Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Honduras

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Honduras

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2016, Honduras made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government adopted a Strategic Plan to Prevent and Eliminate Child Labor for 2016–2020 and a Strategic Plan to Combat Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Human Trafficking for 2016–2022. The Secretariat of Labor and Social Security increased the number of labor inspectors from 135 to 151 to better enforce labor laws, including those on child labor, throughout the country. In addition, the Ministry of Education invested $3.5 million to build schools in some of the poorest municipalities, where children are at risk of child labor. However, children in Honduras engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in agriculture and commercial sexual exploitation as a result of human trafficking. The Secretariat of Labor and Social Security did not provide training on child labor to all labor inspectors. The Government’s social programs that address child labor in agriculture do not appear sufficient to address the scope of the problem nationwide, and the Government lacks social programs to eliminate child labor in other dangerous activities, such as fishing, mining, and domestic work.

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Children in Honduras engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in agriculture and commercial sexual exploitation as a result of human trafficking.(1-7) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Honduras.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

8.6 (158,891)

Working children by sector

 

 

Agriculture

 

57.5

Industry

 

10.3

Services

 

32.2

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

87.7

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

6.1

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

92.5

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2015, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(8)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Encuesta Permanente de Hogares de Propósitos Múltiples (EPHPM) Survey, 2014.(9)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of melon, coffee, sugarcane, and okra (10-17)

Harvesting mollusks† (18, 19)

Fishing, including working as divers’ assistants,† and diving for lobster† (1, 2, 14, 20)

Industry

Quarrying limestone† and production of lime† (21-23)

Artisanal mining† (5, 13, 24, 25)

Production and sale of fireworks† (26-29)

Construction,† activities unknown (6, 30)

Services

Street begging and vending† (6, 29, 31)

Work in repair shops,† including in mechanical repair† (6, 32)

Washing car windows† and performing at traffic lights† (3, 30, 33)

Scavenging in garbage dumps† (13, 14, 21, 34)

Work in hotels and laundromats, activities unknown (6)

Domestic work† (3, 11, 13, 35)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation as a result of human trafficking (3, 4, 7)

Forced begging (7, 29, 36)

Use in illicit activities, including by gangs in committing homicides, extortion, and selling and trafficking drugs (7, 29, 30, 37, 38)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

In 2016, Honduras, like El Salvador and Guatemala, continued to be a principal source of high numbers of unaccompanied children from Central America migrating to the United States.(39, 40) Children who lack economic and educational opportunities are the most vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor, including commercial sexual exploitation and recruitment by gangs into illicit activities; these children are among the most likely to migrate. Once en route, they are also vulnerable to human trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation.(41-43) Reports indicate that gangs sometimes threaten families as a means to forcibly recruit children into their ranks, where boys are used to commit extortion, drug trafficking, and homicide, and where girls are engaged in commercial sexual exploitation.(37)

In Honduras, access to education is often limited. Reports indicate that approximately 220,000 children between the ages of 5 and 17 lack access to the educational system.(12) More than 75 percent of these children live in rural areas, where lack of funding for schools and, in many cases, lack of any secondary schools, remain a problem.(12, 38) In urban areas, access to education is often hindered by widespread violence and the recruitment of children into gangs. In addition, school completion rates are low; many children fail to complete primary education and, according to 2011 national data, only 50.5 percent of girls and 37.5 percent of boys completed secondary school.(4, 44) Reports indicate that 20 percent of the Honduran population is of indigenous or African descent and that children from these groups are particularly vulnerable to child labor, including its worst forms.(45, 46)

Honduras has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Honduras’s legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

14

Article 120 of the Code on Childhood and Adolescence; Article 15 of the Executive Agreement STSS-211-01; Article 32 of the Labor Code; Article 124 of the Constitution (47-50)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Articles 1 and 122 of the Code on Childhood and Adolescence; Articles 2 and 10 of the Executive Agreement STSS‑211-01; Article 1 of the Executive Agreement STSS-441-2016 (48, 49, 51)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Article 1 of the Executive Agreement STSS-441-2016; Article 8 of the Executive Agreement STSS‑211-01 (48, 51)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 6 and 52 of the Law Against Trafficking in Persons (Decree 59-2012); Articles 2 and 10 of the Executive Agreement STSS‑211-01; Articles 179E, 179F and 192 of the Penal Code; Articles 68 and 127 of the Constitution (47, 48, 52, 53)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 6 and 52 of the Law Against Trafficking in Persons (Decree 59-2012); Articles 2 and 10 of the Executive Agreement STSS‑211-01; Article 8 of the Legislative Decree 35-2013 (48, 52, 54)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 134 of the Code on Childhood and Adolescence; Articles 6 and 52 of the Law Against Trafficking in Persons (Decree 59-2012); Articles 2 and 10 of the Executive Agreement STSS‑211-01; Articles 148 and 149A-E of the Penal Code (48, 49, 52, 53)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 134 of the Code on Childhood and Adolescence; Article 10 of the Executive Agreement STSS‑211-01; Articles 6 and 52 of the Law Against Trafficking in Persons (Decree 59-2012); Article 8 of the Legislative Decree 35-2013 (48, 49, 52, 54)

