Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Colombia

Bricks (Clay)
Bricks (Clay)
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Coal
Coal
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Coca (Stimulant Plant)
Coca (Stimulant Plant)
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Forced Child Labor Icon
Forced Labor Icon
Coffee
Coffee
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Emeralds
Emeralds
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Gold
Gold
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Pornography
Pornography
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Sugarcane
Sugarcane
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Colombia
2018 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Significant Advancement

In 2018, Colombia made a significant advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The government drafted two new bills: one to strengthen penalties in the Penal Code for crimes of commercial sexual exploitation, and one to establish more comprehensive provisions to protect children against cyber crimes that involve commercial sexual exploitation. The Ministry of Labor also significantly increased its resources dedicated to labor law enforcement and launched the campaign "Working is Not a Child's Task," which aims to prevent and eliminate child labor through awareness raising efforts. The government adopted the National Policy on Childhood and Adolescence. It also began implementing the Center for the Crime of Trafficking in Persons, which collects information and analysis on human trafficking and uses this information to develop effective public policies. However, children in Colombia engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation and illicit activities, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking. In addition, the government does not employ a sufficient number of labor inspectors.

Children in Colombia engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation and illicit activities, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking. (1,2) The government publishes annual statistics on children’s work from its National Household Survey. (3) However, activities and ages are not sufficiently specified in these data to determine child labor rates per sector. (3,4) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Colombia.


Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

3.9 (332,253)

Working children by sector

5 to 14

 

Agriculture

 

54.2

Industry

 

12.6

Services

 

33.1

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

94.1

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

4.2

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

105

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2017, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2019. (5)
Source for all other data:  International Labor Organizations' analysis of statistics from Gran Encuesta Integrada de Hogares, Módulo de Trabajo Infantil (GEIH-MTI), 2017. (6)
Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.


Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of coffee,† sugarcane,† and unrefined brown sugar (panela)† (4,7-9) 

Animal husbandry,† hunting,† and fishing,† activities unknown (4,9-11) 

Industry

Mining coal,† emeralds,† gold,† tungsten,† coltan,† and clay† (4,9,12-14) 

Producing bricks† (9,13) 

Construction,† activities unknown (15)

Cutting and transporting lumber,† and creating artisanal woodwork such as handicrafts and decorative items (4,16,17) 

Services

Street work,† including vending and helping shoppers carry bags in urban markets,† begging,† guarding or washing cars and motorcycles,† and selling massages and hair-braiding to tourists in beach areas (1,2,4,7,18-25) 

Recycling† and garbage scavenging† (1,4,20,26) 

Domestic work,† including caring for children,† cooking, gardening, and shopping for the home (4,7,9,27) 

Working in retail establishments, hotels, and restaurants, activities unknown (3,4,9,10)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2,4,18,25,28-31) 

Use in the production of pornography (1,4,7,25,28,30) 

Recruitment of children by non-state armed groups for use in armed conflict (2,4,25,32)

Use in illicit activities, including in forced begging, by illegal armed groups and criminal organizations to commit homicides and traffic drugs, and in the production of marijuana and coca (stimulant plant), each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1,2,4,7,9,25,33,34) 

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Commercial sexual exploitation of children occurs more often in private homes rented online than in commercial establishments. (4,9) In Bucaramanga, child victims of commercial sexual exploitation are allegedly recruited in schools by other students. (35) In mining areas, trafficking of children for forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation is widespread. (4,25,36) Reports also indicate that criminal gangs and dissident groups recruit Colombian and Venezuelan children to produce and traffic drugs and commit homicides and extortion. (37,38)

Some civil society groups report that the forced recruitment and use of minors in Colombia by illegal armed groups, including Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC) dissidents, the National Liberation Army, the Popular Liberation Army, and non-ideological criminal organizations such as the Gulf Clan, continued and increased from 2017 to 2018. (2,25,39,40)  Children are recruited to perform intelligence and logistical activities, store and transport weapons, and engage in commercial sexual exploitation. (4,7,25,32) However, the Colombian government has reported that this recruitment and use of children remained significantly lower than levels prior to the signing of the 2016 peace accord with FARC. (41)

In Colombia, impassable roads, long distances between children’s homes and schools in rural areas, a lack of teachers, and continued violence and insecurity in parts of the country hinder access to education. (4,9,42)

Indigenous and Afro-Colombian children in particular face difficulties in accessing education. (7,42) In several communities, classes were interrupted, sometimes for weeks at a time, because of illegal armed group activity in those areas. (40,42) Venezuelan children in Colombia who lack identity documents are provided temporary identification numbers, enabling them to access all aspects of the education system. (4) In 2018, the Ministry of Education and the Director General of Migration jointly issued a circular to facilitate enrollment in school for these children, regardless of their residency or citizenship status. (4,43) UNICEF and NGOs reported that overall implementation of the circular has been successful, if uneven in some districts because of the challenges created by the large number of Venezuelan children, noting strained classroom space and resources. (4)

Colombia has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).


Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

The government’s laws and regulations are in line with relevant international standards (Table 4). However, gaps remain, including the differences in the minimum age for work and the compulsory schooling age.


Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Article 35 of the Code on Childhood and Adolescence (44)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 117 of the Code on Childhood and Adolescence (44)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Article 3 of Resolution 1796 (45)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 17 of the Constitution; Articles 141 and 188A of the Penal Code; Article 5 of Resolution 3597 (46-48)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 17 of the Constitution; Articles 188A–188C of the Penal Code; Article 5 of Resolution 3597 (46-48)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 213–219B of the Penal Code (48)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Articles 162, 188D, and 384 of the Penal Code; Article 2 of Resolution 3597 (46,48)

Minimum Age for Voluntary State Military Recruitment

Yes

18

Article 13 of Law 418; Article 2 of Law 548 (49,50)

Prohibition of Compulsory Recruitment of Children by (State) Military

Yes

 

Article 13 of Law 418; Article 2 of Law 548 (49,50)

Prohibition of Military Recruitment by Non-state Armed Groups

Yes

 

Article 162 of Law 599; Article 20 of Law 1098; Article 14 of Law 418 (44,48,49)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

18

Decision C-376/10 of the Colombian Constitutional Court (51)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 1 of Decree 4807 (52)

During the reporting period, members of Congress drafted a bill to strengthen penalties in the Penal Code for crimes of commercial sexual exploitation and to expand the range of criminal practices considered under these crimes. (4,53) The bill also increases minimum sentences to 26 years in prison for the procurement of a minor for commercial sexual exploitation, demanding a minor to perform sexual acts for money, and any involvement in sex tourism. (53) In addition, Congress drafted a bill that would revise the Penal Code to establish more comprehensive criminal provisions to protect children and adolescents from commercial sexual exploitation perpetrated through the internet, social media, and mobile devices. (4,54) This modification would ensure that crimes committed online related to the commercial sexual exploitation of children, including child pornography, would be punished in the same way as similar crimes committed in person. (54)

Challenges remain concerning differences in the minimum age for work and the compulsory schooling age. The minimum age for work is lower than the compulsory education age, and children may be encouraged to leave school before the completion of compulsory education. (44)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the operations of the Ministry of Labor (MOL) that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.


Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor’s (MOL) Inspection, Monitoring, Control, and Territorial Management Department

Receives complaints of labor law violations and conducts labor inspections, including inspections to verify labor conditions for adolescent workers and compliance with other child labor provisions. Oversees the Internal Working Group on Child Labor Eradication. (55) Operates the Integrated Registration and Information System for Child Labor, a child labor monitoring system that identifies children engaged in or at risk of child labor. (1,56) 

Active Search Team for Trafficking in Persons, Sexual Exploitation of Children, Girls, and Adolescents and Related Crimes*

Uses a proactive investigation model to identify these crimes in regions where they occur instead of waiting for victims to seek attention at the national level. Created in 2018 by the Bogota Mayor's office. (25)

National Police

Investigates cases of commercial sexual exploitation and human trafficking. (4) Judicial police and the Technical Investigation Corps support the Attorney General's Office throughout the investigation process. (4) 

Attorney General’s Office

Investigates and prosecutes cases of child recruitment for armed conflict, commercial sexual exploitation, forced labor, and human trafficking, with support from the Office's Technical Investigation Unit, which also advises the Attorney General in the design of policies and strategies related to the role of judicial police investigators. (4,44) Oversees the Articulation Group for Combating Trafficking in Persons, which includes four prosecutors who focus on investigating and prosecuting cross-border human trafficking and other related crimes. (57)

National Training Service

Collects fines imposed by MOL for labor law violations. (58)

* Agency was created during the reporting period.

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2018, labor law enforcement agencies in Colombia took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the operations of the MOL that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including resource allocation.


Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2017

2018

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$1,016,989 (24)

$2,400,000 (4) 

Number of Labor Inspectors

868 (59)

867 (4) 

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (9)

Yes (4) 

Initial Training for New Labor Inspectors

Yes (60)

Yes (4) 

 

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A

N/A (4) 

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (9)

Unknown (4) 

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

Unknown

Unknown (4) 

 

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown

Unknown (4) 

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

247† (9)

Unknown (4) 

 

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

15 (9)

12 (4) 

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that Were Collected

Unknown

Unknown (4) 

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (9)

Yes (4) 

 

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (9)

Yes (4) 

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (9)

Yes (4) 

 

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (9)

Yes (4) 

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (7,9)

Yes (4) 

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (7,9)

Yes (4) 

† Data are from January 2017 to October 2017.

In 2018, the MOL significantly increased its resources dedicated to labor law enforcement, including approximately $600,000 dedicated specifically to improving training for labor inspectors. (4) The budget also included resources for improving the connectivity and implementation of the electronic case management system which was created in 2017. (4) However, reports indicate that resource allocation for labor law enforcement in rural areas, such as Amazonas and Vichada, was insufficient. (7,59) In some cases, inspectors carried out inspections in a small geographic area due to a lack of transportation resources to reach areas accessible only by boats or small planes. (1) Although unannounced inspections are permitted by the Labor Code, inspectors must obtain prior approval from the Attorney General’s Office and be accompanied by judicial police officers to inspect certain kinds of private property, such as private homes, farms, and brothels, which may create delays. (4)

The number of labor inspectors is likely insufficient for the size of Colombia's workforce, which includes over 25 million workers. According to the ILO’s technical advice of a ratio approaching 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in industrializing economies, Colombia should employ roughly 1,645 inspectors. (7,61) In Colombia, labor inspectors are not considered full civil servants until they are hired through a state-provided civil service exam, which occurs infrequently. (4) To address the high turnover among inspectors and fill all of the MOL's 904 labor inspector positions with permanent inspectors, the government held an exam in April 2018. (4) However, in September, the Council of State suspended the appointments made under the exam based on a legal action filed by the National Association of Labor Inspectors, which argued that proper notification of the exam had not been provided in accordance with the law. Until the Council makes a ruling on these appointments, the hiring of inspectors can only be done through a complex legal process. (4) Despite the government's concerns about forced labor in areas such as illegal mining, domestic servitude, agriculture near the coffee belt, cattle herding, and crop harvesting, the MOL did not have inspector trainings in victim identification. (41) In 2018, with the support of an international organization, the MOL worked to finalize a victim identification protocol for labor inspectors. (41) 

Despite the requirement that children between the ages of 15 and 17 obtain official authorization to work, many adolescents work without such authorization. (62) Although the government did not provide the total number of labor inspections conducted in 2018, it did report that 2,757 inspections were conducted to determine whether authorizations for minors of the legal minimum work age were properly granted and 2,099 follow-up inspections of work sites were conducted to verify the appropriate conditions of work for authorized minors of the legal minimum work age. (4)

Criminal Law Enforcement
In 2018, criminal law enforcement agencies in Colombia took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including training for new employees and funding.


Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2017

2018

Initial Training for New Criminal Investigators

Unknown

Unknown (4) 

 

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Yes (9)

N/A (4) 

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (9)

Yes (4) 

Number of Investigations

Unknown

4,333 (4) 

Number of Violations Found

Unknown

3,280 (4) 

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

359 (9)

607 (4) 

Number of Convictions

206 (59)

673 (4) 

Imposed Penalties for Violations Related to The Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown

Yes (63,64) 

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (9)

Yes (4) 

In 2018, the Attorney General's Office reported that of the 3,280 children and adolescents registered as victims of crimes related to the worst forms of child labor, 36 percent involved child pornography, 18 percent involved the use of children to commit illicit activities, and the remaining 46 percent included cases of child recruitment into criminal ranks, commercial sexual exploitation, and trafficking in persons. (4) The Ministry of Defense reported that it received 177 cases of children and adolescents demobilized from illegally armed groups, all of which were referred to the Office of the Attorney General and the Colombian Institute of Family Well-Being (ICBF) for investigation and prosecution. The children were referred to social services. (4)

