob.sv/?p=1281.

80. Government of El Salvador. Política Nacional contra la Trata de Personas de El Salvador. 2012. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/Treaties/CMW/Shared%20Documents/SLV/INT_CMW_ADR_SLV_16594_S.doc.

81. U.S. Embassy- San Salvador. Reporting, February 15, 2013.

82. Inter-American Development Bank. Presidentes de El Salvador, Guatemala y Honduras presentan plan de Alianza para Prosperidad en Triángulo Norte. November 14, 2014. http://www.iadb.org/es/noticias/comunicados-de-prensa/2014-11-14/presidents-del-triangulo-norte-presentan-plan,10987.html.

83. Governments of El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. Plan of the Alliance for Prosperity in the Northern Triangle: A Road Map. September 2014. http://idbdocs.iadb.org/wsdocs/getdocument.aspx?docnum=39224238.

84. The White House - Office of the Press Secretary. Fact Sheet: Support for the Alliance for Prosperity in the Northern Triangle. March 3, 2015. https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2015/03/03/fact-sheet-support-alliance-prosperity-northern-triangle.

85. Colombian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Colombia y El Salvador unen esfuerzos para prevenir y enfrentar la trata de personas. September 27, 2013. http://www.cancilleria.gov.co/newsroom/news/colombia-y-salvador-unen-esfuerzos-prevenir-y-enfrentar-la-trata-personas.

86. Government of Guatemala and Government of El Salvador. Memorandum de Entendimiento entre la República de El Salvador y la República de Guatemala para la Protección de las Víctimas de la Trata de Personas y del Tráfico Ilícito de Migrantes. 2011. https://www.oas.org/dil/esp/Memorandum_de_Entendimiento_Guatemala_El_Salvador_Trata_de_Persona.pdf.

87. La Tribuna. Asociación azucarera y gobierno buscan erradicar trabajo infantil en El Salvador. June 29, 2015. http://www.latribuna.hn/2015/06/29/asociacion-azucarera-y-gobierno-buscan-erradicar-trabajo-infantil-el-salvador/.

88. Belloso, Mariana. Constructoras Buscan Prevenir Trabajo Infantil. La Prensa Gráfica. April 24, 2015. http://www.laprensagrafica.com/2015/04/24/constructoras-buscan-prevenir-trabajo-infantil.

89. Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare (MTPS). Renovación del convenio de cooperación para la erradicación del trabajo infantil en caña de azúcar. June 29, 2015. http://www.mtps.gob.sv/noticias/renovacion-del-convenio-de-cooperacion-para-la-erradicacion-del-trabajo-infantil-en-cana-de-azucar/.

90. UNDAF. MEMORANDUM DE ENTENDIMIENTO: Marco de Asistencia de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo - UNDAF 2016-2020. 2015. https://www.unicef.org/about/execboard/files/El_Salvador_DPDCPSLV3_UNDAF_2016-2020-FINAL-13_05_2015.pdf.

91. Government of El Salvador. Plan Quinquenal de Desarrollo (2014-2019). http://www.presidencia.gob.sv/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/Plan-Quinquenal-de-Desarrollo.pdf.

92. —. Política Nacional de Juventud 2010-2024 y Plan Acción 2010-2014. August 2010. [Source on file].

93. Catholic Relief Services. Youth Pathways - Central America Project Summary. 2017. https://www.dol.gov/agencies/ilab/youth-pathways-central-america.

94. ILO. Global Research on Child Labor Measurement and Policy Development (MAP) - Project Summary. 2013. https://www.dol.gov/ilab/projects/summaries/GlobalResearchMAP_FY13.pdf.

95. The Grameen Foundation. RICHES - Project Summary. 2017. https://www.dol.gov/agencies/ilab/riches.

96. U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2015: El Salvador. Washington, DC. April 13, 2016. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/253225.pdf.

