Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Guinea

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Guinea

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2016, Guinea made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government adopted a new Penal Code that strengthens the maximum penalties for certain crimes related to the worst forms of child labor, such as forced begging. The Government also adopted the National Plan of Action to Fight Against Trafficking in Persons, which will provide protection and social assistance to victims of human trafficking, including children. However, children in Guinea perform dangerous tasks in agriculture. Children also engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in mining and forced begging. The Government lacks a coordinating mechanism and national policy to address all relevant worst forms of child labor. In addition, the Government does not adequately enforce child labor laws or implement social programs to address the extent of the problem.

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Children in Guinea perform dangerous tasks in agriculture.(1-3) Children also engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in mining and forced begging.(4-8) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Guinea.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

32.3 (1,152,064)

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

49.6

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

19.2

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

61.8

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2014, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(9)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s Analysis of Statistics from Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), 2012.(10)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Farming and carrying heavy loads† in the production of cashews, cocoa, and coffee (3, 6, 7, 11)

Herding livestock (6)

Capturing and processing fish (2, 6, 7, 12)

Industry

Mining† granite, gold, and diamonds (3, 5-8, 13)

Manufacturing, activities unknown (4, 6)

Construction,† including cement making and carrying materials (3, 4, 6, 14)

Services

Street work, including as market vendors, beggars, petty traders, shoe shiners, and porters in the transportation sector (3, 6, 7, 15-19)

Working in restaurants and informal cottage industries, including as waitresses (3, 6, 20)

Domestic work (2, 7, 21)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Forced labor as market vendors and in domestic work, mining, herding, fishing, and farming, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (4, 6-8, 21)

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (8, 18, 19)

Forced begging by Koranic teachers (7, 8, 11, 18, 22)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Children in Guinea are exploited in trafficking internally and abroad for forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation. Some boys are subjected to forced labor in gold and diamond mining, including in Senegal and Mali, while girls are exploited in domestic work and commercial sexual exploitation in various West African and Middle Eastern countries.(6-8, 17, 19, 23)

Boys placed in the care of Koranic teachers for education are forced by their teachers to beg on the street or to work in fields; they must then surrender the money they have earned to their teachers.(7, 8, 11, 17, 18, 22) In addition, through the system of confiage, parents who are unable to care for their children send them to relatives or strangers that are expected to provide food, shelter, and schooling to the children in exchange for housework. In practice, some of these children receive care and an education, while many become domestic workers and are victims of labor exploitation and abuse.(3, 7, 8, 15, 23)

Although the Constitution guarantees free compulsory primary education, in practice, many children do not attend school. The lack of school infrastructure cost of school fees and supplies, a shortage of teachers, and reported school violence, all of which impede access to education, which may increase the vulnerability of children to the worst forms of child labor.(7, 17, 18, 24)

Guinea has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

During 2016, the Government of Guinea ratified the UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict.(25)

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Guinea’s legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

No

16

Article 137.5 of the Labor Code; Article 412 of the Child Code (26, 27)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Articles 2–4 of Order 2791 Working Conditions for Employees Aged Under 18 Years; Article 137.4 of the Labor Code (14, 27)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Articles 415–418 of the Child Code; Articles 2 and 4 of Order 2791 Working Conditions for Employees Aged Under 18 Years; Article 135 of the Mining Code; Article 137.6 of the Labor Code (14, 26-28)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 194, 195, and 323 of the Penal Code; Articles 4 and 137.6 of the Labor Code; Articles 356–360, 385, and 397–399 of the Child Code (26, 27, 29)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 195, 323, and 324 of the Penal Code; Articles 356–360 and 385 of the Child Code (26, 29)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 346, 347, 348, and 355 of the Penal Code; Articles 356–360 of the Child Code (26, 29)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 137.6 of the Labor Code; Article 383 of the Child Code, Article 344 of the Penal Code (26, 27, 29)

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

N/A*

 

 

State Compulsory

N/A*

 

 

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Article 429 of the Child Code (26)

