Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Guinea

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Guinea

2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Minimal Advancement

In 2015, Guinea made a minimal advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government adopted a national action plan to address human trafficking and funded and participated in multiple programs that may contribute to the prevention or elimination of child labor. However, children in Guinea are engaged in child labor, including in agriculture, and in the worst forms of child labor, including in mining. The Government lacks a coordinating mechanism and national policy to address all relevant worst forms of child labor. In addition, the Government does not adequately enforce child labor laws or implement social programs to address the extent of the problem. In 2015, the Government continued to focus its activities and limited resources on addressing an outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease.

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Children in Guinea are engaged in child labor, including in agriculture.(1-4) Children are also engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in mining.(2, 3, 5, 6) According to the National Survey on Child Labor and Trafficking (2010), more than 40 percent of children ages 5 to 17 were engaged in child labor in Guinea. In addition, more than 76 percent of working children ages 5 to 11 and 88 percent of working children ages 12 to 15 were performing hazardous work.(2) The survey also revealed that incidents of child labor were higher in rural areas than in urban areas.(2, 5) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Guinea.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

32.3 (1,152,064)

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

49.6

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

19.2

Primary completion rate (%):

49.5

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2014, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(7)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s Analysis of Statistics from Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), 2012.(8)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Farming, clearing land,* and carrying heavy loads* in the production of cashews, cocoa, and coffee (2, 4, 9-12)

Harvesting lumber,* peanuts,* coconuts,* and cotton* (10, 13)

Herding livestock* (2, 10)

 

Capturing and processing fish* (2, 3, 5, 12, 14)

Industry

Quarrying† sand* (10)

Mining† gold and diamonds (2, 3, 6, 10, 12, 14-16)

Manufacturing,* activities unknown (2, 4, 5)

Construction,†* including cement making* and carrying materials* (2, 3, 5, 17, 18)

Services

Street work, including as market vendors, beggars, petty traders,* shoe shiners,* and porters in the transportation sector (2-5, 12, 14, 16, 19-23)

Working in restaurants and informal cottage industries,* including as waitresses (2, 4, 24)

Domestic work (2-4, 12, 20, 25-27)

Collecting scrap metal* and waste* (13)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Forced labor as market vendors and in domestic work, mining, herding,* fishing,* and farming, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking* (2, 5, 6, 12, 27)

 

Commercial sexual exploitation,* sometimes as a result of human trafficking* (6, 12)

 

Forced begging by Koranic teachers (3, 6, 14, 16, 20)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Children are sent to the coastal region of Boke for forced labor on farms and to Senegal for education in Koranic schools, in which some may be forced to beg.(6, 28) Some Guinean boys and girls are subjected to forced labor in gold mining, including in Senegal and Mali. Girls may be trafficked into domestic work and commercial sexual exploitation in various countries in West Africa, the Middle East, and the United States, while boys may be trafficked for prostitution to the Netherlands.(2, 6, 12, 28)

In Guinea, it is a traditional practice to send children to Koranic teachers to receive an education; however, some Koranic teachers (marabouts) force their students (talibés) to beg; the students must then surrender the money they have earned to their teachers.(6, 12, 14, 16, 29, 30) In addition, through the system of confiage, parents who are unable to care for their children send them to relatives or strangers who are expected to provide food, shelter, and schooling in exchange for the children performing housework. In practice, some of these children receive care and an education, while many become domestic workers and are victims of labor exploitation and abuse.(2, 3, 12, 20)

Although the Constitution guarantees free compulsory primary education, in practice, this provision is not enforced effectively because many children do not attend school. The causes are a lack of school infrastructure; cost of school fees, uniforms, and supplies; a shortage of teachers; election closures; and reported school violence, all of which impede access to education, which may increase the vulnerability of children to the worst forms of child labor.(2, 4, 10, 12, 14, 28) The Government does not prohibit discrimination in education or make efforts to support children with disabilities in regular schools.(4) In addition, many children in Guinea are not registered at birth, which may impede their access to services such as education.(4, 24, 27, 28).

