Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - El Salvador

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

El Salvador

2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2015, El Salvador made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government’s National Council for Children and Adolescents (CONNA) issued a National Action Plan for 2014–2017 to implement the National Policy for the Protection of Children and Adolescents, which aims in part to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. CONNA also increased its technical assistance in developing the Departmental and Local Committees for Children’s and Adolescents’ Rights, pursuant to the Law for the Comprehensive Protection of Children and Adolescents. The Salvadoran Ministries of Labor and Public Works signed agreements with the Sugar Association of El Salvador and the Salvadoran Chamber of Construction Companies, respectively, to reduce child labor in the sugar and construction sectors. However, children in El Salvador are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in the harvesting of sugarcane and in illicit activities sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Law enforcement agencies continue to lack sufficient resources to enforce child labor laws, and no penalties for child labor violations were issued in 2015.

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Children in El Salvador are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in the harvesting of sugarcane and in illicit activities sometimes as a result of human trafficking.(1-6) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in El Salvador.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

6.5 (80,704)

Working children by sector, ages 5 to 14 (%):

 

Agriculture

50.3

Industry

12.2

Services

37.5

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

92.4

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

6.6

Primary completion rate (%):

106.8

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2013, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(7)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Encuesta de Hogares de Propósitos Múltiples (EHPM), 2013.(8)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Harvesting sugarcane† and coffee† (2, 4, 6, 9, 10)

Fishing,*† including harvesting shellfish† (2, 4, 10-12)

Industry

Manufacturing fireworks† (2-4, 6, 10, 13)

Construction,† activities unknown (2, 10, 14)

Services

Garbage scavenging† (2-4, 6, 10)

Vending on the streets† and in markets† (2-4, 6, 10, 12)

Street begging*† (10, 15)

Domestic work (2-4, 6, 10, 16)

Repairing motor vehicles*† (14, 15)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2, 5, 10, 17)

Use by gangs to perform illicit activities, including committing homicides and trafficking drugs sometimes as a result of human trafficking (3, 5, 10, 18, 19)

Forced begging and forced domestic work (2, 5, 6, 10)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a) – (c) of ILO C. 182.

In 2015, El Salvador, like Honduras and Guatemala, continued to be a principal source of the high numbers of unaccompanied children from Central America who were found migrating to the United States.(20-22) These children often lack economic and educational opportunities and are vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor, including commercial sexual exploitation and the recruitment by gangs into illicit activities, such as committing homicides and trafficking drugs.(23-25) Children often emigrate to escape violence, extortion, and forced recruitment by gangs, in addition to seeking economic opportunities and family reunification. Once en route, they become vulnerable to human trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation.(23-25)

Child labor in El Salvador is predominantly male, with boys comprising approximately three-fourths of child laborers ages 5 to 17.(26-28) However, girls comprise the majority of children engaged in domestic service in third-party homes.(2, 16) Victims of forced domestic service include migrant children from Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua.(29) The Government has reported that approximately 50 percent of sex trafficking victims in El Salvador are girls ages 13 to 18.(30) There are reports that children are recruited into gang activity or are threatened by gangs while at school, including through extortion, which may cause children to stop attending school.(18, 31-34)

The Government regularly collects statistics on children’s work through its annual Multipurpose Household Survey.(8) However, the Government does not appear to conduct research on hard-to-reach populations who are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in illicit activities. Multiple reports, including by a third-party monitoring group, indicate that the use of child labor in the sugarcane harvest has declined since 2010.(9, 35, 36)

El Salvador has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

14

Article 114 of the Labor Code; Article 38 of the Constitution; Article 59 of the Law for the Comprehensive Protection of Children and Adolescents (LEPINA) (37-39)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 105 of the Labor Code; Article 38 of the Constitution; Article 2 of Agreement 241 of 2011 (37, 38, 40)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Article 1 of Agreement 241 of 2011 (40)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 3 and 54-55 of the Special Law Against Trafficking in Persons; Article 13 of the Labor Code; Article 56 of LEPINA; Articles 4 and 9 of the Constitution (37-39, 41)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 3 and 54-55 of the Special Law Against Trafficking in Persons; Article 56 of LEPINA (39, 41)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 3 and 54-55 of the Special Law Against Trafficking in Persons; Articles 169-173 of the Penal Code; Article 55 of LEPINA (39, 41, 42)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Articles 3 and 54-55 of the Special Law Against Trafficking in Persons; Articles 214 and 345 of the Penal Code; Article 56 of LEPINA (39, 41, 42)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

Yes

18

Article 215 of the Constitution (37)

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

16

Articles 2 and 6 of the Military Service Law (43)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

18‡

Articles 5, 18, 20, and 22 of the General Education Law; Article 82 of LEPINA; Article 56 of the Constitution (37, 39, 44)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Articles 5, 18, 20 and 22 of the General Education Law; Article 82 of LEPINA; Article 56 of the Constitution (37, 39, 44)

‡ Age calculated based on available information (39, 44)

In January 2015, the Special Law Against Trafficking in Persons, which was passed by the Legislative Assembly in October 2014, went into effect. This law replaced previous legislation and increased prison sentences for convicted human traffickers from a minimum of 4 years and a maximum of 8 years to 10 and 14 years, respectively.(41, 45) When the trafficking victim is a child or adolescent, these penalties are increased to 16 to 20 years, and when the convicted trafficker is the head of a gang or organized criminal group, the penalties are increased to 20 to 25 years.(41) The law also treats forced labor and the use of children in illicit activities as trafficking in persons crimes, and expands mandated assistance to survivors of trafficking.(30, 41, 45)

Article 627 of the Labor Code specifies a default fine of no more than $60 per violation of all labor laws, including child labor laws.(38) The Government is currently reviewing national legislation to ensure that monetary penalties for all labor violations are proportionate to the nature and seriousness of the offense.(46, 47)

The Law for the Comprehensive Protection of Children and Adolescents (LEPINA) states that initial, basic, and secondary education are compulsory but does not specify ages for this schooling.(39) The General Education Law states that initial education typically begins at age 4 and comprises 3 years; basic education begins at age 7 and comprises 9 years; and secondary education comprises an additional 2 years, making education compulsory to age 18.(44)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare (MTPS)

Enforce regulations on child labor, including hazardous child labor. Inspect registered businesses for all types of labor violations, including child labor.(10, 15) Maintain a special child labor unit that trains inspectors and businesses on child labor law.(48) Refer cases of possible crimes committed against children to the Office of the Attorney General.(10)

Office of the Attorney General (AG)

Enforce criminal law related to the worst forms of child labor. Maintain the AG’s Special Unit on Trafficking in Persons and Related Crimes, made permanent by Article 11 of the Special Law Against Trafficking in Persons, that consists of  prosecutors who investigate human trafficking and related crimes.(6, 10, 41) Refer exploited children to the Salvadoran Institute for the Comprehensive Development of Children and Adolescents (ISNA) for social services and shelter.(10)