During the reporting period, the ICBF registered 1,396 children for assistance through its Administrative Program for Reestablishing the Defense of Rights (PARD), a set of procedures to defend the rights of children who have been abused by adults, including through trafficking, forced labor, forced military action, or commercial sexual exploitation. (4,39,65) The process includes psychological evaluation, nutritional assessment, verification of birth registry, and assessment of family environment. (65) Between January and October 2018, 18 children and adolescents entered the PARD process by reason of human trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation. (25) In 2018, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs coordinated numerous multilateral efforts for cooperation and technical assistance with other countries to share best practices in the areas of prevention, investigation, and assistance to victims of trafficking. (25) In 2018, the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement Agency's Office of Homeland Security Investigations helped establish the Child Exploitation Unit in the Colombian National Police's Transnational Criminal Unit. During the reporting period, this unit opened 24 child exploitation cases, executed 9 search warrants, and arrested 10 individuals for the sexual exploitation of children. (25) Although the government took action on crimes related to the commercial sexual exploitation and trafficking of children and collected data on these crimes, the Attorney General's Office reported that its case management system tracks processes through conviction only and does not include sentencing. (4,63,64)

In 2018, the Attorney General's Office reported conducting numerous trainings on the worst forms of child labor. Participants included the Colombian National Police, the ICBF, the Judicial Police Investigation Unit, and members of the Family Defenders Offices. (4) The Ministry of the Interior held numerous anti-trafficking in persons trainings, and the Colombian National Police, in cooperation with Interpol and UNODC, trained 130 law enforcement investigators at the national level. (4)

In September 2018, the government launched the National Information System on Trafficking in Persons to collect, process, and analyze trafficking in persons data from the Inter-institutional Committee for the Fight against Trafficking in Persons and 32 regional committees. (25) Despite these efforts, the government did not provide clear information on whether funding provided to criminal law enforcement agencies was sufficient. (4) In addition, civil society noted a lack of specific budget allocations by government institutions for addressing trafficking in persons. (25)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist including the inconsistent coordination in human trafficking victim identification.


Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

Interagency Committee for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor and Protection of the Adolescent Worker (CIETI)

Coordinates efforts to combat the worst forms of child labor. Chaired by MOL, includes 13 government agencies and representatives from trade unions, business associations, and civil society organizations. (7) Oversees 32 department-level CIETIs throughout the country, each comprising municipal-level committees. (62) In 2018, department-level CIETIs were trained on the provisions in the National Policy Guidelines to Eradicate and Prevent Child Labor and Protect Adolescent Workers (2019–2029) and subsequently created department-level Action Plans to implement the guidelines in various regions. (4,66) 

Colombian Institute for Family Well-Being (ICBF)

Operates mobile units to coordinate government actions to protect children’s rights, including protection from child labor. Supports demobilized child soldiers by strengthening family networks and increasing access to health services, food, education, and shelter. (16) Serves as Administrator of the Fund Against Sexual Exploitation of Children and Adolescents. (67) Processes child labor complaints, operates hotlines to report child labor cases, and provide social services to children engaged in or at risk of child labor. (4,68) In 2018, expanded from 40 to 58 mobile units, comprising 174 professionals nationwide. (4,69) In addition, mobile teams conducted 1,962 workshops on child labor in 267 municipalities across the country in 2018. (4) Also coordinated with the Ministry of Interior (MOI) on a working group to more closely and effectively coordinate service provision for child and adolescent victims of human trafficking. (25) 

ICBF’s National System of Family Well-Being

Promotes interagency coordination to protect children’s rights, including rights related to child labor. (7) Designs, implements, monitors, and evaluates policies that affect children from early childhood to adolescence. Comprises the offices of the President and Vice President, 15 government ministries, and other government agencies. (70) ICBF provided technical assistance in 2018 to 125 officials in agencies comprising the National System of Family Welfare on protocols for referring children engaged in mining to social services in the departments of Cordoba, La Guajira, and Cesar. (4)

National Interagency Committee for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Commercial Sexual Exploitation

Coordinates and implements efforts to combat the commercial sexual exploitation of children. Led by MOL and comprises 15 government agencies. (7) Was active during the reporting period. (4) 

Interagency Committee to Combat Trafficking in Persons

Leads and coordinates efforts among government agencies to combat human trafficking. Created by Law 985, chaired by the Ministry of the Interior, and comprises 16 government entities and 6 permanent invitees, including private sector and international organizations. (1) In 2018, conducted 44 technical advisory meetings with 32 departmental, municipal, and district-level committees to improve coordination. (4,25) Also provided multiple trainings for government agencies, including judicial branch officials and the Colombian National Police, businesses, indigenous communities, and academic institutions on how to identify and combat human trafficking crimes. (4) In May 2018, the Committee formalized an action plan that defines coordinating actions in prevention and awareness raising. The plan came into effect on June 1, 2019. (65) 

Center for the Crime of Trafficking in Persons* (Observatorio del Delito Trata de Personas)

Implemented in October 2018, the Center serves as a mechanism for the collection, registration and systematization of information related to human trafficking. (71) This information is used to strengthen government mechanisms for prevention. (71) The Center's priorities include analysis of Venezuela migration and trafficking in persons, the development of guides for victim assistance at the regional level, and training for judicial officials. (4) In 2018, the Observatory carried out two academic conferences focusing on investigation and prosecution. (4,39)

Inter-sectorial Commission for the Prevention of the Recruitment and Use of Children by Illegal Armed Groups (CIPRUNNA)

Coordinates efforts to prevent child recruitment by illegal armed groups, including for the purposes of commercial sexual exploitation. Created by Law 552, led by the High Commissioner for Post-Conflict, Human Rights, and Security, and comprises 23 entities, including the Attorney General’s Office and MOL as permanent members. (72,73) The Commission held 7 meetings in 2018 and issued a decree that requires relevant government agencies to create a 4-year action plan to implement guidelines under the oversight of the Commission. (4,65,74,75) The Commission also published an extensive progress report in July 2018 that highlighted CIPRUNNA's coverage of 96 percent of the Colombian territory with at least one strategy, program, or prevention project in 1,056 municipalities in the 32 departments of Colombia. (75) 

National Reintegration Council

Supervises the reintegration of Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC) members, including children, and the preparation of a socioeconomic survey of former FARC combatants. (76) Established on December 20, 2016, pursuant to the Peace Accord, and continues coordination efforts. (4,77) Was active during the reporting period. (4)

* Mechanism to coordinate efforts to address child labor was created during the reporting period.
In 2018, the Ministry of Tourism hosted the International Summit for the Protection of Children and Adolescents in the Tourism Sector, which brought together representatives from 90 countries to address challenges related to the commercial sexual exploitation of children in the tourism sector. (4)

Civil society organizations have noted inconsistent coordination in the areas of human trafficking victim identification and assistance, which may hinder anti-trafficking efforts. (25)

The government has established policies that are consistent with relevant international standards on child labor (Table 9).


Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Policy Guidelines to Prevent and Eradicate Child Labor and Protect the Adolescent Worker (2019–2029)†

Aims to focus on child labor eradication in agricultural policy, develop child labor prevention strategies, improve the quality and coverage of child protection services, protect adolescent workers from hazardous work, create strategies to address child labor in domestic work, and establish evaluation and monitoring mechanisms to assess progress. (66) The government updated this policy during the reporting period and held workshops for civil society in various regions of the country. (4) The Colombian Government, along with the Somos Tesoro Project, the School of Public Administration, and ILO developed an online course to train civil servants on implementation of the policy. (78)

National Policy on Childhood and Adolescence (2018–2030)†

Articulates multiple sub-policies on the worst forms of child labor, protection of adolescents, prevention and eradication of commercial sexual exploitation of children, and prevention of recruitment of children and adolescents by illegal armed groups. (4,79) Policy adopted in June 2018 to contribute to the comprehensive welfare and development of children and adolescents, recognizing them as rights-bearing subjects and integral to national development. (4,79) 

Child Labor Pact (2014–2018)

Seeks to address the revision of policies on the prevention and eradication of child labor and to make such policies an integral part of national strategies; improve coordination among MOL and other government agencies, ILO, and industry associations; raise awareness of child labor issues in capital cities and tourist destinations; and train department-level officials on laws related to child labor and services available to victims. (62) The government did not publish information on activities taken under this pact in 2018 for inclusion in this report.

National Strategy for the Fight Against Trafficking in Persons (2016–2018)

Aims to prevent human trafficking by raising awareness to detect potential victims, providing immediate assistance to victims, promoting inter-institutional collaboration, strengthening and developing international cooperation mechanisms, and developing a data-gathering mechanism. (80) Established by Decree No. 1036 in 2016 and led by the Interagency Committee to Combat Trafficking in Persons. (81) During the reporting period, the government implemented the strategy with participation from trafficking survivors and civil society. (25)

Progressive Plan for the Social Protection and Defense of Rights for Rural Workers†

Includes campaigns for the eradication of child labor, including its worst forms. Across 75 municipalities, 2,111 people received training on fundamental rights at work during the reporting period. (4) Created under the 2016 peace accord, this plan was implemented in 2018 in municipalities targeted for rural development. (4)

2016 Peace Accord (Final Agreement to End the Armed Conflict and Build a Stable and Lasting Peace)

Provides for the creation of the National Reincorporation Council to oversee the demobilization and release of minors from FARC’s ranks. Under the policy, the government and FARC agreed to conduct a child labor eradication campaign, take immediate measures to eliminate the worst forms of child labor, strengthen onsite labor inspections, create a mobile inspection unit to reach rural areas, and increase access to education. (7,81) In 2018, the Progressive Plan for the Social Protection and Defense of Rights for Rural Workers was developed under this agreement, which includes campaigns for the eradication of child labor, including its worst forms. (4) 

Roadmap for the Prevention and Elimination of Child Labor in Mining

Aims to reduce and eliminate child labor in mining through the following activities: (1) create municipal diagnostics, (2) define criteria to determine risks of child labor, (3) create mechanisms to focus municipal governments on addressing child labor, (4) create protocols and questionnaires to report child labor cases, (5) design strategies to strengthen coordination of child labor monitoring at the municipal level, and (6) design strategies to prevent and remove children from child labor. (82) The government did not provide information on activities taken under this roadmap in 2018 for inclusion in this report. 

National Policy to Prevent the Recruitment of Children and Adolescents by Illegal Armed Groups

Directs actions to prevent the recruitment and use of children by illegal armed groups. Aims to address violence against children, including the worst forms of child labor, and improve interagency coordination. (83) In 2018, the government updated the policy through a presidential decree which mandates that specific institutions include prevention of child recruitment in their programming and operational focus. (25,84) 

National Development Plan (Todos por un Nuevo País) (2014–2018)

Outlined Colombia’s strategy to promote inclusive economic growth and national development. Sought to improve access to quality education, lengthen the school day to 7 hours, and provide preschool for children under age 5. (85) In 2018, the government cited trafficking in persons as one of the main crimes committed by organized criminal organizations in its forthcoming National Development Plan. (4) 

Cooperative Agreement Between the Ministry of Mining and Energy and the ICBF to Prevent Child Labor in Mining

Aims to strengthen and implement initiatives to prevent and eradicate child labor in mining. (86,87) Under the agreement, ICBF provided training to 125 officials in 2018 on protocols for referring children engaged in mining to social services agencies in the departments of Cordoba, La Guajira, and Cesar. (4) ICBF also provided social services to 257 children engaged in or at risk of child labor in mining. (4) 

Roadmap for the Restoration of Rights, Assistance, and Reparation for Children and Adolescent Victims of the Armed Conflict

Establishes protocols to assist child victims of armed conflict. Approved in 2016 and implemented through inter-institutional mechanisms in various departments. (9,88) The government continued to use the roadmap in 2018. (4)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.
‡ The government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor. (4,7,62,89-91)

In 2018, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, which cover the main sectors where child labor has been identified in the country (Table 10).


Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Present Against Child Labor

Program developed by ICBF to address child labor throughout the country. In 2018, the ICBF's mobile teams conducted 1,962 “Present Against Child Labor” workshops to combat child labor in 267 municipalities across the country, with 6,166 participants, including children, adolescents, and their families—with activities including family strengthening and education on fundamental rights restitution. (4,92,93) 

Projects Addressing Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children†

As part of the National Policy Guidelines for the Prevention of the Commercial Exploitation of Children, the Colombian government continued its Eyes Everywhere (Ojos en Todas Partes) public awareness campaign, which aims to prevent the commercial sexual exploitation of children in the tourism sector. Led by the Ministry of Commerce, Industry, and Tourism, and implemented in coordination with ICBF and the National Tourism Fund. (1,4,25,94) In 2018, it focused on the goal of better identifying solicitors and victims of child sex tourism. (4) The Government of Colombia also supports the We Protect” program, a web-based tool to collect, monitor, and address complaints of commercial sexual exploitation of children. (95) ICBF also created the Colombia Present Against the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Girls, Boys, and Adolescents campaign, an awareness-raising campaign on commercial sexual exploitation and call to action for the public to report cases. (65)

Model for Identification of Child Labor Risks

Pilot project led by ILO’s Regional Initiative: Latin America and the Caribbean Free of Child Labor. Aims to design a system that classifies territories according to their probability of risk for child labor and identifies the principal factors associated with this risk based on existing databases in participating countries. (96) Participating countries include Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Jamaica, Mexico, and Peru. (96) The government did not provide information for activities taken under this model in 2018 for inclusion in this report.

