Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Ecuador

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Ecuador

2017 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Significant Advancement

In 2017, Ecuador made a significant advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The government signed into law new protections for victims of trafficking and drafted legislation to protect girls who are victims of human trafficking. The government also created the Directorate for the Prevention of Trafficking in Persons and Migrant Smuggling within the Ministry of the Interior to lead all law enforcement and research operations related to human trafficking. In addition, the government adopted a new policy to support vulnerable populations, including through new welfare programs, and the Ministry of Tourism exchanged best practices with regional tourism ministries to prevent child sex tourism and human trafficking. However, children in Ecuador engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Children also perform dangerous tasks in agriculture. In addition, Ecuador lacks effective coordinating mechanisms to combat child labor and programs providing adequate coverage of the worst forms of child labor.

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Children in Ecuador engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Children also perform dangerous tasks in agriculture. (1; 2; 3) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Ecuador.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

4.9 (168,530)

Working Children by Sector

5 to 14

 

Agriculture

 

82.3

Industry

 

3.2

Services

 

14.6

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

97.3

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

5.6

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

104.8

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2017, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2018. (4)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s Analysis of Statistics from Encuesta Nacional de Empleo, Desempleo, y Subempleo, 2016. (5)

 

In 2017, the government conducted two national surveys capturing child labor data. (6)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of bananas,† palm oil,† and flowers,† including the use of chemical products and machetes (2; 7; 8; 9; 6; 10)

Fishing† (8; 9; 6)

Industry

Gold mining† and small-scale mining† (6)

Production of bricks† (3; 11)

Construction,† including loading construction materials, mixing materials to make concrete, and brickwork (3; 9; 11; 12; 6)

Services

Domestic work† (8; 6; 13)

Street work, including begging, shoe shining, selling newspapers, and vending (7; 8; 9; 14; 15; 6; 10)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (14; 16; 17; 6)

Use in illicit activities, including drug trafficking and robbery (3; 17; 6; 18)

Forced recruitment of children by Colombian non-state armed groups for use in armed conflict (12; 19; 20; 6)

Use in the production of pornography (7)

Forced labor in banana and palm plantations, floriculture, fishing; and in domestic work, street vending, and begging, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (21; 6; 22; 18)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

 

Civil society and government contacts reported incidences of Peruvian children being recruited into forced labor under false promises of employment in illegal mines. (17; 6; 23) Migrant and refugee girls from Colombia, Peru, Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Venezuela are particularly vulnerable to labor trafficking in domestic servitude and forced begging. (6; 23) Indigenous children from the highlands between the ages 6 and 10 are trafficked for forced begging in Guayaquil, Quito, and Rumiñahui. (24; 10)

Migrant and refugee children from other Latin American countries, LGBTI children, girls from poor families, and indigenous and Afro-Ecuadorian girls are often used in commercial sexual exploitation, including in the provinces of Guayas and Manabí. Commercial sexual exploitation in Ecuador also occurs near illegal mining sites. (2; 3; 6; 18; 24; 25) Venezuelan girls are trafficked for commercial sexual exploitation in Ecuador. (18) Sex trafficking networks also recruit children in schools, and, increasingly, through social media platforms, encouraging children to recruit their friends and classmates. (6) On Ecuador’s northern border, children are forcibly recruited to engage in drug trafficking and robbery. (26)

Despite education being free in Ecuador, children face barriers to accessing education, including having to pay for uniforms and books, lack of space and teachers, and lack of transportation for children who must attend schools far from their homes. (27; 6) Many indigenous children abandon school early, both in rural and urban areas. (9; 16) Specifically, almost half of all indigenous children in rural areas, and 37 to 40 percent of those in urban areas, do not attend secondary school, which can make them more vulnerable to child labor. (28) The lack of schools in some areas specifically affects indigenous and refugee children, who must travel long distances to attend school. (6)

Ecuador has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The government’s laws and regulations are in line with relevant international standards (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Article 46 of the Constitution; Article 82 of the Childhood and Adolescence Code (29; 30)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 87 of the Childhood and Adolescence Code (30)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Article 8 of Resolution No. 016 of 2008; Article 5 of Ministerial Accord MDT–2015–0131 (31; 32)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 82, 91, 105, and 213 of the Integral Penal Code (33){, 2014`, #290;El Tiempo, 2016 #342}