National Civilian Police (PNC)

Enforce criminal laws regarding the worst forms of child labor. Maintain the PNC’s Special Unit on Trafficking in Persons and Related Crimes, made permanent by Article 12 of the Special Law Against Trafficking in Persons, that investigates cases of commercial sexual exploitation and human trafficking, including child trafficking.(10, 15, 41) Maintain an emergency hotline that receives complaints about commercial sexual exploitation and human trafficking.(49)

Salvadoran Institute for the Comprehensive Development of Children and Adolescents (ISNA)

Receive referrals from law enforcement agencies on cases of criminal exploitation of children, including forced labor, human trafficking, and the commercial sexual exploitation of children. Provide child victims with services, including shelter; medical attention; psychological help; and legal advice.(50)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2015, labor law enforcement agencies in El Salvador took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

 Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$1,770,070 (3)

$1,862,755 (6)

Number of Labor Inspectors

114 (3)

186 (6)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (3)

Yes (3, 6)

Training for Labor Inspectors

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Yes (47)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Unknown

Yes (6)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (3)

Yes (6)

Number of Labor Inspections

36,495 (51)

27,241 (51)

Number Conducted at Worksite

36,495 (47, 51)

27,241 (47, 51)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

0 (47)

0 (47)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

20 (3)

11 (6)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

0 (3)

0 (6)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

0 (3)

0 (6)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (3)

Yes (6)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Unknown

Unknown

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (3)

Yes (3, 6)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Unknown

Unknown

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (3)

Yes (3, 6)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (10)

Yes (6)

 

In 2015, the Inspection Department of the Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare (MTPS) reported that its level of funding was insufficient to enforce labor laws.(6) During the reporting period, the MTPS employed 186 labor inspectors, which is a significant increase from the 114 inspectors employed in 2014.(3, 6) Despite this increase, the Government reported that the current number of inspectors is inadequate to inspect for labor violations nationwide.(6)

In October 2015, the MTPS, with support from the Spanish International Development Agency, created the School of Labor Inspection Trainings. The school trained MTPS officials on the prevention of risks in the workplace as well as on the detection of forced labor and trafficking in persons.(6) During the reporting period, the MTPS, in conjunction with the National Council for Children and Adolescents (CONNA), trained 2,473 public officials, including judges, police, and public defenders, on their roles in enforcing the 2014 Special Law Against Trafficking in Persons.(6)

In 2015, the MTPS conducted 27,241labor inspections; of these, 1,477 were child labor-specific inspections.(47, 51) Research did not find information on the sectors or geographical regions in which these inspections were conducted. As a result of the inspections, the MTPS found 11 children under the minimum age of 14 engaged in work without prior authorization.(6) Research did not find information on the activities in which these children were engaged. The MTPS did not report issuing any penalties or collecting any fines for these child labor violations in 2015.(6)

Reports indicate that the inspection process, which may include complaint driven and unannounced inspections, can entail multiple visits per site and that the MTPS’s process to issue penalties can sometimes take up to 6 months. The Government reports that the Labor Committee of the Legislative Assembly is drafting an updated Labor Procedures Code, which will include provisions to streamline the issuance of penalties.(47)

In El Salvador, children removed from child labor are referred to the Salvadoran Institute for the Comprehensive Development of Children and Adolescents (ISNA) for services. Research could not determine whether the MTPS referred the 11 children it found in child labor to ISNA for services. In 2015, ISNA reported assisting a total of 62 children that were engaged in child labor, including its worst forms.(6)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2015, criminal law enforcement agencies in El Salvador took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown

Yes (6)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (3)

Yes (52)

Number of Investigations

42 (30)

43 (6)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Convictions

3 (30)

19 (6)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (30)

Yes (6)

 

In 2015, the Government reported that the National Civilian Police’s (PNC) Special Unit on Trafficking in Persons and Related Crimes comprised 30 officials, including 25 investigators, and the Attorney General’s (AG) Special Unit on Trafficking in Persons and Related Crimes comprised  21 officials, including 12 prosecutors.(6) Both units are mandated by the 2014 Special Law Against Trafficking in Persons.(41)

During the reporting period, the AG provided training to all prosecutors in its Special Unit on Trafficking in Persons and Related Crimes on the 2014 Special Law Against Trafficking in Persons. The training was conducted in collaboration with the IOM.(6)

Criminal law enforcement agencies in El Salvador have reported that they lack sufficient resources to adequately investigate and prosecute crimes, including the worst forms of child labor.(3) Although the Government has funded and begun implementing the Special Law Against Trafficking in Persons, which expands and strengthens law enforcement agencies, reports indicate that increased coordination between the PNC and the AG is needed to improve the investigation and prosecution of criminal cases involving the worst forms of child labor.(47) In addition, reports indicate that coordination between criminal law enforcement agencies and social service agencies also needs improvement.(30)

In El Salvador, children removed from the worst forms of child labor are referred to ISNA for services.(6) Reports indicate that ISNA also assists children engaged in the worst forms of child labor without referrals. Of the 62 children engaged in child labor ISNA assisted, 27 were engaged in commercial sexual exploitation, 11 were engaged in illicit activities, and 10 were engaged in forced begging.(6) Research could not determine whether these cases were referred to law enforcement agencies for investigation and prosecution.

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Committee for the Eradication of Child Labor (CNETI)

Determine and implement government efforts to combat child labor, including the Roadmap to Make El Salvador a Country Free of Child Labor and its Worst Forms. Chaired by the MTPS and includes 12 government agencies, along with representatives from labor unions, business associations, and NGOs.(2, 15, 53) Use a Web-based monitoring system that allows government agencies to share and analyze information on their agencies to coordinate the implementation of the Roadmap.(54-56) In 2015, convened to draft an action plan for implementing the Roadmap to Make El Salvador a Country Free of Child Labor for the period 2016–2017.(47)

National Council Against Trafficking in Persons (CNCTP)

Coordinate government efforts to combat trafficking in persons, including by implementing the National Policy Against Trafficking in Persons.(57) Headed by the Ministry of Justice and Public Security, and composed of 11 government ministries and law enforcement agencies. Made permanent by the Special Law Against Trafficking in Persons, and administered by an Executive Secretariat and a Technical Committee.(1, 30, 41)

National Council for Children and Adolescents (CONNA)

Develop policies to protect the rights of children, including child labor policies, and implement the LEPINA and the National Policy for the Protection of Children and Adolescents (PNPNA).(39, 58, 59) Composed of Departmental and Local Committees for Children’s and Adolescents’ Rights, ISNA, the Ministry of Public Security and Justice, the AG, the Human Rights Ombudsman, and other agencies.(15) Maintain a Public Registry of civil associations that monitor and advocate for the rights of children and adolescents.(60) In 2015, issued a National Action Plan to implement the PNPNA for the period 2014–2017.(61) Also during the reporting period, continued to provide technical assistance in developing the Departmental and Local Committees for Children’s and Adolescents’ Rights, as mandated by the LEPINA. As of April 2015, Local Committees had been created in 20 municipalities to help develop local plans and policies for the defense and promotion of children’s rights.(62, 63)

