Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Colombia

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Colombia

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Significant Advancement

In 2016, Colombia made a significant advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government eliminated the requirement that victims of human trafficking file an official complaint before they are able to receive non-emergency services and enacted by decree the National Strategy to Combat Trafficking in Persons for 2016–2018. The Ministry of Labor conducted 274 child labor inspections targeting high-risk sectors, compared to none in 2015, and signed an agreement with the Governor of Cundinamarca and Mayor of Pasto to combat child labor and protect adolescent workers. The Government also signed and ratified a peace accord with the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) in November 2016, under which the FARC committed to stop recruiting minors and release from their service all children under age 15. This led to the release of some illegally recruited minors used in armed conflict and the establishment of a protocol for the release of remaining children. In addition, the Government launched a pilot program to address child labor in unrefined brown sugar (panela) production. However, children in Colombia perform dangerous tasks in street work. Children also engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. The Government does not provide assistance to children engaged in street work or employ a sufficient number of labor inspectors.

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Children in Colombia perform dangerous tasks in street work. Children also engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking.(1-3) In 2016, the Government published results from the 2015 National Household Survey, which shows child labor among children ages 5 to 17 decreased from 9.3 percent in 2014 to 9.1 percent in 2015.(4) However, the survey results do not disaggregate information on health, occupational safety, or sectors in which children work, including priority sectors identified by the Government for child labor reduction, such as coffee and sugar cane.(5) Furthermore, the Government does not conduct research on child labor for hard-to-reach populations, including children engaged in street work.(5)

Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Colombia.

Table 1. Statistics on Children's Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

4.6 (392,515)

Working children by sector

 

 

Agriculture

 

43.6

Industry

 

15.4

Services

 

41.0

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

94.7

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

4.8

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

100.5

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2015, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(6)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children's Work Project's analysis of statistics from Gran Encuesta Integrada de Hogares, Módulo de Trabajo Infantil Survey, 2015.(7)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children's Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of coffee,† sugarcane,† and unrefined brown sugar (panela)† (8-11)

Hunting† and fishing,† activities unknown (12)

Industry

Mining coal,† emeralds,† gold,† tungsten,† coltan,† and clay† (9, 13-16)

Producing bricks† (clay) (17)

Construction,† activities unknown (18)

Cutting and transporting lumber, and creating artisanal woodwork such as handicrafts and decorative items (19)

Services

Street work,† including vending, begging, and guarding or washing cars and motorcycles (1, 2, 11, 20-24)

Recycling† and garbage scavenging† (2, 17, 25)

Selling imported gasoline† (9, 17)

Domestic work† (9, 11, 16, 26)

Working in retail establishments, hotels, and restaurants, activities unknown (12, 27)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (11, 21, 28-30)

Use in the production of pornography (2, 11, 28)

Use in armed conflict by illegal armed groups, sometimes as a result of force, to perform intelligence and logistical activities, store and transport weapons, and engage in commercial sexual exploitation (11, 31)

Use in illicit activities, including in forced begging, by gangs to commit homicides and traffic drugs, and in the production of marijuana, poppies, and coca (stimulant plant), sometimes as a result of human trafficking, (2, 3, 9, 11, 22, 29, 32, 33)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Children in Colombia are used for commercial sexual exploitation and illicit activities. Between January and November 2016, the Government registered 292 cases of commercial sexual exploitation of children, of which 247 were girls.(11) Most of these girls came from Antioquia, Atlántico, Bogotá, Bolívar, and Valle del Cauca.(11, 34). Commercial sexual exploitation of children takes place more often in private homes rented through the Internet than in commercial establishments.(11) In mining areas, trafficking of children—for forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation—is common, especially in Antioquia; Bajo Cauca; Barranco Minas, Guainía; and Northern Cauca.(35)

In Cartagena, children are forced by gangs to commit homicides and engage in commercial sexual exploitation.(36) Children also work on the streets of Cali and Medellín.(1, 20) In Cartagena, children—many of them Afro-Colombian—sell fruits and handicrafts in urban markets and offer services to tourists.(21, 36) In some cities, children in street work sell gum and sweets, guard parked vehicles, or work in recycling.(11)

The recruitment and use of children by illegal armed groups remained widespread and underreported in 2016, despite reaching a historic low after the Government signed a peace accord with the FARC.(11, 37) As a result of the peace accord, FARC released 13 minors to the Red Cross.(11) No additional minors were released by the end of the reporting period.(11)

Accessing education and high rates of school dropout continue to be challenges for many children, especially indigenous and Afro-Colombian children. Access to education is hindered by internal armed conflict, impassable routes, and long distances between children's homes and schools in rural areas.(11, 38, 39) For the small number of children from ethnic groups who may not speak Spanish as a first language, language barriers may also make education difficult to access.(19) Children who do not attend school are often the most vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor in Colombia.(21, 32)

Colombia has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The legal framework in Colombia appears to be sufficient to address and protect children from the worst forms of child labor (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Article 35 of the Code on Childhood and Adolescence (40)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 117 of the Code on Childhood and Adolescence (40)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Resolution 3597 (41)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 17 of the Constitution; Articles 141 and 188A of the Penal Code; Article 5 of Resolution 3597 (41-43)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 17 of the Constitution; Articles 188A–188C of the Penal Code; Article 5 of Resolution 3597 (41-43)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 213–219B of the Penal Code (43)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Articles 162, 188D, and 344 of the Penal Code; Article 5 of Resolution 3597 (41, 43)