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

N/A*

 

 

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Articles 2 and 12 of the Executive Agreement STSS‑211-01; Article 276 of the Constitution (47, 48)

Non-state Compulsory

Yes

18

Articles 2 and 10 of the Executive Agreement STSS‑211-01 (48)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

17

Articles 8, 13, and 21–23 of the Fundamental Law of Education; Articles 36 and 39 of the Code on Childhood and Adolescence (49, 55)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Articles 7, 13, and 21–23 of the Fundamental Law of Education; Article 36 of the Code on Childhood and Adolescence; Article 171 of the Constitution (47, 49, 55)

* No conscription (48, 56)

The Constitution states that a child 16 years old or younger may not work unless it is necessary to sustain his or her family and the work does not interfere with schooling. Honduran statutes build upon the protections in the Constitution.(47) The Labor Code and the Code on Childhood and Adolescence prohibit children under age 14 from working in any circumstances and allow children ages 14 to 17 to work only with written parental consent and authorization from the Secretariat of Labor and Social Security (STSS).(49, 50)

Article 120 of the Code on Childhood and Adolescence and Article 15 of the Executive Agreement STSS-211-01 set the minimum age for work at 14 in all undertakings and without exception for their size.(48, 49) Article 32(1) of the Labor Code also prohibits children under the age of 14 from working. However, children working in agricultural and livestock-raising undertakings that do not permanently employ more than 10 workers are not covered by the Labor Code’s minimum age protections because Article 2 of the Labor Code excludes these undertakings from its scope.(50) The ILO has recommended that the Government harmonize the Labor Code with the Code on Childhood and Adolescence to ensure that no child under age 14 is permitted to work, including in agriculture and livestock-raising.(57)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor law and criminal law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Secretariat of Labor and Social Security (STSS)

Inspect enterprises and enforce child labor laws through the General Inspection Service.(4, 30)

Public Ministry’s Office of the Special Prosecutor for Children (OSPC)

Prosecute crimes against children, including trafficking of children, hazardous labor, forced labor, and commercial sexual exploitation. Coordinate with Honduran National Police to investigate crimes and protect victims.(4, 30)

Public Ministry’s Technical Agency for Criminal Investigations (ATIC)

Investigate and technically support criminal prosecutions conducted by the Public Ministry, including by the OSPC, such as human trafficking, commercial sexual exploitation, and child pornography.(5, 29, 30)

Prosecutorial Task Force to Combat Criminal Smuggling of Unaccompanied Children and Trafficking in Persons

Investigate and prosecute criminal organizations that engage in the illegal smuggling of unaccompanied children and human trafficking. Created in 2014 and overseen by the Special Prosecutor Against Organized Crime and the Special Prosecutor for Children.(36, 58)

Directorate of Childhood, Adolescence, and Family (DINAF)

Formulate, coordinate, and implement national plans concerning children and their families; monitor children’s rights, including by investigating complaints of child labor and ensuring that victims receive government services; and coordinate state efforts with civil society institutions to protect children. Overseen by the Secretariat of Development and Social Inclusion.(29, 59-61)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, labor law enforcement agencies in Honduras took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Labor Inspectors

135 (29)

151 (62)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (29)

Yes (62)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

N/A (63)

Yes (62)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Yes (63)

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (29)

No (38)

Number of Labor Inspections

Unknown

23,087 (38)

Number Conducted at Worksite

7,188 (29)

Unknown

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

N/A

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown

13 (62)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

3 (29)

Unknown

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

3 (29)

Unknown

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (29)

Yes (62)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (63)

Yes (62)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (29)

Yes (62)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (63)

Yes (62)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (29)

Yes (62)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

No (29)

No (38)

 

Labor union confederations, employer organizations, and human rights organizations have indicated that the level of funding and resources for the General Inspection Service is insufficient for inspectors to adequately enforce child labor laws nationwide.(38) The number of labor inspectors is insufficient for the size of Honduras’s workforce, which includes over 3.6 million workers. According to the ILO’s recommendation of 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in industrializing economies, Honduras should employ roughly 242 labor inspectors.(64-66)

The official process for labor inspections in Honduras includes a preliminary visit, which may be unannounced and through which inspectors identify and inform employers of violations but do not issue fines or citations. Employers are given a specified number of days to remedy violations, including child labor violations, which is typically between 3 and 60 days.(38, 67-69) Inspectors then conduct reinspections to determine whether the violations have been remedied. If they  have not, inspectors recommend that the Inspector General of the STSS issue penalties.(68) Reports indicate that if violations involving underage children or children working in hazardous conditions are found during a preliminary inspection, inspectors immediately report them to their supervisors.(70) This two-step inspection process puts an additional strain on the limited human and financial resources of the inspectorate and may not sufficiently deter employers from exploiting children in the workplace, particularly in remote, rural areas where conducting the reinspections is especially challenging. Furthermore, a lack of publicly available information on the results of preliminary and subsequent inspections, including whether child labor violations are ultimately remedied, prevents a complete understanding of how effectively this inspection system protects children from labor exploitation.(71)