Departmental and Local Committees for Children’s and Adolescents’ Rights

Implement CONNA’s policies, including the PNPNA, at the departmental and municipal levels, as well as receive complaints of child rights violations at the departmental level. Composed of local elected officials, government specialists in public health and education, and members of civil society.(39, 62-64)

 

Reports indicate that the National Council for Children and Adolescents (CONNA) lacks sufficient resources to implement all of its mandates established by the LEPINA. As a result, it cannot fully implement the interagency coordination mechanisms it has developed to combat child labor and protect children’s rights.(15, 65)

The Government of El Salvador has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

Roadmap to Make El Salvador a Country Free of Child Labor and its Worst Forms

Serves as the Government’s main policy framework to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. Aims to eliminate the worst forms of child labor by 2015, and all child labor by 2020, by reducing poverty, improving education and health, protecting children’s rights, raising awareness, and generating knowledge.(1, 66)

National Policy for the Protection of Children and Adolescents (PNPNA) (2013–2023)

Sets government policies aimed at guaranteeing children’s rights and protecting them from violence and harm, including the worst forms of child labor. Other objectives include improving health services for children, improving access to quality education, improving services for children with disabilities, and reducing poverty among children, among others.(59)

National Action Plan for the PNPNA (2014-2017)†

Sets a framework for the implementation of the PNPNA for the period 2014-2017.  By focusing on children’s and adolescents’ rights, gender equality, and social inclusion, aims to address PNPNA objectives including the prevention of violence, the promotion of access to quality education, and the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms.(61, 67)

National Policy Against Trafficking in Persons

Defines a comprehensive plan to combat human trafficking of both adults and children, including commercial sexual exploitation, labor exploitation, begging, pornography, and sex tourism. Aims to improve prevention efforts, victim assistance, prosecution, interagency coordination, training, and anti-corruption efforts.(1, 68, 69)

Inclusive Education Policy

Defines actions that the Ministry of Education (MINED) should implement to improve education for marginalized and excluded groups, including child laborers.(1, 70)

National Youth Policy (2010–2024)*

Outlines the Government’s strategy to provide integrated services to socially excluded youth. Includes the goal of providing vocational training and creating 50,000 temporary jobs for youth.(71)

Cooperative Agreement for the Elimination of Child Labor in the Sugarcane Sector†

Aims to increase cooperation between the MTPS and the Sugar Association of El Salvador in efforts to eliminate child labor in the sugarcane sector. Objectives include increasing labor inspections in the production of sugarcane and child labor awareness-raising programs, each with technical and financial support from ILO-IPEC. Signed in 2012 and renewed in June 2015. (72, 73)

Cooperative Agreement for the Elimination of Child Labor in the Construction Sector†

Aims to reduce child labor in the construction sector through the exchange of strategies for the prevention and elimination of child labor among relevant businesses, labor unions, and government agencies.(74) Participating agencies include the Ministry of Public Works, which commits to review El Salvador’s public procurement policies and legislation to ensure that companies that contract with the Government prohibit the hiring of minors. Signed by the ILO, the Government, and the Salvadoran Chamber of Construction Companies.(74)

Alliance for Prosperity in the Northern Triangle

Aims to create economic growth, increase educational and vocational training opportunities for youth, and reduce violence in Honduras, Guatemala, and El Salvador, in part to reduce the number of unaccompanied minors who leave El Salvador and other Central American countries for the United States and who are vulnerable to human trafficking. Signed by the presidents of each country in 2014.(75-77)

Declaration of the Regional Initiative: Latin America and the Caribbean Free of Child Labor (2014–2020)

Aims to increase regional cooperation on eradicating child labor by 2020 through signatories’ efforts to strengthen monitoring and coordination mechanisms, government programs, and South-South exchanges. Reaffirms commitments made in the Brasilia Declaration from the Third Global Conference on Child Labor (October 2013), and signed by El Salvador at the ILO’s 18th Regional Meeting of the Americas in Lima, Peru (October 2014).(78-80)

Memorandum of Understanding between El Salvador and Colombia on Preventing and Investigating Trafficking in Persons and Assisting Victims

Establishes joint actions between Salvadoran and Colombian government agencies to improve their coordination in preventing and investigating human trafficking cases and protecting victims. Signed in 2013.(81)

Central American Regional Coalition to Combat Human Trafficking

Aims to improve government and civil society efforts to combat human trafficking in Central America. Includes the participation of civil society organizations and the national police and public prosecutors’ offices in Central America.(82-84) Includes a Memorandum of Understanding between El Salvador and Guatemala on Protecting Trafficking Victims and the Illicit Trafficking of Migrants, which establishes actions for the Governments of Guatemala and El Salvador to improve the protection of trafficking victims and reduce the trafficking of migrants along the Guatemala-El Salvador border. Includes a focus on improving services for children.(82-84)

Partnership for Growth: Joint Country Action Plan between El Salvador and the United States (2011–2015)

Aims to promote broad-based economic growth in El Salvador, with a focus on human capital development and crime prevention, including the provision of assistance to at-risk youth.(85, 86)

XIX Inter-American Conference of Ministers of Labor†

Promotes decent work with social inclusion throughout the Americas. Held in Cancún, Mexico, participating countries adopted the Declaration of Cancún 2015 which aims in part to foster policies to eliminate labor exploitation, including child labor, and to promote education and vocational training for youth.(87, 88) Participating countries also adopted a Plan of Action that prioritizes the elimination of child labor, including through data collection, enforcement of labor laws, and the development of social protection policies for children and families.(87, 89)

Declaration of the Vice-Ministers of the XX Regional Conference on Migration†

Aims to strengthen regional cooperation in order to protect the human rights of migrants, especially youth and children, in countries of origin, transit, and destination, including by increasing opportunities for education and employment. Adopted by El Salvador at the XX Regional Conference on Migration in Mexico City (November, 2015).(90-92)

* Child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy.
† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

In 2015, the Government of El Salvador funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Project to Combat Child Labor in El Salvador

$14 million USDOL-funded, 5-year project implemented by ILO-IPEC to combat child labor, including by strengthening national and municipal government capacity to address child labor.(93, 94) As of October 2015, project has provided educational or vocational services to 13,054 children engaged in or at high risk of entering child labor, and livelihood services to 5,100 families of child laborers or children at high risk of entering child labor.(95) In 2015, project assisted MTPS in developing a new operational plan for 2015 to 2017 outlining specific steps government agencies may take to implement the Roadmap to Make El Salvador a Country Free of Child Labor and its Worst Forms. In addition, project worked with the Ministry of Finance to begin developing regulations that require the prohibition of child labor in public procurement processes.(95)

