Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Guinea

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Guinea

2017 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2017, Guinea made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The government ratified ILO C. 189 on Decent Work for Domestic Workers and adopted a new National Development Plan that includes activities to combat commercial sexual exploitation of children, human trafficking, and child labor. The government also implemented nationwide awareness-raising campaigns on child trafficking. However, children in Guinea engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in mining and forced begging. Children also perform dangerous tasks in agriculture. The government lacks a coordinating mechanism and national policy to address all relevant worst forms of child labor. In addition, the government does not adequately enforce child labor laws or implement sufficient social programs to address the extent of the child labor problem.

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Children in Guinea engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in mining and forced begging. (1; 2; 3; 4; 5) Children also perform dangerous tasks in agriculture. (6; 7; 8) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Guinea.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

32.3 (1,152,064)

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

49.6

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

19.2

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

63.8

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2014, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2018 (9).
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s Analysis of Statistics from Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), 2012. (10)

 

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Farming and carrying heavy loads† in the production of cashews, cocoa, and coffee (3; 4; 11; 12; 13)

Herding livestock (3)

Capturing and processing fish (7; 3; 4; 14)

Industry

Mining† granite, gold, and diamonds (2; 3; 4; 5; 12; 8)

Manufacturing, activities unknown (1; 3)

Construction,† including carrying materials (1; 3; 15)

Services

Street work, including as market vendors, beggars, petty traders, shoe shiners, and porters in the transportation sector (3; 4; 16; 17; 18; 19; 14; 20; 8)

Working in restaurants and informal cottage industries, including as waitresses (3; 21)

Domestic work (7; 4; 12; 22; 8)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Forced labor as market vendors and in domestic work, mining, herding, fishing, and farming, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1; 3; 4; 5)

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (18; 19; 5)

Forced begging by Koranic teachers (4; 18; 5)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

 

Children in Guinea are trafficked domestically and abroad for forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation. Some Guinean boys are subjected to forced labor in gold and diamond mining, including in Senegal and Mali, while girls are exploited in domestic work and commercial sexual exploitation in various West African and Middle Eastern countries. (3; 4; 19; 23; 24; 5)

Boys placed in the care of Koranic schools in Guinea are sometimes forced by their teachers to beg on the street or to work in fields, and must then surrender the money they have earned to their teachers. (4; 11; 18; 24; 5) In addition, through the system of confiage, parents who are unable to care for their children send them to relatives or strangers who are expected to provide food, shelter, and schooling to the children in exchange for housework. In practice, some of these children receive care and an education, while many become domestic workers and are victims of labor exploitation and abuse. (25; 4; 23; 14; 25)

The Constitution guarantees free compulsory primary education, but many children do not attend school. Birth registration is required to attend school in Guinea, and some Guinean children lack identity documents, which may affect their access to education. (25) In addition, the lack of school infrastructure, cost of school fees and supplies, shortage of teachers, and reported school violence impede access to education, which may increase the vulnerability of children to the worst forms of child labor. (4; 18; 26; 14; 5; 8)

Guinea has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

In 2017, the Government of Guinea ratified ILO C. 189 on Decent Work for Domestic Workers. (22)

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Guinea’s legal framework to adequately protect children from the worst forms of child labor, including with the minimum age for work.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

No

16

Article 137.5 of the Labor Code; Article 412 of the Child Code (27; 28)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Articles 2–4 of Order 2791 Working Conditions for Employees Aged Under 18 Years; Article 137.4 of the Labor Code (15; 28)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Articles 415–418 of the Child Code; Articles 2 and 4 of Order 2791 Working Conditions for Employees Aged Under 18 Years; Article 135 of the Mining Code; Article 137.6 of the Labor Code (15; 27; 28; 29)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 194–195 and 323 of the Penal Code; Articles 4 and 137.6 of the Labor Code; Articles 356–360, 385, and 397–399 of the Child Code (27; 28; 30)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 195 and 323–324 of the Penal Code; Articles 356–360 and 385 of the Child Code (27; 30)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 346–348 and 355 of the Penal Code; Articles 356–360 of the Child Code (27; 30)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 137.6 of the Labor Code; Article 383 of the Child Code, Article 344 of the Penal Code (27; 28; 30)

Prohibition of Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

N/A*

 

 

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Article 429 of the Child Code (27)

