Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Panama

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Panama

2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Significant Advancement

In 2015, Panama made a significant advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government ratified ILO Convention 189 Concerning Decent Work for Domestic Workers and adopted a policy framework document on the elimination of child labor in domestic work. The Ministry of Labor conducted 1,337 child labor inspections, 429 more child labor inspections than the 908 conducted in the previous year. The Committee for the Eradication of Child Labor and the Protection of Adolescent Workers also updated the Roadmap towards the Elimination of Child Labor to outline interagency action plans and budgets for 2015 and 2016-2019. In addition, the Ministry of Education began construction to improve the infrastructure of 1,000 schools in indigenous areas experiencing high prevalence of child labor and challenges accessing education. However, children in Panama continue to engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in agriculture and in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Panamanian law does not adequately define light work and allows minors under age 16 to engage in hazardous work within training establishments. Moreover, the labor inspectorate has insufficient funding and inspectors to adequately enforce labor laws to prevent the worst forms of child labor.

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Children in Panama are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in agriculture and in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking.(1-8) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Panama.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

4.7 (32,858)

Working children by sector, ages 5 to 14 (%):

 

Agriculture

68.6

Industry

5.4

Services

26.0

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

94.9

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

4.9

Primary completion rate (%):

102.0

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2013, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(9)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Encuesta de Trabajo Infantil, 2014.(10)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of bananas,* beans,* cereal grains,* coffee, corn,* melons, oilseeds,* onions,* pineapple,* rice,* sugarcane, tomatoes,* and yucca* (3, 4, 6, 7, 11-24)

Raising livestock,*† activities unknown (1-4, 6)

Fishing,*† including harvesting shellfish* (1-4, 6, 7, 11, 14, 23, 25-28)

Industry

Construction,† activities unknown (2, 7, 27, 29, 30)

Services

Scavenging the ocean for metal and other items*† (3, 4, 6, 14, 31)

Domestic work† (2-4, 6-8, 14, 15, 19, 25-27, 29, 30)

Assisting bus drivers by collecting fares*† (14, 32)

Bagging in supermarkets (3, 7, 27, 32-34)

Street work including selling goods on the street,† washing cars,† shoe shining,† and collecting recyclables*† (2-4, 6, 7, 14, 25-27, 29, 32-38)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Forced domestic work*† (8)

Use in the production of pornography*(4)

Commercial sexual exploitation sometimes as a result of human trafficking*† (3, 6-8)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Children in Panama are subjected to commercial sexual exploitation, mainly in tourist areas in Panama City and in beach communities.(3, 7) According to the results of Panama’s 2014 biennial Survey on Child Labor, the highest prevalence of child labor is in autonomous indigenous areas, followed by the provinces of Bocas del Toro and Darién.(1) Panamanian children of indigenous descent face barriers to accessing education, including having to travel significant distances to reach school and experiencing the frequent interruption of their education due to family migration to work in agriculture. Ngäbe Buglé indigenous children journey with their families from Panama to Costa Rica and participate in the harvest of coffee beans.(3, 4, 6, 13, 14, 39-43) Panamanian girls from indigenous communities are subjected to forced domestic work. The ILO Committee of Experts has noted that children from indigenous and Afro-Panamanian communities are particularly vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor, recommending government efforts to ensure their social integration and access to education.(8, 44)

Panama has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

In 2015, Panama ratified ILO Convention 189 Concerning Decent Work for Domestic Workers.(45)

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

14

Article 70 of the Constitution; Articles 508, 509, and 716 of the Family Code; Articles 117, 119, and 123 of the Labor Code (46-48)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 510 of the Family Code; Article 203 of the Penal Code; Article 4 of Executive Decree No. 19 of 2006; Article 118 of the Labor Code (47-50)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Articles 2 and 3 of Executive Decree No. 19 of 2006; Article 118 of the Labor Code; Article 510 of the Family Code (47, 48, 50)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 157, 158, 205-208, and 456 of the Penal Code; Article 489 of the Family Code; Article 21 of the Constitution (46, 47, 49, 51)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 205-208 and 456 of the Penal Code; Article 489.17 of the Family Code (47, 49, 51)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 179-187, 189-191, 202, 203, 207, and 456 of the Penal Code (49, 51)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Articles 318, 333, and 336 of the Penal Code; Article 489.16 of the Family Code; Article 2.16 of Executive Decree No. 19 of 2006 (47, 49, 50)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