Youth Pathways Central America (2015 – 2019)

(Senderos Juveniles)*

$13 million USDOL-funded, 4-year project implemented by Catholic Relief Services to prevent at-risk youth, including returned migrant youth, in El Salvador and Honduras from engaging in hazardous work by providing them with vocational training, skills programs, employment services, and other holistic support services. Works with the Governments, private sector stakeholders, and community organizations to improve job training models for at-risk youth, increase the number of job opportunities accessible to at-risk youth, and support self-employment opportunities for youth.(96)

Child Labor Measurement and Policy Development (MAP)

USDOL-funded research project implemented by the ILO in 10 countries, including El Salvador, to increase the knowledge base around child labor by collecting new data, analyzing existing data, and building capacity to conduct research in this area.(97)

“Don’t Put Your Lives at Risk” Public Awareness Campaign (No pongas en riesgo sus vidas)†

CONNA campaign that sensitizes children and their families to the dangers of irregular and unaccompanied migration, including the risks of being trafficked and forced to engage in commercial sexual exploitation. Supported by UNICEF and IOM.(47, 98)

Public Awareness Campaigns on Child Labor†

Government public-awareness campaigns implemented by MINED, the Ministry of Health, CONNA, and others to inform children about the dangers of child labor, including manufacturing and handling fireworks.(99, 100) In 2015, MINED implemented awareness efforts in 74 school districts with high levels of child labor.(3, 47)

First I Learn (Primero Aprendo en Centroamérica)

MTPS project implemented with the Ministries of Labor from Nicaragua and Guatemala that assisted 1,000 children at risk of commercial sexual exploitation in the three countries. Provided training to businesses in the tourism sector on commercial sexual exploitation and developed a manual for workers on the prevention and eradication of child labor.(3)

Strengthening Regional and National Authorities in TIP Prevention and Victims Care Campaign

Directorate of Migration and Foreigners program implemented by Save the Children to raise public awareness of methods used by human traffickers. Focused primarily on helping women and girls detect traffickers’ schemes.(52)

Solidarity Communities Programs (Comunidades Solidarias)†

Government programs implemented in the poorest municipalities to reduce social exclusion and boost household income by increasing access to public services and building human capital. Includes Health and Education Bonus Programs that assist more than 100,000 families with cash transfers conditioned on children’s school attendance and regular health checkups.(1, 101, 102) Includes the Temporary Income Support Program (PATI) that provides financial support and vocational training to beneficiaries ages 16 and older and female heads of household who face poverty. PATI is financed with support from the World Bank.(1, 101, 102)

School Meal and School Supply Programs†

MINED programs that provide low-income children with school meals and school supplies, including uniforms, to encourage school attendance.(103-105) In 2015, continued to assist 1.4 million students with school meals.(6, 106)

Inclusive Full-Time School Program (Escuela Inclusiva de Tiempo Pleno)†

MINED program that provides extracurricular programs in schools, such as art and entrepreneurship classes, to extend the school day and prevent children from becoming involved in harmful activities. Funded by the World Bank, USAID, the Millennium Challenge Corporation, and others, with the Government providing $10.2 million.(3, 107, 108) In 2015, program operated in 1,620 schools in 100 municipalities across the country, including with technical support from World Vision.(3, 109, 110)

School Prevention and Security Plan†

Programs implemented by MINED, the Ministry of Justice and Public Security, and the PNC in schools with high levels of violence. Includes activities such as providing psychological help, skills workshops for youth, crisis intervention, and increased police patrols.(105, 111) Expanded in 2015-2016 to operate in approximately 1,000 schools.(112)

Education and Monitoring Program for the Eradication of Child Labor (2012 – 2015)

$1.3 million Government of Spain-funded, 3-year project implemented by ILO-IPEC to strengthen public policies and government capacity to combat child labor in 19 countries in the Americas, including El Salvador. A main objective of the project is to develop information systems on the worst forms of child labor.(113)

Elimination of Child Labor in Latin America (Phase 4) (2011 – 2015)

$4.5 million Government of Spain-funded, 4-year project implemented by ILO-IPEC to combat child labor in 19 countries, including El Salvador.(113)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of El Salvador.

The Government implements several programs to reduce the worst forms of child labor by assisting poor families and school children; however, research found no evidence that the Government has programs that assist child laborers who may not be living with their families or attending school, such as children engaged in domestic service. In addition, although government programs have expanded basic education coverage, gang violence, including the extortion of school children, has hindered efforts to increase school enrollment and decrease dropout rates.(34, 112, 114, 115)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in El Salvador (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that monetary penalties for child labor violations are proportionate to the nature and seriousness of the offence.

2009 – 2015

Enforcement

Provide sufficient funding and resources to the MTPS and criminal law enforcement agencies to fully enforce child labor laws.

2010 – 2015

Ensure that the number of labor inspectors is sufficient to fully enforce child labor laws.

2014 – 2015

Make publicly available information on whether unannounced or targeted inspections are conducted, including the sectors and geographical regions in which inspections are conducted, and on the activities in which children are engaged as a result of inspections.

2014 – 2015

Strengthen enforcement of child labor and other laws by streamlining the labor inspection process and the issuance of fines.

2009 – 2015

Ensure that citations are issued, penalties are imposed, and fines are collected for child labor violations.

2015

Ensure that law enforcement agencies and the ISNA refer child labor cases to one another for social services and prosecution, respectively.

2015

Publicly report on the number of criminal violations and prosecutions related to the worst forms of child labor.

2015

Improve coordination between the PNC and the AG in their investigation and prosecution of criminal cases, as well as their referral of cases to social service providers.

2014 – 2015

Coordination

Provide sufficient funding to CONNA to fully implement the LEPINA.

2012 – 2015

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the National Youth Policy for 2010–2024.

2014 – 2015

Social Programs

Conduct a study on the use of children in illicit activities.

2009 – 2015

Improve children’s access to education by ensuring that school children are safe in schools.

2011 – 2015

Implement programs to address child labor in domestic service.

2014 – 2015

1.         UCW. Entendiendo los Resultados del Trabajo Infantil y el Empleo Juvenil en El Salvador  Rome; June 2013. http://www.ucw-project.org/attachment/trabajo_infantil_empleo_juvenil_el_Salvador_201320130912_132756.pdf.

2.         Government of El Salvador. Respuesta a Cuestionario del Departamento de Trabajo de los Estados Unidos sobre Trabajo Infantil y Trabajo Forzoso. San Salvador; May 3, 2013.

3.         U.S. Embassy- San Salvador. reporting, January 8, 2015.

4.         Contrapunto. "La erradicación del trabajo infantil, una deuda pendiente." [online] April 21 2014 [cited July 20, 2015]; http://www.contrapunto.com.sv/sociedad-civil/la-erradicacion-del-trabajo-infantil-una-deuda-pendiente.

