Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Panama

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Panama

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Significant Advancement

In 2016, Panama made a significant advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government ratified the ILO Protocol to the Forced Labor Convention, updated the list of hazardous occupations for children, and signed an agreement with the Governments of Guatemala and the Dominican Republic to advance the elimination of child labor through research and the exchange of information. In addition, a regional committee to coordinate on child labor issues was created in Veraguas, the National Institute of Statistics conducted a national child labor survey, and the Directorate Against Child Labor and for the Protection of Adolescent Workers institutionalized a national training agenda for child labor inspectors. However, children in Panama perform dangerous tasks in agriculture. Children also engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Panamanian law does not adequately define light work and allows minors under age 16 to engage in hazardous work within training establishments. Moreover, inadequate resources, including an insufficient number of inspectors, hamper the labor inspectorate's capacity to enforce laws on the worst forms of child labor.

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Children in Panama perform dangerous tasks in agriculture. Children also engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking.(1-10) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Panama.

Table 1. Statistics on Children's Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

4.7 (32,858)

Working children by sector

 

 

Agriculture

 

68.6

Industry

 

5.4

Services

 

26.0

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

94.9

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

4.9

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

102.0

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2013, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(11)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Encuesta de Trabajo Infantil (ETI), 2014.(12)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children's Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of beans, cereal grains, coffee, corn, melons, oilseeds, onions, pineapple, rice, sugarcane, and tomatoes (5-7, 13-24)

Raising livestock, including cattle (1-3, 5, 6, 19)

Fishing,† including harvesting shellfish (1-4, 6, 19, 25, 26)

Industry

Construction,† activities unknown (1, 3, 4, 27, 28)

Services

Scavenging the ocean for metal and other items (5, 6)

Domestic work† (1, 3, 4, 6, 13, 15, 19, 25, 27-30)

Assisting bus drivers by collecting fares† (31, 32)

Bagging in supermarkets (5, 32-34)

Street work, including selling goods on the street, washing cars, shoe shining, and collecting recyclables (3-7, 19, 24, 25, 27, 29, 32-43)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Forced domestic work (44)

Use in the production of pornography (4, 6)

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (4, 8-10)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Some children in Panama are subjected to commercial sexual exploitation, mainly in tourist areas in Panama City and in beach communities.(5, 7, 10) According to the results of Panama’s 2016 biennial Survey on Child Labor, the highest prevalence of child labor is in rural areas and autonomous indigenous areas. Comarca Ngäbe Buglé and the provinces of Panama and Bocas del Toro had the highest number of children engaged in child labor.(1) Panamanian children from rural areas and children from indigenous and Afro-Panamanian communities are particularly vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor. These children face barriers to accessing education, including long distances to schools and insufficient roads and transportation, particularly in the indigenous comarcas.(4, 10, 44-47) Children of indigenous descent often travel significant distances to reach school and experience frequent interruptions of their education due to family migration to work in agriculture.(5, 6, 46, 47)

Panama has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

In 2016, Panama ratified the ILO Protocol to the Forced Labor Convention.(48, 49)

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Panama's legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

14

Article 70 of the Constitution; Articles 508–509 and 716 of the Family Code; Articles 117, 119, and 123 of the Labor Code (50-52)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

No

18

Article 510 of the Family Code; Article 203 of the Penal Code; Article 4 of Executive Decree No. 19 of 2006; Article 118 of the Labor Code (51-55)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Articles 2 and 3 of Executive Decree No. 19 of 2006; Article 118 of the Labor Code; Article 510 of the Family Code (51, 52, 54)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 157–158, 205–208, and 456 of the Penal Code; Article 489 of the Family Code; Article 21 of the Constitution (50, 51, 53, 56)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 205–208 and 456 of the Penal Code; Article 489.17 of the Family Code (51, 53, 56)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 179–187, 189–191, 202–203, 207, and 456 of the Penal Code (53, 56)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Articles 318, 333, and 336 of the Penal Code; Article 489.16 of the Family Code; Article 2.16 of Executive Decree No. 19 of 2006 (51, 53, 54)

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

N/A†

 

 

State Voluntary

N/A†

 

 

Non-state Compulsory

Yes

18

Article 448 of the Penal Code (53)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

15

Articles 34 and 45 of the Law on Education; Article 489 of the Family Code; Article 95 of the Constitution (50, 51, 57, 58)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Articles 34 and 41 of the Law on Education; Article 95 of the Constitution (50, 57, 58)

† No standing military (50, 59)