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

Yes

18

Article 13 of Law 418; Article 2 of Law 548 (44, 45)

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Article 13 of Law 418; Article 2 of Law 548 (44, 45)

Non-state Compulsory

Yes

18

Article 162 of Law 599; Article 20 of Law 1098; Article 14 of Law 418 (40, 43, 44)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

18

Decision C-376/10 of the Colombian Constitutional Court (46)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 1 of Decree 4807 (47)

 

In 2016, the Government eliminated the requirement that victims of human trafficking file an official complaint before they can receive non-emergency services.(48)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor law and criminal law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor's (MOL) Inspection, Monitoring, Control, and Territorial Management Department

Receive complaints of labor law violations and conduct labor inspections, including inspections to verify labor conditions for adolescent workers and compliance with other child labor provisions. Operate the Integrated Registration and Information System for Child Labor (SIRITI), a child labor monitoring system that identifies children engaged in or at risk of child labor.(2, 49) Oversee the Internal Working Group on Child Labor Eradication.(50)

Ministry of the Interior (MOI)

Operate a hotline through its Anti-Trafficking in Persons Operations Center to report and track cases of human trafficking, and facilitate access to social services for victims.(51)

National Police

Investigate cases of commercial sexual exploitation and human trafficking.(49)

Colombian Institute for Family Well-Being (ICBF)

Process child labor complaints; operate hotlines to report child labor cases, including its worst forms; and provide social services to children engaged in or at risk of child labor.(2, 52, 53) Operate 40 mobile units to coordinate government actions to protect children's rights, including with regard to child labor. Provide support to demobilized child soldiers by strengthening family networks and increasing access to health services, food, education, and shelter.(19)

Attorney General's Office (AGO)

Investigate and prosecute cases of child recruitment for armed conflict, commercial sexual exploitation, forced labor, and human trafficking.(2, 40) Oversee the Articulation Group for Combating Trafficking in Persons, which includes four prosecutors that focus on investigation and prosecution of cross-border human trafficking and other related crimes.(54)

Office of the Ombudsman

Promote the rights of children and adolescents and monitor policies related to children's human rights. Operate an early warning system to prevent the recruitment of children by illegal armed groups.(40)

Ministry of Health and Social Protection

Provide health services to victims of sexual violence, including child victims of commercial sexual exploitation and human trafficking.(55)

National Training Service (SENA)

Collect fines imposed by the MOL for labor law violations.(56)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, labor law enforcement agencies in Colombia took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown

$1,266,600‡ (11)

Number of Labor Inspectors

827† (2)

836‡ (11)

Number of Child Labor Dedicated Inspectors

14† (2)

Unknown

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (2, 57)

Yes (11)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (2)

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (2)

Yes

Number of Labor Inspections

8,108† (58)

Unknown (11)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown

Unknown (11)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown

0‡ (11)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

11† (2)

6‡ (11)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

11† (2)

6‡ (11)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

Unknown

Unknown

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (2)

Yes (11)

Routine Inspections Targeted

No (2)

Yes (11)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (2)

Yes (11)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Unknown

Yes (11)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (2)

Yes (11)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (2)

Yes (11)

† Data are from January 2015 to December 2015.
‡ Data are from January 2016 to October 2016.

While the Government reported it had sufficient resources to conduct its work, resource allocation varied across offices, with fewer resources provided to rural offices such as those in Amazonas and Vichada.(11) In some cases, inspectors carried out inspections only in a small fraction of the department due to a lack of resources to reach areas that may be accessible only by boat or small planes.(2)

Although the Ministry of Labor (MOL) hired additional labor inspectors in 2016, the number of labor inspectors is insufficient for the size of Colombia's workforce, which includes more than 24 million workers. According to the ILO recommendation of 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in industrializing economies, Colombia should employ about 1,629 inspectors.(11, 59-61) In 2016, the Government increased its child labor inspections, and, for the first time, conducted targeted inspections to prevent child labor. However, only one inspection was conducted in Bogotá , where the greatest incidence of child labor occurs.(11) The MOL also disseminated guidance on inspection strategies and preventive assistance to its regional and special labor offices.(11) However, the lack of adequate practical training for new inspectors hampered the labor inspectorate's enforcement of child labor laws.(11)

Despite the requirement that children between the ages of 15 and 17 obtain work authorization from the MOL, the 2014 National Household Survey found many adolescents worked without permits.(5) Due to a lack of compliance with child labor laws, the MOL revoked 124 work authorizations in 2016.(11) The MOL received 49 complaints for violations of child labor laws, which resulted in the issuance of 3 sanctions.(11) Research could not determine whether these fines were collected.(11) Between January and November 2016, 3,394 children were identified by the Government to be in need of assistance as a result of being removed from child labor.(11)

To combat child labor in the mining sector, the ICBF requires its regional offices to coordinate with the MOL regional offices during inspections of mines and quarries and to provide social services to children found working in mining.(62) However, it is unclear whether such coordination occurs in practice.