Non-state

Yes

18

Article 792.7 of the Penal Code; Article 429 of the Child Code (27; 30)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

16

Article 6, Title 1 of Education Decree 97/196-/PRG/SGG (31)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 23 of the Constitution (32)

* No conscription (33)

 

Guinean law prohibits hazardous occupations and activities for children; however these prohibitions do not cover agriculture. Children working in this sector may be exposed to unhealthy environments, including hazardous substances and dangerous equipment. (25; 3; 4; 15; 28) A revised Child Code that contains a more specific list of hazardous child labor activities in all relevant sectors was developed, but it was not approved during the reporting period. (18; 14; 34) Article 2.6 of Order 2791 prohibits children under age 18 from working in the extraction of minerals and materials from mines and quarries, but Article 135 of the Mining Code permits children below the age of 16  to work in mines and quarries as assistants. This exemption allows an opportunity for children to perform hazardous activities legally. (15; 29)

Guinean law allows children between the ages of 12 and 14 to perform light work in the domestic work and agriculture sectors. (15; 27) However, the law does not prescribe the number of hours per week permitted for light work, nor does it specify the conditions under which light work may be done as defined by international standards on child labor. (35) The Labor Code only imposes a minimum age for employment for children employed by employers but does not address situations in which children work on their own account, which does not conform to international standards that require all children to be protected under the law establishing a minimum age for work. (25; 28; 36; 37)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the operations of the Ministry of Labor that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor (MOL)

Enforce all labor laws, including those related to child labor. (25; 38; 14) Chair the Child Labor Monitoring and Surveillance System, which aims to identify and remove children from exploitative labor conditions. (1; 18)

Office for the Protection of Gender, Children, and Morals (OPROGEM) Special Police Unit

Enforce laws related to the protection of minors, including the worst forms of child labor. (19; 14; 5; 34)

Ministry for Social Action, Promotion of Women and Children (MASPFE)

Provide protection and social services for victims of child labor and human trafficking. (4; 14) In 2017, conducted a national media campaign to raise awareness of child trafficking. (24)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2017, labor law enforcement agencies in Guinea took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the operations of the Ministry of Labor (MOL) that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including with financial and human resource allocation.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Labor Inspectors

53 (39)

Unknown (40)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (41)

Yes (14)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

No (41)

No (40)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

No (41)

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

No (41)

Yes (37)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

678 (14)

250 (24)

Number Conducted at Worksites

678 (14)

250 (24)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

0 (41)

Unknown (14)

Number of Child Labor Violations for which Penalties were Imposed

0 (41)

Unknown (14)

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that were Collected

No (41)

Unknown (14)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (41)

Yes (14)

Routine Inspections Targeted

No (39)

No (14)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (41)

Yes (14)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (41)

Yes (14)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (41)

Yes (14)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

No (41)

No (40)

 

In 2017, the MOL had 53 inspectors in Conakry, although the total number of labor inspectors employed nationwide is unknown. (39; 41; 40) The number of labor inspectors is likely insufficient for the size of Guinea’s workforce, which includes approximately 5.5 million workers. According to the ILO’s technical advice of a ratio approaching 1 inspector for every 40,000 workers in less developed economies, Guinea would employ about 139 inspectors. (39; 42; 43; 44) Reports indicate the MOL lacks the trained staff, equipment, transportation, and funding to conduct child labor inspections and hold legal proceedings. (25; 45; 14)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2017, criminal law enforcement agencies in Guinea took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including with allocating financial and human resources.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Yes (14)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown

Yes (14)

Number of Investigations

7 (46)

19 (24)

Number of Violations Found

7 (41)

Unknown (24)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

1 (41)

8 (24)

Number of Convictions

0 (41)

4 (24)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (41)

Yes (14)

 

During the reporting period, the Office for the Protection of Gender, Children, and Morals (OPROGEM) had 23 agents in Conakry and one in each of the country’s 33 regional offices. (14) OPROGEM remained understaffed, underfunded, and without sufficient office supplies, transportation, or fuel to adequately enforce laws related to the worst forms of child labor. (14; 5; 34; 47) In addition, corruption in law enforcement agencies and the judiciary impeded efforts to combat the worst forms of child labor. (24; 5)

In 2017, the Ministry for Social Action, Promotion of Women and Children (MASPFE), provided reintegration services to 16 child victims of human trafficking. (24) Despite these efforts, reports indicate that social services available are not adequate to meet the needs of the victims. As a result, the government relied on NGOs to provide shelter and other basic services to victims. (14; 24; 5; 34; 47)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including with efforts to address all forms of child labor.