Non-state Compulsory

Yes

18

Article 792.7 of the Penal Code; Article 429 of the Child Code (26, 29)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

16

Article 6, Title 1 of Education Decree 97/196-/PRG/SGG (30)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 23 of the Constitution (31)

* No conscription (32)

In 2016, the Government of Guinea adopted a new Penal Code that strengthens the penalties for certain criminal offenses related to the worst forms of child labor, including forced begging.(17, 29, 33, 34)

Guinean law prohibits hazardous occupations and activities for children; however these prohibitions do not cover agriculture, an area that shows evidence of work in unhealthy environments that expose children to hazardous substances and dangerous equipment.(3, 6, 7, 14, 27) A revised Child Code that contains a more specific list of hazardous child labor activities in all relevant sectors was developed, but it was not approved during the reporting period.(12, 17, 18) In addition, although Article 2.6 of Order 2791 prohibits children under age 18 from working in mines and quarries, Article 135 of the Mining Code allows children between ages 16 and 18 to work in mines and quarries as assistants, leaving the possibility for children to work in hazardous activities.(14, 28)

The law allows children between the ages of 12 and 14 to perform light work in sectors such as domestic work and agriculture.(14, 26) However, the law does not prescribe the number of hours per week for light work, nor specify the conditions in which light work may be undertaken, as defined by international standards on child labor.(35) The minimum age protections under the law do not apply to children in unpaid or non-contractual work.(3, 21, 27, 34, 35)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor law and criminal law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor (MOL)

Enforce all labor laws, including those related to child labor.(3, 36) Chairs the Child Labor Monitoring and Surveillance System, which aims to identify and remove children from exploitative labor conditions.(4, 18)

Office for the Protection of Gender, Children, and Morals (OPROGEM) Special Police Unit

Enforce laws related to the protection of minors, including the worst forms of child labor.(3, 8, 19)

Ministry for Social Action, Promotion of Women and Children (MASPFE)

Provide protection and social services for victims of child labor and human trafficking.(7, 17)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, labor law enforcement agencies in Guinea took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Labor Inspectors

53 (12)

53 (12)

Number of Child Labor Dedicated Inspectors

2 (12)

2 (17)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (12)

Yes (17)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

No (12)

No (17)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A

No (17)

Refresher Courses Provided

No (12)

No (17)

Number of Labor Inspections

0 (12)

250 (17)

Number Conducted at Worksite

N/A (12)

250 (17)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

N/A (12)

0 (17)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

0 (12)

0 (17)

Number of Penalties Imposed

0 (12)

0 (17)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

N/A (12)

N/A (17)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

No (12)

No (17)

Routine Inspections Targeted

No (12)

No (12)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Unknown

Yes (17)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

No (12)

Yes (17)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (12)

Yes (17)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

No (12)

No (17)

 

In 2016, the Ministry of Labor (MOL) had 20 inspectors in Conakry and 1 inspector in each of the country’s 33 regional offices.(12, 17) The number of labor inspectors is insufficient for the size of Guinea’s workforce, which includes over 5.3 million workers. According to the ILO recommendation of 1 inspector for every 40,000 workers in less developed economies, the Guinea should employ roughly 135 inspectors.(12, 37-39) Reports indicate a lack of trained staff, equipment, transportation, and funding to conduct child labor inspections and legal proceedings.(3, 17, 40)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in Guinea took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

Unknown

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Investigations

2 (41)

7 (41)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown

7 (17)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

0 (12)

1 (17)

Number of Convictions

0 (12)

0 (17)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (12)

Yes (17)

 

During the reporting period, the Office for the Protection of Gender, Children, and Morals (OPROGEM) had 23 agents in Conakry and one in each of the country’s 33 regional offices.(34) OPROGEM remained understaffed, underfunded, and without adequate office supplies, transportation, and fuel to effectively enforce laws related to the worst forms of child labor.(8, 17) In addition, corruption in law enforcement agencies and the judiciary impeded government efforts to combat the worst forms of child labor.(8)