5.         U.S. Department of State. "El Salvador," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015. Washington, DC; July 27, 2015; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/243559.pdf.

6.         U.S. Embassy- San Salvador. reporting, January 20, 2016.

7.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed December 16, 2015]; http://www.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. Because the calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age), the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

8.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Encuesta de Hogares de Propósitos Múltiples (EHPM), 2013. Analysis received December 18, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

9.         UL. The Sugar Association of El Salvador Case Study; 2013. http://www.ul.com/global/documents/verificationservices/businesssegments/RS/MC202_AAES_CaseStudy_F_Web.pdf.

10.       U.S. Embassy- San Salvador. reporting, February 28, 2014.

11.       Alas, M. "La isla encantada de dolor." ContraPunto.com [online] March 14, 2011 [cited April 10, 2014]; http://www.archivocp.contrapunto.com.sv/pobreza/la-isla-encantada-de-dolor.

12.       Fuentes, L. "Niños trabajan en peores condiciones en Usulután." La Prensa Gráfica, San Salvador, March 20, 2011; El Salvador. http://www.laprensagrafica.com/el-salvador/lodeldia/179415-ninos-trabajan-en-peores-condiciones-en-usulutan.html.

13.       La Prensa Gráfica, R Flores. "Dos niños quemados tras explosión de cohetería." laprensagrafica.com [online] December 24, 2014 [cited January 5, 2015]; http://www.laprensagrafica.com/2014/12/24/dos-nios-quemados-tras-explosion-de-coheteria.

14.       Salvadoran National Institute for the Full Development of Children (ISNA). Situación del trabajo infantil en el municipio de Juayúa. San Salvador, ISNA and ILO; 2012. http://bit.ly/12LlqPk.

15.       U.S. Embassy- San Salvador. reporting, February 1, 2013.

16.       Peñate, S. "El reto de erradicar trabajo infantil: OIT." La Prensa Gráfica, June 12, 2015. http://www.laprensagrafica.com/2015/06/12/el-reto-de-erradicar-trabajo-infantil-oit.

17.       Lopez, J. "Cinco de cada 10 casos de explotación sexual son niños." El Salvador.com [online] October 28, 2011 [cited April 10, 2014]; http://www.elsalvador.com/mwedh/nota/nota_completa.asp?idCat=47654&idArt=6334056.

18.       AFP. ""Maras" salvadoreñas confirman inédita tregua y declaran escuelas como "zonas de paz"." El Mercurio, Santiago, May 3, 2012; Mundo. http://www.emol.com/noticias/internacional/2012/05/03/538611/maras-salvadorenas-confirman-inedita-tregua-y-declaran-escuelas-como-zonas-de-paz.html.

19.       El Diario de Hoy. "Maras aún reclutan a menores de edad para delinquir." elsalvador.com [online] January 21, 2013 [cited December 11, 2014]; http://www.elsalvador.com/mwedh/nota/nota_completa.asp?idCat=47859&idArt=7622016.

20.       Jerry Markon and Joshua Partlow. "Unaccompanied children surging anew across Southwest U.S. border." The Washington Post, December 16, 2015; Americas. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/federal-eye/wp/2015/12/16/unaccompanied-children-crossing-southern-border-in-greater-numbers-again-raising-fears-of-new-migrant-crisis/.

21.       U.S. Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Customs and Border Protection. "Southwest Border Unaccompanied Alien Children Statistics FY 2016." [online] [cited December 17, 2015]; http://www.cbp.gov/newsroom/stats/southwest-border-unaccompanied-children/fy-2016.

22.       U.S. Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Customs and Border Protection. "Southwest Border Unaccompanied Alien Children Statistics FY 2015." [online] [cited December 17, 2015]; http://www.cbp.gov/newsroom/stats/southwest-border-unaccompanied-children/fy-2015#.

23.       Dennis Stinchcomb and Eric Hershberg. Unaccompanied Migrant Children from Central America: Context, Causes, and Responses. Center for Latin American & Latino Studies, American University; 2014. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2524001.

24.       United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. Mission to Central America: The Flight of Unaccompanied Children to the United States; November 2013. http://www.usccb.org/about/migration-policy/upload/Mission-To-Central-America-FINAL-2.pdf.

25.       UN Human Rights Council. Written statement submitted by Human Rights Advocates Inc., a non-governmental organization in special consultative status February 19, 2015. http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G15/028/98/PDF/G1502898.pdf?OpenElement.

26.       Government of El Salvador - Dirección General de Estadística y Censos. "Encuesta de Hogares de Propósitos Múltiples 2013." digestyc.gob.sv [online] 2014 [cited December 11, 2014]; http://www.digestyc.gob.sv/index.php/temas/des/ehpm/publicaciones-ehpm.html.

27.       ILO-IPEC. Niños, Niñas y Adolescentes Migrantes Trabajadores en Zonas Fronterizas en Centroamérica y Panamá. San Jose; November 2014. http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/viewProduct.do?productId=25695.

28.       Government of El Salvador - Dirección General de Estadística y Censos. Encuesta de Hogares de Propósitos Múltiples, 2014. online; 2015. http://www.digestyc.gob.sv/index.php/novedades/avisos/555-ya-se-encuentra-disponible-la-publicacion-ehpm-2014.html.

29.       U.S. Department of State. "El Salvador," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2014. Washington, DC; June 20, 2014; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/226846.pdf.

30.       U.S. Embassy- San Salvador. reporting, February 17, 2015.

31.       El Mundo. "Simeduco denuncia acoso de pandillas y falta de presupuesto." elmundo.com [online] March 17, 2015 [cited April 21, 2015]; http://elmundo.com.sv/simeduco-denuncia-acoso-de-pandillas-y-falta-de-presupuesto/.

32.       El Mundo. "Estudiantes abandonan escuela ante supuestas amenazas." elmundo.com [online] March 18, 2015 [cited April 21, 2015]; http://elmundo.com.sv/estudiantes-abandonan-escuela-ante-supuestas-amenazas/.

33.       La Página. "Pandilleros de Apopa reclutan a niños desde cuarto grado." [online] September 30, 2013 [cited January 15, 2016]; http://www.lapagina.com.sv/nacionales/87403/2013/09/27/Pandilleros-de-Apopa-reclutan-a-ninos-desde-cuarto-grado.

34.       Moloney, A. "Schoolchildren, Teachers at Mercy of Gangs in Violent El Salvador." [online] September 17, 2015 [cited February 9, 2016]; http://www.reuters.com/article/2015/09/17/us-el-salvador-education-violence-idUSKCN0RH14M20150917.

35.       Valle, A. "Trabajo infantil en caña de azúcar disminuyó en 91.3 %." La Prensa Gráfica, June 29, 2015. http://www.laprensagrafica.com/2015/06/29/trabajo-infantil-en-caa-de-azucar-disminuyo-en-913.