N/A†

 

 

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

N/A†

 

 

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

15

Articles 34 and 45 of the Law on Education; Article 489 of the Family Code; Article 95 of the Constitution (46, 47, 52, 53)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Articles 34 and 41 of the Law on Education; Article 95 of the Constitution (46, 52, 53)

† No standing military (46, 54)

Although the Constitution, Family Code, and Labor Code set the minimum age for employment at 14, the Family Code and Labor Code specify exceptions for domestic and agricultural work.(46-48) Article 716 of the Family Code permits children ages 12 to 14 to perform domestic and agricultural work as regulated by the Labor Code.(47) Article 119 of the Labor Code allows children ages 12 to 15 to perform light work in agriculture if the work is outside regular school hours, and Article 123 allows children over the age of 12 to perform light domestic work. However, the Labor Code does not define the kinds of tasks children may perform as light work or the total number of hours they may work.(48)

Article 118 of the Labor Code and Article 510 of the Family Code allow minors to perform hazardous work in training establishments, when the work is approved by the competent government authority and carried out under its supervision, but neither law establishes a minimum age for this work.(47, 48)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor (MITRADEL)

Enforce child labor laws through two directorates with direct authority over child labor matters: the Directorate Against Child Labor and for the Protection of Adolescent Workers (DIRETIPPAT) and the Labor Inspection Directorate.(27) The Labor Inspection Directorate carries out labor inspections in establishments and sites where children may be working, particularly in the formal sector. DIRETIPPAT is a supervising entity responsible for overseeing the fulfillment of laws related to working children in the formal and informal sectors and plans and executes public policies; carries out education programs on child labor for employers, parents, and children; and coordinates the implementation of the National Plan for the Eradication of Child Labor and the Protection of Young Workers.(11, 27, 55-57) Refer cases of children found in exploitative work to the Child and Adolescent Courts or to the National Secretariat for Childhood, Adolescence, and Family (SENNIAF).(11, 27)

Attorney General’s Office

Investigate and prosecute crimes of sexual exploitation. Investigations initiated by the Judicial Investigative Directorate; cases passed to the prosecutors.(58)

Public Ministry’s Organized Crime Unit

Investigate human trafficking cases and operate a unit dedicated to investigating trafficking in persons for sexual exploitation.(11)

National Commission for the Prevention of Crimes of Sexual Exploitation (CONAPREDES)

Investigate cases of commercial sexual exploitation.(31) Coordinate, advise, and implement policies related to sexual exploitation, as well as study related trends and prevalence. Promote public policies for the prevention and eradication of sexual exploitation through specific actions, projects, and programs.(59) Members include the Attorney General as well as the Ministries of Labor, Education, Social Development, and Health. Refer cases of sexual exploitation to the Attorney General’s Office.(26, 59)

SENNIAF

Conduct inspections to identify children and adolescents engaged in child labor, particularly in the informal sector.(2) Enhance the capacity of government agencies and NGOs to address child labor by monitoring and coordinating a network of government services that address the needs of vulnerable populations. Promote education as a means to eliminate poverty.(27, 34) Run shelters for victims of human trafficking, including minors.(60)

Childhood and Adolescence Police

Conduct inspections to identify children and adolescents engaged in child labor, particularly in the informal sector.(2) Support SENNIAF inspections in areas with high rates of child labor.(34)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2015, labor law enforcement agencies in Panama took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$1,739,942 (2)

$1,747,599 (3)

Number of Labor Inspectors

103 (3)

85 (3)

Number of Child Labor Dedicated Inspectors

8 (2)

4 (3)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (3)

Yes (3)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (3)

Yes (3)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Yes (3)

Yes (3)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (2)

Yes (3)

Number of Labor Inspections

 1,459(61)

2,784 (61)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown

Unknown

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

100 (62)

78 (62)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

10 (62)

29 (62)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

Unknown

1 (62)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (2)