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in Colombia took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (31)

Yes (11)

Number of Investigations

Unknown

2,240 (11)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown

374 (11)

Number of Convictions

Unknown

258 (11)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (2)

Yes (11)

 

In 2016, the Attorney General's Office (AGO) conducted 2,240 investigations of crimes related to the worst forms of child labor, including investigations of trafficking in persons for child commercial sexual exploitation.(11) The National Police also apprehended nine child traffickers.(11) Despite these efforts, the Government noted that insufficient resources hampered its capacity to enforce criminal laws related to the worst forms of child labor.(2, 11, 63)

In 2016, ICBF allocated more than $5.3 million to provide services to child victims, and between January and November, it registered 292 child victims of commercial sexual exploitation and 46 child victims of trafficking.(11) However, the full scope of the problem is unknown, as few complaints of commercial sexual exploitation of children are filed.(36) In addition, some children's parents are afraid to file complaints because many of their recruiters are locally known individuals.(36) Commercial sexual exploitation of children is also underreported because victims are afraid to testify or otherwise be identified by the accused as part of the judicial process.(19)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

Interagency Committee for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor (CIETI)

Coordinate efforts to combat the worst forms of child labor. Chaired by the MOL, the Committee includes 13 government agencies and representatives from trade unions, business associations, and civil society organizations.(11) Oversee 32 department-level CIETIs, each comprising municipal-level committees, throughout the country.(64) In 2016, the MOL and ICBF drafted the preliminary public policy and roadmap for the National Policy to Prevent and Eliminate Child Labor and Protect the Young Worker (2016–2026).(11)

National System of Family Well-Being

Promote interagency coordination to protect children's rights, including rights related to child labor.(11) Design, implement, monitor, and evaluate policies that affect children from early childhood to adolescence. Comprises the offices of the President and Vice President, 15 government ministries, and other government agencies. Overseen by the ICBF.(11)

National Interagency Committee for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Commercial Sexual Exploitation

Implement efforts to combat the commercial sexual exploitation of children. Led by the Ministry of Health and Social Protection, comprises 15 government agencies.(11) In 2016, held 3 meetings to discuss the execution of the National Policy to Prevent and Eliminate Child Labor and Protect the Young Worker and 10 work sessions to develop a draft policy to prevent commercial sexual exploitation of children.(11)

Interagency Committee to Combat Trafficking in Persons (Comité Interinstitucional de Lucha Contra la Trata de Personas)

Lead and coordinate efforts among government agencies to combat human trafficking. Created by Law 985 and chaired by the Ministry of the Interior, comprises 16 government entities and 6 permanent invitees, including private sector and international organizations.(2) In 2016, distributed modified trafficking victim identification materials to better identify vulnerable populations.(37)

Inter-sectorial Commission for the Prevention of the Recruitment and Use of Children by Illegal Armed Groups (CIPRUNA)

Coordinate efforts to prevent child recruitment by illegal armed groups, including for the purposes of commercial sexual exploitation. Created by Law 552 and led by the High Commissioner for Post-Conflict, Human Rights and Security, comprises 23 entities, with the AGO and the MOL as permanent members.(65, 66) In 2016, CIPRUNA and the ICBF referred 170 cases of forced recruitment of children to the AGO.(11)

Work Group to Assess Acceptable Activities for Adolescent Work in Coffee, Cotton, Sugar, and Rice

Coordinate with universities to research and assess types of activities that may be permitted for adolescents authorized to work in the coffee, cotton, sugar, and rice sectors. Created in 2014, comprises the UN Food and Agriculture Organization, the ILO, Department of National Planning, National Department of Statistics, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Health, and the MOL.(64)

 

In 2015, the last year for which information is available, regional government officials recognized a need for increased coordination and information exchange between regional ICBF and MOL offices and the national headquarters to ensure the effective implementation of child labor policies.(21, 63, 67)

The Government has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

Child Labor Pact (2014–2018)

Aims to reformulate policies on the prevention and eradication of child labor and include them in national strategies; improve coordination among the MOL and other government agencies, the ILO, and industry associations; raise awareness of child labor issues in capital cities and tourist destinations; and train department-level officials on laws related to child labor and services available to victims.(64)

National Strategy for the Fight Against Trafficking in Persons (2016–2018)†

Aims to prevent human trafficking by raising awareness to detect potential victims, provide immediate assistance to victims, promote inter-institutional collaboration, strengthen and develop international cooperation mechanisms, and develop a data-gathering mechanism.(68) Established by Decree No. 1036 in 2016 and led by the Interagency Committee to Combat Trafficking in Persons.(69)

Final Agreement for the End of Conflict and Construction of a Stable and Lasting Peace†

Signed by the Government and the FARC, and ratified by the Colombian Congress in November 2016 to end the armed conflict.(11, 69) Agreed to conduct a child labor eradication campaign, take immediate measures to eliminate the worst forms of child labor, strengthen the system for on-site labor inspections, and create a mobile inspection unit to reach rural areas.(11, 69) Also establishes the National Council for Reincorporation to oversee the demobilization and release of minors from the FARC's ranks.(11)

National Policy to Prevent the Recruitment of Children and Adolescents by Illegal Armed Groups

Directs actions to prevent the recruitment and use of children by illegal armed groups. Aims to address violence against children, including the worst forms of child labor, and improve interagency coordination.(70)

National Development Plan (Todos por un Nuevo País) (2014–2018)

