Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Panama

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2018 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2018, Panama made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The government drafted modifications to its hazardous work regulations, significantly increased its number of labor inspectors, and established a Regional Headquarters in Coclé to target child labor in areas outside the capital city. It also launched a national initiative to prevent violence against children, which includes the goal of eliminating child labor, and conducted a new study on child work, child labor, and the worst forms of child labor. However, children in Panama engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Children also perform dangerous tasks in agriculture. Although the government made meaningful efforts in all relevant areas, Panamanian law allows minors under age 16 to engage in hazardous work within training establishments, in violation of international standards. Moreover, the Labor Inspectorate lacks the authority to collect fines for labor violations, limiting its capacity to enforce laws on the worst forms of child labor.

Children in Panama engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Children also perform dangerous tasks in agriculture. (1-10) The Ministry of Labor (MITRADEL) conducted a study on child work, child labor, and the worst forms of child labor in 2018, but the results have yet to be published. (1) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Panama.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

4.7 (32,858)

Working children by sector

   

Agriculture

 

68.6

Industry

 

5.4

Services

 

26.0

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

94.9

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

4.9

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

96.7

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2014, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2019. (11)
Source for all other data: International Labor Organization’s analysis of statistics from Encuesta de Trabajo Infantil (ETI), 2014. (
12)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of beans, cereal grains, coffee, corn, melons, oilseeds, onions, pineapple, rice, and tomatoes (6,7,9,13-20)

Raising livestock, including cattle (2-4,6,9,21)

Fishing,† including harvesting shellfish (2-5,9,21,22)

Industry

Construction,† including mixing cement, painting, carpentry, and welding (1,2,4,5,23)

Services

Scavenging the ocean for metal and other items (6)

Domestic work† (2,4,5,9,20,21,24)

Assisting bus drivers by collecting fares† (25)

Bagging in supermarkets (6,25-27)

Street work,† including vending,† washing cars, shining shoes,† and collecting recyclables (1,5-7,9,19,21,22,28-31)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Forced domestic work (32)

Use in the production of pornography (5,9)

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (5,8,32)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Children in Panama are subjected to commercial sexual exploitation, mainly in tourist areas in Panama City and in beach communities. (6,7) In 2018, cases of forced labor involving indigenous, minor females from rural, poor border areas were reported, including for forced domestic service. (10)

According to the results of Panama’s 2016 survey on child labor, the highest prevalence of child labor is in rural areas and autonomous indigenous areas, or comarcas. The comarca Ngäbe Buglé and the provinces of Panama and Bocas del Toro had the highest number of children engaged in child labor. (2)

Although the Panamanian Constitution recognizes the right to education without discrimination, indigenous children and those in rural and Afro-Panamanian communities face barriers to accessing education due to a lack of transportation, infrastructure, technology, and teachers, particularly in the comarcas. (1,5,9,33-35) Children of indigenous descent often travel significant distances to reach school and experience frequent interruptions in their education due to family migration to work in agriculture. (6,34,35)

Panama has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Panama's legal framework to adequately protect children from the worst forms of child labor, including hazardous work and light work.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

14

Article 70 of the Constitution; Articles 508–509 and 716 of the Family Code; Articles 117, 119, and 123 of the Labor Code (36-38)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

No

18

Article 510 of the Family Code; Article 203 of the Penal Code; Article 4 of Executive Decree No. 19 of 2006; Article 118 of the Labor Code (37-41)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Articles 2, 2A, and 2B of Executive Decree No. 19 of 2006; Article 118 of the Labor Code (38,40,41)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 157–158, 205–208, and 456 of the Penal Code; Article 489 of the Family Code; Article 21 of the Constitution (36,37,39,42)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 205–208 and 456 of the Penal Code; Article 489.17 of the Family Code; Article 63 of Law 79 on Human Trafficking (37,39,42)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 179–187, 189–191, 202–203, 207, and 456 of the Penal Code; Article 63 of Law 79 on Human Trafficking (39,42)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Articles 318, 333, and 336 of the Penal Code; Article 489.16 of the Family Code; Article 2.16 of Executive Decree No. 19 of 2006 (37,39,40)

Minimum Age for Voluntary State Military Recruitment

N/A†

   