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role and Description

National Committee to Combat Trafficking in Persons and Similar Practices (CNLTPPA)

Coordinate anti-human trafficking efforts, including for children. Led by the Ministry for Social Action, Promotion of Women and Children (MASPFE), includes representatives from OPROGEM, MOL, and other ministries. (4; 19; 24; 5) In 2017, CNLTPPA organized a nationwide media campaign in observance of World Day Against Trafficking in Persons, as well as events in the main border crossing with Sierra Leone. (24; 5)

Committee for Monitoring, Protection, and Defense of the Rights of the Child (CGSDE)

Implement, coordinate, and monitor government efforts on child protection. Led by MASPFE. (41; 19; 34) In August 2017, published a report that outlines the government’s efforts and priorities on child protection. (48)

 

Limited budgets for these committees during the reporting period affected their ability to operate and coordinate efforts to address child labor, including all its worst forms. (14; 5; 34; 47) Although the government has established a coordination mechanism on human trafficking, research found no evidence of mechanisms to coordinate the government’s efforts to address child labor.

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including covering all worst forms of child labor.

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Plan of Action to Fight Against Trafficking in Persons

Aims to enhance the legal framework to raise awareness, provide protection and care for human trafficking victims, and prevent human trafficking. Led by the CNLTPPA. (18; 49; 5) In 2017, received $5,600 for victim assistance services. (24)

Education Sector Program (2015–2017)

Aimed to increase access to primary, secondary, and technical and vocational education, particularly for vulnerable populations. Under the Ministry of Education, supported by international donors. (50; 51) In 2017, obtained $12 million from the Government of Germany to support implementation of the program. (52)

National Development Plan (2016–2020)†

Seeks to promote sustainable development and social equality. Overseen by the Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation and supported by the World Bank. (53; 54) Includes activities to combat commercial sexual exploitation of children, human trafficking, and child labor. (53)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

 

Although the Government of Guinea has adopted a policy on trafficking in persons, research found no evidence of a generalized child labor policy. (37)

In 2017, the government participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including with adequacy of efforts to address the problem in all sectors.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Decent Work Country Program (2016–2019)

Seeks to develop a National Action Plan for the elimination of child labor, including all its worst forms. Overseen by the MOL and supported by the ILO. (55) In 2017, developed methodological guidelines to improve labor law enforcement, including child labor laws. (37)

Plan Guinea-Conakry Program

Aims to strengthen the capacity of key actors to improve children’s rights in the areas of education, survival, and protection. (16) In 2017, improved classroom facilities for 650 primary schools in Guinea. (56)

UNICEF Country Program (2013–2017)

UNICEF-funded program that supported the Government’s efforts to enhance education, birth registration rates, and social inclusion, and to strengthen the child protection response to the Ebola virus disease outbreak. (57) In 2017, conducted awareness-raising campaigns on child labor and expanded child protection programs in the Faranah region. (58)

World Bank Country Program

World Bank projects in Guinea that aim to increase access to quality basic education and youth employment, improve school infrastructure, and strengthen safety nets for vulnerable populations, especially those affected by the Ebola virus disease outbreak. (59; 60; 61; 62) In 2017, provided cash transfers to an estimated 5,000 vulnerable households. (62)

 

Although the Government of Guinea has implemented programs on children’s rights and education, research found no evidence that it has carried out programs specifically designed to assist children engaged in agriculture, domestic work, mining, or street work.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Guinea (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that children under age 18 are prohibited from performing hazardous work that fall into an R.190 category, such as agriculture.

2014 – 2017

Ensure that all children are prohibited from participating in hazardous mining.

2010 – 2017

Ensure that light work provisions of the law are specific enough to prevent children from involvement in child labor.

2015 – 2017

Ensure that all children are protected by law, including children working outside of a formal employment relationship and children who are self-employed.

2009 – 2017

Enforcement

Increase the resources, training, and number of criminal law enforcement officials and labor inspectors to adequately enforce child labor laws.

2009 – 2017

Publish complete information on Labor Inspectorate funding, number of labor inspectors employed nationwide, number of child labor and criminal law violations, as well as the number of penalties imposed and collected.