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 47 and 91 of the Integral Penal Code; Article 117 of the Organic Law on Human Mobility (33; 34)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 91 and 100–104 of the Integral Penal Code (33)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Articles 47, 219, and 220 of the Integral Penal Code (33)

Prohibition of Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

N/A*

 

 

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Article 57 of the Childhood and Adolescence Code; Article 161 of the Constitution (29; 30)

Non-state

Yes

18

Article 127 of the Penal Code; Article 57 of the Childhood and Adolescence Code; Article 161 of the Constitution (29; 30; 33)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

15

Article 38 of the Organic Intercultural Education Law (35)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 4 of the Organic Intercultural Education Law; Chapter 5, Article 28 of the Constitution (29; 35)

* No conscription (29)

 

In 2017, the government signed into law new protections for victims of trafficking. (34; 22) This law establishes a system to register and monitor victims of human trafficking and inform policy, action plans, and strategies to prevent trafficking. (34) The law also offers protections to families of trafficking victims and does not require testimony or a complaint to be filed to receive such services. (34) The Office of the President also issued regulations implementing this law. (36) The Ecuadorian legislature drafted legislation to prevent and eradicate violence against women and to protect girls who are victims of trafficking. (6) In collaboration with civil society, the private sector, and other government ministries, the Ministry of Labor (MOL) began drafting the Organic Integral Labor Code, which includes provisions on child labor and its worst forms and provides protections for adolescent workers. (18; 6)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the operations of the MOL that may hinder adequate child labor enforcement of their child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor and Industrial Relations (MOL)

Monitor child labor, conduct labor inspections at worksites, and enforce child labor laws in the formal sector. Administer sanctions against companies found using child labor and collect fines. (2; 7) Using the Unified System of Registration of Child Labor (SURTI), collect information on child laborers and refer children to appropriate government services. (6)

Ministry of Economic and Social Inclusion (MIES), Office of Special Protection to Vulnerable Population

Provide remediation services to child laborers and their families. Assist victims of child labor found in the informal sector. (2; 37) Through its Office of Special Protection, maintain a national anti-child–labor program involving coordination with civil society organizations and local governments. (6) Run seven protection centers staffed by social workers, doctors, psychologists, and educators. (37)

Attorney General’s Office

Enforce criminal laws against child labor, commercial sexual exploitation, and human trafficking. (12; 38)

Ministry of Interior

Oversee and evaluate all police actions, including the National Police Unit for Crimes against Children and Adolescents (DINAPEN). (23) DINAPEN investigates all crimes against children, including abuse, sexual exploitation, sex tourism, smuggling, kidnapping, exploitative child labor, and forced labor. (15; 39) DINAPEN’s anti-trafficking unit also investigates child trafficking cases. (2)

Office of the Prosecutor

Try cases related to the worst forms of child labor. (7)

Ministry of Education

Help victims of child labor reintegrate into school through the Special Protection program. (40)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2017, labor law enforcement agencies in Ecuador took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the operations of the MOL that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including human resource allocation.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$61,752 (3)

$1,458,000 (6)

Number of Labor Inspectors

206 (3)

150 (6)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (3)

Yes (6)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (3)

Yes (6)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Yes (3)

Yes (6)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (3)

Yes (6)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

4,626 (3)

Unknown

Number Conducted at Worksites

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

368 (3)

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties were Imposed

Unknown* (3)

Unknown* (6)

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that were Collected

Unknown* (3)

Unknown* (6)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (3)

Yes (6)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (3)

Yes (6)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (3)

Yes (6)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (3)

Yes (6)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (3)

Yes (6)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (3)

Yes (6)

*The government does not publish this information.