The STSS and civil society partners have reported that the number of labor inspections is insufficient to address the scope of labor violations in the country, including child labor violations.(38, 62) Reports indicate that most of the inspections take place in the urban areas of Tegucigalpa and San Pedro Sula. Inspections in rural areas and in indigenous communities, where hazardous activities in agriculture and fishing or diving are concentrated, have been insufficient to address the scope of the problem.(3, 45, 72) The STSS reported that in 2016 it conducted inspections of businesses in agriculture, mining, manufacturing, construction, commerce, and services.(62)

In Honduras, STSS regulations provide a mechanism and procedures for handling complaints regarding child labor. However, NGOs report that, in practice, these procedures are often inadequately followed, largely due to institutional weaknesses and a lack of resources.(29)

The STSS reported that it removed 17 children from child labor during the reporting period: 8 in agriculture, 8 in commercial establishments and services, and 1 in industry.(62) There does not appear to be an effective mechanism for the STSS and DINAF to reciprocally refer cases of child labor to each other.(29, 30, 38) Research could not determine whether the 17 children removed from child labor were referred to DINAF. Reports indicate that in 2016, DINAF lacked sufficient resources to effectively carry out its mandates.(38)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in Honduras took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (29, 37)

Yes (61)

Number of Investigations

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Violations Found

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Convictions

Unknown

Unknown

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (29)

Yes (61)

 

Research could not find the number of investigators employed by the Public Ministry’s Office of the Special Prosecutor for Children (OSPC) during the reporting period. Research could also not determine the level of funding for criminal law enforcement agencies in 2016. Reports indicate that the level of funding and resources available to the OSPC and other criminal law enforcement agencies are insufficient to address the worst forms of child labor nationwide.(61)

In 2016, the Government initiated criminal investigations into 48 cases of human trafficking, 13 cases of commercial sexual exploitation, and 1 case of the sale of an individual. However, it is unknown whether the cases under investigation involved child victims.(61) In addition, 27 human trafficking-related investigations were brought to trial in 2016, including 1 case involving the sale of a child and 1 case of child pornography. However, the number of individuals prosecuted for the worst forms of child labor in 2016 is unknown.(61) Reports indicate that there were 15 convictions in 12 criminal cases for trafficking-related crimes in 2016; research could not confirm the total number of individuals convicted for crimes of human trafficking or other worst forms of child labor.(61) Reports indicate that the number of investigations, prosecutions, and convictions of the worst forms of child labor is not sufficient to address the problem.(37)

Research could not determine whether any children rescued by the Public Ministry received services through DINAF, or how many cases of suspected criminal conduct related to the worst forms of child labor were referred by DINAF to the Public Ministry.

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Commission for the Gradual and Progressive Eradication of Child Labor

Coordinate government policies and efforts on child labor issues, including the implementation of the Roadmap for the Eradication of Child Labor in Honduras and the Strategic Plan to Prevent and Eliminate Child Labor (2016–2020). Chaired by the STSS and includes officials from eight government ministries, DINAF, the Supreme Court, and other government entities.(73, 74) Receives guidance from DINAF, which serves as the Commission’s Secretary, as well as from a Technical Council, which is overseen by an Executive Secretariat.(73, 74) Oversee regional subcommissions, led by regional representatives of the STSS and DINAF, which implement national efforts locally.(73, 74)

Inter-Institutional Commission Against Exploitation and Commercial Sex Trafficking (CICESCT)

Coordinate government and civil society efforts to combat commercial sexual exploitation and human trafficking, including of children.(33) Comprises representatives from 52 organizations, including several government ministries and NGOs.(33, 52, 75) Oversee 19 local CICESCT committees and implement the Strategic Plan to Combat Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Human Trafficking.(37) In 2016, conducted or participated in more than 60 trainings related to human trafficking issues.(61)

Unaccompanied Children Task Force (UAC Task Force)

Provide for the safe repatriation of unaccompanied migrant children and coordinate their reintegration into their communities of origin. Led by the First Lady and comprising officials from seven government ministries, DINAF, and the National Institute for Migration.(36, 71, 73)

Ministry of Social Development

Coordinate social protection policies and the provision of services to vulnerable populations, including child and adolescent victims of violence, human trafficking, and sexual and economic exploitation.(4)

 

In 2016, the Government rescinded Executive Decree PCM-057-2015, which had reconstituted the National Commission for the Gradual and Progressive Eradication of Child Labor but failed to provide for the inclusion of relevant civil society organizations.(29, 73, 74, 76) Although a planned, revised decree has not been issued, the National Commission continued to operate in 2016 with the participation of relevant civil society organizations.(38)

The Government has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor‡

Policy

Description

Roadmap for the Eradication of Child Labor in Honduras

Aims to improve the Government’s response to child labor issues. Works at the national, regional, and sub-regional levels and addresses poverty, health education, and social development.(4, 77) Implemented by the STSS.(4, 29)