Although the Constitution, Family Code, and Labor Code set the minimum age for employment at age 14, the Family Code and Labor Code specify exceptions for domestic and agricultural work.(50-52) Article 716 of the Family Code permits children ages 12 to 14 to perform domestic and agricultural work as regulated by the Labor Code.(51) Article 119 of the Labor Code allows children ages 12 to 15 to perform light work in agriculture if the work is outside regular school hours, and Article 123 allows children over the age of 12 to perform light domestic work. The Labor Code, however, does not define the kinds of tasks children may perform as light work or the total number of hours they may work.(52)

Article 118 of the Labor Code and Article 510 of the Family Code allow minors to perform hazardous work in training establishments, when the work is approved by the competent government authority and carried out under its supervision, but neither law establishes a minimum age for this work.(51, 52) In 2016, the Government updated the list of hazardous occupations for children, including by adding Article 2-A establishing age 14 as the minimum age for hazardous work within training establishments.(55)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor law and criminal law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor (MITRADEL)

Enforce child labor laws through two directorates with direct authority over child labor matters: the Directorate Against Child Labor and for the Protection of Adolescent Workers (DIRETIPPAT) and the Labor Inspection Directorate.(40) The Labor Inspection Directorate enforces the Labor Code in areas where children may be working, particularly in the formal sector. DIRETIPPAT is responsible for overseeing the enforcement of laws related to working children in the formal and informal sectors; plans and executes public policies; and carries out education programs on child labor for employers, parents, and children.(40, 60-62) Refer cases of children found in exploitative work to the Child and Adolescent Courts or to the National Secretariat for Childhood, Adolescence, and Family (SENNIAF).(40)

Attorney General's Office

Investigate and prosecute crimes of sexual exploitation. Investigations initiated by the Judicial Investigative Directorate; cases passed to the prosecutors.(63)

SENNIAF

Conduct inspections to identify children and adolescents engaged in child labor, particularly in the informal sector.(3) Monitor and coordinate a network of government services to address needs of vulnerable populations.(34, 40) Run shelters for victims of human trafficking, including minors.(64)

Childhood and Adolescence Police

Conduct inspections to identify children and adolescents engaged in child labor, particularly in the informal sector.(3) Support SENNIAF inspections in areas with high rates of child labor.(34)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, labor law enforcement agencies in Panama took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$1,747,599 (5)

$1,743,733 (4)

Number of Labor Inspectors

85 (5)

85 (4)

Number of Child Labor Dedicated Inspectors

4 (5)

4 (4)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (5)

Yes (4)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (5)

Yes (4)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Yes (5)

Yes (4)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (5)

Yes (4)

Number of Labor Inspections

17,935 (4)

15,331 (4)

Number Conducted at Worksite

17,935 (4)

15,331 (4)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

0 (4)

0 (4)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

78 (65)

88 (4)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

29 (65)

37 (4)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

1 (65)

37 (4)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (5)

Yes (4)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (5)

Yes (4)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (5)

Yes (4)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (5)

Yes (4)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (5)

Yes (4)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (5)

Yes (4)

 

In 2016, the Ministry of Labor (MITRADEL) conducted 1,404 child labor inspections, an increase from the 1,337 child labor inspections MITRADEL conducted in 2015.(4, 5) Also during the reporting period, the Directorate Against Child Labor and for the Protection of Adolescent Workers (DIRETIPPAT) institutionalized a national training agenda for child labor inspectors and removed 1,280 children from situations of hazardous child labor, incorporating these children into the Direct Government Action Program for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor.(4) MITRADEL reported that the budget for DIRETIPPAT was insufficient to meet its commitments for coordination, implementation, and monitoring related to child labor.(46)

The number of labor inspectors is insufficient for the size of Panama’s workforce, which includes more than 1 million workers. According to the ILO's recommendation of 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in developing economies, Panama should employ roughly 107 labor inspectors.(66-68) Enforcement of child labor laws remains challenging due to the lack of resources for inspections, and MITRADEL noted that the number of labor inspectors employed and labor inspections conducted were insufficient.(46) Civil society groups have stated that labor inspections in Panama focus primarily on the formal sector, leaving children in the informal sector vulnerable.(7, 10) Moreover, unannounced labor inspections are not conducted in agricultural areas outside of Panama City.(5) MITRADEL has also indicated that Article 125 of the Labor Code sanctions fines ranging from $50 to $700 for child labor violations but does not specify whether the employer can be charged this amount per each affected worker.(3, 5, 7)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in Panama took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (5)

Yes (4)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Yes (5)

Yes (4)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (5)

Yes (4)

Number of Investigations

16 (64)

Unknown

Number of Violations Found

5 (64)

Unknown

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

2 (64)