2011 – 2017

Strengthen labor law enforcement by authorizing the Inspectorate to initiate targeted inspections based on analysis of data related to risk-prone sectors and patterns of serious incidents.

2015 – 2017

Establish a referral mechanism between the MOL and the MASPFE to protect and rehabilitate children involved in child labor, including its worst forms.

2016 – 2017

Address corruption in law enforcement agencies and the judiciary that impedes efforts to combat the worst forms of child labor.

2015 – 2017

Coordination

Establish coordinating mechanisms to combat child labor, including all its worst forms.

2010 – 2017

Ensure that the CNLTPPA and the CGSDE receive adequate funding to fulfill their missions.

2010 – 2017

Government Policies

Adopt a policy that addresses all relevant worst forms of child labor.

2014 – 2017

Social Programs

Enhance efforts to eliminate barriers and make education accessible for all children by assisting unregistered children to obtain birth and identity documentation that entitles them to access school; increase school infrastructure and teacher availability; remove school-related fees; and ensure the safety of children in schools.

2010 – 2017

Conduct research to determine the activities carried out by children in manufacturing, to inform policies and programs.

2013 – 2017

Ensure that social services are properly funded and adequate to meet the needs of victims of the worst forms of child labor.

2010 – 2017

Institute programs to address the worst forms of child labor, including in agriculture, domestic work, mining, and street work.

2010 – 2017

1. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Guinea (ratification: 2003) Published: 2013. Accessed January 26, 2014. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:11003:0::NO:::.

2. Bah, Mamadou Oury. Guinée: travail d'enfants dans la carrière de granite de Manéah. AfriqueActualite. October 18, 2016. http://beta.afriqueactualite.com/societe/societe/5611-guinee-travail-d-enfants-dans-la-carriere-de-granite-de-maneah#.WxlD_-4vypo.

3. ILO-IPEC. Rapport de L'Enquete Nationale Sur le Travail et la Traite des Enfants en Guinee de 2010. November 2011: Technical Report. http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/viewProduct.do?productId=21016.

4. UNICEF. Analyse de Situation des Enfants en Guinée. 2015. https://www.ecoi.net/file_upload/90_1439291236_unicef-child-notice-guinea-201506.pdf.

5. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2017: Guinea. Washington, DC. June 27, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2017/271197.htm.

6. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Concluding observations on the second periodic report of Guinea, adopted by the Committee at its sixty-second session (14 January – 1 February 2013). June 13, 2013: CRC/C/GIN/CO/2. http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=web&cd=4&ved=0CFAQFjAD&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww2.ohchr.org%2Fenglish%2Fbodies%2Fcrc%2Fdocs%2Fco%2FCRC_C_GIN_CO_2.doc&ei=gO_vUvPhC-jlsASmpYCICg&usg=AFQjCNGrYid-iz4OElkTdZHVL2Sn6Miiow&sig2=yO7Tx2x4tPz.

7. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Guinea (ratification: 2003) Published: 2016. Accessed November 7, 2016. [Source on file].

8. Guinee7. Exploitation des enfants : la Région de Faranah enregistre le plus grand nombre d’enfants travailleurs. June 14, 2017. http://guinee7.com/2017/06/14/exploitation-des-enfants-la-region-de-faranah-enregistre-le-plus-grand-nombre-denfants-travailleurs/.

9. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed January 4, 2018. http://data.uis.unesco.org/. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

10. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Demographic and Health Survey, 2012. Analysis received January 12, 2018. Please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

11. Issatou, D. Guinée: L’exploitation abusive des enfants, très récurrente à Boké. Flashguinee.net. March 19, 2016. http://flashguinee.info/guinee-lexploitation-abusive-des-enfants-tres-recurrente-a-boke/.

12. Bah, Fatoumata Dalanda. Exploitation des enfants en Guinée: Les tout-petits poussent leurs cris de cœur! Guinéenews. June 13, 2017. http://bemato.info/item-118244-exploitation-des-enfants-en-guin%C3%A9e-les-t.

13. U.S. Embassy- Conakry. Reporting, November 6, 2017.

14. —. Reporting, January 11, 2018.

15. Government of Guinea. Conditions de travail des salariés âgés de moins de 18 ans, Arrêté n°2791/MTASE/DNTLS/96. Enacted: April 22, 1996. http://www.droit-afrique.com/images/textes/Guinee/Guinee%20-%20Travail%20des%20mineurs.pdf.