The Ebola Virus Disease outbreak, which continued in Guinea throughout 2015, had a detrimental effect on the country’s economy and social structure, hindering Government efforts to combat the worst forms of child labor, including child trafficking.(31)

Guinea has ratified most key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

 

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

16

Article 137.5 of the Labor Code; Article 412 of the Child Code (32, 33)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Articles 2–4 of Order 2791 Working Conditions for Employees Aged Under 18 Years; Article 137.4 of the Labor Code (17, 33)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Articles 415–418 of the Child Code; Articles 2 and 4 of Order 2791 Working Conditions for Employees Aged Under 18 Years; Article 135 of the Mining Code; Article 137.6 of the Labor Code (17, 32-34)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 326–330, 338 and 339, 377, 385–396, and 401 and 402 of the Penal Code; Articles 4 and 137.6 of the Labor Code; Articles 356–360, 385, and 397–399 of the Child Code (32, 33, 35)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 326–330, 377, and 385–396 of the Penal Code; Articles 356–360 and 385 of the Child Code (32, 35)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 329 and 331 of the Penal Code; Articles 356–360 of the Child Code (32, 35)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 137.6 of the Labor Code; Article 383 of the Child Code (32, 33)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

N/A*

 

 

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

18

Article 429 of the Child Code (32)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

16

Article 6, Title 1 of Education Decree 97/196-/PRG/SGG (36)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Articles 23 of the Constitution (37)

* No conscription.(38)

Guinean law is not completely consistent with international standards regarding child labor. The law contains prohibitions against minors performing work that is dangerous or harmful to their physical or moral health.(17, 33) However, the types of hazardous work prohibited for children do not cover agriculture, an area that shows evidence of work in unhealthy environments that expose children to hazardous substances and dangerous equipment.(2, 12) A more specific list of hazardous child labor activities in all relevant sectors was developed, but it was not approved during the reporting period.(14, 16) In addition, although Article 2.6 of Order 2791 prohibits children under age 18 from working in mines and quarries, Article 135 of the Mining Code allows children between ages 16 and 18 to work in mines and quarries as assistants, leaving the possibility for children to work in hazardous activities.(34)

The law allows children between ages 12 and 14 to perform light work in sectors such as domestic work and agriculture.(17, 32) However, the law does not prescribe the number of hours per week for light work, nor specify the conditions in which light work may be undertaken, as defined by international standards on child labor.(25) The minimum age protections under the law do not apply to children in unpaid or non-contractual work.(25, 27, 33) In 2012, the Government drafted an anti-trafficking law, with assistance from UNDP; however, this law has not been finalized by the Ministry of Justice for submission to the National Assembly for approval.(31)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor (MOL) Labor Inspection Service

Enforce labor laws and investigates Labor Code infractions, including those on child labor, in the formal sector. Provides advice to workers and employers and conducts studies and research on social issues on the request of MOL.(4, 5, 39) MOL also chairs the Child Labor Monitoring and Surveillance System, which includes the National Coordination Unit in the National Directorate of Employment and various prefectural committees.(25)

Office for the Protection of Gender, Children, and Morals (OPROGEM) Special Police Unit

Enforce laws related to the protection of minors, including the worst forms of child labor.(4, 6) Serves as a member of the National Committee to Fight Against Trafficking in Persons (CNLTP).(4, 6, 13)

Ministry for Social Action, Promotion of Women and Children (MASPFE)

Provide protection and social services for victims of child labor and human trafficking.(12) In 2015, conducted raising awareness campaigns on child labor in mining.(40, 41)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2015, labor law enforcement agencies in Guinea did not take actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown (16)

Unknown

Number of Labor Inspectors

53 (16)

53 (14)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (16)

No (14)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

No (16)

No(14)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

No (16)

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

No (16)

No (14)

Number of Labor Inspections

0 (16)

0 (14)

Number Conducted at Worksite

N/A

N/A (14)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

N/A

N/A (14)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

0

0 (14)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

0 (16)

0 (14)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

N/A (16)