Unknown

Number of Convictions

1 (64)

Unknown

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (5)

Yes (4)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

Committee for the Eradication of Child Labor and the Protection of Adolescent Workers

Coordinate various efforts to combat child labor. Led by the First Lady of Panama and includes MITRADEL; the ministries of Education, Health, and Agriculture; and representatives from civil society and organizations of workers and employers.(69) Conduct a National Child Labor Survey every 2 years.(5) In 2016, opened a regional committee in Veraguas.(70)

Subcommittee to Combat Child Labor

Incorporate Panamanian Institute for Sports and the Ministry of Education in efforts to address child labor and its causes. Subcommittee of the Committee for the Eradication of Child Labor and the Protection of Adolescent Workers. (7, 46, 62, 71)

National Commission for the Prevention of Crimes of Sexual Exploitation (CONAPREDES)

Coordinate, advise, and implement public policies for the prevention and eradication of sexual exploitation through specific actions, projects, and programs; study related trends and prevalence.(69) Members include the Attorney General as well as the Ministries of Labor, Education, Social Development, and Health. Refer cases of sexual exploitation to the Attorney General's Office.(39, 69)

 

MITRADEL has noted the need for increased coordination on efforts to address child labor, including within MITRADEL and with social service agencies and referral mechanisms.(46)

The Government has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

Roadmap Towards the Elimination of Child Labor (2016–2019)

Aims to eliminate all forms of child labor in Panama by 2020 by strengthening anti-poverty, health, and educational programs and policies.(72-74)

National Action Plan for the Prevention and Elimination of Sexual Commercial Exploitation of Children and Adolescents

Aims to prevent and eliminate the sexual commercial exploitation of children and adolescents, including by providing services to victims, strengthening CONAPREDES, and raising awareness. Implemented by CONAPREDES, with support from the Public Ministry.(39, 40, 69, 75)

National Plan Against Trafficking in Persons (2012–2017)

Aims to combat human trafficking through prevention, victim assistance, and international cooperation. Includes provisions to protect child victims of human trafficking.(76)

 

In June 2016, the Governments of Panama, Guatemala, and the Dominican Republic signed an agreement to conduct research and exchange information to advance the elimination of child labor.(77) The Coordination Agreement on Labor Migration between the Ministries of Labor of Costa Rica and Panama aims to strengthen dialogue on labor migration between the two countries, with an emphasis on indigenous Panamanian migrant workers, to ensure social protection of migrant workers and their families, and includes a bilateral technical committee to promote joint action to combat human trafficking, exchange information, and develop cooperative strategies and projects.(78) Although potentially a useful policy tool to combat child labor, child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy.

In 2016, the Government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Direct Government Action Program for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor†

MITRADEL program implemented through the Institute for Training and Utilization of Human Resources that provides a network of social and economic services to child workers and children at risk of child labor. Services include provision of food and scholarships, support for sports activities, and social monitoring.(7, 79) Scholarships for schooling have been provided to approximately 5,500 children. In 2016, 1,289 children were incorporated into the program after being removed from hazardous work.(4, 80)

Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor†

SENNIAF program that identifies children engaged in the worst forms of child labor, removes them from exploitative situations, and connects them to a network of social and economic services offered by the Government.(34, 39)

National Child Labor Survey†

Committee for the Eradication of Child Labor and the Protection of Adolescent Workers survey conducted every two years by the National Institute of Statistics and Census with funding from SENNIAF and MITRADEL.(5) Most recently conducted in 2016.(4)

National Council of Private Businesses (CoNEP) Corporate Social Responsibility Program

Joint effort created by MITRADEL and the National Council of Private Businesses that involves a partnership with businesses across Panama to sign the Voluntary Agreement of Corporate Social Responsibility to prevent and eradicate child labor.(81, 82) In 2016, CoNEP and MITRADEL recognized nine companies for their efforts to prevent child labor in their supply chains.(83)

MITRADEL and Fundación Telefónica Cooperative Agreement (2014–2016)

MITRADEL public-private partnership with Telefónica Móviles Panamá S.A. to prevent and eliminate child labor by improving access to education and providing trainings to teachers and private employers.(7, 84)

USDOL-Funded Projects

USDOL projects that aim to eliminate child labor, including its worst forms, through research, improved monitoring and enforcement, policy development, and awareness-raising. These projects include Educafuturo: Combating Child Labor, a $6.5 million, 4-year project implemented in Ecuador and Panama by Partners of the Americas; Building Effective Policies Against Child Labor, a $3.5 million, 4-year project implemented in Ecuador and Panama by the ILO; and Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues, implemented in approximately 40 countries by the ILO. For additional information about UDSOL’s work, please visit our Web site.(85-88)

Prevention and Care for Child and Adolescent Victims of Sexual Violence†

SENNIAF program that identifies children engaged in commercial sexual exploitation, removes them from exploitative situations, and provides them with social services. Conducts training workshops nationwide for professionals providing direct care to child and adolescent victims of sexual violence.(89)

Network of Opportunities†

Ministry of Social Development program that provides conditional cash transfers to families in extreme poverty, conditioned on their children's participation in health and education services and the acquisition of a birth certificate. Offers training to project participants to improve income-generating opportunities.(39, 90)

† Program is funded by the Government of Panama.

