Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports
In 2022, Colombia made significant advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. Through Law 2205, the government amended the Code of Criminal Procedure, which prioritizes and accelerates investigations into commercial sexual exploitation and the use of children in pornography by establishing a prosecution timeline for the Attorney General's Office. The government also increased the number of labor inspectors from 885 to 1,165, developed an elite group of inspectors to focus on child labor, and increased the capacity of labor inspectors to identify children at risk. Furthermore, the Colombian Institute for Family Welfare established a 2023 Action Plan with Ecuadorian authorities to address child labor in illegal mining operations. Lastly, the government increased Venezuelan migrant children's enrollment in the education system by approximately 20 percent compared to the year prior. However, children in Colombia are subjected to the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation and illicit activities, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking. In addition, inadequate resource allocation for the labor inspectorate, including an insufficient number of labor inspectors, may impede government efforts to protect children from the worst forms of child labor. Finally, existing social programs are insufficient to address the scope of the worst forms of child labor in Colombia, including commercial sexual exploitation and forced begging.
Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Colombia.
|Working (% and population)||5 to 14||2.5 (196,518)|
|Working children by sector||5 to 14|
|Attending School (%)||5 to 14||91.8|
|Combining Work and School (%)||7 to 14||2.6|
|Primary Completion Rate (%)||104.5|
Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2021, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2023. (1)
Source for all other data: International Labor Organizations' analysis of statistics from Gran Encuesta Integrada de Hogares, Módulo de Trabajo Infantil (GEIH-MTI), 2020. (2)
Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.
|Agriculture||Production of coffee, sugarcane,† cacao, pome and stone fruits, grapes, and unrefined brown sugar (panela) (3-7)|
|Animal husbandry,† and fishing,† including conch and crab harvesting (4,5,8-10)|
|Industry||Mining† coal, emeralds, gold, tungsten, and coltan (3,5)|
|Producing bricks (5,8,11)|
|Construction,† particularly of large-scale projects (5,8)|
|Cutting and transporting wood,† and producing wood charcoal (3,12)|
|Processing shrimp and langoustines† (9)|
|Services||Street work,† including vending and helping shoppers carry bags in urban markets,† begging,† and guarding cars and motorcycles† (3,5,13-17)|
|Domestic work,† including caring for children,† cooking, gardening, and shopping for the home (5)|
|Working in retail establishments, hotels, and restaurants (5,18)|
|Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡||Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (5,19,20)|
|Use in the production of pornography (5,20)|
|Forced street vending and forced begging (3,21,22)|
|Use in illicit activities by illegal armed groups and criminal organizations, including committing homicides, extortions, trafficking drugs, and the production of marijuana and coca (stimulant plant), each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (3,5,22,23)|
|Recruitment of children by non-state armed groups for use in armed conflict (3,22,24)|
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.
In 2022, reports continued to indicate that the forced recruitment or use of minors in Colombia by illegal armed groups, including by the U.S.-designated terrorist organizations the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia-People's Army (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia-Ejército Popular or FARC-EP) and the National Liberation Army (Ejército de Liberación Nacional or ELN), as well as by the Residual Organized Armed (Grupos Armados Organizados Residuales or GAOR), dissidents of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, the Clan del Golfo, the Popular Liberation Army (Ejército Popular de Liberación or EPL) and criminal bands (bandas criminales or BACRIM) continued in 2022. (3,24,25) Armed groups, particularly in the departments of Cauca, Choco, Cordoba, Nariño, and Norte de Santander, typically recruit children to commit crimes such as producing and trafficking drugs, extortion, and serving as combatants and informants, as well as use children for commercial sexual exploitation. (3,21,22,24) In 2022, an international organization reported that 77 percent of municipalities in the department of Choco and 33 percent of municipalities in the department of Nariño were at high risk for child soldier recruitment, particularly indigenous and Afro-Colombian children. (21) According to the Coalition Against the Involvement of Children and Youth in the Armed Conflict in Colombia (Coalición Contra la Vinculación de Niños, Niñas y Jóvenes al Conflicto Conflicto Armado en Colombia), illegal armed groups forcibly recruited or used 159 children in 66 cases during the reporting period. (21) Colombia's 2016 Peace Accord with the FARC integrated special provisions known as the "Ethnic Chapter" to address the disproportionate harm Afro-Colombian and indigenous communities suffered during the 50-year conflict. High levels of violence persist in these communities, and ethnic community leaders report an increase in child recruitment by drug traffickers. (26,27)