In January 2016, the Ministry for Social Action, Promotion of Women and Children (MASPFE), provided reintegration services to 50 children that were being trafficked to Senegal.(17) Reports indicate that social services available to victims were not adequate to meet the needs of the victims. As a result, the Government relied on NGOs to provide shelter and other basic services to victims.(8, 17, 33)

Although the Government has established a coordination mechanism on human trafficking, research found no evidence of mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including all its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Committee to Fight Against Trafficking in Persons (CNLTP)

Coordinate anti-human-trafficking efforts, including for children. Led by the MASPFE, includes representatives from OPROGEM, MOL, and other ministries.(7, 19, 42) Met to develop the National Plan of Action to Fight Against Trafficking in Persons, which was approved in 2016.(8, 41)

Committee for Monitoring, Protection, and Defense of the Rights of the Child (CGSDE)

Implement, coordinate, and monitor Government efforts on child protection. Led by MASPFE.(17, 19) In 2016, drafted a report that identified child protection activities carried out by various government ministries to improve coordination efforts.(34)

 

Budgets for these committees remained limited during the reporting period and impacted their ability to operate and coordinate efforts to address child labor, including all its worst forms.(8, 17, 19)

The Government has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Plan of Action to Fight Against Trafficking in Persons†

Aims to enhance the legal framework to prevent human trafficking, raise awareness of trafficking in persons, and provide protection and care for victims. Led by the CNLTP.(8, 18, 43) In 2016, received $38,000 for implementation.(33, 42)

Education Sector Program (2015–2017)

Aims to increase access to primary, secondary, and technical and vocational education, particularly for vulnerable populations. The strategy is overseen by the Ministry of Education and supported by international donors.(44, 45)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken under the Education Sector Program during the reporting year. Although the Government of Guinea has adopted a policy on Trafficking in Persons, research found no evidence of a general child labor policy.

In 2016, the Government participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor‡

Program

Description

Decent Work Country Program (2016–2019)*

Includes activities to develop a National Action Plan for the elimination of child labor and its worst forms. Overseen by the MOL and supported by the ILO.(46)

Plan Guinea-Conakry Program

Aims to strengthen the capacity of key actors to improve children’s rights in the areas of education, survival, and protection.(15) In 2016, provided 45,000 IT educational kits to various primary schools.(47)

UNICEF Country Program (2013–2017)

UNICEF funded program that supports the Government’s efforts to improve education, birth registration rates, social inclusion, and strengthening the child protection response to the Ebola virus disease outbreak.(48)

World Bank Country Program

World Bank projects in Guinea that aim to increase access to quality basic education and youth employment, improve school infrastructure, and strengthen safety nets for vulnerable populations, especially those affected by the Ebola virus disease outbreak.(49-53)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.           
‡ The Government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms.(54-56)

Although the Government of Guinea has implemented programs in children’s rights and education, research found no evidence that it has carried out programs specifically designed to assist children in agriculture, domestic work, mining, and street work.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Guinea (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that the types of work that children perform in Guinea that fall into an R.190 category, such as agriculture, are prohibited to children under age 18.

2014 – 2016

Ensure that all children are prohibited from participating in hazardous mining.

2010 – 2016

Ensure that the law’s light work provisions are specific enough to prevent children from involvement in child labor.

2015 – 2016

Ensure that the minimum age provisions apply to children in unpaid or non-contractual work.

2009 – 2016

Enforcement

Increase the resources, training, and number of criminal law enforcement officials and labor inspectors to adequately enforce child labor laws.

2009 – 2016

Publish complete information on labor inspectorate funding and training for labor inspectors and criminal investigators related to laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms.

2011 – 2016

Strengthen labor law enforcement by authorizing the inspectorate to initiate targeted inspections based on analysis of data related to risk-prone sectors and patterns of serious incidents.

2015 – 2016

Establish a referral mechanism between MOL and MASPFE to protect and rehabilitate children involved in child labor, including its worst forms.

2016

Address corruption in law enforcement agencies and the judiciary that impedes efforts to combat the worst forms of child labor.