Outlines Colombia's strategy to promote inclusive economic growth and national development. Seeks to improve access to quality education, lengthen the school day to 7 hours, and provide preschool for children under age 5.(71) In 2016, included a new requirement that the child labor survey be conducted annually.(11)

Memoranda of Understanding for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor in the Transport Sector (2015–2016) and for the Promotion of Respect for Children's and Adolescent's Rights in the Production of Coffee (2015–2016)

Signed in 2015 and expired in December 2016.(2) Promoted cooperation between the MOL and the Colombian Federation of Cargo Transporters and Logistics and the National Federation of Coffee Growers (FEDECAFE) to prevent and combat child labor in the transportation and coffee sectors.(2, 72) In 2016, the MOL and FEDECAFE reached an agreement with 560,000 coffee-growing families to abide by child labor laws, conduct awareness-raising campaigns, and establish a working group to identify activities in which children can legally participate.(11, 73) Under this agreement, the Public Employment Service also agreed to establish job centers in the municipalities prioritized by FEDECAFE to support hiring adults.(11)

Agreement Between the MOL, Governor of Cundinamarca, and Mayor of Pasto†

Agreed to prevent, deter, and eradicate child labor in its worst forms and protect adolescent workers.(17, 74)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.
‡ The Government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor.(11, 64, 75)

In 2016, the Government continued to draft the National Policy to Prevent and Eliminate Child Labor and Protect the Young Worker, intended to replace the previous policy that expired in 2015.(11) The new policy aims to strengthen prevention strategies, update the list of hazardous activities, develop a list of activities permitted for young workers, develop cost-efficient mechanisms to identify child laborers, design coordination mechanisms with the private sector and unions, and generate programs in rural areas. In addition, in June 2016, the Government approved a national plan to prevent and eradicate the commercial sexual exploitation of children.(19)

Officials in some departments reported experiencing difficulties in implementing child labor policies due to a lack of current, reliable data on child labor. A lack of resources and training to update the MOL Integrated Registration and Information System for Child Labor has contributed to this situation.(17, 21, 63, 64, 67)

In 2016, the Government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Child Labor in Mining Prevention Program (Prevenir es Mejor)

Secretariat of Mining and Office of Infancy, Adolescence, and Youth program in Antioquia, provided 438 children with life skills training, legal and psychological support, and recreational activities to prevent and eradicate child labor in the mining sector.(76)

Projects Addressing Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children†

Eyes Everywhere (Ojos en Todas Partes), a public awareness campaign that aims to prevent the commercial sexual exploitation of children in the tourism sector. Led by Ministry of Commerce, Industry, and Tourism, and implemented in coordination with ICBF and the National Tourism Fund.(2, 77) Sexual Violence – The Importance of the First 72 Hours, campaigns to train psychosocial teams and other service providers on how to conduct investigations related to the commercial sexual exploitation of children and provide assistance to victims.(11) In 2016, more than 183 family commissioners and psychosocial teams from Antioquia, Cundinamarca, and Huila were trained as part of this campaign.(11)

Projects Addressing Trafficking in Persons

Eye on Trafficking† aims to increase awareness of human trafficking among high school students; School Environments in Coexistence and Peace† focuses on identifying potential trafficking victims; and The Butterflies, a comic book released by Women's Link Worldwide, Renacer Foundation, and UNODC, aims to raise awareness about human trafficking among children and adolescents.(11)

Development for Social Prosperity Programs†

More Families in Action (Más Familias en Acción) uses a conditional cash transfer program seeking to combat poverty and build human capital; United Network (Red Unidos), coordinates actions to reduce inequality and end extreme poverty; Healthy Generations (Generaciones con Bienestar), operates a children's rights program offering cultural and recreational activities for children ages 6 to 17 identified as vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor; and Youth in Action (Jóvenes en Acción) provides technical job training and conditional cash transfer for vulnerable urban youth ages 16 to 24.(78-84)

Mobile Teams for Comprehensive Protection – Child Labor (EMPI)

Led by ICBF, assist families vulnerable to child labor by linking them to the National System of Family Well-Being.(11) Between January and November 2016, assisted 1,429 children engaged in child labor, operating in 8 cities, including Arauca, Barranquilla, Bogotá, Cartagena, Ocaña, Riohacha, Sincelejo, and Soacha.(11, 85)

ICBF Projects†

Colombia Network Against Child Labor (Red Colombia contra el Trabajo Infantil), a public-private partnership that builds on the UN Global Pact Initiative to create collaboration between Colombian businesses and the MOL to eliminate child labor. In 2016, implemented the "Stick your tongue out at child labor" social media campaign.(86-88) Healthy Generations, a project that aims to prevent child labor and protect young workers in 58 municipalities. In 2016, served 117,214 children in 32 departments and launched a pilot program in coordination with the Association of Sugar Cane Growers to prevent child labor in the agricultural sector, especially in panela production, serving 720 at-risk children in Cauca and Valle de Cauca.(11)

Decent Work Program

Project implemented by the ILO to promote decent work, including combating child labor.(89, 90)

National Household Survey†

National Administrative Department of Statistics annual national household survey that includes questions on child labor.(91)

INGRUMA Indigenous Training Center

Funded by USAID to provide specialized services to indigenous youth who have been victims of child soldiering.(92, 93) As of 2016, 18 youth have graduated from the Training Center.(37)

We Are a Treasure (Somos Tesoro) (2013–2017)

USDOL-funded $9 million project to combat child labor and promote safe work in the mining sector. Implemented by PACT, Inc., in partnership with the Alliance for Responsible Mining, Mi Sangre Foundation, and the Fund for Environmental Action and Childhood.(94-96) In 2016, 10 municipalities included a commitment to prevent and reduce child labor in their municipal development plans, and in partnership with the Government and ILO, designed and implemented a training program to strengthen local technical capacities aimed at preventing and reducing child labor in mining.(97, 98) Additional information is available on the USDOL Web site.