Prohibition of Compulsory Recruitment of Children by (State) Military

N/A†

   

Prohibition of Military Recruitment by Non-state Armed Groups

Yes

 

Article 448 of the Penal Code (39)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

15

Articles 34 and 45 of the Law on Education; Article 489 of the Family Code; Article 95 of the Constitution (36,37,43,44)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Articles 34 and 41 of the Law on Education; Article 95 of the Constitution (36,43,44)

† No standing military (36)

In 2018 and early 2019, MITRADEL drafted amendments to Decree Number 1 of 2016 to raise the minimum age for hazardous work, occupations, and activities to age 16 if the work is performed in a training facility, and to eliminate certain work exceptions for children ages 14 to 16. (1,45) Currently, Panama has a list of hazardous occupations prohibited for children under age 18 but it permits to perform such work in training programs starting at age 14, in violation of international standards. (41)

Although the Constitution, Family Code, and Labor Code set the minimum age for employment at age 14, the Family Code and Labor Code specify exceptions for domestic and agricultural work. (36-38) Article 716 of the Family Code permits children ages 12 to 14 to perform domestic and agricultural work as regulated by the Labor Code. (37) Article 119 of the Labor Code allows children ages 12 to 15 to perform light work in agriculture, if the work is outside regular school hours, and Article 123 allows children over the age of 12 to perform light domestic work. The Labor Code, however, does not define the kinds of tasks children may perform as light work or the total number of hours they may work. (38)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the operations of MITRADEL that may hinder adequate enforcement of child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor (MITRADEL)

Enforces child labor laws through two directorates with direct authority over child labor matters: the Directorate Against Child Labor and for the Protection of Adolescent Workers (DIRETIPPAT), and the Labor Inspection Directorate. (46) The Labor Inspection Directorate enforces the Labor Code in areas in which children may be working, particularly in the formal sector. DIRETIPPAT is responsible for overseeing the enforcement of laws related to working children in the formal and informal sectors, planning and executing public policies, and carrying out education programs on child labor for employers, parents, and children. (46-49) Refers cases of children found in exploitative work to the Child and Adolescent Courts, or to the National Secretariat for Childhood, Adolescence, and Family (SENNIAF). (46)

Attorney General's Office

Investigates and prosecutes crimes of sexual exploitation. Investigations are initiated by the Judicial Investigative Directorate; cases are passed to the prosecutors. (50)

SENNIAF

Conducts inspections to identify children and adolescents engaged in child labor, particularly in the informal sector. (4) Monitors and coordinates a network of government services to address needs of vulnerable populations. (27,46) Runs shelters for victims of human trafficking, including minors. (51)

Childhood and Adolescence Police

Assists, collaborates with, and coordinates with authorities and organizations to address the education, prevention, protection, and rehabilitation of children, including those in child labor. (52,53) Supports SENNIAF inspections in areas with high rates of child labor. (27)

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2018, labor law enforcement agencies in Panama took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the authority of MITRADEL that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including insufficient funding for operations.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2017

2018

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$1,712,293 (9)

$1,313,417 (1)

Number of Labor Inspectors

79 (9)

106 (1)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (9)

Yes (54)

Initial Training for New Labor Inspectors

Yes (9)

Yes (1)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Yes (9)

Yes (1)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (9)

Yes (1)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

1,427 (54)

938 (54)

Number Conducted at Worksite

15,331 (5)

938 (54)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

80 (9)

14 (54)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

42 (9)

6 (54)

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that Were Collected

Unknown

6 (54)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (9)

Yes (54)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (9)

Yes (54)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (9)

Yes (54)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (9)

Yes (54)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (9)

Yes (1)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (9)

Yes (1)

In 2018, Panama increased its number of labor inspectors and is now in line with the ILO’s technical advice. However, only six inspectors received specialized training in child labor investigations, even though all inspectors must investigate and enforce child labor laws. (1) MITRADEL identified 492 cases of adolescent and child labor, primarily in the agriculture and informal sectors, and provided education scholarships and integrated care to 1,502 minors through its Direct Action social program targeting children in at-risk communities. (1,54) The labor inspectorate conducted inspections across all 14 provinces in the agriculture, fishing, construction, and tourism industries as well as at street vending sites; 938 of these inspections were child labor related. MITRADEL officials encountered 14 child labor violations, and the Judicial Secretariat found 6 violations and will collect a total of $4,000 in penalties. (1)