16. Plan Guinea Conakry. See Our World. 2013. http://www.planusa.org/docs/hearchildren/guinea.pdf.

17. Barry, AT. L’exploitation abusive des enfants est devenue monnaie courante à Kankan. Guinee News. May 15, 2015. http://fr.africatime.com/guinee/articles/lexploitation-abusive-des-enfants-est-devenue-monnaie-courante-kankan.

18. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Guinea (ratification: 2003) Published: 2016. Accessed November 7, 2016. [Source on file].

19. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Periodic Reports of States Parties due in 2013: Guinea. October 12, 2016: CRC/C/OPSC/GIN/1. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fOPSC%2fGIN%2f1&Lang=en.

20. Diallo, Nenen Raby. Guinée: Les enfants albinos, entre mendicité et exploitation. La Voix des Jeunes. August 10, 2017. http://www.voicesofyouth.org/fr/posts/guinee-les-enfants-albinos-entre-mendicite-et-exploitation.

21. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Summary record of the 1764th meeting: Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 44 of the Convention, second periodic report of Guinea. May 24, 2013: CRC/C/SR1764. [Source on file].

22. Barry, Mouctar. Travail domestique: la Guinée ratifie la convention sur le travail décent pour les travailleurs domestiques. Guineematin. March 31, 2017. http://guineematin.com/actualites/travail-domestique-la-guinee-ratifie-la-convention-sur-le-travail-decent-pour-les-travailleurs-domestiques/.

23. Camara, A. Traite et exploitation des enfants: Une pratique avérée en Guinée. Sabari FM. March 15, 2016. http://www.sabarifm.com/4/3068/a/fr/traite-et-exploitation-des-enfants-une-pratique-averee-en-guinee.html.

24. U.S. Embassy- Conakry. Reporting, February 20, 2018.

25. U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2016: Guinea. Washington, DC. 2017. http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2017&dlid=277007.

26. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Concluding observations on the second periodic report of Guinea, adopted by the Committee at its sixty-second session (14 January – 1 February 2013). January 30, 2013: CRC/C/GIN/CO/2. http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=web&cd=4&ved=0CFAQFjAD&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww2.ohchr.org%2Fenglish%2Fbodies%2Fcrc%2Fdocs%2Fco%2FCRC_C_GIN_CO_2.doc&ei=gO_vUvPhC-jlsASmpYCICg&usg=AFQjCNGrYid-iz4OElkTdZHVL2Sn6Miiow&sig2=yO7Tx2x4tPzx.

27. Government of Guinea. Loi Portant Code de l'Enfant. Enacted: August 2008. https://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/98741/117564/F-1366184401/GIN-98741.pdf.

28. —. Special Code du Travail, L/2014/072/CNT. Enacted: January 10, 2014. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/MONOGRAPH/96583/114158/F200086881/GIN-96583.pdf.

29. —. Code Minier. Enacted: 1995. https://rmportal.net/library/content/frame/codeminier.doc.

30. —. Penal Code, 2016/059. Enacted: 2016. [Source on file].

31. —. Decret D/97/196-/PRG/SGG. Enacted: July 30, 1997. http://extwprlegs1.fao.org/docs/pdf/Gui169183.pdf.

32. —. Constitution. Enacted: April 19, 2010. http://ddata.over-blog.com/1/35/48/78/Guinee/constitution-Guinee-2010.pdf.

33. Child Soldiers International. Louder than words - An agenda for action to end state use of child soldiers. 2012. https://www.child-soldiers.org/shop/louder-than-words-1.

34. COLTE/CRC. Supplementary report on the implementation of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Trafficking of children, prostitution and child pornography in Guinea. June 2017. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/Treaties/CRC-OP-SC/Shared%20Documents/GIN/INT_CRC-OP-SC_NGO_GIN_28841_E.pdf.

35. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Guinea (ratification: 2003) Published: 2013. Accessed Jaunary 26, 2014. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3075871.

36. U.S. Embassy- Conakry official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 14, 2017.

37. ILO. Report of the Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations. 2018. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3338434:NO.

38. Government of Guinea. Code du travail de la République de Guinée. Enacted: 1988. http://www.ilo.org/aids/legislation/WCMS_301242/lang--fr/index.htm.