† Program is funded by the Government of Colombia.
‡ The Government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms.(99-103)

Research did not find evidence of programs to assist children engaged in street work.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Colombia (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Enforcement

Ensure that labor inspectors have sufficient resources to perform inspections.

2009 – 2016

Increase the number of labor inspectors responsible for enforcing laws related to child labor to meet the ILO recommendation.

2009 – 2016

Publish information on child labor law enforcement efforts, including the number of penalties imposed that were collected for labor violations.

2009 – 2016

Improve coordination between the ICBF and MOL to enforce child labor laws in the mining sector.

2009 – 2016

Ensure that all adolescents who work in allowable activities have received the legally required authorization from the MOL.

2015 – 2016

Publish information on the number of violations related to the worst forms of child labor, as well as initial training for new labor inspectors and criminal investigators.

2014 – 2016

Take steps to protect the identity of child victims of commercial sexual exploitation, especially for those on whose behalf complaints are filed.

2014 – 2016

Provide sufficient resources to criminal law enforcement officials to enforce criminal laws related to the worst forms of child labor.

2014 – 2016

Coordination

Ensure that information is exchanged among coordinating bodies at the national and regional levels.

2012 – 2016

Social Programs

Publish information about activities in which children and adolescents work, including disaggregating information about health, occupational safety, and sectors where children work, especially in the production of coffee and sugarcane, and in street work.

2009 – 2016

Ensure that children are protected from armed conflict while in school.

2013 – 2016

Expand efforts to improve access to education for all children, particularly for indigenous and Afro-Colombian children, including by improving transportation infrastructure, building more schools in rural areas, and offering instruction in local languages.

2013 – 2016

Implement programs to address child labor, including in street work.

2012 – 2016

1.         Guadrón, Y. "Niños de la calle, blanco de explotadores en Medellín." El Tiempo, Bogotá, April 18, 2012. http://www.eltiempo.com/colombia/medellin/ARTICULO-WEB-NEW_NOTA_INTERIOR-11595581.html.

2.         U.S. Embassy- Bogotá. reporting, February 19, 2016.

3.         U.S. Department of State. "Colombia," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015. Washington, DC; July 27, 2015; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/243558.pdf.

4.         Government of Colombia. DANE, Boletín Técnico - Trabajo Infantil (Octubre – Diciembre 2015) April 13, 2016. http://www.dane.gov.co/files/investigaciones/boletines/ech/jobinfantil/bol_trab_inf_2015.pdf.

5.         Government of Colombia. Evaluación de la Estrategia Nacional de erradicación de las peores formas del trabajo infantil y protección al joven trabajador (2008 – 2015). Bogotá; 2014. [source on file].

6.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed December 16, 2016; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary education. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. The calculation includes all new entrants to the last grade (regardless of age). Therefore, the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

7.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Gran Encuesta Integrada de Hogares Módulo de Trabajo Infantil, 2015. Analysis received December 15, 2016. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information,  please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

8.         Salcedo, P. "En Colombia trabajan más de un millón de niños", [previously online] [cited June 12, 2011]; [Source on file].

9.         U.S. Department of State. "Colombia," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2014. Washington, DC; June 25, 2015; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/236888.pdf.

10.       U.S. Department of State. "Colombia," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2015. Washington, DC; April 13, 2016; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/253213.pdf.

11.       U.S. Embassy - Bogotá. reporting, March 17, 2017.

12.       Government of Colombia. Response to USDOL Request for Information. Bogotá; February 27, 2015.

13.       "Cerca de 16 mil niños trabajan en minería en Colombia," Bogotá: teleSUR; September 24, 2011, 2 min., 23 sec., [online video]; [cited March 7, 2014]; https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BCGWNk70WsM.

14.       Hurtado, HR. "La dura historia de los niños mineros de Ataco", El Tiempo, [previously online] [cited July 14, 2013] [Source on file].

15.       Gómez Orozco, JP. "El zarpazo a las selvas." [online] December 16, 2015 [cited March 17, 2016]; http://www.eltiempo.com/multimedia/especiales/mineria-ilegal-en-colombia-el-zarpazo-a-lasselvas/16460302.

16.       Universidad  Nacional de Colombia. Estadísticas no evidencian realidad del trabajo infantil. Bogotá: 2016. http://agenciadenoticias.unal.edu.co/detalle/article/estadisticas-no-evidencian-realidad-del-trabajo.html.

17.       U.S. Department of State. "Colombia," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - 2016. Washington, DC; March 3, 2017; https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265786.pdf.