Projects Addressing Trafficking in Persons

Eye on Trafficking† aims to increase awareness of human trafficking among high school students, and School Environments in Coexistence and Peace† focuses on identifying potential trafficking victims. (7) Ministry of Foreign Affairs' campaign, Do not Ignore Trafficking (#AnteLaTrataNoSeHaga), is directed at border populations with limited access to digital platforms. (97) In 2018, the Attorney General's Office launched the #EsoEsCuento* public awareness campaign to prevent Colombians from being engaged in domestic and international trafficking in persons crimes, employing social media and audiovisual tools in public spaces to raise awareness of false employment efforts. (4,25,65,98) Through the crime prevention program Futuro Colombia, coordinated by the Attorney General's Office, the government held prevention campaigns in 30 cities throughout the country. (65) 

Development for Social Prosperity Programs†

More Families in Action (Más Familias en Acción) uses a conditional cash transfer program seeking to combat poverty and build human capital, United Network (Red Unidos)coordinates actions to reduce inequality and end extreme poverty, Healthy Generations (Generaciones con Bienestar) operates a children’s rights program offering cultural and recreational activities for children ages 6 to 17 identified as vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor, and Youth in Action (Jóvenes en Acción) provides technical job training and conditional cash transfers to vulnerable urban youth ages 16 to 24. (99-106) 

Mobile Teams for Comprehensive Protection—Child Labor (EMPI)†

Led by ICBF, assist families with children vulnerable to child labor by linking them to the National System of Family Well-Being. (7) In 2018, EMPI mobile teams strengthened procedures for providing assistance to children, adolescents, and their families, and expanded their capacity from 39 to 58 teams comprising 174 professionals nationwide. (4,69,107) 

Public-Private Partnerships†

Colombia Network Against Child Labor (Red Colombia Contra el Trabajo Infantil), a public-private partnership that builds on the UN Global Pact Initiative to create collaboration between Colombian businesses and MOL to eliminate child labor. Comprises 32 businesses and 17 partners that continued to collaborate in 2018. (4,108-111)

Differential Path to Life Program

Office of Presidential Counselor for Human Rights and ICBF-managed program, with support from USAID and other international organizations, that establishes a reintegration process for disengaged FARC minors. Has successfully reintegrated more than 124 rescued child soldiers as of May 2018. (4,25,76,114)

I Stay at School, Protecting My Dreams†

Ministry of Education-led program that provides strategies for teachers to prevent school desertion due to the worst forms of child labor, including forced recruitment, the use of children in illicit activities, and other forms of child exploitation by illegal non-state armed groups. (9) The government did not provide information on activities taken under this program in 2018 for inclusion in this report.

USDOL-Funded projects

Preventing and Reducing Child Labor and Forced Labor in Palm Oil Supply Chains (Palma Futuro), a $6 million project that works to improve the implementation of social compliance systems that promote acceptable conditions of work and the prevention and reduction of child and forced labor in palm oil supply chains; Building a Generation of Safe and Healthy Workers, a $11 million global project implemented by ILO with Colombia as one of eight countries that works to promote the safety and health of young workers; Promoting Compliance with International Labor Standards, which strengthens the institutional capacity of MOL to adequately enforce Colombian labor laws and promote social dialogue among organizations and their stakeholders; Colombia Avanza, a $2 million project that focuses on building the capacity of civil society to more adequately combat child labor and other abuses in Colombia's coffee sector; Building the Capacity of Civil Society to Combat Child Labor and Improve Working Conditions in Colombia (Pilares), a $2 million project that strengthens the capacity of civil society organizations to detect and address child labor and working conditions in gold mining; and We Are a Treasure (Somos Tesoro), a $11.25 million, 4 year project to combat child labor and promote safe work in the mining sector, implemented by PACT, Inc., in partnership with the Alliance for Responsible Mining, Mi Sangre Foundation, and the Fund for Environmental Action and Childhood. Additional information is available on the USDOL website.

Campaigns Against Child Labor†

ICBF-led campaigns to increase coordination among ICBF, Child Protection Police, MOL, and municipal authorities on child labor issues, and to promote education about the risks of hazardous work. (59) In 2018, MOL also launched a campaign, "Working is not a child's task" (Trabajar no es tarea de niños), which aims to prevent and eliminate child labor through awareness-raising efforts. (4,115,116) 

Anti-trafficking hotline

Ministry of Interior-led hotline that reports and tracks cases of human trafficking and facilitates access to social services for victims. (117) Continued to maintain the hotline in 2018. (4) 

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Colombia.
‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. (4,9,118-123) 

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Colombia (Table 11).


Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Raise the minimum age for work to the age up to which education is compulsory.

2018

Enforcement

Ensure that all labor inspectors have sufficient resources to perform inspections.

2009 – 2018

Increase the number of labor inspectors to meet the ILO’s technical advice and ensure the Ministry of Labor employs inspectors trained in victim identification of forced labor.

2009 – 2018

Publish information on labor law enforcement efforts, including information on training for inspectors and investigators, the total number of labor inspections conducted, the number of child labor violations found, penalties imposed that were collected for child labor violations, and whether criminal investigators receive initial training.

2009 – 2018

Ensure that all adolescents who work in permissible sectors have received official authorization.

2015 – 2018

Provide sufficient resources to criminal law enforcement officials to enforce criminal laws related to the worst forms of child labor.

2014 – 2018

Ensure that labor inspectors receive timely approval from the Attorney General's Office and judicial officers to conduct timely inspections on private property.

2018

Collect and publish data on penalties and sentencing for crimes related to the commercial sexual exploitation and trafficking of children.

2018

Ensure that government efforts on human trafficking victim identification and assistance are adequately coordinated between agencies.

2018

Government Policies

Publish information on activities taken under all policies related to child labor, including its worst forms.

2018

Social Programs

Ensure that children are protected from armed conflict while at school.