Although Panama has programs that reach children in rural areas and from indigenous and Afro-Panamanian communities, the scope of these programs is insufficient, and these children remain vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor.(44, 45)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Panama (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Establish regulations that define the number of hours and types of activities that children between the ages of 12 and 14 can undertake as light work to ensure that they are not exposed to hazardous labor.

2009 – 2016

Ensure that only minors age 16 and older who have received adequate, specific instruction or vocational training are permitted to perform hazardous work, and that their health, safety, and morals are fully protected.

2013 – 2016

Enforcement

Allocate sufficient funding for DIRETIPPAT to meet its commitments for coordination, implementation, and monitoring related to child labor.

2014 – 2016

Increase the number of labor inspectors trained and responsible for providing enforcement of child labor laws to meet international standards and to address child labor in the informal sector and agricultural areas outside of Panama City.

2014 – 2016

Strengthen the inspection system by conducting unannounced inspections in agricultural areas outside of Panama City.

2015 – 2016

Clarify whether fines for child labor violations, as sanctioned in Article 125 of the Labor Code, may be applied for each affected worker.

2014 – 2016

Publish information on the number of investigations, violations, prosecutions, and convictions related to the worst forms of child labor.

2016

Coordination

Increase coordination on efforts to address child labor, including within MITRADEL, and with social service agencies and referral mechanisms.

2016

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the Coordination Agreement on Labor Migration between the Ministries of Labor of Costa Rica and Panama.

2015 – 2016

Social Programs

Enhance efforts to eliminate barriers and make education accessible for all children, including children from rural areas and indigenous and Afro-Panamanian communities, by expanding existing programs, including for school transportation.

2014 – 2016

1.         República de Panamá-Contraloría General de la República- Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas y Censo. Comentarios de la Encuesta de Trabajo Infantil (ETI) 2016

online. Panama; 2017. https://www.contraloria.gob.pa/INEC/archivos/P8031Comentarios.pdf.

2.         República de Panamá-Contraloría General de la República- Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas y Censo. Comentarios de la Encuesta de Trabajo Infantil (ETI) 2014

online. Panama; 2015. https://www.contraloria.gob.pa/inec/archivos/P6621comentarios%20ETI%202014.pdf.

3.         Ministerio de Trabajo y Desarollo Laboral. Respuesta a cuestionario sobre erradicacion del trabajo infantil. Submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor Federal Register Notice (November 13, 2014) "Request for Information on Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor". Panama City; January 29, 2015.

4.         U.S. Embassy- Panama City. reporting, January 23, 2017.

5.         U.S. Embassy- Panama City. reporting, January 26, 2016.

6.         U.S. Department of State. "Panama," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2015. Washington, DC; April 13, 2016; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/253243.pdf.

7.         U.S. Embassy- Panama City. reporting, January 15, 2015.

8.         UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Periodic Reports of States Parties due in 2016: Panama. Prepared by Government of Panama - Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, Article 44 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child. 2016. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fPAN%2f5-6&Lang=en.

9.         U.S. Department of State. "Panama," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016. Washington, DC; June 30, 2016; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2016/258839.htm.

10.       U.S. Department of State. "Panama," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2016. Washington, DC; March 3, 2017; https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265816.pdf.

11.       UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). [accessed December 15, 2016]; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary education. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. The calculation includes all new entrants to the last grade (regardless of age). Therefore, the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.

12.       UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Encuesta de Trabajo Infantil (ETI), 2014. Analysis received December 15, 2016. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children's work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

13.       Lopez Guía, Á. "Mil niños heridos al trabajar no recibieron atención médica." La Prensa, Panama City, April 15, 2013. http://www.prensa.com/impreso/panorama/mil-ninos-heridos-al-trabajar-no-recibieron-ate [source on file].

14.       Goverment of Panama. Primera Dama y caficultores abordan tema del trabajo infantil en Chiriquí, Government of Panama, [previously online] February 2, 2012 [cited February 1, 2013]; http://www.presidencia.gob.pa/ver_nodo.php?cod=3264 [source on file].