Yes (3)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (2)

Yes (3)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (2)

Yes (3)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (2)

Yes (3)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (7)

Yes (3)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (2)

Yes (3)

 

In 2015, the Ministry of Labor (MITRADEL) conducted 1,337 child labor inspections, an increase from the 908 child labor inspections MITRADEL conducted in 2014.(3) In 2015, the Directorate Against Child Labor and for the Protection of Adolescent Workers removed 1,508 children and adolescents from the streets and hazardous work, incorporating 1,335 of these children and adolescents into the Direct Government Action Program.(3) MITRADEL reported that the 2015 budget of $905,123.00 allocated to the Directorate Against Child Labor and for the Protection of Adolescent Workers was insufficient to meet its commitments for coordination, implementation, and monitoring related to child labor.(62)

According to the ILO’s recommendation of 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in developing economies, Panama should employ roughly 106 inspectors to adequately enforce labor laws throughout the country.(63-65) MITRADEL noted that the number of labor inspectors employed and labor inspections conducted in 2015 were insufficient to adequately enforce labor laws.(3) Civil society groups have stated that labor inspections in Panama focus primarily on the formal sector, leaving children in the informal sector vulnerable.(6, 7) Moreover, unannounced labor inspections are not conducted in agricultural areas outside of Panama City.(3) MITRADEL has also indicated that Article 125 of the Labor Code sanctions fines ranging from $50 to $700 for child labor violations but does not specify whether the employer can be charged this amount per each affected worker.(2, 3, 7)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2015, criminal law enforcement agencies in Panama took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (3)

Yes (3)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Yes (3)

Yes (3)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (66)

Yes (3)

Number of Investigations

11 (5)

16 (60)

Number of Violations Found

25 (5)

5 (60)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

7 (5)

2 (60)

Number of Convictions

5 (5)

1 (60)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (5)

Yes (3)

 

Although member agencies of the National Commission for the Prevention of Crimes of Sexual Exploitation receive training to carry out covert organized crime operations related to commercial sexual exploitation, turnover in personnel has resulted in a lack of permanently trained staff at the National Commission for the Prevention of Crimes of Sexual Exploitation.(31)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

Committee for the Eradication of Child Labor and the Protection of Adolescent Workers

Coordinate various efforts to combat child labor. Led by the First Lady of Panama and includes MITRADEL; the ministries of Education, Health, and Agriculture; and representatives from civil society and organizations of workers and employers.(59) Conduct a National Child Labor Survey every 2 years.(3) In 2015, updated the Roadmap towards the Elimination of Child Labor to define interagency coordination, action plans, and budgets for the periods of 2015 and 2016–2019.(67-69) Also in 2015, adopted a protective policy framework document on the elimination of child labor in domestic work and the protection of young domestic workers of legal working age.(70)

CONAPREDES

Coordinate government efforts to combat the commercial sexual exploitation of children. Led by the Office of the Attorney General and includes members from the ministries of Labor, Education, Social Development, and Health.(71) Conduct investigations in the area of sexual exploitation.(31)

SENNIAF

Enhance government and NGO capacity to address child labor by creating a network of services that addresses the needs of vulnerable populations and by promoting education as a means to eliminate poverty.(27, 34)

Subcommittee to Combat Child Labor

Incorporate Panamanian Institute for Sports and the Ministry of Education in efforts to address child labor and its causes.(7, 57, 72)

 

The Government of Panama has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

Roadmap towards the Elimination of Child Labor

(2011–2019)

Aims to eliminate all forms of child labor in Panama by 2020 by strengthening anti-poverty, health, and educational programs and policies.(67-69)

Declaration of the Regional Initiative: Latin America and the Caribbean Free of Child Labor (2014–2020)

Aims to increase regional cooperation on eradicating child labor by 2020 through signatories’ efforts to strengthen monitoring and coordination mechanisms, government programs, and South-South exchanges. Reaffirms commitments made in the Brasilia Declaration from the Third Global Conference on Child Labor (October 2013) and was signed by Panama at the ILO’s 18th Regional Meeting of the Americas in Lima, Peru (October 2014).(73, 74)