Strategic Plan to Prevent and Eliminate Child Labor (2016–2020)†

Identifies lines of action for preventing and eliminating child labor, including by increasing child labor law enforcement, strengthening engagement with the private sector, developing procedures for inter-agency coordination, and developing social programs to support children removed from child labor.(74) Implemented by the STSS and other executive and judicial branch agencies, as well as employers’, workers’, and other civil society organizations.(74)

Strategic Plan to Combat Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Human Trafficking in Honduras (2016–2022)†

Establishes national priorities to combat commercial sexual exploitation and human trafficking in four principal areas: prevention and awareness; investigation, prosecution, and punishment of violations; detection, assistance, and protection of victims; and coordination and cooperation.(78)

First Public Policy and National Action Plan on Human Rights

Aims to implement the Government’s national and international human rights commitments, including those addressing child and forced labor.(30)

Alliance for Prosperity in the Northern Triangle

Aims to create economic growth, increase educational and vocational training opportunities for youth, and reduce violence in Honduras, Guatemala, and El Salvador, in part to decrease the number of unaccompanied minors who leave Honduras and other Central American countries for the United States and who are vulnerable to human trafficking. Signed by the presidents of each country in 2014.(79-81)

U.S.–Honduras Labor Rights Monitoring and Action Plan (2015–2018)

Aims to improve the enforcement of labor laws, including laws related to child labor, by implementing legal and policy reforms, strengthening the STSS, enhancing enforcement activities, and increasing outreach efforts.(82)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.
‡ The Government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor.(1, 83-87)

In 2016, the Government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor‡

Program

Description

Better Life Voucher (Bono Vida Mejor)†

Government conditional cash transfer program that aims to reduce poverty by providing financial assistance to households when children meet educational and health requirements.(75, 88) Objectives include the elimination of child labor.(3) In 2016, expanded to assist nearly 270,000 households.(89)

Program to Combat Child Forced Begging†

DINAF program that identifies and rescues children who are subjected to forced begging and raises awareness of child forced begging through media.(30, 72)

Program for the Reintegration of Returned Unaccompanied Migrant Children

Government program that assists unaccompanied migrant children who have been returned to Honduras. Implemented by the National Institute for Migration, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, DINAF, SEDIS, and the National Center for Social Sector Information.(63) In 2016, assisted 11,137 children.(72)

Program to Prevent Sex Tourism Involving Children and Adolescents†

Government program that aims to raise awareness and provide training on sex tourism for the tourism industry. Implemented by the Honduran Tourist Board, the Ministry of Tourism, and the Tourism Institute.(4, 90)

School Meals Program†

Ministry of Education program, implemented with support from the WFP and by the Office of the First Lady, that provides school lunches to students to improve nutrition and bolster attendance.(30, 71, 73) In 2016, program’s coverage expanded from 1.3 to 1.4 million students.(73, 91)

USDOL-Funded Projects

$13 million Youth Pathways Central America (2015–2019); $7 million Bright Futures (2014–2018); Country Level Engagement and Assistance to Reduce Child Labor II; and Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues. Additional information is available on the USDOL Web site.

USAID-Funded Projects

USAID-funded projects, including Honduran Youth Alliance, which focuses on gang prevention, including for vulnerable youth; Strengthening Capacity to Build a Culture of Peace (FORPAZ), which aims to improve citizen security, including for at-risk youth; and Improving Education for Work, Learning, and Success (METAS), which aims to increase educational opportunities for youth.(72, 92)

† Program is funded by the Government of Honduras.
‡ The Government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms.(3, 30, 93)

In 2016, the Ministry of Education invested $3.5 million to build schools in some of the poorest municipalities, where children are at increased risk of child labor.(89) Although the Government of Honduras funds or participates in social programs that aim to eliminate child labor in forced begging, commercial sexual exploitation, and the illegal recruitment of children into gang-related activities, research did not identify programs that specifically target children working in other dangerous activities, such as fishing, mining, and domestic work. In addition, social programs that address child labor in agriculture do not appear sufficient to address the scope of the problem nationwide.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Honduras (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that minimum age protections in the Labor Code extend to agricultural and stock-raising undertakings that do not permanently employ more than 10 workers to ensure consistency with the protections provided in the Code on Childhood and Adolescence.

2013 – 2016

Enforcement

Publish information on the level of funding provided to the labor inspectorate.

2015 – 2016

Ensure adequate funding for the STSS, including resources for sufficient numbers of labor inspectors according to the ILO’s recommendation and for labor inspections in areas where child labor is prevalent, such as rural areas and indigenous communities where children engage in agriculture and fishing or diving.

2010 – 2016

Ensure that all labor inspectors receive training on child labor, and make information about the initial training for new criminal investigators publicly available.

2014 – 2016

Ensure that the two-step inspection system does not undermine effective child labor law enforcement.

2011 – 2016

Publish information on whether labor inspections are conducted at worksites or by desk review, and on the sanctions imposed and penalties collected as a result of inspections.