N/A (14)

Routine Inspections Conducted

No (16)

No (14)

Routine Inspections Targeted

No (16)

No (14)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Unknown

Unknown

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

No (16)

No (14)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Unknown

Yes (14)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Unknown

No (14)

 

In 2015, the Ministry of Labor (MOL) had 20 inspectors in Conakry and one inspector in each of the country’s 33 regional offices.(14) According to the ILO recommendation of one inspector for every 40,000 workers in less developed economies, the Government of Guinea should employ about 131 inspectors to adequately enforce labor laws throughout the country.(14, 42-44) Reports indicate a lack of trained staff, equipment, transportation, and funding to conduct child labor inspections and legal proceedings.(3, 6, 14, 16)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2015, criminal law enforcement agencies in Guinea took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Investigations

Unknown

2 (14, 45)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown

0 (14)

Number of Convictions

Unknown

0 (14)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (16)

Yes (14)

 

In 2015, the Office for the Protection of Gender, Children, and Morals (OPROGEM) had 23 agents in Conakry and one in each of the country’s 33 regional offices.(14, 16) OPROGEM remained understaffed, underfunded, and without adequate office supplies, transportation, and fuel to enforce laws related to the worst forms of child labor effectively.(3, 6, 14, 16) The budget for the Ministry for Social Action, Promotion of Women and Children, decreased from $13 million in 2014 to $9 million in 2015 as a result of the Ebola epidemic.(14)

Two NGOs conducted training for government officials in charge of enforcing child trafficking laws, including victims’ rights.(31) However, corruption in law enforcement agencies and the judiciary impeded government efforts to combat the worst forms of child labor.(4, 6, 14)

While a referral mechanism exists between criminal law enforcement agencies and social welfare services, the social services available to victims were not adequate to meet the needs.(14, 16) The Government relied on NGOs to provide shelter and other basic services to victims.(31)

Although the Government has established a coordination mechanism on human trafficking, research found no evidence of mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including all its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Committee to Fight Against Trafficking in Persons (CNLTP)

Coordinate anti-human-trafficking efforts, including for children. Led by the MASPFE, includes representatives from the Ministry of Justice, the Ministry of Security OPROGEM, MOL and other agencies, the police, NGOs, and other stakeholders involved in human trafficking issues.(6, 12, 13) In September, the CNLTP collaborated with the International IOM on a 3-day workshop to improve its capacity, including its National Action Plan to counter TIP.(31) CNLTPE officials attended EU- and State Department-funded anti-trafficking workshops in Nigeria, Guinea, and Morocco.(31)

Committee for Monitoring, Protection, and Defense of the Rights of the Child

Implement, coordinate, and monitor Government efforts on child protection.(16, 28)

 

During the reporting period, the National Committee to Fight Against Trafficking in Persons (CNLTP) met to develop the National Plan of Action to Fight Against Trafficking in Persons and work on human trafficking cases.(45) However, the effectiveness of the CNLTP was hampered by budget constraints.(31)

The Government of Guinea has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

A World Fit for Children (2002–2015)

Sets mandatory procedures for government institutions to assist children by increasing their access to quality education; protecting children against child labor, exploitation, and violence; and combating HIV/AIDS.(46)

Education Sector Program (2015–2017)*

Addresses the welfare of children, which includes initiatives on health, education, legal protection, and access to clean water. Overseen by the MOE and implemented in partnership with UNICEF and the World Bank.(47, 48)

PRSP (2013–2015)*

Provides a framework for Guinea’s growth and poverty reduction agenda. Aims to improve access to education and its quality and increase food security, employment opportunities for youth, and protection for women, children, and vulnerable groups and provide programs to assist them.(49)

* Child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy.

The Government of Guinea produced a National Plan of Action to Fight Against Trafficking in Persons, but was unable to implement the Plan or renew its 2005 anti-trafficking agreement with the Government of Mali.(31) Research found no evidence of a policy on other worst forms of child labor.