2013 – 2018

Expand efforts to improve access to education for all children, particularly for indigenous and Afro-Colombian children, including by improving transportation infrastructure, building more schools in rural areas, and increasing the number of teachers.

2013 – 2018

Collect data on work activities and ages of workers as part of the National Household Survey questionnaires to allow for a determination of child labor rates.

2017 – 2018

Publish information on activities taken under the I Stay at School, Protecting My Dreams and the Model for Identification of Child Labor Risks social programs.

2018

  1. U.S. Embassy- Bogota. Reporting. February 19, 2016.

  2. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2018: Colombia. Washington, DC: June 2018.
    https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-trafficking-in-persons-report/colombia/.

  3. Government of Colombia. DANE, Boletín Técnico – Trabajo Infantil. April 6, 2018.
    http://www.dane.gov.co/files/investigaciones/boletines/ech/jobinfantil/bol_trab_inf_2017.pdf.

  4. U.S. Embassy- Bogota. Reporting. April 1, 2019.

  5. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed March 16, 2019. For more information, please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.
    http://data.uis.unesco.org/.

  6. ILO. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Gran Encuesta Integrada de Hogares, Módulo de Trabajo Infantil, 2017. Analysis received March 12, 2019. Please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

  7. U.S. Embassy- Bogota. Reporting. March 17, 2017.

  8. The Coca-Cola Company. Colombia Sugar Industry Situational Analysis. March 2015.
    http://assets.coca-colacompany.com/fd/d8/4c5ed29842cba83b99349b7a58af/colombia-sugar-industry-situational-analysis.pdf.

  9. U.S. Embassy- Bogota. Reporting. April 5, 2018.

  10. Government of Colombia. Response to USDOL Request for Information. February 27, 2015.

  11. U.S. Embassy- Bogota. TVPRA reporting. November 7, 2017.

  12. Gómez Orozco, Juan Pablo. El zarpazo a las selvas. El Tiempo, December 16, 2015.
    http://www.eltiempo.com/multimedia/especiales/mineria-ilegal-en-colombia-el-zarpazo-a-lasselvas/16460302.

  13. Radio Caracol. Trabajo Infantil en el municipio de Soacha es preocupante. December 6, 2017.
    http://caracol.com.co/programa/2017/06/12/6am_hoy_por_hoy/1497273676_427667.html.

  14. Agencia Pandi. Niños y niñas exponen sus vidas mientras trabajan en la minería artesanal. May 30, 2007. Source on file.

  15. El País. En Cali hay por lo menos 2753 menores laborando, dice Ministerio del Trabajo. June 3, 2015.
    http://www.elpais.com.co/elpais/cali/noticias/cali-hay-por-menos-2753-menores-trabajadores-dice-ministerio-trabajo.

  16. U.S. Department of State official. Email communication to USDOL official. June 2, 2017.

  17. International Labor Organization. El Trabajo Forzoso en la Extracción de Madera. 2018.
    https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---americas/---ro-lima/---sro-lima/documents/publication/wcms_662424.pdf.

  18. Government of Colombia, Institute for Family Well-Being official. Interview with USDOL official. June 4, 2015. Source on file.

  19. El Tiempo. Explotación laboral infantil aumenta en Navidad en Bogotá. December 22, 2015.
    http://www.eltiempo.com/archivo/documento/CMS-16464511.

  20. El Espectador. En cinco localidades hay puntos críticos de trabajo infantil en Bogotá. June 12, 2017.
    https://www.elespectador.com/noticias/bogota/en-cinco-localidades-hay-puntos-criticos-de-trabajo-infantil-en-bogota-articulo-698001.

  21. El Colombiano. Medellín, a ocuparse en erradicar trabajo infantil. October 2, 2017.
    http://www.elcolombiano.com/antioquia/medellin-a-ocuparse-en-erradicar-trabajo-infantil-IE7413486.

  22. Cabrera, Natalia. Esclavitud Infantil, un Flagelo que Entristece a Nariño. Radio Nacional, April 24, 2017.
    https://www.radionacional.co/noticia/trabajo-infantil/esclavitud-infantil-flagelo-que-entristece-a-narino.

  23. El Pais. La escalofriante cifra de niños trabajando en Cali que asusta a las autoridades. June 12, 2018.
    https://www.elpais.com.co/cali/la-escalofriante-cifra-de-ninos-trabajando-en-que-asusta-a-las-autoridades.html.

  24. U.S. Department of State official. Email communication to USDOL official. June 1, 2018.

  25. U.S. Embassy- Bogota. Reporting. March 8, 2019.

  26. El Tiempo. En Bogotá, 148.899 menores dejaron escuela y juegos para trabajar. October 27, 2016.
    http://www.eltiempo.com/bogota/cifras-del-trabajo-infantil-en-bogota-31356.

  27. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Estadísticas no evidencian realidad del trabajo infantil. July 14, 2016.
    http://agenciadenoticias.unal.edu.co/detalle/article/estadisticas-no-evidencian-realidad-del-trabajo.html.

  28. Government of Colombia. Análisis de la Situación de Explotación Sexual Comercial en Colombia: Una Oportunidad para Asegurar la Protección de Niños, Niñas y Adolescentes. December 2013. Source on file.

  29. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Colombia (ratification: 2005) Published: 2015. Accessed November 1, 2015.
    http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3184779.

  30. El Tiempo. 24.255 niños, bajo protección por violencia sexual. February 17, 2017. Source on file.

  31. Caracol Radio Medellin. En Medellin aumenta la explotacion sexual de menores por propios y turistas. August 23, 2017.
    http://caracol.com.co/emisora/2017/08/23/medellin/1503517157_235127.html.

  32. U.S. Embassy- Bogota. Reporting. January 17, 2018.

  33. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Concluding observations on the combined fourth and fifth periodic reports of Colombia. March 6, 2015: CRC/C/COL/CO/4-5.
    http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC/C/COL/CO/4-5&Lang=en.

  34. Malaver, Carol. Mediante matoneo, obligan a jóvenes de colegios a unirse a bandas. El Tiempo, February 4, 2014.
    http://www.eltiempo.com/colombia/bogota/jovenes-son-obligados-a-unirse-a-bandas-con-matoneo_13428238-4.

  35. Barragán Meneses, Karol. Red estaría reclutando a menores para prostituirlas en Bucaramanga. El Tiempo, July 26, 2017.
    http://www.eltiempo.com/colombia/otras-ciudades/red-de-prostitucion-de-menores-en-bucaramanga-113364.