Commercial sexual exploitation of children occurs more often in private homes rented online than in commercial establishments. Children are particularly vulnerable to commercial sexual exploitation in areas with foreign tourism, in mining communities, and in areas with large construction projects. (5) Some children are reportedly recruited in schools, and members of sex trafficking rings conduct surveillance around schools in search of vulnerable girls. (5,8,9,28) In 2022, 114 child victims of sexual exploitation, including sex trafficking, received shelter assistance from an NGO, mostly government-funded. (21) Traffickers exploit Colombian children working in the informal sector and street vending in forced labor. (21,22) Migrant and refugee Venezuelan children are particularly vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor, including in street work, commercial sexual exploitation, forced recruitment or use by non-state groups for armed conflict, and recruitment by organized criminal organizations. (21) While children under 18 are eligible for Temporary Protected Status (TPS), migrant and refugee children face difficulties in obtaining TPS due to their adult guardians' ineligibility and lack of familiarity, thereby increasing barriers to education access and vulnerability to child labor. (5,21,29)
Basic education is free and compulsory for all children up to age 18. However, children in rural and marginalized urban parts of the country face barriers to accessing education due to living long distances from school and a lack of adequate transportation, poor school infrastructure, and violence at school. (3,5,21,30) The government reported an increase of almost 20 percent of Venezuelan migrant children in Colombia's education system, up from 489,179 in 2021 to 586,971 in 2022. (3,21) The TPS program gives Venezuelans with irregular migration status up to 10 years to become residents, as well as access to health, social security, and financial systems. (31,32) Notably, this humanitarian measure also helps them overcome difficulties in accessing pre-primary, primary, secondary, and higher education, as well as training opportunities offered by the Colombian National Apprenticeship Service. (3)
Colombia has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).
|ILO C. 138, Minimum Age||✓|
|ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor||✓|
|UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict||✓|
|UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography||✓|
|Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons||✓|
The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Colombia's legal framework to adequately protect children from the worst forms of child labor, including a minimum age for work that is less than the compulsory education age.
|Standard||Meets International Standards||Age||Legislation|
|Minimum Age for Work||Yes||15||Article 35 of the Child and Adolescence Code (33)|
|Minimum Age for Hazardous Work||Yes||18||Article 117 of the Child and Adolescence Code (33)|
|Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children||Yes||Article 3 of Resolution 1796 (34)|
|Prohibition of Forced Labor||Yes||Article 17 of the Constitution; Articles 141 and 188A of the Penal Code (35,36)|
|Prohibition of Child Trafficking||Yes||Article 17 of the Constitution; Articles 188A–188C of the Penal Code; Law No. 2168 (35-37)|
|Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children||Yes||Articles 213–219B of the Penal Code (36)|
|Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities||Yes||Articles 162, 188D, and 384 of the Penal Code (36)|
|Minimum Age for Voluntary State Military Recruitment||Yes||18||Article 81 of Law 1861 (38)|
|Prohibition of Compulsory Recruitment of Children by (State) Military||Yes||Article 4 of Law 1861 (38)|
|Prohibition of Military Recruitment by Non-state Armed Groups||Yes||Article 162 of the Penal Code; Article 20 the Child and Adolescence Code; Article 14 of Law 418 (33,36,39)|
|Compulsory Education Age||Yes||18||Decree 4807 of 2011 (40)|
|Free Public Education||Yes||Articles 184.108.40.206.4.1 and 220.127.116.11.4.2 of Decree 1075; Article 1 of Decree 4807; Article 28 of the Child and Adolescence Code (33,40,41)|
In May 2022, Colombia passed Law 2205, which modified Article 175 of the Code of Criminal Procedure to prioritize and accelerate investigations into commercial sexual exploitation and the use of children in pornography by establishing a prosecution timeline for the Attorney General's Office. (3,21,42,43) As the minimum age for work is lower than the compulsory education age, children may be encouraged to leave school before the completion of compulsory education.