2012 – 2016

Ensure adequate resources for STSS to follow the established procedures for responding to child labor complaints.

2015 – 2016

Ensure that there is an effective, reciprocal referral mechanism between the STSS and DINAF for the enforcement of labor laws and the provision of social services for child labor victims, and publicly report on the number of children removed from child labor who receive social services.

2014 – 2016

Ensure that DINAF has sufficient resources to effectively carry out its mandates regarding child protection issues.

2015 – 2016

Publish information on the level of funding for all criminal law enforcement agencies that respond to crimes concerning the worst forms of child labor.

2015 – 2016

Ensure adequate resources are provided to the OSPC to effectively investigate and prosecute crimes concerning the worst forms of child labor.

2014 – 2016

Publish information on the number of criminal investigations, violations, prosecutions, and convictions regarding the worst forms of child labor.

2015 – 2016

Publish information on the number of rescued children who receive social services, as well as the number of children referred by social services to criminal law enforcement agencies.

2015 – 2016

Coordination

Ensure that relevant civil society organizations are included in the National Commission for the Gradual and Progressive Eradication of Child Labor.

2016

Social Programs

Increase access to education by increasing funding to schools and building more schools, particularly in rural areas.

2014 – 2016

Expand social programs that address child labor in agriculture, and create programs that aim to eliminate child labor in other dangerous activities, such as fishing, mining, and domestic service.

2009 – 2016

1.         Secretaria de Estado en los Despachos de Justicia y Derechos Humanos. Trabajo Infantil en Honduras. Tegucigalpa; February 14, 2012. http://www.sjdh.gob.hn/sites/default/files/20120920%20-%20Informe%20Trabajo%20Infantil%20en%20Honduras.pdf.

2.         ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Honduras (ratification: 1980) Published: 2012; accessed March 27, 2013; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:20010:0::NO:::.

3.         U.S. Embassy- Tegucigalpa. reporting, January 18, 2014.

4.         United Nations. Report of the Special Rapporteur on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography, Najat Maalla M'jid. Geneva; January 21, 2013. Report No. A/HRC/22/54/Add.2. http://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/Children/Pages/CountryVisits.aspx.

5.         Government of Honduras. Respuesta a Solicitud de Información Sobre Trabajo Infantil y sus Peores Formas en Honduras. source on file January 15, 2015.

6.         World Vision - Honduras. Diagnóstico de situación de Trabajo Infantil y erradicación de sus peores formas en Honduras; 2015. http://www.wvi.org/es/DiagnosticoHN.

7.         U.S. Department of State. "Honduras," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016. Washington, DC; June 30, 2016; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/258879.pdf.

8.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed December 16, 2016; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary education. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. The calculation includes all new entrants to the last grade (regardless of age). Therefore, the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

9.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Encuesta Permanente de Hogares de Propósitos Múltiples (EPHPM), 2014. Analysis received December 15, 2016. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information,  please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

10.       International Labor Rights Forum and COSIBAH. Women in the Honduran Melon Industry. Washington, DC; 2012. http://laborrights.org/creating-a-sweatfree-world/sweatshops-in-the-fields/melon-production-in-honduras/resources/women-in-.

11.       UNICEF. Explotación laboral infantil [youtube video]. Honduras: UNICEF Honduras; May 12, 2012, 1 min. 36 sec., July 31, 2014; http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eeCwFNCKT7A.

12.       Cotza, L. "Improving education standards in Honduras: A long road ahead." The Guardian, London, June 6, 2013. http://www.theguardian.com/global-development-professionals-network/2013/jun/06/education-standards-honduras.

13.       Casa Alianza. Jornada de capacitación sobre la situación de “Violencia contra la niñez y la adolescencia en Honduras, Casa Alianzia, [online] [cited March 21, 2014]; http://www.casa-alianza.org.hn/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=127:taller-sjdh&catid=35:casa-alianza.

14.       Proceso Digital. "Conadeh denuncia que unos 220,500 niños están excluidos del sistema educativo." proceso.hn [online] June 11, 2012 [cited March 27, 2013]; http://proceso.hn/2012/06/11/Salud+y+Sociedad/Conadeh.denuncia.que/53107.html.

15.       Regional Union Coordinator. Interview with USDOL official. October 1, 2015.

16.       El Heraldo. "Apenas 432 empresas registradas como libres de trabajo infantil." [online] September 9, 2015 [cited February 17, 2017]; http://www.elheraldo.hn/alfrente/878362-209/apenas-432-empresas-registradas-como-libres-de-trabajo-infantil.

17.       U.S. Department of State. "Honduras," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2015. Washington, DC; April 13, 2016; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/253235.pdf.

18.       El Heraldo. "El sostenimiento del hogar recae en niños trabajadores." [online] September 6, 2015 [cited November 24, 2015]; http://www.elheraldo.hn/alfrente/876927-209/el-sostenimiento-del-hogar-recae-en-niños-trabajadores.