18.       "En Cali hay por lo menos 2753 menores laborando, dice Ministerio del Trabajo." El País, Cali, June 3, 2015. http://www.elpais.com.co/elpais/cali/noticias/cali-hay-por-menos-2753-menores-trabajadores-dice-ministerio-trabajo.

19.       U.S. Department of State official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 2, 2017.

20.       "Niños que trabajan en las calles de Cali siguen siendo un problema preocupante." El País, Cali, August 24, 2012. http://www.elpais.com.co/elpais/cali/noticias/ninos-trabajan-calles-cali-siguen-siendo-problema-preocupante.

21.       Government of Colombia, Institute for Family Well-Being official. Interview with USDOL official. June 2, 2015.

22.       El Tiempo. ""Explotación laboral infantil aumenta en Navidad en Bogotá"." [online] December 22, 2015 [cited March 15, 2016]; http://www.eltiempo.com/bogota/explotacion-y-trabajo-infantil-en-bogota/16464511.

23.       "Los niños que trabajan en las calles" [video]. Colombia: Universidad Autónoma de Occidente; November 16, 2012, 11 min., 40 sec., [accessed March 7, 2014] http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MFJJyAebpNg.

24.       U.S. Department of State. "Colombia," in Trafficking in Persons Report - 2016. Washington, DC June 30, 2016; https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/258878.pdf.

25.       Government of Colombia, Ministry of Education. "Comunicado de la Alcaldía Mayor de Riohacha y el Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar- ICBF respecto a la Conmemoración del Día Mundial Contra el Trabajo Infantil", [Online] June 10, 2011 [cited March 10, 2014]; http://www.mineducacion.gov.co/cvn/1665/w3-article-273873.html.

26.       Government of Colombia, MoL. "En Colombia hay 20.000 menores en trabajos domésticos." [Online] June 11, 2013 [cited April 14, 2016]; http://www.mintrabajo.gov.co/medios-junio-2012/1948-en-colombia-hay-20000-menores-en-trabajos-domesticos.pdf.

27.       Government of Colombia. DANE, Boletín Técnico – Trabajo Infantil April 16, 2015. Source on file

28.       Government of Colombia. Análisis de la Situación de Explotación Sexual Comercial en Colombia: Una Oportunidad para Asegurar la Protección de Niños, Niñas y Adolescentes. Bogotá; December 2013.

29.       U.S. Department of State. "Colombia," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2014. Washington, DC; June 19, 2014; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2014/.

30.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request Concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Colombia (ratification: 2005) Published: 2015; accessed November 1, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3184779.

31.       U.S. Embassy- Bogotá. reporting, February 11, 2016.

32.       UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Concluding observations on the combined fourth and fifth periodic reports of Colombia. Geneva; March 6, 2015. Report No. CRC/C/COL/CO/4-5. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fCOL%2fCO%2f4-5&Lang=en.

33.       Malaver, C. "Mediante matoneo, obligan a jóvenes de colegios a unirse a bandas." El Tiempo, Bogotá, February 4, 2014. http://www.eltiempo.com/colombia/bogota/jovenes-son-obligados-a-unirse-a-bandas-con-matoneo_13428238-4.

34.       U.S. Embassy- Bogotá official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 1, 2015.

35.       The Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime. Organized Crime and Illegally Mined Gold in Latin America April 2016. http://globalinitiative.net/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/TGIATOC-OC-and-Illegally-Mined-Gold-in-Latin-America-Report-1718-digital.pdf.

36.       U.S. Embassy- Bogotá official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. July 1, 2016.

37.       U.S. Embassy - Bogotá. reporting, February 15, 2017.

38.       Corporación Colombia Digital. "Evento de socialización de actores claves para promover las iniciativas del programa de permanencia escolar y en particular mostrar las experiencias del trabajo en campo del proyecto de apropiación y uso del sistema de información para el monitoreo, la prevención y el análisis de la deserción escolar SIMPADE", [Online] December 6, 2012 [cited March 7, 2014]; http://bit.ly/ZRhuAi.

39.       El Tiempo. ""Historias de cómo es ir a estudiar por trochas minadas y sin puentes"." Bogotá, February 8, 2013. http://www.eltiempo.com/justicia/ARTICULO-WEB-NEW_NOTA_INTERIOR-12586004.html.

40.       Government of Colombia. Código de la Infancia y la Adolescencia, Ley 1098 of 2006, enacted November 8, 2006. http://www.oei.es/quipu/colombia/codigo_infancia.pdf

41.       Government of Colombia. Resolución 3597, enacted October 3, 2013. http://www.icbf.gov.co/cargues/avance/docs/resolucion_mtra_3597_2013.htm.

42.       Government of Colombia. Constitución (with modifications until 2013), enacted July 6, 1991. http://bit.ly/P9JBs0.

43.       Government of Colombia. Ley 599 of 2000 - Código Penal (with modifications until 2014), enacted 2000. http://www.alcaldiabogota.gov.co/sisjur/normas/Norma1.jsp?i=6388.

44.       Government of Colombia. Ley 418 of 1997, enacted December 26, 1997. http://www.secretariasenado.gov.co/senado/basedoc/ley_0418_1997.html.

45.       Government of Colombia. Ley 548 of 1999, enacted December 23, 1999. http://200.75.47.49/senado/basedoc/ley/1999/ley_0548_1999.html.