The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the operations of enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.
|Organization/Agency||Role & Activities|
|Ministry of Labor (MOL)||Receives complaints of labor law violations and conducts labor inspections, including inspections to verify labor conditions for adolescent workers and compliance with other child labor provisions through its Inspection, Monitoring, Control, and Territorial Management Directorate. Also oversees the Internal Working Group on Child Labor Eradication. (9,44) Additionally, the Directorate of Fundamental Rights' Unit for Labor Protections operates the Comprehensive Child Labor Information System (SIRITI), a child labor monitoring system that identifies children engaged in or at risk of child labor. (3) MOL works closely with the Colombian Institute for Family Welfare (ICBF), which provides services to children who have been engaged in child labor and assists in restoring their rights. (3)|
|National Police||Investigate cases of commercial sexual exploitation and human trafficking and have a Child Protection Police Unit. (9,45)|
|Attorney General’s Office (AGO)||Investigates and prosecutes cases of child recruitment for use in armed conflict and illicit activities, commercial sexual exploitation, forced labor, and human trafficking. With support from the Office's Technical Investigation Unit, advises the Attorney General in the design of policies and strategies related to the role of judicial police investigators. (3,9,33) Oversees the Articulation Group for Addressing Trafficking in Persons, which includes prosecutors, analysts, and judicial police engaged in addressing organized crime and human trafficking. (46) During the reporting period, it created a Special Unit for the Investigation of Prioritized Crimes Involving Children and Adolescents. (3,21,42,43)|
Labor Law Enforcement
In 2022, labor law enforcement agencies in Colombia took actions to address child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the operations of the Ministry of Labor (MOL) that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including insufficient resource allocation.
|Overview of Labor Law Enforcement||2021||2022|
|Labor Inspectorate Funding||$1,400,000 (5)||$1,255,755 (3)|
|Number of Labor Inspectors||885 (5)||1,165 (3)|
|Mechanism to Assess Civil Penalties||Yes (47)||Yes (47)|
|Training for Labor Inspectors Provided||Yes (5)||Yes (3)|
|Number of Labor Inspections Conducted at Worksite||Unknown (5)||Unknown (3)|
|Number of Child Labor Violations Found||1 (5)||10 (3)|
|Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed||0 (5)||1 (3)|
|Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that Were Collected||N/A||Unknown (3)|
|Routine Inspections Conducted||Yes (5)||Yes (3)|
|Routine Inspections Targeted||Yes (5)||Yes (3)|
|Unannounced Inspections Permitted||Yes (47)||Yes (47)|
|Unannounced Inspections Conducted||Yes (5)||No (3)|
|Complaint Mechanism Exists||Yes (5)||Yes (3)|
|Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services||Yes (5)||Yes (3)|
In January 2022, the Government of Colombia approved the addition of 355 labor inspector positions through Decree 144, and the MOL subsequently hired 280 labor inspectors. (3) However, research indicates that Colombia does not have an adequate number of labor inspectors to carry out their mandated duties. A labor inspectorate funding decrease combined with a labor inspector hiring increase in 2022 resulted in fewer resources allocated for conducting labor inspections throughout the country. (3,48,49) While Colombia does not have labor inspectors trained or specialized in the identification of forced labor, the MOL created an "Elite Group for Inspections against Child Labor" on June 13, 2022, which comprises 50 inspectors who focus on the enforcement of child labor laws. (3,21,50,51) This group conducted child labor enforcement efforts leading to the rescue of 60 children, and signed pacts with local authorities in cities beyond Bogota, including Cali, Riohacha, and Itagui. The MOL also carried out 38 awareness-raising campaigns on child labor and safe adolescent work across 15 departments, reaching 1,561 participants. (3) Nevertheless, the number of children removed from child labor as a result of labor inspections is unknown. (3)
Criminal Law Enforcement
In 2022, criminal law enforcement agencies in Colombia took actions to address child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including the lack of a case management system that tracks sentencing information.
|Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement||2021||2022|
|Training for Criminal Investigators Provided||Yes (5)||Yes (3)|
|Number of Investigations||2,457 (5)||2,219 (3)|
|Number of Prosecutions Initiated||316 (5)||585 (3)|
|Number of Convictions||Unknown (5)||Unknown (3)|
|Imposed Penalties for Violations Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor||Yes (52-54)||Unknown (3)|
|Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services||Yes (5)||Yes (3)|
In 2022, there were 2,079 children and adolescents registered as survivors of crimes related to the worst forms of child labor. Child pornography was linked to 65 percent of the violations and 23.6 percent involved commercial sexual exploitation and forced recruitment by non-state armed groups and criminal groups. (3) During the reporting period, 351 of the 585 suspects charged with crimes related to the worst forms of child labor were charged for using children to commit illicit activities. (3) The government did not report comprehensive annual statistics related to the number of convictions for crimes related to the worst forms of child labor. (21) In addition, as the AGO's case management system tracks criminal proceedings only through the stage of convictions, it does not include information on sentencing. As a result, the government did not report comprehensive information on sentencing. (3,21)
The government has established a key mechanism to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8).
|Coordinating Body||Role & Activities|
|Interagency Committee for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor and Protection of the Adolescent Worker (CIETI)||Coordinates efforts to address the worst forms of child labor. (8) Chaired by MOL, includes 13 government agencies and representatives from trade unions, business associations, and civil society organizations. Oversees department-level CIETIs throughout the country, each comprising municipal-level committees. (3,55) During the reporting period, MOL and CIETIs reached 4,534 public officials in 898 municipalities through 161 technical assistance activities to address child labor. CIETIs in the Boyaca, Caldas, Cundinamarca, Tolima, and Valle del Cauca departments also conducted child labor research. (3) In addition, a MOL-led technical team trained both the departmental and municipal level CIETIs on the SIRITI. (3,21)|
The National Interagency Committee for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Commercial Sexual Exploitation convened in December in Cartagena to raise awareness of commercial sexual exploitation of children. (3) Throughout the reporting period, the Colombian Institute for Family Welfare (ICBF) also made several efforts to build the capacity of the government to address child labor crimes. For instance, the ICBF and MOL established a protocol for labor inspectors to help with the identification of children in or at risk of child labor and ensure that these children are referred to appropriate social services. (3) The ICBF also provided capacity-building assistance on child labor prevention and elimination to National System for Family Welfare (SNBF) agencies at local levels, including by conducting 14 training workshops, reaching 1,654 officials and civil society stakeholders. (3) Finally, ICBF led the government efforts to establish a 2023 Action Plan with Ecuadorian authorities to address child labor in illegal mining operations. (3)
The government has established relevant policies that are consistent with relevant international standards on child labor (Table 9).
|Policy||Description & Activities|
|National Policy Guidelines to Prevent and Eradicate Child Labor and Protect the Adolescent Worker (2017–2027)||Aims to address child labor in the agriculture sector, develop child labor prevention strategies, improve the quality and coverage of child protection services, protect adolescent workers from hazardous work, create strategies to address child labor in domestic work, and establish evaluation and monitoring mechanisms to assess progress. (56) Contains a roadmap to prevent and eliminate child labor in mining and a cooperative agreement between the Ministry of Mining and Energy and the ICBF to prevent child labor in mining. (57) MOL also signed a pact to prevent and eliminate child labor in urban markets with the Bogota District Government's Institute for Social Economy (Instituto para la Economía Social), which include child labor awareness interventions conducted with employers and operators and ICBF's Mobile Teams for Comprehensive Protection (Equipos Móviles de Protección Integral or EMPIs). (3)|
