List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor
The Bureau of International Labor Affairs (ILAB) maintains a list of goods and their source countries which it has reason to believe are produced by child labor or forced labor in violation of international standards, as required under the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act (TVPRA) of 2005 and subsequent reauthorizations. The List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor comprises 156 goods from 77 countries, as of June 23, 2021.
ILAB maintains the List primarily to raise public awareness about forced labor and child labor around the world and to promote efforts to combat them; it is not intended to be punitive, but rather to serve as a catalyst for more strategic and focused coordination and collaboration among those working to address these problems.
Publication of the List has resulted in new opportunities for ILAB to engage with foreign governments to combat forced labor and child labor. It is also a valuable resource for researchers, advocacy organizations and companies wishing to carry out risk assessments and engage in due diligence on labor rights in their supply chains.
The countries on the List span every region of the world. The most common agricultural goods listed are sugarcane, cotton, coffee, tobacco, cattle, rice, and fish. In the manufacturing sector, bricks, garments, textiles, footwear, carpets, and fireworks appear most frequently. In mined or quarried goods, gold, coal and diamonds are most common.
ILAB published the initial TVPRA List in 2009 and updated it annually through 2014, following a set of procedural guidelines that were the product of an intensive public consultation process. ILAB now updates and publishes the List every other year, pursuant to changes in the law.
On May 15, 2020, ILAB's Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking published Procedural Guidelines for the development and maintenance of the List of Goods from countries produced by child labor or forced labor in violation of international standards.
There is evidence that children ages 5 to 17 grow beans in Paraguay. In 2016, the Government of Paraguay published representative results from the Survey of Activities of Rural Area Children and Adolescents 2015. The survey considers a working child to be engaged in child labor if the child is below the minimum age for employment of 14 or is performing work that is hazardous according to national legislation. The survey estimates that 301,827 children ages 5 to 17 perform hazardous work in rural areas of Paraguay and indicates that children working in agriculture experience accidents and illnesses, including from using dangerous tools and handling chemicals. According to the survey, almost 13 percent of Paraguayan children engaged in child labor in agriculture do not attend school. The survey estimates that 71,839 child laborers grow poroto beans throughout rural areas in Paraguay. Approximately 31,372 of child laborers growing poroto beans are below the minimum age for employment in Paraguay. The survey indicates that child labor also occurs in the cultivation of other varieties of beans, including habilla, poroto manteca, and feijao, and that more boys than girls are engaged in child labor producing beans. The release of this survey demonstrates the Government of Paraguay’s commitment to addressing child labor and its acknowledgement that data collection is vital to the design and implementation of sound policies and programs.
There are reports that children ages 15-17 work under conditions of forced labor in the production of beans in Burma. An NGO study documents children, as well as adults, forced by the military to work on rotation year round, planting and harvesting beans for the military camp. Local officials and the military enforce these work orders; the children cannot refuse to work, even if sick.
|Child Labor, Forced Labor|
There is evidence that children between the ages of 5 and 14 engage in the production of bovines in Cambodia. In Cambodia, bovines are primarily used for domestic consumption and for farming purposes, and are raised by approximately 1.4 million smallholders primarily located in provinces bordering the Mekong River, with a heavy concentration found in the southern rice-producing provinces. Based on analysis of the 2016 Cambodian Socio-Economic Survey, an estimated 59,693 children are involved in child labor in the production of bovines. The release of this survey demonstrates the Government of Cambodia’s commitment to addressing child labor and its acknowledgment that data collection is vital to the design and implementation of sound policies and programs.
There is evidence that children ages 8 to 17 raise bovines in Eswatini. Child labor in this sector is concentrated in the rural areas of Hhohho, Lubombo, Manzini, and Shiselweni. In 2018, the Government of Eswatini and the International Labor Organization published results from the 2014 Survey on Child Labor in Herding in Rural Areas in Eswatini. According to international standards on the minimum age for work, children working below the age of 15 are engaged in child labor. The survey estimates that 72,332 children below the age of 15 raise bovines. Children perform physically arduous tasks while herding in the grasslands and mountainous regions, and risk occupational injury and disease from exposure to dangerous tools, insecticides and herbicides. Children’s injuries include fractures, dislocations and sprains, burns, frostbite, breathing problems, skin problems, extreme fatigue, and snake bites. The release of this survey demonstrates the Government of Eswatini’s commitment to addressing child labor and its acknowledgement that data collection is vital to the design and implementation of sound policies and programs.