46.       Government of Colombia, CCC. Sentencia C376-10. Bogotá,  May 19, 2010. http://www.corteconstitucional.gov.co/relatoria/2010/c-376-10.htm.

47.       Government of Colombia. Decreto 4807 of 2011, enacted December 20, 2011. http://www.mineducacion.gov.co/1621/articles-293375_archivo_pdf_decreto4807.pdf.

48.       Corte Constitucional de Colombia. Sentencia C-470/16. 2016. http://www.corteconstitucional.gov.co/RELATORIA/2016/C-470-16.htm.

49.       U.S. Embassy- Bogotá. reporting, January 30, 2014.

50.       Government of Colombia. Resolución No. 1128.15 Integración Unidades Especiales IVC, enacted 2015. Source on file.

51.       U.S. Embassy- Bogotá. reporting, February 24, 2014.

52.       Government of Colombia, IfFW-B. "ICBF ha atendido a 605 niños, niñas y adolescentes trabajadores en 2013", [Online] June 12, 2013 [cited February 5, 2014]; http://www.icbf.gov.co/portal/page/portal/Descargas1/Prensa1/Com_TrabajoInf_EdAF_100612.pdf.

53.       Government of Colombia, Institute for Family Well-Being. Ampliación Información U.S. Department of Labor  Bogotá; April 14, 2014 Source on file.

54.       U.S. Embassy- Bogotá. reporting, February 24, 2015.

55.       Government of Colombia, Ministry of Health and Social Protection. Resolución 0459 of 2012, enacted March 6, 2012. [Source on file].

56.       National Training Center. Resolución 2126 of 2013. Bogotá; 2013. http://www.icbf.gov.co/cargues/avance/docs/resolucion_sena_2126_2013.htm.

57.       Government of Colombia. Ley 1610 "Por la cual se regulan algunos aspectos sobre las inspecciones del trabajo y los acuerdos de formalización laboral", enacted January 2, 2013. http://wsp.presidencia.gov.co/Normativa/Leyes/Documents/2013/LEY%201610%20DEL%2002%20DE%20ENERO%20DE%202013.pdf.

58.       Secretaría de Trabajo y Previsión Social, BdBPSILeI. "Colombia - Ficha de país"; accessed July 14, 2016; http://bancoinspeccioniberoamerica.stps.gob.mx/Publico/PublicoFichaContacto.aspx?pais_id=1009.

59.       CIA. The World Factbook, [online] [cited January 19, 2017 https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2095rank.html. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors based on the country’s level of development as determined by the UN.

60.       ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a “sufficient number” of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a “sufficient” number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

61.       UN. "World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex". New York City; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies; “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies," and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

62.       Government of Colombia, Institute for Family Well-Being. Resolución 316, enacted January 28, 2011. http://bit.ly/UWckBS.

63.       Ministry of Labor official Interview with USDOL official. June 3, 2015.

64.       U.S. Embassy- Bogotá. reporting, March 17, 2015.

65.       Government of Colombia. Decreto 552 of 2012, enacted March 15, 2012. http://bit.ly/1eeMfSx.

66.       Government of Colombia. Decreto 4690 of 2007, enacted December 3, 2007. http://www.icbf.gov.co/cargues/avance/docs/decreto_4690_2007.htm.

67.       Ministry of Labor official Interview with USDOL official. June 4, 2015.

68.       Government of Colombia, . Decreto 1036 of 2016, enacted June 24, 2016. http://www.mininterior.gov.co/sites/default/files/noticias/doc-20160630-wa0010_1.pdf.

69.       Mesa de Conversaciones Para la Terminación del Conflicto y la Construcción de una Paz Estable y Duradera en Colombia. Acuerdo Final para la Terminación del Conflicto y la Construcción de una Paz Estable y Duradera. November 24, 2016. https://www.mesadeconversaciones.com.co/sites/default/files/24-1480106030.11-1480106030.2016nuevoacuerdofinal-1480106030.pdf.

70.       Government of Colombia. Conpes 3673, enacted July 19, 2010. [Source on file].

71.       Government of Colombia. "Ley 1753 de 2015 por la cual se expide el Plan Nacional de Desarrollo 2014-2018 'Todos por un nuevo país'." [previously online] 2015 [cited March 24, 2016]; http://sidegap.com.co/sitio/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/plan_nacional_desarrollo.pdf [source on file].

72.       Government of Colombia, MoL. "Transportadores de carga se unen a lucha para erradicar trabajo infantil." [Online] October 9, 2015 [cited March 25, 2016]; http://www.mintrabajo.gov.co/octubre-2015/4924-transportadores-de-carga-se-unen-a-lucha-paraerradicar-trabajo-infantil.html.

73.       Government of Colombia. Ministra Clara López anunció acciones contra el trabajo infantil en la caficultura. Ministerio de Trabajo; 2016. http://www.mintrabajo.gov.co/junio-2016/6062--ministra-clara-lopez-anuncio-acciones-contra-el-trabajo-infantil-en-la-caficultura.html.

74.       El Nuevo Siglo. "Cundinamarca trabaja para erradicar el trabajo infantil." [online] August 9, 2016 [cited March 23, 2017]; http://www.elnuevosiglo.com.co/articulos/08-2016-ofensiva-cundinamarquesa-para-erradicar-el-trabajo-infantil.