39. U.S. Embassy- Conakry. Reporting, January 11, 2016.

40. U.S. Embassy- Conakry official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 10, 2018.

41. U.S. Embassy- Conakry. Reporting, January 12, 2017.

42. CIA. The World Factbook. Accessed 2017. https://www.cia.gov/Library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2095rank.html. Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

43. ILO Committee on Employment and Social Policy. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf.

44. UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex. New York. 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf.

45. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Labour Inspection Convention, 1947 (No. 81) Guinea (ratification: 1959) Published: 2016. Accessed November 7, 2016. http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/english/iloquery.htm.

46. U.S. Embassy- Conakry official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 28, 2016.

47. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Concluding observations on the report submitted by Guinea under article 12 (1) of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography. October 26, 2017: CRC/C/OPSC/GIN/CO/1. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fOPSC%2fGIN%2fCO%2f1&Lang=en.

48. Government of Guinea. Rapport périodique combiné (3ème, 4ème, 5ème, 6ème) sur la mise en oeuvre de la convention relative aux droits de l'enfant (CDE). August 2017. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fGIN%2f3-6&Lang=en.

49. —. National Plan of Action to Fight Against Trafficking in Persons. 2016. [Source on file].

50. —. Programme Sectoriel de l’Education (2015-2017). 2014. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex4.detail?p_lang=fr&p_isn=98743.

51. World Bank. Education For All-Fast Track Initiative Program. June 23, 2014: Report No. P111470. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2014/06/19718366/guinea-education-all-fast-track-initiative-program-p111470-implementation-status-results-report-sequence-11.

52. Intellivoire. Guinée système éducatif: L’Allemagne accorde un financement de 10 millions d’euros. July 21, 2017 . https://intellivoire.net/guineesysteme-educatif-lallemagne-accorde-un-financement-de-10-millions-deuros/.

53. Government of Guinea. Plan national de développement économique et social 2016-2020. January 18, 2017. http://www.gouvernement.gov.gn/images/PNDES/Plan%20National%20du%20Developpement%20Economique%20et%20Sociale.pdf.

54. Jeune Afrique. Guinée: le Plan national de développement économique et social largement financé. November 17, 2017. http://www.jeuneafrique.com/493808/economie/493808guinee-plan-largement-finance/.

55. ILO. Programme Pays de Promotion du Travail Décent en Guinée. December 2015. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/bureau/program/dwcp/download/ppdt-guinee-2016-19.pdf.

56. Plan Guinea Conakry. Education in Guinea . 2017. https://plan-international.org/guinea/education-guinea.

57. UNICEF. UNICEF Annual Report 2015: Guinea. New York. May 6, 2016. http://www.unicef.org/about/annualreport/files/Guinea_2015_COAR.pdf.

58. —. L'UNICEF lance un appel contre l'exploitation des enfants; En Guinée, la région de Faranah enregistre le plus grand nombre d'enfants travailleurs, avec, 63,8 % âgés de 5 à 17 ans impliqués généralement dans les activités agricoles et les mines. June 14, 2017. https://www.laminute.info/lunicef-lance-un-appel-contre-lexploitation-des-enfants/.

59. World Bank. Proposed Additional Grant in the Amount of SDR 8.6 Million (US$12 Million Equivalent) and a Proposed Ebola Recovery and Reconstruction Trust Found Grant in the Amount of US$4.35 Million to the Republic of Guinea for a Productive Social Safety Nets Project. May 9, 2016: Report No. PAD1768. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/653591468197396701/pdf/PAD1768-PJPR-P123900-Box394887B-OUO-9-IDA-R2016-0094-1.pdf.

60. —. Productive Social Safety Net Project (P123900). Implementation Status & Results Report : Sequence 09. September 23, 2016. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/904381474664063111/pdf/ISR-Disclosable-P123900-09-23-2016-1474664051852.pdf.

61. —. Productive Social Safety Net Project (P123900). Implementation Status & Results Report: Sequence 08. February 17, 2016. http://www.projects.worldbank.org/P123900/guinea-safety-net-project?lang=en.

62. —. Productive Social Safety Net Project (P123900). April 24, 2017: Implementation Status & Results Report - Sequence 10. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/549291493044575650/pdf/ISR-Disclosable-P123900-04-24-2017-1493044565418.pdf.

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