In 2015, the Government of Guinea funded and participated in programs that may contribute to the prevention or elimination of child labor (Table 10).

Table 10. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Plan Guinea-Conakry Program

Attempts to change the attitudes and behaviors that are preventing children from realizing their rights. Strengthens the capacity of key actors to respect children’s rights in the areas of education, survival, and protection.(20)

WFP Country Program-Guinea (2013–2017)

WFP-funded, 4-year program, improves elementary school attendance and promotes education for girls. Aims to assist 437,000 beneficiaries for 5 years.(50) Implemented in partnership with the Ministry of Cooperation.(29, 50, 51)

Center in Ratoma, Conakry†

Government program, helps vulnerable children reintegrate into society.(13)

† Program is funded by the Government of Guinea.

Although the Government of Guinea has implemented programs in children’s rights and education, research found no evidence that it has carried out programs specifically designed to assist children in agriculture, domestic work, mining, and street work.(12)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Guinea (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that the types of work that children perform in Guinea that fall into an R.190 category are prohibited to children under age 18.

2014 – 2015

Ensure that all children are prohibited from participating in hazardous mining.

2010 – 2015

Ensure that the law’s light work provisions are specific enough to prevent children from involvement in child labor.

2015

Ensure that the minimum age provisions apply to children in unpaid or non-contractual work.

2009 – 2015

Enforcement

Increase the resources, training, and number of criminal law enforcement officials and labor inspectors to adequately enforce child labor laws.

2009 – 2015

Collect and make publicly available complete information on labor inspectorate funding, whether unannounced inspections are permitted, training for criminal investigators, and the number of criminal violations related to the worst forms of child labor.

2011 – 2015

Ensure the labor inspectorate has authority to determine and assess penalties.

2015

Address corruption in law enforcement agencies and the judiciary that impedes efforts to combat the worst forms of child labor.

2015

Coordination

Establish coordinating mechanisms to combat child labor, including in all its worst forms.

2010 – 2015

Ensure that the CNLTP receives adequate funding to fulfill its mission.

2010 – 2015

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the Education Sector Program and PRSP.

2010 – 2015

Adopt a policy that addresses all relevant worst forms of child labor.

2014 – 2015

Social Programs

Increase access to education by taking the following actions:

  • Increase school infrastructure and teacher availability;
  • Eliminate school-related fees;
  • Ensure school administrators and teachers allow children without birth certificates to attend school;
  • Make regular schools accessible to children with disabilities; and
  • Take measures to prevent discrimination in education and ensure the safety of children in schools.

2010 – 2015

Institute programs to address the worst forms of child labor, including in agriculture, domestic work, mining, and street work.

2010 – 2015

Ensure that social services are properly funded and adequate to meet the needs of victims of the worst forms of child labor.

2010 – 2015

Conduct research to determine the activities carried out by children in manufacturing to inform policies and programs.

2013 – 2015

 

1.         UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Concluding observations on the second periodic report of Guinea, adopted by the Committee at its sixty-second session (14 January – 1 February 2013). Geneva; June 13, 2013. Report No. CRC/C/GIN/CO/2. http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=web&cd=4&ved=0CFAQFjAD&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww2.ohchr.org%2Fenglish%2Fbodies%2Fcrc%2Fdocs%2Fco%2FCRC_C_GIN_CO_2.doc&ei=gO_vUvPhC-jlsASmpYCICg&usg=AFQjCNGrYid-iz4OElkTdZHVL2Sn6Miiow&sig2=yO7Tx2x4tPzxhpM_e9N2Kg.

2.         ILO-IPEC. Rapport de L'Enquete Nationale Sur le Travail et la Traite des Enfants en Guinee de 2010. Technical Report. Guinea; November 2011. http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/viewProduct.do?productId=21016.

3.         International Confederation of Free Trade Unions. Internationally Recognized Core Labour Standards in Mauritania and Guinea: Report for the WTO General Council Review of the Trade Policies of Mauritania and Guinea. Geneva; September 28 and 30, 2011. http://www.ilo.org/public/libdoc/igo/2011/466485.pdf.