36.       Inter Press Service. "Los niños trabajadores salen de los cañaverales salvadoreños." [online] March 26, 2015 [cited April 8, 2015]; http://www.ipsnoticias.net/2015/03/los-ninos-trabajadores-salen-de-los-canaverales-salvadorenos/.

37.       Government of El Salvador. Constitución de la República de El Salvador (with reforms until 2009), enacted 1983. http://bit.ly/11XqQew.

38.       Government of El Salvador. Código de Trabajo, No. 15, enacted June 23, 1972. http://www.asamblea.gob.sv/eparlamento/indice-legislativo/buscador-de-documentos-legislativos/codigo-de-trabajo.

39.       Government of El Salvador. Ley de Protección Integral de la Niñez y la Adolescencia, enacted 2009. http://www.asamblea.gob.sv/eparlamento/indice-legislativo/buscador-de-documentos-legislativos/ley-de-proteccion-integral-de-la-ninez-y-adolecencia.

40.       Government of El Salvador. Acuerdo No. 241, enacted July 8, 2011. http://www.diariooficial.gob.sv/diarios/do-2011/08-agosto/15-08-2011.pdf.

41.       Government of El Salvador. Ley Especial Contra la Trata de Personas, No. 824, enacted November 14, 2014. http://www.asamblea.gob.sv/eparlamento/indice-legislativo/buscador-de-documentos-legislativos/ley-especial-contra-la-trata-de-personas.

42.       Government of El Salvador. Código Penal (with modifications until 2010), No. 1030, enacted June 15, 1974. http://www.oas.org/dil/esp/Codigo_Penal_El_Salvador.pdf.

43.       Government of El Salvador. Ley del Servicio Militar y Reserva de la Fuerza Armada, No. 298 de 1992, enacted July 30, 1992. http://www.refworld.org/docid/4c73c69d2.html.

44.       Government of El Salvador. Ley General de Educación, No. 917, enacted 1996. http://www.asamblea.gob.sv/eparlamento/indice-legislativo/buscador-de-documentos-legislativos/ley-general-de-educacion.

45.       Government of El Salvador. "Asamblea aprueba Ley Especial contra la Trata de Personas." asamblea.gob.sv [online] October 16, 2014 [cited December 10, 2014]; http://www.asamblea.gob.sv/noticias/archivo-de-noticias/asamblea-aprueba-ley-especial-contra-la-trata-de-personas.

46.       Ministerio de Trabajo y Prevision Social. "Titulares de Trabajo presentan Anteproyecto de Ley ante Comisión de Trabajo de Asamblea." mtps.gob.sv [online ] May 1, 2014 [cited December 11, 2014]; http://www.mtps.gob.sv/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1787:titulares-de-trabajo-presentan-anteproyecto-de-ley-ante-comision-de-trabajo-de-asamblea&catid=1:noticias-ciudadano&Itemid=77.

47.       U.S. Embassy official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 26, 2016.

48.       Ministerio de Trabajo y Prevision Social. "Suscriben Convenio para Erradicar Trabajo Infantil y Fomentar el Empleo Juvenil." mtps.gob.sv [online ] March 4, 2011 [cited December 15, 2014]; http://www.mtps.gob.sv/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&catid=1:noticias-ciudadano&id=559:suscriben-convenio-para-erradicar-trabajo-infantil-y-fomentar-el-empleo-juvenil&Itemid=77.

49.       Flores, H. "Consejo Nacional contra la Trata de Personas pide a población denunciar casos." Transparencia Activa, September 5, 2014. http://www.transparenciaactiva.gob.sv/consejo-nacional-contra-la-trata-de-personas-pide-a-poblacion-denunciar-casos/.

50.       Instituto Salvadoreño para el Desarrollo Integral de la Niñez y Adolescencia (ISNA). "Áreas de Trabajo." gov.sv [online] August 9, 2011 [cited December 15, 2014]; http://www.isna.gob.sv/ISNA/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=51&Itemid=86.

51.       Secretaría del Trabajo y Previsión Social Banco de Buenas Practicas Sobre Inspección Laboral en Iberoamérica. El Salvador - Ficha de país; accessed July 14, 2016; http://bancoinspeccioniberoamerica.stps.gob.mx/Publico/PublicoFichaContacto.aspx?pais_id=1013.

52.       U.S. Embassy- San Salvador. reporting, February 4, 2016.

53.       Ministerio de Trabajo y Prevision Social. "Se reactiva Comité Nacional para la Erradicación de las Peores Formas de Trabajo Infantil." mtps.gob.sv [online] November 13, 2014 [cited December 10, 2014]; http://www.mtps.gob.sv/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2051:se-reactiva-comite-nacional-para-la-erradicacion-de-las-peores-formas-de-trabajo-infantil&catid=1:noticias-ciudadano&Itemid=77.

54.       ILO-IPEC. Eliminating Child Labour in El Salvador through Economic Empowerment and Social Inclusion. Technical Progress Report. Geneva; October, 2013.

55.       Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare. Ministro Centeno preside reunión del Comité Nacional Erradicación Trabajo Infantil. Press Release. San Salvador; May 29, 2013. http://www.mtps.gob.sv/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1518:ministro-centeno-preside-reunion-del-comite-nacional-erradicacion-trabajo-infantil&catid=1:noticias-ciudadano&Itemid=77.

56.       Ministerio de Trabajo y Prevision Social. "Lanzamiento de Sistema de Monitoreo y Evaluación del Trabajo Infantil." mtps.gob.sv [online] June 28, 2013 [cited December 10, 2014]; http://www.mtps.gob.sv/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1563:lanzamiento-de-sistema-de-monitoreo-y-evaluacion-del-trabajo-infantil&catid=1:noticias-ciudadano&Itemid=77.

57.       Government of El Salvador. Decreto No. 90, enacted August 26, 2011. http://www.diariooficial.gob.sv/diarios/do-2011/08-agosto/26-08-2011.pdf.

58.       Government of El Salvador. CONNA, Quienes Somos, [online] January 16, 2013 [cited April 10, 2014]; http://www.conna.gob.sv/index.php/institucion/marco-institucional.html.

59.       Government of El Salvador. Política Nacional de Protección Integral de la Niñez y de la Adolescencia. San Salvador, National Council for Children and Adolescents; May 16, 2013. http://centroamericajoven.org/sites/default/files/POLITICA_NIEZ_Y_ADOLESCENCIA_version_final.pdf.

60.       National Council for Children and Adolescents. Directorio de Entidades de Atención de la Niñez y de la Adolescencia, Red de Atención Compartida; October 2014 http://www.conna.gob.sv/phocadownload/directorio%20entidades%20de%20atencion%20registro%20publico%2030102014.pdf.