15.       MITRADEL. Detecta niños en actividades prohibidas por leyes laborales, Government of Panama, [previously online] March 12, 2013 [cited March 20, 2013]; http://www.mitradel.gob.pa/portal/page/portal/PG_Relaciones_Publicas/En%20%20Herrera [source on file].

16.       MITRADEL. Jóvenes se suman a lucha contra el trabajo infantil liderada por el MITRADEL, Government of Panama, [previously online] January 25, 2013 [cited March 20, 2013]; http://www.mitradel.gob.pa/portal/page/portal/PG_Relaciones_Publicas/EN%20VERAGUAS [source on file].

17.       UCW. Entendiendo el trabajo infantil y el empleo juvenil en Panamá. UCW Country Studies. Rome; 2014. http://www.ucw-project.org/attachment/informe_trabajo_infantil_empleo_juvenil20141016_165422.pdf.

18.       Lorenzo, O. "Trabajadores recolectores de café están en huelga." La Estrella, January 22, 2016. http://laestrella.com.pa/panama/nacional/trabajadores%ADrecolectores%ADcafe%ADestan%ADhuelga/23917520.

19.       EducaFuturo. EducaFuturo Baseline Survey Report. Project DocumentPartners of the Americas; August, 2014. [source on file].

20.       UN Food and Agriculture Organization. Romper el ciclo de la pobreza para alcanzar el desarrollo sostenible. Press Release. Panama City; March 3, 2016. http://www.fao.org/panama/noticias/detail-events/en/c/387485/.

21.       Nunez, O. "Realizan captaciones en fincas cafetaleras de Boquete para erradicar el trabajo." telemetro.com [online] January 21, 2016 [cited April 7, 2014]; http://www.telemetro.com/nacionales/Realizan-captaciones-cafetaleras-erradicar-infantil_0_882512221.html.

22.       MITRADEL. Mitradel Detecta 5 Menores Trabajando en Cultivo de Sandía en Veraguas, MITRADEL, [online] [cited April 19, 2016]; http://www.mitradel.gob.pa/.

23.       MITRADEL. En la Provincia de Cocle MITRADEL Realiza Operativos de Trabajo Infantil, MITRADEL, [online] [cited April 19, 2016]; http://www.mitradel.gob.pa/.

24.       El Siglo. Trabajo infantil a galope, [online] June 14, 2016 [cited June 17, 2016]; http://elsiglo.com/panama/trabajo-infantil-galope/23945570.

25.       MITRADEL. 97 menores retirados de las faenas laborales en la provincia de Darién, Government of Panama, [previously online] March 5, 2013 [cited March 20, 2013]; http://www.mitradel.gob.pa/portal/page/portal/PG_Relaciones_Publicas/Contin%C3%BAa [source on file].

26.       MITRADEL. Captó 165 niños y niñas en la comarca Guna Yala, Government of Panama, [previously online] February 18, 2013 [cited March 20, 2013]; http://www.mitradel.gob.pa/portal/page/portal/PG_Relaciones_Publicas/Personal%20t%C3%A9cnico%20del%20MITRADEL [source on file].

27.       MITRADEL. Retiró MITRADEL del trabajo infantil en Colón, Government of Panama, [previoulsy online] February 26, 2013 [cited March 2, 2013]; http://www.mitradel.gob.pa/portal/page/portal/PG_Relaciones_Publicas/88%20ni%C3%25B [source on file].

28.       República de Panamá-Contraloría General de la República- Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas y Censo. Comentarios de la Encuesta de Trabajo Infantil (ETI) 2012

previously online. Panama; 2012. [source on file].

29.       Dia a Dia. Autoridades: 'para 2020 no habrá trabajo infantil', [Online] September 6, 2016 [cited November 2, 2016]; http://www.diaadia.com.pa/primer-plano/el-reto-de-una-infancia-feliz-en-dari%C3%A9n-301527.

30.       El Siglo. 1,976 menores hacen trabajo infantil doméstico en casas ajenas, [online] June 15, 2016 [cited November 2, 2016]; http://elsiglo.com/panama/1976-menores-hacen-trabajo-infantil-domestico-casas-ajenas/23945793.

31.       U.S. Department of State. "Panama," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2013. Washington, DC; February 27, 2014; https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/220672.pdf.

32.       MITRADEL. MITRADEL detecta 37 menores trabajando en Chiriquí, MITRADEL, [previously online] July 11, 2014 [cited December 10, 2014]; http://www.mitradel.gob.pa/portal/page/portal/PG_Relaciones_Publicas/Operativo%20contra%20trabajo%20infantil [source on file].