2015 – 2016

Coordination

Establish coordinating mechanisms to combat child labor, including all its worst forms.

2010 – 2016

Ensure that the CNLTP and CGSDE receive adequate funding to fulfill their mission.

2010 – 2016

Government Policies

Adopt a policy that addresses all relevant worst forms of child labor.

2014 – 2016

Ensure that the Education Sector Program is implemented.

2016

Social Programs

Enhance efforts to eliminate barriers and make education accessible for all children by (1) increasing school infrastructure and teacher availability, (2) removing school-related fees, and (3) ensuring the safety of children in schools.

2010 – 2016

Conduct research to determine the activities carried out by children in manufacturing to inform policies and programs.

2013 – 2016

Ensure that social services are properly funded and adequate to meet the needs of victims of the worst forms of child labor.

2010 – 2016

Institute programs to address the worst forms of child labor, including in agriculture, domestic work, mining, and street work.

2010 – 2016

1.         UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Concluding observations on the second periodic report of Guinea, adopted by the Committee at its sixty-second session (14 January – 1 February 2013). Geneva; June 13, 2013. Report No. CRC/C/GIN/CO/2. http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=web&cd=4&ved=0CFAQFjAD&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww2.ohchr.org%2Fenglish%2Fbodies%2Fcrc%2Fdocs%2Fco%2FCRC_C_GIN_CO_2.doc&ei=gO_vUvPhC-jlsASmpYCICg&usg=AFQjCNGrYid-iz4OElkTdZHVL2Sn6Miiow&sig2=yO7Tx2x4tPzxhpM_e9N2Kg.

2.         ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Guinea (ratification: 2003) Published: 2016; accessed November 7, 2016; source on file.

3.         U.S. Department of State. "Guinea," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2016. Washington, DC; 2017; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2016&dlid=26526.

4.         ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Guinea (ratification: 2003) Published: 2013; accessed January 26, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:11003:0::NO:::.

5.         Bah, MO. "Guinée: travail d'enfants dans la carrière de granite de Manéah." afriqueactualite.com [online] October 18, 2016 [cited November 7, 2016]; https://afriqueactualite.com/societe/societe/5611-guinee-travail-d-enfants-dans-la-carriere-de-granite-de-maneah#.WCDdg_rhDIU.

6.         ILO-IPEC. Rapport de L'Enquete Nationale Sur le Travail et la Traite des Enfants en Guinee de 2010. Technical Report. Guinea; November 2011. http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/viewProduct.do?productId=21016.

7.         UNICEF. Analyse de Situation des Enfants en Guinée; 2015. https://www.ecoi.net/file_upload/90_1439291236_unicef-child-notice-guinea-201506.pdf.

8.         U.S. Department of State. "Guinea," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016. Washington, DC; June 30, 2016; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2016/index.htm.

9.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). [accessed December 16, 2016]; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary education. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. The calculation includes all new entrants to the last grade (regardless of age). Therefore, the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

10.       UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Demographic and Health Survey, 2012. Analysis received December 15, 2016. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information,  please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

11.       Issatou, D. "Guinée : L’exploitation abusive des enfants, très récurrente à Boké." flashguinee.net [online] March 19, 2016 [cited November 7, 2016]; http://flashguinee.net/guinee-lexploitation-abusive-des-enfants-tres-recurrente-a-boke/#.

12.       U.S. Embassy- Conakry. reporting, January 11, 2016.

13.       World Education. SELECT - Stop Exploitive Labor and Educate Children for Tomorrow. Boston; January 2012.

14.       Government of Guinea. Conditions de travail des salariés âgés de moins de 18 ans, Arrêté n°2791/MTASE/DNTLS/96, enacted April 22, 1996. http://www.droit-afrique.com/images/textes/Guinee/Guinee%20-%20Travail%20des%20mineurs.pdf.

15.       Plan Guinea Conakry. See Our World. Conakry; 2013. http://www.planusa.org/docs/hearchildren/guinea.pdf.

16.       Barry, AT. "L’exploitation abusive des enfants est devenue monnaie courante à Kankan." guineenews.org [online] May 15, 2015 [cited October 26, 2015]; http://fr.africatime.com/guinee/articles/lexploitation-abusive-des-enfants-est-devenue-monnaie-courante-kankan.