|National Strategy for the Prevention and Eradication of the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (2018–2028)||Guides government actions at the national, departmental, and municipal levels for the prevention of commercial sexual exploitation, survivor assistance, and the strengthening of sentencing for perpetrators. (58) As part of this strategy, the Colombian government maintains an "Eyes in All Places" (Ojos en Todas Partes) public awareness campaign, which aims to prevent child sex tourism. Led by the Ministry of Commerce, Industry, and Tourism, and implemented in coordination with ICBF and the National Tourism Fund. (3) In 2022, MOL and other agencies conducted 86 campaigns to raise awareness of commercial sexual exploitation in 547 municipalities across 24 departments, reaching 3,308 participants. (3) Also in 2022, MOL and ICBF, along with the Organization of Ibero-American States, held a national competition for department-led efforts to address the commercial sexual exploitation of children, out of which five awardees traveled to Spain to conduct exchanges on efforts to prevent this crime. (3)|
|National Policy for the Prevention of Recruitment, Use, and Sexual Violence Against Children and Adolescents by Illegal Armed Groups or Organized Criminal Groups (2018–2028)||Directs government actions to prevent the recruitment and use of children by armed groups, address violence against children, and improve interagency coordination. (3) The government also has a roadmap that establishes protocols to assist child survivors of armed conflict. (11) The Intersectoral Commission for the Prevention of the Recruitment and Use and Sexual Violence Against Children by Illegal Armed Groups (CIPRUNNA) met twice in 2022. (3) Under this policy, CIPRUNNA also presented an assessment of its "Join for Me" (Súmate por Mí) strategy, conducted 263 technical assistance activities with local level authorities, and shared its findings on the probability of recruitment of children and adolescents by illegal armed groups in 2022. (3)|
‡ The government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor. (3)
In 2022, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including the inadequacy of programs to address the full scope of the problem.
|Program||Description & Activities|
|Campaigns Against Child Labor†||ICBF campaigns to increase coordination for the protection of children and adolescents with other government agencies at the national, departmental, and municipal levels, while leading the Family National Welfare System. (59) In 2022, ICBF continued to oversee 51 EMPIs with a total of 153 officers across 33 regional directorates. The EMPIs conducted numerous child labor prevention efforts, including carrying out "active searches" for children either engaged in child labor or at risk, which resulted in the identification of 2,042 children from January through November 2022. (3) Separately, EMPIs verified the school enrollment status for 9,152 children. (3)|
|Programs Addressing Trafficking in Persons†||AGO continued to implement the "Don't be Fooled" (#EsoEsCuento) public awareness campaign to prevent human trafficking in 2022, targeting areas with high prevalence of this crime, such as the department of Bolivar, which includes Cartagena. (3) The National Police also continued implementing their "Open Your Eyes" (Abre Tus Ojos) public awareness and child protection program, which aims to protect children from exploitation in the worst forms of child labor, including the recruitment and use of children by armed groups, commercial sexual exploitation, trafficking in persons, child pornography, and forced begging. The program reached 344,031 participants through 13,323 awareness and prevention activities. (3)|
|Development for Social Prosperity Programs†||Families in Action (Familias en Acción) uses a conditional cash transfer program to address poverty and build human capital; United Network (Red Unidos) coordinates actions to reduce inequality and end extreme poverty; Healthy Generations (Generaciones con Bienestar) operates a children’s rights program offering cultural and recreational activities for children ages 6 to 17 identified as vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor; and Youth in Action (Jóvenes en Acción) provides technical job training and conditional cash transfers to vulnerable urban youth ages 16 to 24. (60,61) As of October 2022, the Shake it Up Generation (Generación Sacúdete) program benefitted 81,569 children ages 14–18 across the country, helping them develop life goals and projects helping prevent the risks associated with the worst forms of child labor. Further, the Culture Fest (Cultura Fest) helped educate children and adolescents and their families on child labor and related crimes. (3) Other social protection programs like Katunaa Modality, Explorers' Generation, and Healthy Ethnic Generations collectively reached a total of 46,115 children across 141 municipalities in 2022, up from 42,378 across 132 municipalities in 2021. (3)|
For information about USDOL’s projects to address child labor around the world, visit https://www.dol.gov/agencies/ilab/ilab-project-page-search
† Program is funded by the Government of Colombia.
‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. (3,10,11)
Research indicates that existing social programs are insufficient to address the scope and magnitude of the worst forms of child labor problem in Colombia, particularly commercial sexual exploitation, forced begging, and recruitment for use in illicit activities. (3,5)
Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Colombia (Table 11).
|Area||Suggested Action||Year(s) Suggested|
|Legal Framework||Raise the minimum age for work from 15 to 18 to align with the compulsory education age.||2018 – 2022|
|Enforcement||Increase the number of labor inspectors from 1,165 to 1,606 to ensure adequate coverage of the labor force of approximately 24.1 million people.||2009 – 2022|
|Enhance the Attorney General's Office's case management system to track entire criminal proceedings beyond sentencing, to include information on the sentences and penalties handed down after conviction.||2021 – 2022|
|Publish information on inspections conducted at worksites, child labor penalties imposed that were collected, convictions for crimes related to the worst forms of child labor, imposed penalties for violations of the worst forms of child labor, children removed from child labor due to inspections, and children referred to social services.||2009 – 2022|
|Strengthen labor law enforcement by conducting unannounced inspections.||2022|
|Increase funding for the Ministry of Labor to ensure that it has the capacity to conduct labor inspections throughout the country.||2022|
|Ensure that all children rescued from child labor situations are referred to and provided social services.||2022|
|Social Programs||Expand efforts to improve education access for all children, especially those in rural and marginalized urban environments, including by ensuring adequate transportation to school, improving school infrastructure, and addressing violence affecting school attendance.||2013 – 2022|
|Expand social programs to sufficiently address the scope of the worst forms of child labor, particularly commercial sexual exploitation, forced begging, and recruitment for use in illicit activities.||2020 – 2022|
- UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed March 15, 2023. For more information, please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.
- ILO. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Gran Encuesta Integrada de Hogares, Módulo de Trabajo Infantil (GEIH-MTI), 2020. Analysis received March 2023. Please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.
- U.S. Embassy- Bogotá. Reporting. February 25, 2023.
- U.S. Embassy- Bogotá. Reporting. February 21, 2020.
- U.S. Embassy- Bogotá. Reporting. March 7, 2022.
- Torres-Tovar, Mauricio et al. Child labor and agricultural production in Colombia. Bogotá: Universidad Nacional de Colombia. November 18, 2018.
- Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística - DANE. Colombia Gran Encuesta Integrada de Hogares. 2018.
- U.S. Embassy- Bogotá. Reporting. February 18, 2021.
- U.S. Embassy- Bogotá. Reporting. March 25, 2020.
- U.S. Embassy- Bogotá. Reporting. April 1, 2019.
- U.S. Embassy- Bogotá. Reporting. April 5, 2018.
- Organización Internacional del Trabajo. El Trabajo Forzoso en la Extracción de Madera. 2018.
- El País. La escalofriante cifra de niños trabajando en Cali que asusta a las autoridades. June 12, 2018. Source on file.
- Bucaramanga. ICBF pilló y ubicó a niños y adolescentes en situación de trabajo infantil en Neiva. March 18, 2019.
- Caracol Radio. Autoridades en Ibagué combaten el trabajo infantil. March 6, 2019.
- El Universal. ICBF identifica casos de trabajo infantil en Sucre. September 30, 2019.
- INFOBAE. Autoridades realizaron operativo contra el trabajo infantil de niños extranjeros en Corabastos, Bogotá. Bogotá: INFOBAE June 14, 2022.
- Government of Colombia. DANE, Boletín Técnico – Trabajo Infantil. April 8, 2020.
- U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2021: Colombia. Washington, D.C., July 1, 2021.
- U.S. Embassy- Bogotá. Reporting. January 28, 2022.
- U.S. Department of State Official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 30, 2023.
- U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report– 2022: Colombia. Washington, D.C., July 19, 2022.
- Human Rights Watch. The War in Catatumbo: Abuses by Armed Groups Against Civilians Including Venezuelan Exiles in Northeastern Colombia. August 8, 2019.
- Comisión de la Verdad (Colombia). Informe final Hay futuro si hay verdad Hallazgos y recomendaciones. Bogotá: CEV. August 2022.