MITRADEL and the National Secretariat for Childhood, Adolescence, and Family (SENNIAF) have implemented a secure 311 Complaint Line, as well as a website and social media platforms, to receive complaints. In 2018, SENNIAF responded to 34 complaints received through these services and initiated 1 investigation into child labor in the informal sector. (1) In addition, 30 SENNIAF staff members received training on child labor laws in 2018. (1)

MITRADEL has noted that the budget for the Directorate Against Child Labor and for the Protection of Adolescent Workers was insufficient to meet its commitments for coordination, implementation, and monitoring. In addition, its budget decreased from 2017 to 2018. (1,34,55,56) Civil society groups have stated that labor inspections in Panama focus primarily on the formal sector, leaving children in the informal sector vulnerable. (7,57) Moreover, unannounced labor inspections are not conducted in agricultural areas outside Panama City or in private farms or homes. (1,6)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2018, criminal law enforcement agencies in Panama took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, the government did not provide sufficient data on its criminal enforcement efforts, which limits the ability to assess the adequacy of criminal law enforcement agencies.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2017

2018

Initial Training for New Criminal Investigators

Yes (9)

Yes (54)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Yes (9)

Yes (54)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (9)

Yes (54)

Number of Investigations

920 (58)

333 (54)

Number of Violations Found

4 (58)

Unknown

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

4 (9)

Unknown

Number of Convictions

4 (9)

Unknown

Imposed Penalties for Violations Related to The Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown

Unknown

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (9)

Yes (54)

The Government of Panama conducted 34 forced labor or sex trafficking investigations in 2018. Notably, two of those cases involved the rescue of two indigenous minors from forced labor situations. (10)

Child labor training was provided to 47 National Commission for the Prevention of Crimes of Sexual Exploitation (CONAPREDES) staff, as well as to 105 law enforcement officials, 55 prosecutors, and 21 members of the Maritime and Tourism Authorities. (1) Furthermore, in September 2018, the Trafficking in Persons Commission participated in an interagency event to combat sexual exploitation that was carried out by CONAPREDES and targeted school-age children in Panama. (10)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including coordination among agencies.

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

Committee for the Eradication of Child Labor and the Protection of Adolescent Workers (CETIPPAT)

Coordinates various efforts to combat child labor. Led by the First Lady of Panama and includes MITRADEL, the Ministries of Education, Health, and Agriculture, and representatives from civil society and organizations of workers and employers. (59) Conducts a National Child Labor Survey every 2 years. (6) In 2018, CETIPPAT held 8 coordinating meetings with more than 22 representatives from the private sector, labor, NGOs, and government agencies. The meetings focused on child labor trends and reduction strategies. (1)

Subcommittee to Combat Child Labor

Coordinates the Panamanian Institute for Sports and the Ministry of Education in their efforts to address child labor and its causes. Subcommittee of CETIPPAT. (7,34,49,60) In 2018, the subcommittees were located in Chiriqui, Veraguas, Herrera, Los Santos, Cocle, and Panama Oeste. (1)

Provincial Coordination Mechanisms

Identifies and reports cases of child labor at the local level and coordinates with CETIPPAT at the national level. Established in Bocas del Toro, Colón, and Darién, the commissions as of 2018 are now also located in Panama City, Panama Oeste, Cocle, Veraguas, Herrera, and Los Santos. (1,9)

National Commission for the Prevention of Crimes of Sexual Exploitation (CONAPREDES)

Coordinates, advises, and implements public policies for the prevention and eradication of sexual exploitation through specific actions, projects, and programs; studies related trends and prevalence. (59) Members include the Attorney General as well as the Ministries of Labor, Education, Social Development, and Health. Refers cases of sexual exploitation to the Attorney General's Office. (59) In 2018, investigated and discovered 153 children who were used in pornography. (1)

MITRADEL has noted the need for increased coordination on efforts to address child labor, including within the Ministry of Labor, and with social service agencies and referral mechanisms. (34)

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into relevant policies.