Declaration of Cancún and Plan of Action (2015)†

In December 2015, the Government of Panama participated in the XIX Inter-American Conference of Ministers of Labor to promote decent work with social inclusion throughout the Americas, held in Cancún, Mexico. Participating countries adopted the declaration, which aims in part to foster policies to eliminate labor exploitation, including child labor, and to promote education and vocational training for youth.(75, 76) Participating countries also adopted the Plan of Action, which prioritizes the elimination of child labor, including through data collection, enforcement of labor laws, and the development of social protection policies for children and families.(75, 77)

National Action Plan for the Prevention and Elimination of Sexual Commercial Exploitation of Children and Adolescents

Aims to prevent and eliminate the sexual commercial exploitation of children and adolescents, including by providing services to victims, strengthening CONAPREDES, and raising awareness. Implemented by CONAPREDES, with support from the Public Ministry.(24, 26, 27, 59)

National Plan Against Trafficking in Persons (2012–2017)

Aims to combat human trafficking through prevention, victim assistance, and international cooperation. Includes provisions to protect child victims of human trafficking.(78)

Declaration of the Vice-Ministers of the XX Regional Conference on Migration†

Aims to strengthen regional cooperation to protect the human rights of migrants, especially youth and children, in countries of origin, transit, and destination, including by increasing opportunities for education and employment. Adopted by Panama at the XX Regional Conference on Migration in Mexico City (November 2015).(79, 80) In 2015, Panama participated in two meetings with the Ad Hoc Group on Migrant Children and Adolescents of the Regional Conference on Migration to identify ways for member states to increase protections for underage migrants and refugees. These meetings promoted the exchange of information on migrant children’s rights and experiences, guiding principles relating to migration, and the holistic protection of children and adolescents.(81)

Coordination Agreement on Labor Migration between the Ministries of Labor of Costa Rica and Panama*† (2015–2020)

Aims to strengthen dialogue between the Governments of Costa Rica and Panama on labor migration between the two countries, with an emphasis on indigenous Panamanian migrant workers, to ensure social protection of migrant workers and their families. Establishes a bilateral technical committee to promote joint action to combat human trafficking, exchange information, and develop cooperative strategies and projects.(82)

* Child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy.
† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

In 2015, the Government of Panama funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Direct Government Action Program for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor†

MITRADEL program implemented through the Institute for Training and Utilization of Human Resources that provides a network of social and economic services to child workers and children at risk of child labor. Services include provision of food and scholarships, support of sports activities, and social monitoring.(7, 12, 83, 84) Scholarships for schooling provided to approximately 5,500 children.(85) Achieved nationwide coverage in 2014.(2, 7)

Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor†

SENNIAF program that identifies children engaged in the worst forms of child labor, removes them from exploitative situations, and connects them to a network of social and economic services offered by the Government.(26, 34)

National Council of Private Businesses (CoNEP) Corporate Social Responsibility Program

Joint effort created by MITRADEL and the National Council of Private Businesses that involves a partnership with businesses across Panama to sign the Voluntary Agreement of Corporate Social Responsibility to prevent and eradicate child labor.(86, 87)

MITRADEL and Fundación Telefónica Cooperative Agreement

(2014–2016)

MITRADEL public-private partnership with Telefónica Móviles Panamá S.A. to prevent and eliminate child labor by improving access to education and providing trainings to teachers and private employers.(7, 88)

Building Effective Policies Against Child Labor in Ecuador and Panama

(2012–2016)

USDOL-funded, $3.5-million, 4-year project implemented by ILO-IPEC to strengthen policies for the identification and referral of child labor cases and the enforcement of child labor and occupational safety laws in Panama.(89, 90)

EducaFuturo

(2012–2016)

USDOL-funded, $6.5-million, 4-year project implemented by Partners of the Americas to combat the worst forms of child labor among the most vulnerable populations, including Afro-descendants and migrant and indigenous children, by providing them with educational and livelihood services in Panama. The project targets approximately 1,800 children, 500 youth, and 600 households.(91)

Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues

(2011–2017)