61.       National Council for Children and Adolescents. "CONNA presentó Plan Nacional de Acción 2014-2017, de la Política Nacional de Protección Integral de la Niñez y de la Adolescencia." [online] December 15, 2015 [cited February 8, 2016]; http://www.conna.gob.sv/index.php/component/k2/item/219-conna-present%C3%B3-plan-nacional-de-acci%C3%B3n-2014-2017-de-la-pol%C3%ADtica-nacional-de-protecci%C3%B3n-integral-de-la-ni%C3%B1ez-y-de-la-adolescencia.html.

62.       National Council for Children and Adolescents. "Avanza proceso de instalación de Comités Locales de Derechos en Municipios." conna.gob.sv [online] November 18, 2014 [cited December 10, 2014]; http://www.conna.gob.sv/index.php/novedades/noticias/item/180-avanza-proceso-de-instalaci%C3%B3n-de-comit%C3%A9s-locales-de-derechos-en-municipios.html.

63.       National Council for Children and Adolescents. "20 Municipios de El Salvador cuentan con Comités Locales de Derechos de la Niñez y de la Adolescencia." [online] September 22, 2015 [cited February 8, 2016]; http://www.conna.gob.sv/index.php/component/k2/item/199-20-municipios-de-el-salvador-cuentan-con-comit%C3%A9s-locales-de-derechos-de-la-ni%C3%B1ez-y-de-la-adolescencia.html.

64.       National Council for Children and Adolescents. "CONNA inauguró Junta de Protección de la Niñez y de la Adolescencia Dos en el departamento de San Salvador." conna.gob.sv [online] March 21, 2014 [cited December 10, 2014]; http://www.conna.gob.sv/index.php/novedades/noticias/item/135-conna-inaugur%C3%B3-junta-de-protecci%C3%B3n-de-la-ni%C3%B1ez-y-de-la-adolescencia-dos-en-el-departamento-de-san-salvador.html.

65.       ISNA. Boletín Informativo. source on file. San Salvador; July 16, 2012.

66.       ILO-IPEC. Hoja de Ruta para hacer de El Salvador un País Libre de Trabajo Infantil y sus Peores Formas. Geneva; 2009. http://white.oit.org.pe/ipec/pagina.php?pagina=337.

67.       National Council for Children and Adolescents. "Plan Nacional de Acción de la Política Nacional de Protección Integral de la Niñez y de la Adolescencia, 2014-2017." [online] December 2015 [cited February 8, 2016]; http://www.conna.gob.sv/index.php/novedades/noticias/item/220-plan-nacional-de-acci%C3%B3n-2014-2017.html?tmpl=component&print=1.

68.       Government of El Salvador. Política Nacional contra la Trata de Personas de El Salvador. San Salvador; 2012. http://bit.ly/Tw111L.

69.       U.S. Embassy- San Salvador. reporting, February 15, 2013.

70.       Government of El Salvador. Política de Educación Inclusiva: Para todas y todos. San Salvador; 2010. https://www.mined.gob.sv/jdownloads/Politicas/politica_educacion_inclusiva.pdf.

71.       Government of El Salvador. Política Nacional de Juventud 2010-2024 y Plan Acción 2010-2014. San Salvador; August 2010. http://bit.ly/AyWlEE.

72.       Ministerio de Trabajo y Previsión Social. "Renovación del convenio de cooperación para la erradicación del trabajo infantil en caña de azúcar." [online] June 29, 2015 [cited January 15, 2016]; http://www.mtps.gob.sv/noticias/renovacion-del-convenio-de-cooperacion-para-la-erradicacion-del-trabajo-infantil-en-cana-de-azucar/.

73.       La Tribuna. "Asociación azucarera y gobierno buscan erradicar trabajo infantil en El Salvador." [online] June 29, 2015 [cited January 15, 2016]; http://www.latribuna.hn/2015/06/29/asociacion-azucarera-y-gobierno-buscan-erradicar-trabajo-infantil-el-salvador/.

74.       Mariana Belloso. "Constructoras Buscan Prevenir Trabajo Infantil." La Prensa Gráfica, April 24, 2015; Economía. http://www.laprensagrafica.com/2015/04/24/constructoras-buscan-prevenir-trabajo-infantil.

75.       Inter-American Development Bank. Presidentes de El Salvador, Guatemala y Honduras presentan plan de Alianza para Prosperidad en Triángulo Norte; November 14, 2014 http://www.iadb.org/es/noticias/comunicados-de-prensa/2014-11-14/presidents-del-triangulo-norte-presentan-plan,10987.html.

76.       Governments of El Salvador Guatemala and Honduras. Plan of the Alliance for Prosperity in the Northern Triangle: A Road Map; September 2014. http://idbdocs.iadb.org/wsdocs/getdocument.aspx?docnum=39224238.

77.       The White House - Office of the Press Secretary. "Fact Sheet: Support for the Alliance for Prosperity in the Northern Triangle." whitehouse.gov [online] March 3, 2015 [cited March 24, 2015]; https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2015/03/03/fact-sheet-support-alliance-prosperity-northern-triangle.

78.       "Declaración de Constitución de la Iniciativa Regional América Latina y el Caribe Libre de Trabajo Infántil, signed at the ILO's 18th Regional Meeting of the Americas, October 14, 2014." [cited November 17, 2014]; https://iniciativaregionalcontraeltrabajoinfantil.files.wordpress.com/2014/10/declaracic3b3n-ir_espac3b1ol.pdf.

79.       ILO. "18th American Regional Meeting - Latin America and Caribbean Sign a Declaration to Free the Region from Child Labour." October 17, 2014. http://www.ilo.org/caribbean/WCMS_314428/lang--en/index.htm.

80.       UN News Centre. "At UN-backed forum, Latin American, Caribbean nations pledge robust efforts against child labour." October 15, 2014. http://www.un.org/apps/news/printnews.asp?nid=49082.

81.       Colombian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Colombia y El Salvador unen esfuerzos para prevenir y enfrentar la trata de personas, Colombian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, [online] September 27, 2013 [cited April 10, 2014]; http://www.cancilleria.gov.co/newsroom/news/colombia-y-salvador-unen-esfuerzos-prevenir-y-enfrentar-la-trata-personas

82.       UN Human Rights Council. Report of the Special Rapporteur on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography, Najat Maalla M’jid: Addendum: Mission to Guatemala. Geneva; January 21, 2013. Report No. A/HRC/22/54/Add.1. http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/HRBodies/HRCouncil/RegularSession/Session22/A-HRC-22-54-Add1_en.pdf.

83.       Government of Guatemala and Government of El Salvador. Memorandum de Entendimiento entre la República de El Salvador y la República de Guatemala para la Protección de las Víctimas de la Trata de Personas y del Tráfico Ilícito de Migrantes. San Salvador and Guatemala City; 2011. https://www.oas.org/dil/esp/Memorandum_de_Entendimiento_Guatemala_El_Salvador_Trata_de_Persona.pdf.

84.       EFE. "Instan a Centroamérica a articular medidas contra la trata de personas." abc.es [online] September 9, 2013 [cited May 21, 2015]; http://www.abc.es/agencias/noticia.asp?noticia=1492206.