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

Roadmap Towards the Elimination of Child Labor (2016–2019)

Aims to eliminate all forms of child labor in Panama by 2020 by strengthening anti-poverty, health, and educational programs and policies. (61-63) As part of the Roadmap, in 2018, the Panamanian Government expanded labor inspector trainings, unannounced inspections, and monitoring information systems. The government also expanded investigations to the Colon, Panama Oeste and San Miguelito districts and opened a Cocle Regional Headquarters to target child labor in provinces and districts outside the capital. (1)

National Multisectoral Strategy for the Prevention of Violence against children and Adolescents, (2018–2022)†

Launched in 2018, the strategy aims to eliminate child labor and end the mistreatment, exploitation, trafficking, violence, and torture of children. The strategy was developed by the National Government through the National Intersectoral Committee for the Prevention of Violence against Children and Adolescents and SENNIAF, with technical support from UNICEF. (64,65)

National Action Plan for the Prevention and Elimination of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children and Adolescents

Aims to prevent and eliminate the commercial sexual exploitation of children and adolescents, including by providing services to victims, strengthening CONAPREDES, and raising awareness. Implemented by CONAPREDES, with support from the Public Ministry. (46,59,66) On November 27, 2018, CONAPREDES held a training for 25 Guatemalan officials on "Preventing child and adolescent sexual exploitation crimes" as part of the Action Plan. (67)

National Plan Against Trafficking in Persons (2012–2022)

Aims to combat human trafficking through prevention, victim assistance, and international cooperation. Includes provisions to protect child victims of human trafficking. (58,68) As part of the plan in 2018, the Government of Panama approved the Protocol for the Victim's Identification and Protection Unit to provide standard procedures to the Trafficking in Persons Commission Victim's Unit and to guarantee adequate standard of care for human trafficking victims. The Trafficking in Persons Commission also developed a training manual for members of the Victim's Identification and Protection Unit. (10)

Districts Free of Child Labor

Aims to establish cooperation agreements between MITRADEL and municipal councils to design and implement child labor eradication strategies. (9) In 2018 MITRADEL signed anti-child labor agreements with the municipalities of Copira, San Miguelito, Panama, Tonosi, Aguadulce, and Santiago. (1)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

The Coordination Agreement on Labor Migration between the Ministries of Labor of Costa Rica and Panama aims to strengthen dialogue on labor migration between the two countries, with an emphasis on indigenous Panamanian migrant workers, to ensure social protection of migrant workers and their families. The policy includes a bilateral technical committee to promote joint action to combat human trafficking, exchange information, and develop cooperative strategies and projects. (69) Although potentially a useful policy tool to combat child labor, child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy.

In 2018, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including their ability to reach the most vulnerable populations.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

USDOL-Funded Projects

USDOL projects that aim to eliminate child labor, including its worst forms, through research, improved monitoring and enforcement, policy development, and awareness raising. These projects include Educafuturo: Combating Child Labor, a $8.1 million, 5-year project implemented in Ecuador and Panama by Partners of the Americas; Building Effective Policies Against Child Labor, a $4.3 million, 5-year project implemented in Ecuador and Panama by ILO; Country Level Engagement and Assistance To Reduce Child Labor (CLEAR II), implemented by Winrock International and partners Verité and Lawyers Without Borders in seven countries; and Measurement, Awareness-Raising, and Policy Engagement (MAP 16), a $22.4 million, 6-year project implemented by ILO in several countries. (70-74) In 2018, ILO completed its study of the Panama sugar industry and held a verification workshop in November prior to publishing its findings. (75) Additional information is available on the USDOL website.