33.       Quiñones, E. Incremento de casos de niños trabajando en la calle alerta a autoridades, Panama America, [previously online] [cited December 3, 2014]; http://backend.panamaamerica.com.pa/notas/1622856-incremento-de-casos-de-ninos-trabajando-en-la-calle-alerta-a-autoridades [source on file].

34.       La Secretaria Nacional de Ninez Adolescencia y Familia. Respuesta a cuestionario sobre erradicacion del trabajo infantil. Submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor Federal Register Notice (November 13, 2014) "Request for Information on Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor". Panama City; January 29, 2015.

35.       Guevara, V. "En Panamá hay unos 50 mil niños en las calles trabajando." telemetro.com [online] June 16, 2013 [cited April 7, 2014]; http://www.telemetro.com/nacionales/Panama-mil-ninos-calles-trabajando_0_597840251.html.

36.       Panama America. "En el 2015 Panamá erradicará el trabajo infantil." panamaamerica.com.pa [previously online] June 12, 2012 [cited December 6, 2013]; http://www.panamaamerica.com.pa/notas/1190420-en-el-2015-panama-tiene-el-compromiso-estado-erradicar-el-trabajo-infantil [source on file].

37.       Panama America. "Del mes pasado a la fecha 75 niños han sido recogidos de las calles." panamaamerica.com.pa [previously online] December 17, 2012 [cited March 22, 2013]; http://www.panamaamerica.com.pa/notas/1407450-75-ninos-noviembre-la-fecha-han-sido-recogidos-trabajar-las-calles [source on file].

38.       U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Response to request for information for TDA 2013. Panama City, Homeland Security Investigations (HSI)- Panama; 2014.

39.       U.S. Embassy- Panama City. reporting, February 14, 2013.

40.       U.S. Embassy- Panama City. reporting, January 23, 2014.

41.       Panama America. Coordinan operativos para disminuir el trabajo infantil en Colón, [online] February 24, 2016 [cited November 2, 2016]; http://www.panamaamerica.com.pa/provincias/coordinan-operativos-para-disminuir-el-trabajo-infantil-en-colon-1015095.

42.       MITRADEL. En el Distrito de Changuinola Funcionarios del MITRADEL Realizan Operativo de Captación de Menores, MITRADEL, [online] [cited April 19, 2016]; http://www.mitradel.gob.pa/.

43.       La Opinion. Atienden denuncia ciudadana sobre trabajo infantil, [Online] August 17, 2016 [cited November 14, 2016]; http://laopinionpanama.com/nacional/atienden-denuncia-ciudadana-trabajo-infantil/.

44.       U.S. Department of State. "Panama," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2014. Washington, DC; June 20, 2014; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2014/index.htm.

45.       ILO Committee of Experts. Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Panama (Ratification: 2000) Published: 2014; accessed October 30, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:13100:0::NO::P13100_COMMENT_ID:3112823.

46.       U.S. Embassy- Panama City. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 25, 2017.

47.       Telemetro. Educación en las comarcas [Video]. Panama; September 28, 2016, 7 min, 43 sec, May 4, 2017; http://www.telemetro.com/nacionales/reportajes/Educacion-comarcas_3_957834273.html.

48.       ILO NORMLEX Information System on International Labor Standards. Ratifications for Panama; accessed November 2, 2016; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:11200:0::NO:11200:P11200_COUNTRY_ID:102792.

49.       Government of Panama. Ley núm. 22, por la cual se aprueba el Protocolo de 2014 relativo al Convenio sobre el Trabajo Forzoso 1930 (NÚM. 29), adoptado por la Conferencia General de la Organización Internacional del Trabajo, en Ginebra, Suiza, el 11 de junio de 2014, enacted July 01, 2016. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/102580/124109/F1978813056/LEY%2022%202016%20PANAMA.pdf.

50.       Government of Panama. Constitución Política de la República de Panamá con reformas hasta 2004, enacted 1972. http://pdba.georgetown.edu/Constitutions/Panama/constitucion2004.pdf.

51.       Government of Panama. Código de la Familia, Ley No. 3, enacted 1994. http://www.legalinfo-panama.com/legislacion/familia/codfam_index.htm.

52.       Government of Panama. Código de Trabajo, No. 44, enacted August 12, 1995. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/WEBTEXT/42679/67564/S95PAN01.htm.

53.       Government of Panama. Código Penal de la República de Panamá Adoptado por la Ley 14 de 2007, con las modificaciones y adiciones introducidas por la Ley 26 de 2008, la Ley S de 2009, la Ley 68 de 2009 y la Ley 14 de 2010, enacted April 26, 2010. http://www.oas.org/juridico/mla/sp/pan/sp_pan-int-text-cp.pdf.