17.       U.S. Embassy- Conakry. reporting, January 12, 2017.

18.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Guinea (ratification: 2003) Published: 2016; accessed November 7, 2016; source on file.

19.       UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Periodic Reports of States Parties due in 2013: Guinea. Prepared by Government of Guinea, Examen des rapports soumis par les États parties en application du paragraphe 1 de l’article 12 du Protocole facultatif à la Convention relative aux droits de l’enfant, concernant la vente d’enfants, la prostitution des enfants et la pornographie mettant en scène des enfants. October 12, 2016. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fOPSC%2fGIN%2f1&Lang=en.

20.       UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Summary record of the 1764th meeting: Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 44 of the Convention, second periodic report of Guinea. Geneva; May 24, 2013. Report No. CRC/C/SR1764. source on file.

21.       Thorsen, D. Child Domestic Workers: Evidence from West and Central Africa. Dakar, UNICEF West and Central Africa; April 2012. https://www.unicef.org/wcaro/english/Briefing_paper_No_1_-_child_domestic_workers.pdf.

22.       Thorsen, D. Children Begging for Qur’ānic School Masters: Evidence from West and Central Africa. Dakar, UNICEF West and Central Africa; April 2012. http://sro.sussex.ac.uk/43312/1/Briefing_paper_No_5_-_children_begging_for_Quranic_school_masters.pdf.

23.       Camara, A. "Traite et exploitation des enfants : Une pratique avérée en Guinée." sabarifm.com [online] March 15, 2016 [cited November 7, 2016]; http://www.sabarifm.com/4/3068/a/fr/traite-et-exploitation-des-enfants-une-pratique-averee-en-guinee.html.

24.       UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Concluding observations on the second periodic report of Guinea, adopted by the Committee at its sixty-second session (14 January – 1 February 2013). Geneva; January 30, 2013. Report No. CRC/C/GIN/CO/2. http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=web&cd=4&ved=0CFAQFjAD&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww2.ohchr.org%2Fenglish%2Fbodies%2Fcrc%2Fdocs%2Fco%2FCRC_C_GIN_CO_2.doc&ei=gO_vUvPhC-jlsASmpYCICg&usg=AFQjCNGrYid-iz4OElkTdZHVL2Sn6Miiow&sig2=yO7Tx2x4tPzxhpM_e9N2Kg.

25.       UN Human Rights Office of the High Commissioner. Status of Ratification Interactive Dashboard - Guinea - Ratification in 2016 of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict; accessed November 7, 2016; source on file.

26.       Government of Guinea. Loi Portant Code de l'Enfant enacted August 2008. https://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/98741/117564/F-1366184401/GIN-98741.pdf.

27.       Government of Guinea. Special Code du Travail, L/2014/072/CNT, enacted January 10, 2014. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/MONOGRAPH/96583/114158/F200086881/GIN-96583.pdf.

28.       Government of Guinea. Code Minier, enacted 1995. https://rmportal.net/library/content/frame/codeminier.doc.

29.       Government of Guinea. Penal Code, 2016/059, enacted 2016. on file.

30.       Government of Guinea. Decret D/97/196-/PRG/SGG, enacted July 30, 1997.

31.       Government of Guinea. Constitution enacted April 19, 2010. http://ddata.over-blog.com/1/35/48/78/Guinee/constitution-Guinee-2010.pdf.

32.       Child Soldiers International. Louder than words - An agenda for action to end state use of child soldiers.; 2012. https://www.child-soldiers.org/shop/louder-than-words-1.

33.       U.S. Embassy- Conakry. reporting, November 30, 2016.

34.       U.S. Embassy- Conakry official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 14, 2017.

35.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Guinea (ratification: 2003) Published: 2013; accessed Jaunary 26, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3075871.

36.       Government of Guinea. Code du travail de la République de Guinée, enacted 1988. http://www.ilo.org/aids/legislation/WCMS_301242/lang--fr/index.htm.