Direct Government Action Program for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor†

MITRADEL program implemented through the Institute for Training and Utilization of Human Resources that providesa network of social and economic services to child workers and children at risk of child labor. Services include provision of food and scholarships, support for sports activities, and social monitoring. (7,76) Under the Direct Government Action Program for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor, in 2018 MITRADEL conducted unannounced visits in the informal sector, investigated key risk factors that lead children to work before the legal age of employment, and informed indigenous communities about the negative consequences of child labor. (1)

Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor†

SENNIAF program that identifies children engaged in the worst forms of child labor, removes them from exploitative situations, and connects them to a network of social and economic services offered by the government. (27) In 2018, SENNIAF hosted forums in educational centers, provided study grants to 1,502 children, and conducted home wellness visits to verify that students were attending school. SENNIAF also developed a new case processing system to efficiently manage reports that reduced reporting processing times. (1)

National Council of Private Businesses Corporate Social Responsibility Program

Joint effort created by MITRADEL and the National Council of Private Businesses that involves a partnership with businesses across Panama to sign the Voluntary Agreement of Corporate Social Responsibility to prevent and eradicate child labor. (77) Research was unable to identify activities undertaken during the reporting period to implement the partnership.

Prevention and Care for Child and Adolescent Victims of Sexual Violence†

SENNIAF program that identifies children engaged in commercial sexual exploitation, removes them from exploitative situations, and provides them with social services. Conducts training workshops nationwide for professionals providing direct care to child and adolescent victims of sexual violence. (79) Research was unable to identify specific actions undertaken during the reporting period under this program.

Network of Opportunities†

Ministry of Social Development (MIDES) program that provides conditional cash transfers to families in extreme poverty, conditioned on their children's participation in health and education services and the acquisition of a birth certificate. Offers training to project participants to improve income-generating opportunities. (80) In 2018, MIDES reported that the program paid $6,852,000 in conditional cash transfers to 45,495 individuals. (81)

† Program is funded by the Government of Panama.

Although Panama has expanded programs that reach children in rural areas and from indigenous and Afro-Panamanian communities, various reports indicate that the scope of these programs is insufficient, and these children remain vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor. (33,82,83)

Despite policy efforts, the National Anti-Trafficking Commission acknowledges that funding for and availability of services for human trafficking victims remains insufficient to address the full scope of the problem. (10) Furthermore, although child victims of trafficking are able to receive services from local NGOs, Panama lacks programs to specifically address the needs of this population. (10) Government officials have also noted that despite funds dedicated to the prevention of crimes against children, Panama lacks a specific mechanism to direct funds toward child sexual abuse victims. (84,85)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Panama (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Establish regulations that define the number of hours and types of activities that children between ages 12 and 14 can undertake as light work, to ensure that they are not exposed to hazardous labor.

2009 – 2018

Ensure that the law protects children from hazardous work by establishing a minimum age of 18 for all children or by ensuring that children receive adequate training in the type of work being done and that the health, safety, and morals of the children are protected in accordance with international standards if children age 16 or 17 are allowed to perform hazardous work.

2013 – 2018

Enforcement

Collect and make available complete data on criminal enforcement efforts related to the worst forms of child labor, such as number of violations found, number of prosecutions initiated, penalties collected, and number of convictions.

2018

Allocate sufficient funding for the Directorate Against Child Labor and for the Protection of Adolescent Workers to meet its commitments for coordination, implementation, and monitoring related to child labor.

2014 – 2018

Ensure that labor inspectors conduct child labor inspections in the informal sector and unannounced inspections in agricultural areas outside Panama City.

2014 – 2018

Ensure that all inspectors receive regular, specialized training on child labor issues

2018

Coordination

Increase coordination on efforts to address child labor, including within the Ministry of Labor, and with social services agencies and referral mechanisms.

2016 – 2018

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the Coordination Agreement on Labor Migration between the Ministries of Labor of Costa Rica and Panama.

2015 – 2018

Social Programs

Enhance efforts to eliminate barriers and make education accessible for all children, including children from rural areas and indigenous and Afro-Panamanian communities, by expanding existing programs, including school transportation.

2014 – 2018

Ensure that social programs to prevent and eradicate child labor, such as the partnership with the National Council of Private Businesses, are being implemented.

2018

Establish programs and ensure sufficient funding to address the needs of human trafficking victims, including programs that provide services to child victims of human trafficking and sexual abuse.

2018

1

U.S. Embassy- Panama City Reporting. February 11, 2019.

2

República de Panamá-Contraloría General de la República- Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas y Censo. Comentarios de la Encuesta de Trabajo Infantil (ETI) 2016. 2017.
https://www.contraloria.gob.pa/INEC/archivos/P8031Comentarios.pdf.