USDOL-funded project implemented by the ILO in approximately 40 countries to support the priorities of the Roadmap for Achieving the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor by 2016 established by the Hague Global Child Labor Conference in 2010. Aims to strengthen legal protections and delivery of social services for child domestic workers in Panama.(92)

National Child Labor Survey†

Committee for the Eradication of Child Labor and the Protection of Adolescent Workers survey conducted every 2 years by the National Institute of Statistics and Census with funding from SENNIAF and MITRADEL. Results from the 2014 survey were released in February 2015.(3, 93)

Prevention and Care for Child and Adolescent Victims of Sexual Violence†

SENNIAF program that identifies children engaged in commercial sexual exploitation, removes them from exploitative situations, and provides them with social services. Conducts training workshops nationwide for professionals providing direct care to child and adolescent victims of sexual violence.(94)

Blue Heart Campaign against Human Trafficking

Government of Panama and UNODC campaign to combat human trafficking through awareness raising. Activities include social media campaigns, workshops, forums, and trainings for civil society and government officials.(60, 95, 96)

Network of Opportunities†

Ministry of Social Development program that provides conditional cash transfers to families in extreme poverty, conditioned on their children’s participation in health and education services and the acquisition of a birth certificate. Offers training to beneficiaries to improve income-generating opportunities.(26, 97)

† Program is funded by the Government of Panama.

In 2015, the Ministry of Education began construction of 1,000 schools in the Ngäbe Buglé autonomous indigenous area to replace existing schools with poor infrastructure. However, access to education remained a challenge for indigenous children during the reporting period.(4) Although Panama has programs that reach children from indigenous and Afro-Panamanian communities, the scope of these programs is insufficient and these children remain vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor.(8, 44)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Panama (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Establish regulations that define the number of hours and types of activities that children between the ages of 12 and 14 can undertake as light work to ensure they are not exposed to hazardous labor.

2009 – 2015

Ensure that only minors age 16 and older who have received adequate, specific instruction or vocational training are permitted to perform hazardous work, and that their health, safety, and morals are fully protected.

2013 – 2015

Enforcement

Make information on the number of labor inspections conducted at worksites and by desk review publicly available.

2015

Allocate sufficient funding for DIRETIPPAT to meet its commitments for coordination, implementation, and monitoring related to child labor.

2014 – 2015

Employ a sufficient number of labor inspectors to effectively enforce laws related to child labor and to address child labor in the informal sector and agricultural areas outside of Panama City.

2014 – 2015

Strengthen the inspection system by conducting unannounced inspections in agricultural areas outside of Panama City.

2015

Clarify whether fines for child labor violations, as sanctioned in Article 125 of the Labor Code, may be applied for each affected worker.

2014 – 2015

Revise CONAPREDES assignment policies to address high turnover in personnel and ensure staff are trained to investigate cases of commercial sexual exploitation.

2011 – 2015

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the Coordination Agreement on Labor Migration between the Ministries of Labor of Costa Rica and Panama.

2015

Social Programs

Expand existing programs to ensure children from indigenous and Afro-Panamanian communities have access to education.

2014 – 2015

 

1.         República de Panamá-Contraloría General de la República- Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas y Censo. Comentarios de la Encuesta de Trabajo Infantil (ETI) 2014

online. Panama; 2015. https://www.contraloria.gob.pa/inec/archivos/P6621comentarios%20ETI%202014.pdf.

2.         Ministerio de Trabajo y Desarollo Laboral. Respuesta a cuestionario sobre erradicacion del trabajo infantil. Submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor Federal Register Notice (November 13, 2014) "Request for Information on Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor". Panama City; January 29, 2015.

3.         U.S. Embassy- Panama City. reporting, January 26, 2016.

4.         U.S. Department of State. "Panama," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2015. Washington, DC; April 13, 2016; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/253243.pdf.

5.         U.S. Department of State. "Panama," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015. Washington, DC; July 27, 2015; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/243561.pdf.

6.         U.S. Department of State. "Panama," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2014. Washington, DC; June 25, 2015; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/236918.pdf.

7.         U.S. Embassy- Panama City. reporting, January 15, 2015.

8.         U.S. Department of State. "Panama," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2014. Washington, DC; June 20, 2014; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2014/index.htm.