4.         U.S. Department of State. "Guinea," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2015. Washington, DC; June 25, 2015; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/236578.pdf.

5.         ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Guinea (ratification: 2003) Published: 2013; accessed January 26, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:11003:0::NO:::.

6.         U.S. Department of State. "Guinea," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015. Washington, DC; July 27, 2015; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2015/index.htm.

7.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed December 16, 2015]; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school.  This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. Because the calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age), the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

8.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Demographic and Health Survey, 2012. Analysis received December 18, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

9.         Thorsen, D. Children Working in Commercial Agriculture: Evidence from West and Central Africa. Dakar, UNICEF West and Central Africa; April 2012. http://www.unicef.org/wcaro/english/documents_publications_6923.html.

10.       Macro International. Independent Midterm Evaluation of Stop Exploitive Labor and Educate Children for Tomorrow (SELECT). Calverton; January 2011.

11.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Guinea (ratification: 2003) Submitted: 2011; accessed July 18, 2013; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:11003:0::NO:::.

12.       UNICEF. Analyse de Situation des Enfants en Guinée; 2015. https://www.ecoi.net/file_upload/90_1439291236_unicef-child-notice-guinea-201506.pdf.

13.       U.S. Embassy- Conakry. reporting, January 17, 2014.

14.       U.S. Embassy- Conakry. reporting, January 11, 2016.

15.       World Education. SELECT - Stop Exploitive Labor and Educate Children for Tomorrow. Boston; January 2012.

16.       U.S. Embassy- Conakry. reporting, February 3, 2015.

17.       Government of Guinea. Conditions de travail des salariés âgés de moins de 18 ans, Arrêté n°2791/MTASE/DNTLS/96, enacted April 22, 1996. http://www.droit-afrique.com/images/textes/Guinee/Guinee%20-%20Travail%20des%20mineurs.pdf.

18.       U.S. Embassy- Conakry official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 15, 2015.

19.       Sidy Bah, B. "Objectif : ‘’zéro enfants dans les rues de Conakry’’." Visionguinee.info [online] July 1, 2013 [cited March 10, 2014];

20.       Plan Guinea Conakry. See Our World. Conakry; 2013. http://www.planusa.org/docs/hearchildren/guinea.pdf.

21.       "Guinée: société, des enfants exposés à l’exploitation." guineeinfos.org [online] June 18, 2013 [cited March 10, 2014]; [source on file].

22.       Mouvement Africain des Enfants et Jeunes Travailleurs. Protection des enfants en mobilité par des enfants et jeunes organisés. Dakar; December 2011.

23.       Barry, AT. "L’exploitation abusive des enfants est devenue monnaie courante à Kankan." guineenews.org [online] May 15, 2015 [cited October 26, 2015]; http://guineenews.org/lexploitation-abusive-des-enfants-est-devenue-monnaie-courante-a-kankan/.

24.       UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Summary record of the 1764th meeting: Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 44 of the Convention, second periodic report of Guinea. Geneva; May 24, 2013. Report No. CRC/C/SR1764. http://tb.ohchr.org/default.aspx?country=gn.

25.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Guinea (ratification: 2003) Published: 2013; accessed Jaunary 26, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3075871.

26.       La travail domestique in Guinee, Votre Salaire, [online] [cited March 17, 2014]; http://www.votresalaire.org/guinee/home/droit-du-travail/travail-domestique/le-travail-domestique-en-guinee.

27.       Thorsen, D. Child Domestic Workers: Evidence from West and Central Africa. Dakar, UNICEF West and Central Africa; April 2012. http://www.unicef.org/wcaro/english/overview_6585.html.

28.       UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Concluding observations on the second periodic report of Guinea, adopted by the Committee at its sixty-second session (14 January – 1 February 2013). Geneva; January 30, 2013. Report No. CRC/C/GIN/CO/2. http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=web&cd=4&ved=0CFAQFjAD&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww2.ohchr.org%2Fenglish%2Fbodies%2Fcrc%2Fdocs%2Fco%2FCRC_C_GIN_CO_2.doc&ei=gO_vUvPhC-jlsASmpYCICg&usg=AFQjCNGrYid-iz4OElkTdZHVL2Sn6Miiow&sig2=yO7Tx2x4tPzxhpM_e9N2Kg.