54.       Government of Panama. Decreto Ejecutivo Número 19 Que aprueba la lista del trabajo infantil peligroso, en el marco de las peores formas del trabajo infantil, No. 25569, enacted June 12, 2006. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/73943/75839/F1949153997/PAN73943.pdf.

55.       Government of Panama. Decreto Ejecutivo No. 1, amending Decreto Ejecutivo Número 19 of 2006, No. 27944-C, enacted January 5, 2016. http://ministeriopublico.gob.pa/wp-content/multimedia/2017/01/Decreto-Ejecutivo-No.-1-de-5-de-enero-de-2016.pdf.

56.       Government of Panama. Ley Número 79 Sobre Trata de Personas y Actividades Conexas, No. 79, enacted November 9, 2011. [source on file].

57.       Government of Panama. Ley Orgánica de Educación, enacted September 24, 1946. http://www.oei.es/quipu/panama/Ley_Org_Educ.pdf.

58.       Government of Panama. Ley 34 por la cual se deroga, modifican, adicionan y subrogan artículos de la ley 47 de 1946, enacted July 6, 1995. http://docs.panama.justia.com/federales/leyes/34-de-1995-jul-11-1995.pdf.

59.       Child Soldiers International. "Appendix II: Data Summary on Recruitment Ages of National Armies," in Louder than Words: An Agenda for Action to end State Use of Soldiers. London; 2012; https://www.child-soldiers.org/shop/louder-than-words-1.

60.       Government of Panama. Decreto DM57-2010- POR LA CUAL SE CREA DENTRO DE LA ESTRUCTURA ORGÁNICA DEL MINISTERIO DE TRABAJO Y DESARROLLO LABORAL LA DIRECCIÓN NACIONAL CONTRA EL TRABAJO INFANTIL Y PROTECCIÓN DE LA PERSONA ADOLESCENTE TRABAJADORA, No. DM57-2010, enacted February 23, 2010. https://www.gacetaoficial.gob.pa/pdfTemp/26481_C/GacetaNo_26481c_20100303.pdf.

61.       Ministerio de Trabajo y Desarrollo Laboral. Dirección nacional contra el trabajo infantil y protección de la persona adolescente trabajadora, Ministerio de Trabajo y Desarrollo Laboral, [online] [cited February 9, 2016]; http://www.mitradel.gob.pa/.

62.       U.S. Embassy- Panama City. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 6, 2015.

63.       U.S. Embassy- Panama City. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 10, 2014.

64.       U.S. Embassy- Panama City. reporting, January 27, 2016.

65.       U.S. Embassy- Panama City. E-mail communication to USDOL official. July 8, 2016.

66.       CIA. The World Factbook, [online] [cited May 17, 2017]; https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors based on the country’s level of development as determined by the UN.

67.       ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a “sufficient number” of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a “sufficient” number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

68.       UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex. New York; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies; “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies, and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

69.       Government of Panama. Plan Nacional De Erradicación Del Trabajo Infantil Y Protección De Las Personas Adolescentes Trabajadoras 2007 – 2011. Panama City, Comité para la Erradicación de trabajo Infantil y la Protección del Trabajador Adolescente (CETIPPAT); June 2006. http://www.contraloria.gob.pa/inec/aplicaciones/Cetippat/informes/planNal_2007-2011.pdf.

70.       Panama On. "Conforman comité provincial de CETIPPAT en Veraguas " [online] April 29, 2016 [cited April 7, 2017]; http://www.panamaon.com/noticias/interior/6748-conforman-comite-provincial-de-cetippat-en-veraguas.html

71.       MITRADEL. Mitradel crea sub comisión contra el trabajo infantil en Bocas del Toro, MITRADEL, [previously online] [cited December 5, 2014]; http://www.mitradel.gob.pa/portal/page/portal/PG_Relaciones_Publicas/Mitradel%20crea%20Sub%20comisi%C3%B3n%20Contra [source on file].

72.       MITRADEL. Presentan hoja de ruta para erradicar el trabajo infantil en Panamá, MITRADEL, [online] [cited November 17, 2015]; http://www.mitradel.gob.pa/.

73.       CETIPPAT. Hoja de ruta para hacer de Panamá un país libre de trabajo infantil y sus peores formas: Programación 2015; 2015. [source on file].

74.       CETIPPAT. Hoja de ruta para hacer de Panamá un país libre de trabajo infantil y sus peores formas: Programación 2016-2019; 2015. [source on file].