9.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed December 16, 2015]; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. Because the calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age), the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

10.       UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Encuesta de Trabajo Infantil (ETI), 2014. Analysis received December 18, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

11.       U.S. Embassy- Panama City. reporting, February 22, 2011.

12.       La Estrella. "Mitradel refuerza medidas contra trabajo infantil peligroso." La Estrella, Panama City, February 21, 2011. http://www.laestrella.com.pa/online/noticias/2011/02/21/mitradel_refuerza_medidas_contra_trabajo_infantil_peligroso.asp [source on file].

13.       Lopez, R. "Fincas de café con aroma a trabajo infantil " La Estrella, Comarca Ngöbe Buglé, January 16, 2011. http://www.laestrella.com.pa/mensual/2011/01/16/contenido/321200.asp [source on file].

14.       U.S. Department of State. "Panama," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2013. Washington, DC; February 27, 2014; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/#wrapper.

15.       Lopez Guía, Á. "Mil niños heridos al trabajar no recibieron atención médica." La Prensa, Panama City, April 15, 2013. http://www.prensa.com/impreso/panorama/mil-ninos-heridos-al-trabajar-no-recibieron-ate [source on file].

16.       Casa Esperanza. Fincas de café comprometidas con la erradicación del trabajo infantil, Casa Esperanza, [online] [cited February 9, 2016]; http://www.casaesperanza.org.pa/2011/08/hello-world/.

17.       Goverment of Panama. Primera Dama y caficultores abordan tema del trabajo infantil en Chiriquí, Government of Panama, [previously online] February 2, 2012 [cited February 1, 2013]; http://www.presidencia.gob.pa/ver_nodo.php?cod=3264 [source on file].

18.       Santamaría, E. "Programa socio educativo contribuye a erradicar el trabajo infantil en fincas cafetaleras " prnoticiaspanama.com [previously online] July 7, 2011 [cited February 4, 2013]; http://www.prnoticiaspanama.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=5471:programa-socio-educativo-contribuye-a-erradicar-el-trabajo-infantil-en-fincas-cafetaleras&catid=18:rse&Itemid=33 [source on file].

19.       MITRADEL. Detecta niños en actividades prohibidas por leyes laborales, Government of Panama, [previously online] March 12, 2013 [cited March 20, 2013]; http://www.mitradel.gob.pa/portal/page/portal/PG_Relaciones_Publicas/En%20%20Herrera [source on file].

20.       MITRADEL. Jóvenes se suman a lucha contra el trabajo infantil liderada por el MITRADEL, Government of Panama, [online] January 25, 2013 [cited March 20, 2013]; http://www.mitradel.gob.pa/portal/page/portal/PG_Relaciones_Publicas/EN%20VERAGUAS.

21.       UCW. Entendiendo el trabajo infantil y el empleo juvenil en Panamá. UCW Country Studies. Rome; 2014. http://www.ucw-project.org/attachment/informe_trabajo_infantil_empleo_juvenil20141016_165422.pdf.

22.       Lorenzo, O. "Trabajadores recolectores de café están en huelga." La Estrella, January 22, 2016. http://laestrella.com.pa/panama/nacional/trabajadores%ADrecolectores%ADcafe%ADestan%ADhuelga/23917520.

23.       EducaFuturo. EducaFuturo Baseline Survey Report. Project DocumentPartners of the Americas; August, 2014.

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29.       MITRADEL. Retiró MITRADEL del trabajo infantil en Colón, Government of Panama, [previoulsy online] February 26, 2013 [cited March 2, 2013]; http://www.mitradel.gob.pa/portal/page/portal/PG_Relaciones_Publicas/88%20ni%C3%25B [source on file].

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37.       Panama America. "Del mes pasado a la fecha 75 niños han sido recogidos de las calles." panamaamerica.com.pa [previously online] December 17, 2012 [cited March 22, 2013]; http://www.panamaamerica.com.pa/notas/1407450-75-ninos-noviembre-la-fecha-han-sido-recogidos-trabajar-las-calles [source on file].

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64.       ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a “sufficient number” of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a “sufficient” number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

65.       UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex. New York; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies; “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies, and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

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