29.       UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Summary record of the 1765th meeting : Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 44 of the Convention, second periodic report of Guinea. Geneva; January 24, 2013. Report No. CRC/C/GIN/2. http://tb.ohchr.org/default.aspx?country=gn.

30.       Thorsen, D. Children Begging for Qur’ānic School Masters: Evidence from West and Central Africa. Dakar, UNICEF West and Central Africa; April 2012. http://www.unicef.org/wcaro/english/overview_6585.html.

31.       U.S. Embassy- Conakry. reporting, February 1, 2016.

32.       Government of Guinea. Loi Portant Code de l'Enfant enacted August 2008. https://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/98741/117564/F-1366184401/GIN-98741.pdf.

33.       Government of Guinea. Special Code du Travail, L/2014/072/CNT, enacted January 10, 2014. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/MONOGRAPH/96583/114158/F200086881/GIN-96583.pdf.

34.       Government of Guinea. Code Minier, enacted 1995. https://rmportal.net/library/content/frame/codeminier.doc.

35.       Government of Guinea. Penal Code, 98/036, enacted December 31, 1988. http://www.protectionproject.org

36.       Government of Guinea. Decret D/97/196-/PRG/SGG, enacted July 30, 1997.

37.       Government of Guinea. Constitution enacted April 19, 2010. http://ddata.over-blog.com/1/35/48/78/Guinee/constitution-Guinee-2010.pdf.

38.       Child Soldiers International. Louder than words - An agenda for action to end state use of child soldiers.; 2012. file:///C:/Users/solorio-luis-p/Downloads/louderthanwordsseptember20124903558%20(2).pdf.

39.       Government of Guinea. Code du travail de la République de Guinée, enacted 1988.

40.       Koïvogui, K. "Siguiri : le mois de l’enfant guinéen officiellement lancé." guineematin.com [online] June 6, 2015 [cited October 26, 2015]; http://guineematin.com/actualites/siguiri-le-mois-de-lenfant-guineen-officiellement-lance/.

41.       Barry, IK. "MEG 2015 : Les enfants des zones minières à l’honneur." [online] June 1, 2015 [cited October 26, 2015]; http://www.ledjely.com/2015/06/01/mois-de-lenfant-guineen-les-enfants-des-zones-minieres-a-lhonneur/.

42.       CIA. The World Factbook, [online] [cited March 18, 2016]; https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors based on the country’s level of development as determined by the UN.

43.       ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a “sufficient number” of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a “sufficient” number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

44.       UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex. New York; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies; “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies, and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

45.       U.S. Embassy- Conakry official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 28, 2016.

46.       A post-2015 World Fit for Children: UNICEF Key Messages on the Post-2015 Development Agenda, UNICEF, [online] [cited March 20, 2014]; http://www.unicef.org/post2015/.

47.       Government of Guinea. Programme Sectoriel de l’Education (2015-2017). previously online. Conakry; 2014. http://www.education-guinee.org/documents/index.htm "source on file".

48.       The World Bank. Education For All-Fast Track Initiative Program Washington, DC; June 23, 2014. Report No. P111470. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2014/06/19718366/guinea-education-all-fast-track-initiative-program-p111470-implementation-status-results-report-sequence-11.

49.       IMF and World Bank. Guinea: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper 2011-2015. Washington, DC; March 2013. http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Guinea/Guinea_PRSP_2013.pdf.

50.       World Food Programme. Country Programme - Guinea (2013–2017). Washington, DC; 2013. http://www.wfp.org/content/country-programme-guinea-2013%E2%80%932017.

51.       World Food Programme. School Feeding Programmes in Guinea. Washington, DC; January 2014. https://www.wfp.org/content/school-feeding-programmes-guinea.

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