75.       Government of Colombia, . Ley No. 1804 enacted 2016. [Source on file].

76.       Antioquia Digital. "Proyecto de prevención del trabajo infantil asociado con la minería." Gobernación de Antioquia [online] 2013 [cited May 5, 2015]; http://www.antioquiadigital.edu.co/Red-Prevenir-es-mejor/Programas-y-Proyectos/.

77.       "'Ojos en todas partes' previene la explotación sexual infantil." [online] September 28, 2015 [cited March 25, 2016]; [Source on file].

78.       Government of Colombia, Department for Social Prosperity. Informe de Gestión 2013. Bogotá; January 2014. http://bit.ly/1eePxp2.

79.       Government of Colombia, Department for Social Prosperity. Informe de Gestión 2014. perviously online. Bogotá; January 2015. [Source on file].

80.       Government of Colombia, Department for Social Prosperity. Informe de Gestión 2015. online; January 2016. http://www.prosperidadsocial.gov.co/ent/gen/trs/Documents/Informe%20de%20Gesti%C3%B3n%20Prosperidad%20Social%202015.pdf.

81.       National Agency to End Extreme Poverty. Informe de Gestión (Vigencia 2013) Enero – Diciembre 2013. previously online. Bogotá; 2013. [Source on file].

82.       RCN Radio. "Congreso aprobó creación de ‘Red Unidos’ para superación de la pobreza extrema." [Online] April 27, 2016 [cited July 5, 2016]; http://www.rcnradio.com/nacional/congreso-aprobo-la-creacion-la-red-unidos-la-superacion-la-pobreza-extrema-colombia/?utm_source=dlvr.it&utm_medium=twitter.

83.       Government of Colombia, Department for Social Prosperity. Más Familias en Acción, [previously online] [cited March 7, 2014]; [Source on file].

84.       UN Human Rights Council. Annual Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights - Addendum - Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on the situation of human rights in Colombia. New York City; January 23, 2015. Report No. A/HRC/28/3/Add.3. [Source on file].

85.       Government of Colombia, Department for Social Prosperity. Informe de Gestión 2016. http://www.icbf.gov.co/portal/page/portal/PortalICBF/LeyTransparencia/Informes/2016/informe_gestion_icbf_300117_.pdf.

86.       Government of Colombia. Conformación Red Colombia contral el Trabajo Infantil; 2014 [Source on file].

87.       Government of Colombia. Reglamento Red Colombia contral el Trabajo Infantil; 2014. [Source on file].

88.       Government of Colombia, Ministry of Labor. "Naciones Unidas reconoció gestión de La Red Colombia contra el Trabajo Infantil." [online] July 27, 2015 [cited March 24, 2016]; http://www.mintrabajo.gov.co/julio-2015/4705-naciones-unidas-reconocio-gestion-de-la-red-colombia-contra-el-trabajo-infantil.html.

89.       Government of Colombia, Ministry of Labor. Carta Acuerdo No. 270. Bogotá; May 8, 2013. [Source on file].

90.       Government of Caquetá. Ordenanza 002, enacted February 10, 2014. [Source on file].

91.       Government of Colombia, National Department of Statistics. Resultados Módulo de Trabajo Infantil. Bogotá; February 4, 2014. http://bit.ly/1li4jjy.

92.       USAID official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 1, 2015.

93.       ILO-IPEC Geneva official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 22, 2016.

94.       Pact, Inc. Project to Reduce Child Labor in Colombia -- Somos Tesoro. Technical Proposal -- Redacted; November 25, 2013. [Source on file].

95.       U.S. Department of Labor. ""Somos Tesoro (We Are a Treasure) -- Project to Reduce Child Labor in Colombia'." [Online] [cited March 25, 2016]; http://www.dol.gov/ilab/projects/summaries/Colombia_CL.pdf.

96.       U.S. Department of Labor. Somos Tesoro: Technical Progress Report -- October 2015. [Source on file].

97.       Somos Tesoro. Para Conquistar el Mundo, , [online] [cited March 27, 2017]; http://www.somostesoro.org/voces-categoria/5-paraconquistar-elmundo.

98.       U.S. Department of Labor. Somos Tesoro: Technical Progress Report -- October 2016 October, . [Source on file].

99.       Federación Nacional de Cajas de Compensación Familiar. "Foniñez." [Previously online] [cited March 25, 2016]; [Source on file].

100.     Government of Colombia, Superintendency of Family Subsidy. Informe Rendición de Cuentas: Superintendencia del Subsidio Familiar 2013. Bogotá; November 22, 2013. http://bit.ly/1gi74gj.

101.     Government of Colombia, Ministry of Education. "Programa de Alimentación Escolar (PAE) Presupuesto y Cobertura." [Online] February 7, 2016 [cited March 25, 2016]; http://www.mineducacion.gov.co/1759/w3-article-349951.html.

102.     Government of Colombia, Ministry of Education. MinEducación le apuesta a la articulación intersectorial para consolidar el Programa de Alimentación Escolar, [previously online] May 28, 2014 [cited December 17, 2014]; [Source on file].

103.     Government of Colombia, Ministry of Education. Programa de Alimentación Escolar: Aspectos Generales, [previously online] January 10, 2014 [cited March 07, 2014]; [Source on file].

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