97. National Council for Children and Adolescents (CONNA). CONNA participa en pre lanzamiento de campaña de prevencion de lesiones por polvora. October 1, 2017. http://www.conna.gob.sv/?p=2951.

98. Ventura, Ana Maria. Lanzan campaña para sensibilizar sobre el riesgo del uso de la pólvora. Radio Nacional de El Salvador. November 19, 2014. http://www.radionacional.gob.sv/2014/11/19/lanzan-campana-para-sensibilizar-sobre-el-riesgo-del-uso-de-la-polvora/.

99. Technical and Planning Secretary. Familias Sostenibles. 2017 : s.n. http://www.secretariatecnica.gob.sv/familias-sostenibles/.

100. Social Investment Fund for Local Development of El Salvador. FISDL asume con el mayor de los compromisos el reto de ser la principal institucion ejecutora de la estrategia familias sostenibles. November 20, 2017. http://www.fisdl.gob.sv/novedades/ciudadano/11083-fisdl-asume-con-el-mayor-de-los-compromisos-el-reto-de-ser-la-principal-institucion-ejecutora-de-la-estrategia-familias-sostenibles#.WteY3KjwaUk.

101. Legislative Assembly of El Salvador. Incorporan recursos para Programa de Comunidades Solidarias en El Salvador. August 17, 2016. https://www.asamblea.gob.sv/node/2747.

102. Ministry of Education. Plan de Prevención y Seguridad Escolar en Chalatenango. March 4, 2014. http://www.mined.gob.sv/index.php/zona-de-contrataciones-institucionales/item/6824-plan-de-prevenci%C3%B3n-y-seguridad-escolar-en-chalatenango.html.

103. —. Consejo Nacional de Seguridad anuncia la realización de la Semana por la seguridad y la convivencia ciudadana. November 1, 2017. http://www.mined.gob.sv/index.php/noticias/item/9106-consejo-nacional-de-seguridad-anuncia-la-realizacion-de-la-semana-por-la-seguridad-y-la-convivencia-ciudadana.

104. —. MINED y PNC firman adenda al convenio para garantizar una mayor seguridad a mas de un millar de escuelas. January 12, 2017. http://www.mined.gob.sv/index.php/noticias/item/8551-mined-y-pnc-firman-adenda-al-convenio-para-garantizar-una-mayor-seguridad-a-mas-de-un-millar-de-escuelas.

105. Alvarado, Teresa. Escuelas a Tiempo Pleno un modelo transformador de la educación. Transparencia Activa. January 23, 2013. http://www.transparenciaactiva.gob.sv/escuelas-a-tiempo-pleno-un-modelo-transformador-de-la-educacion/.

106. —. Programa de Escuelas a Tiempo Pleno se extiende a 2,285 centros educativos. Transparencia Activa. July 25, 2014. http://www.transparenciaactiva.gob.sv/programa-de-escuelas-a-tiempo-pleno-se-extiende-a-2285-centros-educativos/.

107. Ministry of Education. Convenio para el beneficio de niñez y adolescencia. June 3, 2015. http://www.mined.gob.sv/index.php/noticias/item/7560-convenio-para-el-beneficio-de-ni%C3%B1ez-y-adolescencia.

108. Díaz, Juan Carlos. Insisten en prevenir la migración de los centroamericanos a EUA. La Prensa Grafica. May 5, 2017. http://www.laprensagrafica.com/2016/10/18/lanzan-campaa-para-prevenir-la-migracion-irregular.

109. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. El Salvador joins UNODC's Blue Heart campaign to end human trafficking. 2017. https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/frontpage/2017/November/el-salvador-joins-unodcs-blue-heart-campaign-to-end-human-trafficking.html?ref=fs1.

110. Catholic Relief Services. Technical Progress Report. October 2017. [Source on file].

App

Want this report plus over a thousand pages of research in the palm of your hand? Download ILAB's Sweat & Toil App Today!