  36. The Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime. Organized Crime and Illegally Mined Gold in Latin America. April 2016.
    http://globalinitiative.net/organized-crime-and-illegally-mined-gold-in-latin-america/.

  37. Blu Radio. ELN Recluta Menores Venezolanos para Cometer Crimenes en Colombia: ICBF. December 27, 2018.
    https://www.bluradio.com/nacion/eln-recluta-menores-venezolanos-para-cometer-crimenes-en-colombia-201025-ie435.

  38. HSB Noticias. Raspachines y esclavas sexuales_destino de menores reclutados por disidencias en frontera. August 13, 2018.
    https://hsbnoticias.com/noticias/judicial/raspachines-y-esclavas-sexuales-destino-de-menores-reclutado-447870.

  39. U.S. Embassy Bogota official. Email communication to USDOL official. July 5, 2019.

  40. UN Security Council. Report of the Secretary-General on Children and Armed Conflict. June 20, 2019: A/73/907–S/2019/509. https://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/2019/509&Lang=E&Area=UNDOC.

  41. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2019. June 2019.
    https://www.state.gov/reports/2019-trafficking-in-persons-report-2/colombia/.

  42. Human Rights Watch. Submission to the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. August 9, 2017.
    https://www.hrw.org/news/2017/08/09/submission-un-committee-economic-social-and-cultural-rights-advance-its-review.

  43. Government of Colombia. Circular Conjunta No. 16. April 10, 2018. Source on file.

  44. Government of Colombia. Código de la Infancia y la Adolescencia, Ley 1098 of 2006. Enacted: November 8, 2006.
    http://www.oei.es/quipu/colombia/codigo_infancia.pdf.

  45. Government of Colombia. Resolution 1796. Enacted: April 27, 2018. Source on file.

  46. Government of Colombia. Resolución 3597. Enacted: October 3, 2013.
    http://www.icbf.gov.co/cargues/avance/docs/resolucion_mtra_3597_2013.htm.

  47. Government of Colombia. Constitución (with modifications until 2013). Enacted: July 6, 1991.
    http://bit.ly/P9JBs0.

  48. Government of Colombia. Ley 599 of 2000 - Código Penal (with modifications until 2014). Enacted: 2000.
    http://www.alcaldiabogota.gov.co/sisjur/normas/Norma1.jsp?i=6388.

  49. Government of Colombia Ley 418 of 1997. Enacted: December 26, 1997.
    http://www.secretariasenado.gov.co/senado/basedoc/ley_0418_1997.html.

  50. Government of Colombia. Ley 548 of 1999. Enacted: December 23, 1999.
    http://www.alcaldiabogota.gov.co/sisjur/normas/Norma1.jsp?i=6676.

  51. Government of Colombia, Corte Constitucional. Sentencia C376-10. May 19, 2010.
    http://www.corteconstitucional.gov.co/relatoria/2010/c-376-10.htm.

  52. Government of Colombia. Decreto 4807 of 2011. Enacted: December 20, 2011.
    http://www.mineducacion.gov.co/1621/articles-293375_archivo_pdf_decreto4807.pdf.

  53. Government of Colombia. Proyecto de la ley mediante el cual se dictan medidas para contrarrestar la explotación. September 18, 2018.
    http://leyes.senado.gov.co/proyectos/index.php/proyectos-ley/cuatrenio-2018-2022/2018-2019/article/138-mediante-el-cual-se-dictan-medidas-para-contrarestar-la-explotacion-sexual-de-ninos-ninas-y-adolescentes-y-se-dictan-otras-disposiciones.

  54. Government of Colombia. Por la cual se formulan los lineamientos de política pública para la prevención de delitos realizados a través de medios informáticos o electrónicos. August 17, 2018.
    http://leyes.senado.gov.co/proyectos/index.php/proyectos-ley/cuatrenio-2018-2022/2018-2019/article/74-por-la-cual-se-formulan-los-lineamientos-de-politica-publica-para-la-prevencion-de-delitos-realizados-a-traves-de-medios-informaticos-o-electronicos-en-contra-de-ninos-ninas-y-adolescentes-se-modifica-el-codigo-penal-y-se-dictan-otras-disposiciones.

  55. Government of Colombia. Resolución No. 1128.15. Integración Unidades Especiales IVC. Enacted: 2015. Source on file.

  56. U.S. Embassy- Bogota. Reporting. January 30, 2014.

  57. U.S. Embassy- Bogota. Reporting. February 24, 2015.

  58. Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje. Resolución 2126 of 2013. 2013.
    http://www.icbf.gov.co/cargues/avance/docs/resolucion_sena_2126_2013.htm.

  59. U.S. Embassy Bogotá official. Email communication to USDOL official. April 26, 2018.

  60. Government of Colombia official. Interview with USDOL official. February 2018. Source on file.

  61. CIA. The World Factbook. Accessed February 12, 2018. Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.
    https://www.cia.gov/Library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2095rank.html.

  62. U.S. Embassy- Bogota. Reporting. March 17, 2015.

  63. Fiscalía General de la Nación. Condenado enfermero por explotación sexual con menores. April 24, 2018.
    https://www.fiscalia.gov.co/colombia/seccionales/condenado-enfermero-por-explotacion-sexual-con-menores/.

  64. El Tiempo. El prontuario del excapitán de la Armada condenado por explotación sexual. October 17, 2018.
    https://www.eltiempo.com/colombia/otras-ciudades/el-prontuario-del-excapitan-de-la-armada-condenado-por-explotacion-sexual-282158.

  65. Government of Colombia. Acciones y Resultados de la República de Colombia en materia de Lucha contra la Trata de Personas durante el año 2018. 2018. Source on file.

  66. Government of Colombia. Linea de Politica Publica para la Prevencion y Erradicacion del Trabajo Infantil y la Proteccion Integral al Adolescente Trabajador. 2018. Source on file.

  67. Government of Colombia. Decreto 87. Enacted: January 23, 2017.
    http://es.presidencia.gov.co/normativa/normativa/DECRETO 87 DEL 23 ENERO DE 2017.pdf.

  68. Government of Colombia, Institute for Family Well-Being. Ampliación Información U.S. Department of Labor. April 14, 2014. Source on file.

  69. El Universal. Refuerzan campaña de prevención del trabajo infantil en esta Semana Santa. March 27, 2018.
    https://www.eluniversal.com.co/regional/refuerzan-campana-de-prevencion-del-trabajo-infantil-en-esta-semana-santa-274948-MCEU389984.