- ICBF, UNICEF, and Infometrika. Estudio de caracterización de niñez desvinculada de grupos armados organizados en Colombia (2013-2022). Bogotá: Government of Colombia. May 11, 2023.
- U.S. Embassy- Bogotá. Reporting. February 14, 2022.
- INFOBAE. El 2022 fue el año más violento contra los pueblos indígenas desde la firma del Acuerdo de Paz. Bogota: INFOBAE. January 15, 2023. Source on file.
- Papadovassilakis, Alex. Prostitution Ring Highlights Vulnerability of Colombia Indigenous Communities. InSight Crime, August 9, 2019.
- Inter-Agency Coordination Platform for Refugees and Migrants from Venezuela. RMNA 2022 Refugee and Migrant Needs Analysis. Bogotá: UNICEF and UNHCR. October 2022.
- UN. Quality Education: Why it Matters. New York: UN. September 2018.
- Government of Colombia. Abecé del Estatuto Temporal de Protección para Migrantes Venezolanos. Bogotá: Government of Colombia. March 5, 2021.
- Departamento Administrativo de la Función Publica. Directiva 5 de 2022 Presidencia de la República: Lineamientos sobre el Permiso por Protección Temporal para Migrantes Venezolanos como Documento Válido para Acceder a la Oferta Institucional y Tramites del Estado Colombiano. Bogota: Presidencia de la República. May 31, 2022.
- Government of Colombia. Código de la Infancia y la Adolescencia, Ley 1098 of 2006. Enacted: November 8, 2006.
- Government of Colombia. Resolution 1796. Enacted: April 27, 2018. Source on file.
- Government of Colombia. Constitución (with modifications until 2013). Enacted: July 6, 1991.
- Government of Colombia. Ley 599 of 2000 – Código Penal (with modifications until 2014). Enacted: 2000.
- Government of Colombia. Ley 2168. December 22, 2021.
https://dapre.presidencia.gov.co/normativa/normativa/LEY 2168 DEL 22 DE DICIEMBRE DE 2021.pdf
- Government of Colombia Law 1861. August 4, 2017.
- Government of Colombia Ley 418 of 1997. Enacted: December 26, 1997.
- Government of Colombia. Decreto 4807 of 2011. Enacted: December 20, 2011.
- Government of Colombia. Decreto 1075 de 2015. May 26, 2015.
- Government of Colombia. Ley 2205 de 2022. Bogota: Government of Colombia. May 10, 2022.
https://www.funcionpublica.gov.co/eva/gestornormativo/norma.php?i=186760#:~:text=Se establece un término perentorio,la infancia y la adolescencia.
- U.S. Embassy- Bogota. Reporting. June 13, 2023.
- Government of Colombia. Resolución No. 1128.15. Integración Unidades Especiales IVC. Enacted: 2015. Source on file.
- Government of Colombia. Funciones de la Policía de Infancia y Adolescencia de la Policía Nacional. March 29, 2022.
- Government of Colombia. Fiscalía fortalece equipo para combatir la trata transnacional de personas. National Attorney General. December 15, 2020.
- Government of Colombia. Código Sustantivo del Trabajo. 2011
- ILOSTAT. ILO Labor Force Statistics (LFS) - Population and labour force. Accessed (January 31, 2023). Labor force data is government-reported data collected by the ILO. Please see "Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.
- UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2019 Statistical Annex. New York. 2019. Please see "Labor Law Enforcement Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.
- Ministerio del Trabajo. MinTrabajo crea Grupo Élite contra el Trabajo Infantil. Bogotá: Ministerio del Trabajo. June 13, 2022.
- INFOBAE. Grupo Elite del ministerio del Trabajo rescato 60 menores de trabajo infantil en plazas de mercado. Cali: INFOBAE. August 2, 2022.
- U.S. Embassy- Bogotá. Reporting. February 5, 2022.
- Fiscalía General de la Nación. Judicializados presuntos responsables de explotación sexual comercial de menores de edad y niñas indígenas. May 19, 2021.
- Fiscalía General de la Nación. A la cárcel ingeniero mecánico de origen cubano investigado por presunta explotación sexual de menores. September 3, 2021.
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