37.       CIA. The World Factbook, [online] [cited 2017]; https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors based on the country’s level of development as determined by the UN.

38.       ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a “sufficient number” of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a “sufficient” number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

39.       UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex. New York; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies; “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies, and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

40.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Labour Inspection Convention, 1947 (No. 81) Guinea (ratification: 1959) Published: 2016; accessed November 7, 2016; http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/english/iloquery.htm.

41.       U.S. Embassy- Conakry official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 28, 2016.

42.       U.S. Embassy- Conakry. reporting, February 13, 2017.

43.       Government of Guinea. National Plan of Action to Fight Against Trafficking in Persons. Conakry; 2016. source on file.

44.       Government of Guinea. Programme Sectoriel de l’Education (2015-2017). previously online. Conakry; 2014. http://www.education-guinee.org/documents/index.htm "source on file".

45.       The World Bank. Education For All-Fast Track Initiative Program Washington, DC; June 23, 2014. Report No. P111470. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2014/06/19718366/guinea-education-all-fast-track-initiative-program-p111470-implementation-status-results-report-sequence-11.

46.       ILO. Programme Pays de Promotion du Travail Décent en Guinée; December 2015. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/bureau/program/dwcp/download/ppdt-guinee-2016-19.pdf.

47.       Plan Guinea Conakry. Plan International Guinée et la Fondation Orange engagés pour la qualification du système éducatif guinéen. Conakry,  December 16, 2016. https://www.facebook.com/planguinea/posts/1506450036050495.

48.       UNICEF. "Guinea," in UNICEF Annual Report 2015. New York; May 6, 2016; http://www.unicef.org/about/annualreport/files/Guinea_2015_COAR.pdf.

49.       World Bank. Productive Social Safety Net Project (P123900). Implementation Status & Results Report : Sequence 08. Washington, DC; February 17, 2016. http://www.projects.worldbank.org/P123900/guinea-safety-net-project?lang=en.

50.       World Bank. Pooled-Fund for Basic Education (P148127). Implementation Status & Results Report : Sequence 02. Washington, DC; June 9, 2016. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/163331468031175172/pdf/ISR-Disclosable-P148127-06-09-2016-1465517549459.pdf.

51.       World Bank. Proposed Project restructuring of Pooled-Fund for Basic Education (FoCEB) GPE Grant Number TF019337 and ERRTF Grant Number TF0A0171 July 10, 2015 to the Republic of Guinea. Restructuring Paper. Washington, DC; March 14, 2016. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/961101468032398719/pdf/Restructuring-Paper-P148127-Guinea-FoCEB.pdf.

52.       World Bank. Proposed Additional Grant in the Amount of SDR 8.6 Million (US$12 Million Equivalent) and a Proposed Ebola Recovery and Reconstruction Trust Found Grant in the Amount of US$4.35 Million to the Republic of Guinea for a Productive Social Safety Nets Project. Project Paper. Washington, DC; May 9, 2016. Report No. PAD1768. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/653591468197396701/pdf/PAD1768-PJPR-P123900-Box394887B-OUO-9-IDA-R2016-0094-1.pdf.

53.       World Bank. Productive Social Safety Net Project (P123900). Implementation Status & Results Report : Sequence 09. Washington, DC; September 23, 2016. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/904381474664063111/pdf/ISR-Disclosable-P123900-09-23-2016-1474664051852.pdf.

54.       UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Summary record of the 1765th meeting : Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 44 of the Convention, second periodic report of Guinea. Geneva; January 24, 2013. Report No. CRC/C/GIN/2. http://tb.ohchr.org/default.aspx?country=gn.

55.       World Food Programme. Country Programme - Guinea (2013–2017). Washington, DC; 2013. http://www.wfp.org/content/country-programme-guinea-2013%E2%80%932017.

56.       World Food Programme. School Feeding Programmes in Guinea. Washington, DC; January 2014. https://www.wfp.org/content/school-feeding-programmes-guinea.

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