  70. Fondo Accion. Somos Tesoro Technical Progress Report. October 2017. Source on file.

  71. Government of Colombia. Observatorio del Delito Trata de Personas_Grupo de Lucha Contra Trata de Personas. 2018.
    https://tratadepersonas.mininterior.gov.co/observatorio-del-delito-trata-de-personas.

  72. Government of Colombia. Decreto 552 of 2012. Enacted: March 15, 2012.
    http://bit.ly/1eeMfSx.

  73. Government of Colombia. Decreto 4690 of 2007. Enacted: December 3, 2007.
    http://www.icbf.gov.co/cargues/avance/docs/decreto_4690_2007.htm.

  74. Government of Colombia. Decreto 1434. August 3, 2018.
    http://www.funcionpublica.gov.co/eva/gestornormativo/norma.php?i=87880.

  75. Government of Colombia_CIPRUNNA. Informe de Gestion de la Secretaria Técnica de la Comision CIPRUNNA. July 2018.
    http://www.derechoshumanos.gov.co/observatorio/publicaciones/Documents/2018/180808-CIPRUNNA-baja.pdf.

  76. UN Security Council. Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Verification Mission in Colombia. December 27, 2017.
    https://colombia.unmissions.org/sites/default/files/90-day_report_of_the_sg_on_the_unvmc.pdf.

  77. UN. Statement to the Security Council from the Special Representative of the Secretary-General and Head of the UN Mission in Colombia, Jearn Arnault. January 11, 2017.
    http://www.un.org/undpa/en/speeches-statements/11012017/Colombia.

  78. US Department of Labor. Somos Tesoro Technical Progress Report. March 6, 2018. Source on file.

  79. Government of Colombia. Política Nacional de Infancia y Adolescencia 2018-2030. June 2018.
    https://www.icbf.gov.co/programas-y-estrategias/politica-nacional-de-infancia-y-adolescencia-20182030.

  80. Government of Colombia. Decreto 1036 of 2016. Enacted: June 24, 2016.
    http://www.mininterior.gov.co/sites/default/files/noticias/doc-20160630-wa0010_1.pdf.

  81. Mesa de Conversaciones Para la Terminación del Conflicto y la Construcción de una Paz Estable y Duradera en Colombia. Acuerdo Final para la Terminación del Conflicto y la Construcción de una Paz Estable y Duradera. November 24, 2016. Source on file.

  82. Fondo Acción. Roadmap for the Prevention and Elimination of Child Labor in Mining. May 2017.
    http://es.calameo.com/read/0052478145df1cfc0b83e.

  83. Government of Colombia. Conpes 3673. Enacted: July 19, 2010. Source on file.

  84. Government of Colombia. Decreto 134 de 2018. August 3, 2018.
    https://www.funcionpublica.gov.co/eva/gestornormativo/norma.php?i=87880.

  85. Government of Colombia. Ley 1753 de 2015 por la cual se expide el Plan Nacional de Desarrollo 2014-2018 'Todos por un nuevo país'. 2015. Source on file.

  86. Government of Colombia. Convenio Interadministrativo GGC No. 1112 de 2017. February 24, 2017. Source on file.

  87. Dataifx. MinMinas e ICBF firmaron alianza para combatir trabajo infantil en la minería. January 3, 2017.
    http://dataifx.com/noticias/minminas-e-icbf-firmaron-alianza-para-combatir-trabajo-infantil-en-la-minería.

  88. Government of Colombia. Lineamiento Tecnico de las Modalidades del Programa de Atencion Especializada para el Restablecimiento de Derechos a NNA Victimas de Reclutamiento Ilicito. February 23, 2016. Source on file.

  89. Government of Colombia. Ley No. 1804. Enacted: 2016. Source on file.

  90. El Nuevo Siglo. Cundinamarca trabaja para erradicar el trabajo infantil. August 9, 2016.
    http://www.elnuevosiglo.com.co/articulos/08-2016-ofensiva-cundinamarquesa-para-erradicar-el-trabajo-infantil.

  91. U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2016: Colombia. Washington, DC: March 3, 2017.
    https://www.state.gov/reports/2016-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/colombia/.

  92. Radio Caracol. CBF lanza en Medellín campaña: Presente contra el trabajo infantil. February 20, 2018.
    https://caracol.com.co/emisora/2018/02/21/medellin/1519169940_688850.html.

  93. Government of Colombia_ICBF. El ICBF contribuye con la disminución del trabajo infantil. April 6, 2018.
    https://www.icbf.gov.co/noticias/el-icbf-contribuye-con-la-disminucion-del-trabajo-infantil.

  94. El Universal. 'Ojos en todas partes' previene la explotación sexual infantil. September 28, 2015. Source on file.

  95. CableNoticias. Colombia combatira la explotacion sexual de menores con esta herramienta. August 10, 2017.
    http://www.cablenoticias.tv/vernoticia.asp?titulo=Colombia-combatira-la-explotacion-sexual-de-menores-con-esta-herramienta&WPLACA=104038.

  96. Regional Initiative Latin America and the Caribbean Free of Child Labor. Implementación del Modelo de Identificación del Riesgo de Trabajo Infantil en países piloto de América Latina y el Caribe: resultados y perspectivas futuras. September 2017.
    http://iniciativa2025alc.org/sites/default/files/memoria-reunion-modelo-riesgo-TI.pdf.

  97. Government of Colombia. Cancilleria participo en la Segunda Feria Binacional Colombia-Ecuador Contra la Trata de Personas. September 29, 2017.
    http://www.cancilleria.gov.co/newsroom/news/cancilleria-participo-segunda-feria-binacional-colombia-ecuador-trata-personas.

  98. Unicef. UNICEF y la Fiscalía unidos en la campaña #EsoEsCuento de prevención contra la Trata de Personas. 2018.
    https://unicef.org.co/noticias/unicef-y-la-fiscalia-unidos-en-la-campana-esoescuento-de-prevencion-contra-la-trata-de.

  99. Government of Colombia, Departamento para Prosperidad Social. Informe de Gestión 2013. January 2014. Source on file.

  100. Government of Colombia, Departamento para Prosperidad Social. Informe de Gestión 2014. January 2015. Source on file.

  101. Government of Colombia, Departamento para Prosperidad Social. Informe de Gestión 2015. January 2016. Source on file.

  102. Agencia Nacional para la Superacion de la Pobreza Extrema. Informe de Gestión (Vigencia 2013) Enero – Diciembre 2013. 2013. Source on file.

  103. RCN Radio. Congreso aprobó creación de ‘Red Unidos’ para superación de la pobreza extrema. April 27, 2016.
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