19.       El Heraldo. "Honduras: Pequeños curileros de San Lorenzo son los niños del fango." [online] September 6, 2015 [cited November 24, 2015]; http://www.elheraldo.hn/alfrente/876928-209/honduras-pequeños-curileros-de-san-lorenzo-son-los-niños-del-fango.

20.       El Heraldo. "Hambruna afecta a la población de La Mosquitia." [online] July 9, 2015 [cited July 20, 2015]; http://www.elheraldo.hn/regionales/857299-218/hambruna-afecta-a-la-poblaci%C3%B3n-de-la-mosquitia.

21.       U.S. Department of State. "Honduras," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2012. Washington, DC; April 19, 2013; https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2012humanrightsreport/index.htm#wrapper.

22.       El Heraldo. "Por 500 lempiras, niños pican piedra durante una semana." [online] September 8, 2015 [cited November 24, 2015]; http://www.elheraldo.hn/inicio/877454-331/por-500-lempiras-niños-pican-piedra-durante-una-semana.

23.       El Heraldo. "Honduras: Los niños de las canteras y de la cal en Santa Bárbara." [online] September 8, 2015 [cited November 24, 2015]; http://www.elheraldo.hn/inicio/877455-331/honduras-los-ni%C3%B1os-de-las-canteras-y-de-la-cal-en-santa.

24.       El Heraldo. "Niños expuestos a morir por el oro." [online] September 9, 2015 [cited December 18, 2015]; http://www.elheraldo.hn/alfrente/878357-209/niños-expuestos-a-morir-por-el-oro.

25.       La Prensa. "Cadáveres de los 8 mineros fueron hallados abrazados unos con otros." [online] December 15, 2014 [cited February 17, 2017]; http://www.laprensa.hn/sucesos/777197-410/cad%C3%A1veres-de-los-8-mineros-fueron-hallados-abrazados-unos-con-otros.

26.       La Prensa. "Se queman dos niñas tras explosión en fábrica de cohetes." La Prensa, Santa Rosa de Copán, September 24, 2013. http://www.laprensa.hn/sucesos/policiales/389667-96/se-queman-dos-ni%C3%B1as-tras-explosi%C3%B3n-en-f%C3%A1brica-de-cohetes.

27.       El Heraldo. "El 50% de niños coheteros laboran antes de los 8 años." [online] September 8, 2015 [cited November 24, 2015]; http://www.elheraldo.hn/alfrente/877849-209/el-50-de-niños-coheteros-laboran-antes-de-los-8-años.

28.       El Heraldo. "Mano de obra infantil en la riesgosa elaboración de cohetes en Copán." [online] September 8, 2015 [cited November 24, 2015]; http://www.elheraldo.hn/alfrente/877852-209/mano-de-obra-infantil-en-la-riesgosa-elaboración-de-cohetes-en-copán.

29.       U.S. Embassy- Tegucigalpa. reporting, February 29, 2016.

30.       U.S. Embassy- Tegucigalpa. reporting, January 15, 2015.

31.       El Heraldo. "Honduras: Rescatan a dos menores que eran obligados a mendigar en la capital." [online] October 22, 2016 [cited March 20, 2017]; http://www.elheraldo.hn/sucesos/1010727-466/honduras-rescatan-a-dos-menores-que-eran-obligados-a-mendigar-en-la.

32.       Associated Press. "Poverty, Violence Push Honduran Children to Work." New York Times, December 23, 2014. http://www.nytimes.com/aponline/2014/12/23/world/americas/ap-lt-honduras-child-labor.html?_r=1.

33.       U.S. Embassy- Tegucigalpa. reporting, January  20, 2012.

34.       El Heraldo. "Honduras: El cruel mundo de los niños pepenadores en la capital." [online] September 10, 2015 [cited December 16, 2015]; http://www.elheraldo.hn/alfrente/878801-209/honduras-el-cruel-mundo-de-los-ni%C3%B1os-pepenadores-en-la-capital.

35.       ILO Committee of Experts. Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Honduras (ratification: 2001) Published: 2013; accessed March 20, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:20010:0::NO:::.

36.       U.S. Embassy- Tegucigalpa. reporting, February 17, 2015.

37.       U.S. Embassy- Tegucigalpa. reporting, March 14, 2016.

38.       U.S. Embassy- Tegucigalpa. reporting, April 10, 2017.

39.       Jerry Markon and Joshua Partlow. "Unaccompanied children surging anew across Southwest U.S. border." The Washington Post, December 16, 2015; Americas. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/federal-eye/wp/2015/12/16/unaccompanied-children-crossing-southern-border-in-greater-numbers-again-raising-fears-of-new-migrant-crisis/.

40.       U.S. Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Customs and Border Protection. "United States Border Patrol Southwest Family Unit Subject and Unaccompanied Alien Children Apprehensions Fiscal Year 2016." [online] 2017 [cited February 5, 2017]; https://www.cbp.gov/newsroom/stats/southwest-border-unaccompanied-children/fy-2016.