75.       Government of Panama. Plan nacional para la prevención y eliminación de la explotación sexual comercial de niños, niñas y adolescentes, 2008-2010. Panama, Comissión Nacional para la Prevención de los Delitos de Explotación Sexual (CONAPREDES); 2008. http://www.ilo.org/ipec/Informationresources/WCMS_IPEC_PUB_9670/lang--es/index.htm.

76.       Government of Panama. Plan Nacional contra la Trata de Personas (2012 - 2017). Panama; 2012. https://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/90928/105157/F-1007537726/PAN90928.pdf.

77.       MITRADEL. Panamá firma acuerdo para la erradicación del trabajo infantil con Guatemala y República Dominicana, MITRADEL, [previously online] [cited February 1, 2017]; http://www.mitradel.gob.pa/portal/page/portal/PG_Relaciones_Publicas/Panam%C3%A1%20firma%20acuerdo [source on file].

78.       Ministerio de Trabajo y Seguridad Social de la República de Costa Rica y Ministerio de Trabajo y Desarrollo Laboral de la República de Panamá. Acuerdo relativo al mecanismo de coordinación para flujos migratorios con fines de empleo y ocupación entre el Ministerio de Trabajo y Seguridad Social de la República de Costa Rica y el Ministerio de Trabajo y Desarrollo Laboral de la República de Panamá. San Jose, Costa Rica; September 17, 2015.

79.       MITRADEL. Programa de acción directa gubernamental para la prevención y erradicación del trabajo infantil [Power Point Presentation]. Panama City; August 7 & 8, 2012, February 1, 2013; http://www.mitradel.gob.pa/portal/page/portal/PGMITRADEL/Asuntos_Laborales/RELATORIA [source on file].

80.       Panama America. "Inicia pago de becas del programa contra trabajo infantil." panamaamerica.com.pa [online] October 27, 2014 [cited December 15, 2014]; http://www.panamaamerica.com.pa/economia/inicia-pago-de-becas-del-programa-contra-trabajo-infantil.

81.       Moreno, J. "Aún persiste el trabajo infantil en Panamá " El Siglo, Panama City, April 12, 2013. http://elsiglo.com/mensual/2013/04/12/contenido/637366.asp [source on file].

82.       Consejo Nacional De la Empresa Privada. EL CoNEP y 105 empresas forman la alianza social empresarial para la erradicación del trabajo infantil, Consejo Nacional De la Empresa Privada, [previously online] August 8, 2012 [cited January 31, 2013]; http://www.conep.org.pa/eventos-y-noticias/291-el-conep-y-105-empresas-forman-la-alianza-social-empresarial-para-la-erradicacion-del-trabajo-infantil.html [source on file].

83.       MITRADEL. La lucha contra el trabajo infantil tiene su “Huella Social” Luis Ernesto Carles, MITRADEL, [online] [cited May 4, 2017]; http://www.mitradel.gob.pa/la-lucha-contra-el-trabajo-infantil-tiene-su-huella-social-luis-ernesto-carles/.

84.       MITRADEL. MITRADEL Y fundación Telefonica S.A firman positivo acuerdo MITRADEL, [previously online] [cited December 10, 2014]; http://www.mitradel.gob.pa/portal/page/portal/PG_Relaciones_Publicas/PARA%20ERRADICAR%20EL%20TRABAJO%20INFANTIL1 [source on file].

85.       ILO-IPEC. Global action program on child labor issues. Technical Progress Report. Geneva; April 2013.

86.       ILO-IPEC. Building effective policies against child labor in Ecuador and Panama. Technical Progress Report. Geneva; October 2014.

87.       USDOL. Building effective policies against child labor in Ecuador and Panama. Washington, DC; 2012. https://www.dol.gov/ilab/projects/summaries/RegionalPanamaEcuador_Policy.pdf.

88.       USDOL. EDUCAFUTURO: project to combat child labor among vulnerable populations in Ecuador and Panama by providing direct education and livelihood services. Project Summary. Washington, DC; 2012. https://www.dol.gov/ilab/projects/summaries/RegionalPanamaEcuador_Educafuturo.pdf.

89.       Secretaría Nacional de Niñez, Adolescencia y Familia. Violencia Sexual: Prevención y atención a niñas, niños y adolescentes víctimas de violencia sexual Government of Panama, [online] [cited February 18, 2014]; http://www.senniaf.gob.pa/?page_id=24.

90.       Ministerio de Desarrollo Social. Red de Oportunidades, Government of Panama, [online] [cited February 9, 2016]; http://www.mides.gob.pa/?page_id=555.

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