3

República de Panamá-Contraloría General de la República- Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas y Censo. Comentarios de la Encuesta de Trabajo Infantil (ETI) 2014. 2015.
https://www.contraloria.gob.pa/inec/archivos/P6621comentarios ETI 2014.pdf.

4

Ministerio de Trabajo y Desarollo Laboral. Respuesta a cuestionario sobre erradicacion del trabajo infantil. Submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor Federal Register Notice (November 13, 2014) "Request for Information on Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child, January 29, 2015. Source on file.

5

U.S. Embassy- Panama City. Reporting. January 23, 2017.

6

U.S. Embassy- Panama City. Reporting. January 26, 2016.

7

U.S. Embassy- Panama City. Reporting. January 15, 2015.

8

UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Periodic Reports of States Parties due in 2016: Panama. Prepared by Government of Panama - Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, Article 44 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, 2016.
http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC/C/PAN/5-6&Lang=en.

9

U.S. Embassy- Panama City. Reporting. March 1, 2018.

10

U.S. Embassy--Panama City. Reporting. March 1, 2019.

11

UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed March 3, 2018. For more information, please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.
http://data.uis.unesco.org/.

12

ILO. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Analysis received January 12, 2018. Please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

13

UCW. Entendiendo el trabajo infantil y el empleo juvenil en Panamá. UCW Country Studies, 2014. Source on file.

14

Lorenzo, O. Trabajadores recolectores de café están en huelga. La Estrella, January 22, 2016.
http://laestrella.com.pa/panama/nacional/trabajadores?recolectores?cafe?estan?huelga/23917520.

15

UN Food and Agriculture Organization. Romper el ciclo de la pobreza para alcanzar el desarrollo sostenible. Press Release, March 3, 2016.
http://www.fao.org/panama/noticias/detail-events/en/c/387485/.

16

Nunez, O. Realizan captaciones en fincas cafetaleras de Boquete para erradicar el trabajo. Telemetro.com, January 21, 2016.
http://www.telemetro.com/nacionales/Realizan-captaciones-cafetaleras-erradicar-infantil_0_882512221.html.

17

MITRADEL. Mitradel Detecta 5 Menores Trabajando en Cultivo de Sandía en Veraguas, MITRADEL. Accessed April 19, 2016.
http://www.mitradel.gob.pa/.

18

MITRADEL. En la Provincia de Cocle MITRADEL Realiza Operativos de Trabajo Infantil, MITRADEL. Accessed April 19, 2016.
http://www.mitradel.gob.pa/.

19

El Siglo. Trabajo infantil a galope. June 14, 2016.
http://elsiglo.com/panama/trabajo-infantil-galope/23945570.

20

Pinilla, Ana Maria. Hasta 26 mil menores sufren explotación laboral en Panamá. La Estrella de Panama, February 7, 2017.
http://laestrella.com.pa/panama/nacional/hasta-26-menores-sufren-explotacion-laboral-panama/23985036.

21

EducaFuturo. EducaFuturo Baseline Survey Report. Project Document Partners of the Americas, August 2014. Source on file.

22

Ministerio de Desarrollo Social. MIDES y organizaciones presentan resultados de proyecto sobre erradicación del trabajo infantil en Colón. January 3, 2017.
http://www.mides.gob.pa/mides-y-organizaciones-presentan-resultados-de-proyecto-sobre-erradicacion-del-trabajo-infantil-en-colon/.

23

MITRADEL. Retiró MITRADEL del trabajo infantil en Colón, Government of Panama. February 26, 2013.
http://www.mitradel.gob.pa/portal/page/portal/PG_Relaciones_Publicas/88 ni??B.

24

El Siglo. 1,976 menores hacen trabajo infantil doméstico en casas ajenas. June 15, 2016.
http://elsiglo.com/panama/1976-menores-hacen-trabajo-infantil-domestico-casas-ajenas/23945793.

25

MITRADEL. MITRADEL detecta 37 menores trabajando en Chiriquí, MITRADEL. July 11, 2014.
http://www.mitradel.gob.pa/portal/page/portal/PG_Relaciones_Publicas/Operativo contra trabajo infantil.

26

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