41.       United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. Mission to Central America: The Flight of Unaccompanied Children to the United States; November 2013. http://www.usccb.org/about/migration-policy/upload/Mission-To-Central-America-FINAL-2.pdf.

42.       Dennis Stinchcomb and Eric Hershberg. Unaccompanied Migrant Children from Central America: Context, Causes, and Responses. Center for Latin American & Latino Studies, American University; 2014 November,. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2524001.

43.       UN Human Rights Council. Written statement submitted by Human Rights Advocates Inc., a non-governmental organization in special consultative status February 19, 2015. http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G15/028/98/PDF/G1502898.pdf?OpenElement.

44.       FHI 360. "Education Policy and Data Center (EPDC) Spotlight on Honduras." epdc.org [online] 2014 [cited February 17, 2015]; http://www.epdc.org/epdc-data-points/epdc-spotlight-honduras.

45.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989 (No. 169) Honduras (ratification: 1995) Published: 2014; accessed November 19, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:20010:0::NO:::.

46.       ILO Committee of Experts. Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Honduras (ratification: 2001) Published: 2016; accessed May 4, 2016; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3254466:NO.

47.       Government of Honduras. Constitución, enacted January 11, 1982. http://pdba.georgetown.edu/Constitutions/Honduras/hond82.html.

48.       Government of Honduras. Acuerdo Ejecutivo No. STSS-211-01, Reglamento sobre Trabajo Infantil en Honduras, enacted October 10, 2001. [source on file].

49.       Government of Honduras. Código de la Niñez y de la Adolescencia, 73-96, enacted September 5, 1996. http://www.paho.org/spanish/ad/fch/ca/derecho27.pdf.

50.       Government of Honduras. Código del Trabajo y sus Reformas, No. 189, enacted July 15, 1959. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/WEBTEXT/29076/64849/S59HND01.htm#t4.

51.       Government of Honduras. Acuerdo No. STSS-441-2016, enacted December 7, 2016. source on file.

52.       Government of Honduras. Ley Contra la Trata de Personas (Decreto 59-2012), enacted July 6, 2012. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/90974/105243/F327431691/HND90974.pdf.

53.       Government of Honduras. Código Penal, Decreto 144-83, enacted August 23, 1983 (includes updates from Decreto 234-2005). http://www.poderjudicial.gob.hn/juris/Codigos/C%C3%B3digo%20Penal%20(09).pdf.

54.       Government of Honduras. Decreto Legislativo No. 35-2013, enacted September 5, 2013. http://www.lagaceta.hn/.

55.       Government of Honduras. Ley Fundamental de Educación, No. 262-2011, enacted February 22, 2012. http://www.tsc.gob.hn/leyes/Ley%20Fundamental%20de%20Educaci%C3%B3n.pdf.

56.       Child Soldiers International. "Appendix II: Data Summary on Recruitment Ages of National Armies," in Louder than Words: An Agenda for Action to end State Use of Soldiers. London; 2012; http://www.child-soldiers.org/global_report_reader.php?id=562.

57.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Honduras (ratification: 1980) Published: 2013; accessed November 14, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:20010:0::NO:::.

58.       U.S. Embassy- Tegucigalpa. reporting, October 15, 2014.

59.       Government of Honduras. Decreto Ejecutivo PCM-27-2014, enacted June 6, 2014. http://melarayasociados.com/dmsdocument/508.

60.       Government of Honduras. "Gobierno liquida el IHNFA y crea la DINAF para atender a la niñez y adolescencia." juanorlando.com [online] June 4, 2014 [cited November 14, 2014]; http://juanorlando.com/?p=720.

61.       U.S. Embassy- Tegucigalpa. reporting, March 17, 2017. TIP.

62.       Government of Honduras. Respuesta a Solicitud de Información Sobre Trabajo Infantil y sus Peores Formas en Honduras - Informe y actualización en lo relativo a prevención y retiro de mano de obra infantil en Honduras. Source on file. December 20, 2016.

63.       U.S. Embassy- Tegucigalpa official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. July 14, 2016.

64.       CIA. The World Factbook, [online] [cited March 18, 2017]; https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors based on the country’s level of development as determined by the UN.

65.       ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a “sufficient number” of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a “sufficient” number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

66.       UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex. New York; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies; “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies, and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

67.       U.S. Embassy- Tegucigalpa. reporting, January 31, 2013.

68.       Inspección General del Trabajo- STSS. Colección Protocolos de Inspección- Honduras: Buena Prácticas, Verificación, Investigacion; October 1, 2008. [source on file].

69.       USDOL Office of Trade and Labor Affairs. Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement - Public Report of Review of U.S. Submission 2012-01 (Honduras). online February 27, 2015. https://www.dol.gov/ilab/reports/pdf/Final_Report_of_Review-Honduras_Submission_022715_redacted.pdf.

70.       U.S. Embassy- Tegucigalpa. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 22, 2014.

71.       U.S. Embassy- Tegucigalpa official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 14, 2015.

72.       U.S. Embassy- Tegucigalpa official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 16, 2017.

73.       Government of Honduras. Respuesta a Solicitud de Información de USDOL Sobre Trabajo Infantil y sus Peores Formas en Honduras source on file January 29, 2016.