85.       U.S. Department of State. Partnership for Growth: El Salvador 2011- 2015, U.S. Department of State, [online] November 3, 2011 [cited December 15, 2014]; http://www.state.gov/p/wha/rls/fs/2011/176636.htm.

86.       Governments of El Salvador and the United States. Partnership for Growth: Joint Country Action Plan 2011 - 2015. Washington, DC and San Salvador; November 2011. http://photos.state.gov/libraries/elsavador/92891/octubre2011/Joint_Country_Action_Plan.pdf.

87.       Organization of American States. Meeting of the XIX Inter-American Conference of Ministers of Labor (IACML) - List of Participants, [online] [cited December 15, 2015]; http://www.oas.org/en/sedi/dsi/labor_and_employment/pages/cpo_trab_IIPreparatoryXIX_IACML.asp.

88.       Organization of American States. Meeting of the XIX Inter-American Conference of Ministers of Labor (IACML) - Declaration of Cancún 2015: "Achieving Decent Work with Social Inclusion and Sustainable Development in the Americas", [online] [cited December 15, 2015]; https://www.oas.org/en/sedi/dsi/labor_and_employment/pages/cpo_trab_XIX_cimt.asp#DOCUMENTS1.

89.       Organization of American States. Meeting of the XIX Inter-American Conference of Ministers of Labor (IACML) - Plan of Action of Cancún: "Achieving Decent Work with Social Inclusion and Sustainable Development in the Americas", [online] [cited December 15, 2015]; https://www.oas.org/en/sedi/dsi/labor_and_employment/pages/cpo_trab_XIX_cimt.asp#DOCUMENTS1.

90.       RCM. The Regional Conference on Migration or Puebla Process, [online] [cited March 2, 2016]; http://www.rcmvs.org/Descripcion.htm.

91.       Regional Conference on Migration. Meeting of the Vice-Ministers of the XX Regional Conference on Migration - Declaration in Mexico City 2015: "Return and Social and Productive Reintegration of Migrants", [online] [cited March 2, 2016]; http://www.rcmvs.org/Eventos/CRM_GRCM/XX_RCM.docx.

92.       IOM. IOM, Partners Work with the Americas to Protect Migrant Children, [online] [cited March 2, 2016]; http://www.iom.int/news/iom-partners-work-americas-protect-migrant-children.

93.       ILO-IPEC. Eliminating Child Labour in El Salvador through Economic Empowerment and Social Inclusion. Project Document. Geneva; December 2010.

94.       ILO-IPEC. Eliminating Child Labour in El Salvador through Economic Empowerment and Social Inclusion. Project Revision No. 1. Geneva; November 30, 2011.

95.       ILO-IPEC. Eliminating Child Labour in El Salvador through Economic Empowerment and Social Inclusion. Technical Progress Report. Geneva; October, 2015.

96.       USDOL. Youth Pathways Central America, Technical Cooperation Project Summary; 2015. http://www.dol.gov/ilab/projects/summaries/RegionalElSalvadorHonduras_Youth%20Pathways.pdf.

97.       ILO-IPEC. Technical Progress Report - Global Research on Child Labor Measurement and Policy Development (MAP), October 2015. source on file.

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99.       National Council for Children and Adolescents. CONNA participa en pre lanzamiento de campaña "No existe pólvora segura". Press Release. San Salvador; October 1, 2013. http://www.conna.gob.sv/index.php/novedades/noticias/item/116-campaña.html.

100.     Ventura, AM. Lanzan campaña para sensibilizar sobre el riesgo del uso de la pólvora Radio Nacional de El Salvador; November 19, 2014. http://rnes.sv/lanzan-campana-para-sensibilizar-sobre-el-riesgo-del-uso-de-la-polvora/.

101.     Government of El Salvador. Plan Quinquenal de Desarrollo 2010-2014. San Salvador; May 2010. http://tecnica.presidencia.gob.sv/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=54&Itemid=108.

102.     Presidencia de la República. Avances en la implementación de Comunidades Solidarias, Presidencia de la Republica, [online] [cited April 10, 2014]; http://bit.ly/11gvmFa.

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105.     Ministerio de Educación. Prevención y protección escolar, Ministerio de Educación, [online] January 30, 2012 [cited December 12, 2014]; http://www.mined.gob.sv/index.php/novedades/noticias/item/5387-prevenci%C3%B3n-y-protecci%C3%B3n-escolar.html.

106.     Voces. "MINED verificó funcionamiento de programa alimentación escolar." voces.org.sv [online] March 7, 2014 [cited December 12, 2014]; http://voces.org.sv/2014/03/07/mined-verifico-funcionamiento-de-programa-alimentacion-escolar/.

107.     Segura, B. "MINED expandirá el Sistema Integrado de Escuela Inclusiva de Tiempo Pleno a 900 escuelas en 2013." Diario Co Latino, San Salvador, November 3, 2012. http://bit.ly/Vwgvoj.

108.     Alvarado, T. "Escuelas a Tiempo Pleno un modelo transformador de la educación." Transparencia Activa, January 23 2013. http://www.transparenciaactiva.gob.sv/escuelas-a-tiempo-pleno-un-modelo-transformador-de-la-educacion/.

109.     Alvarado, T. "Programa de Escuelas a Tiempo Pleno se extiende a 2,285 centros educativos." Transparencia Activa, July 25, 2014. http://www.transparenciaactiva.gob.sv/programa-de-escuelas-a-tiempo-pleno-se-extiende-a-2285-centros-educativos/.

110.     Ministerio de Educación. "Convenio para el benefcio de niñez y adolescencia." [online] June 3, 2015 [cited February 8, 2016]; http://www.mined.gob.sv/index.php/noticias/item/7560-convenio-para-el-beneficio-de-ni%C3%B1ez-y-adolescencia.

111.     Ministerio de Educación. "Plan de Prevención y Seguridad Escolar en Chalatenango." mined.gob.sv [online] March 4, 2014 [cited December 12, 2014]; http://www.mined.gob.sv/index.php/ints/item/6824-plan-de-prevenci%C3%B3n-y-seguridad-escolar-en-chalatenango.html.

112.     Peñate, S. "Clases inician junto a plan de prevención escolar." La Prensa Gráfica, January 19, 2016. http://www.laprensagrafica.com/2016/01/19/clases-inician-junto-a-plan-de-prevencion-y-seguridad-escolar.

113.     ILO-IPEC Geneva official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 22, 2016.

114.     Hernández, C. "Reconocen que la violencia influye en baja de escolares." El Mundo, San Salvador, May 30, 2012. http://elmundo.com.sv/reconocen-que-la-violencia-influye-en-baja-de-escolares.

115.     Morán, O. "Inseguridad, principal causa de deserción escolar en el país según Educación." Diario La Página, San Salvador, May 30, 2012. http://www.lapagina.com.sv/ampliar.php?id=67087.