74.       Government of Honduras. "Planificación Estratégica - Honduras 2016-2020: Honduras, un País Libre de Trabajo Infantil y sus Peores Formas." Source on file.

75.       U.S. Embassy- Tegucigalpa. reporting, February 8, 2011.

76.       Government of Honduras. Decreto Ejecutivo PCM-057-2015, enacted September 1, 2015. http://www.secretariaconsejodeministros.gob.hn/sites/decretos/2015/septiembre/PCM-057-2015.pdf.

77.       ILO-IPEC. Hoja de Ruta para hacer de Honduras un país libre de trabajo infantil y sus peores formas - Informe. Research and Policy Papers; June 2011. Report No. ATN/SF-10219-RG. http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/viewProduct.do?productId=17457.

78.       Government of Honduras. Plan Estratégico contra la Explotación Sexual Comercial y Trata de Personas en Honduras, 2016-2022. Source on file; 2016.

79.       Governments of El Salvador Guatemala and Honduras. Plan of the Alliance for Prosperity in the Northern Triangle: A Road Map; September 2014. http://idbdocs.iadb.org/wsdocs/getdocument.aspx?docnum=39224238.

80.       Inter-American Development Bank. "Presidentes de El Salvador, Guatemala y Honduras presentan plan de Alianza para Prosperidad en Triángulo Norte." iadb.org [online] November 14, 2014 [cited November 17, 2014]; http://www.iadb.org/es/noticias/comunicados-de-prensa/2014-11-14/presidents-del-triangulo-norte-presentan-plan,10987.html.

81.       The White House - Office of the Press Secretary. "Fact Sheet: Support for the Alliance for Prosperity in the Northern Triangle." whitehouse.gov [online] March 3, 2015 [cited March 24, 2015]; https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2015/03/03/fact-sheet-support-alliance-prosperity-northern-triangle.

82.       Government of the United States and the Government of Honduras. Labor Rights Monitoring and Action Plan as Mutually Determined by the Government of the United States and the Government of Honduras. online; 2015. https://www.dol.gov/ilab/media/pdf/Honduras_MAP.pdf.

83.       Gobierno de la República de Honduras, Secretaría de Trabajo y Seguridad Social. Día Mundial Contra el Trabajo Infantil 2011 Secretaría de Trabajo y Seguridad Social, [online] June 8, 2011 [cited March 25, 2013]; http://www.trabajo.gob.hn/prensa-y-difusion/dia-mundial-contra-el-trabajo-infantil-2011-1.

84.       Secretaría de Trabajo y Seguridad Social. Ratifican lucha regional para erradicar el Trabajo Infantil, [[previously online]] [cited March 21, 2014]; http://www.trabajo.gob.hn/prensa-y-difusion/ratifican-lucha-regional-para-erradicar-el-trabajo-infantil/image/image_view_fullscreen [source on file].

85.       Goverment of Honduras. Decreto Ejecutivo PCM-011-2011, enacted February 15, 2011. http://www.sdp.gob.hn/sitio/transparencia/images/stories/documentos/DECRETO%20EJECUTIVO%20No.%20PCM-011-2011.pdf.

86.       Goverment of Honduras. Decreto Ejecutivo PCM-056-2011, enacted August 23, 2011. http://www.sdp.gob.hn/sitio/transparencia/images/stories/documentos/DECRETO%20EJECUTIVO%20No.%20PCM-011-2011.pdf.

87.       República de Honduras. Vision de País 2010-2038 y Plan de Nación 2010-2022. Tegucigalpa; 2010. http://www.plandenacion.hn/.

88.       Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo. "Honduras fortalecerá eficiencia y cobertura del programa Bono 10,000." iadb.org [online] May 30, 2013 [cited May 19, 2015]; http://www.iadb.org/es/noticias/comunicados-de-prensa/2013-05-30/proteccion-social-bono-10000-en-honduras,10462.html.

89.       U.S. Embassy- Tegucigalpa. reporting, October 5, 2016.

90.       UNICEF. Código de Conducta para la Protección de Niños, Niñas, y Adolescentes Contra la Explotación Sexual Comercial en el Sectore de Viajes y Turismo-Honduras. [preivously online]. Tegucigalpa. http://www.unicef.org/honduras/14350.htm [source on file].

91.       El Heraldo. "300 mil niños no reciben merienda escolar en Honduras." [online] June 5, 2016 [cited March 21, 2017]; http://www.elheraldo.hn/pais/967157-466/300-mil-ni%C3%B1os-no-reciben-merienda-escolar-en-honduras.

92.       USAID official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. January 14, 2015.

93.       El Heraldo. "Honduras: Inician sábados cívicos en escuelas." El Heraldo, Tegucigalpa, 2013. http://www.elheraldo.hn/Secciones-Principales/Pais/Honduras-Inician-sabados-civicos-en-escuelas.

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