 

The number of labor inspectors is likely insufficient for the size of Ecuador’s workforce, which includes more than 8 million workers. According to the ILO’s technical advice of a ratio approaching 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in developing economies, Ecuador should employ about 534 labor inspectors. (2; 3; 41; 42) Furthermore, inspectors often lack the necessary resources, such as transportation, to fulfill their mandate. (2; 3; 38)

According to the ILO, one of the major obstacles in combating child labor in Ecuador is the absence of an adequate mechanism for receiving, routing, and addressing child labor charges and complaints. (3) While the government has created new mechanisms for identifying and referring child labor victims, it does not apply them consistently and uniformly. (3; 6) The absence of appropriate sanctions against employers also hinders efficient labor law enforcement. (6) Inspectors do not have sufficient knowledge of child labor laws. (6) Although Ecuadorian laws and regulations governing child labor are comprehensive, those regarding hazardous work are not enforced equally in rural areas and family-run businesses. (3)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2017, criminal law enforcement agencies in Ecuador took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the National Police Unit for Crimes against Children and Adolescents (DINAPEN) that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including its referral mechanism.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (3)

Yes (43)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A (3)

N/A (6)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (3)

Yes (18)

Number of Investigations

Unknown

80 (6)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown* (3)

8 (6)

Number of Convictions

Unknown* (3)

1 (6)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (3)

Yes (6)

*The government does not publish this information.

 

In 2017, the government created the Directorate for the Prevention of Trafficking in Persons and Migrant Smuggling within the Ministry of Interior to lead all law enforcement and research operations related to human trafficking. (6; 43) DINAPEN and Chile’s Investigative Police conducted a binational operation against a criminal group that trafficked boys and girls for labor exploitation from the Imbabura province in Ecuador to Chile. (18) This investigation resulted in four arrests and the rescue of five Ecuadorian children. (18) In other operations, police also arrested 3 people for commercial sexual exploitation of children and rescued 11 girls who were engaged in commercial sexual exploitation, some as a result of human trafficking. (18) The government also provided victims’ protection assistance to seven Ecuadorian children who were victims of labor trafficking and nine children who were victims of sex trafficking. (18)

During the reporting period, criminal investigators received training by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security on the use of Facebook for commercial sexual exploitation of children. (18) The National Police also hosted a training for 20 DINAPEN officers on trafficking and smuggling of persons, including children. (18; 23) However, DINAPEN officers lack sufficient human and material resources to adequately investigate the use of children in the trafficking of drugs. (2) Ecuador has only two shelters for victims of trafficking, and they serve only girls who have been vicitms of sex trafficking. There are no shelters for boys or girls who have been victims of trafficking unrelated to sex. (18) Although the 2016 introduction of the Unified System of Registration of Child Labor (SURTI) has improved the referral mechanisms for victims removed from the worst forms of child labor, the process is ad hoc. (6) The lack of shelters in many provinces means law enforcement officers need to keep victims of the worst forms of child labor at police barracks until a space becomes available in a shelter in another province. (6)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including coordination among agencies.

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role and Description

Inter-institutional Committee for the Eradication of Child Labor

Coordinate government efforts to combat child labor. (2) Includes participation from the MOL. (23) Last convened on December 5, 2017. (6)

Inter-Agency Committee against Trafficking in Persons

Coordinate government efforts to combat human trafficking, including child trafficking. Established as part of the National Plan to Combat Human Trafficking, Sexual and Labor Exploitation, and Other Forms of Exploitation. (38) Chaired by the Ministry of the Interior, involves several ministries and government agencies. (12) In 2017, held a binational fair at the Rumichaca International Bridge, the principal border crossing between Colombia and Ecuador, to raise awareness of human trafficking and the services available to trafficking victims. (18) Also held events to commemmorate World Anti-Trafficking Day. (18)

Technical Secretariat for the Lifetime Plan*

Convene government ministries to discuss issues, including child labor. (2)

National Council for Intergenerational Equity (CNII)

Coordinate interagency efforts to protect vulnerable populations, including children. (2)

Local Autonomous Governments

Participate in coordinating mechanisms to combat child labor and implement the guidelines provided by CNII. (2) Mayors, who are held accountable to ensure that children do not work, can be fined if children are found working. (44)

Inter-Agency Table for the Eradication of Child Labor (Mesa Interinstitucional de Erradicación del Trabajo Infantil)

Coordinate regional efforts to address child labor. (45) Participants include MIES; regional councils of Childhood and Adolescence; Ministries of Education, Labor, and Interior; Ministry of Social Development (MCDS); DINAPEN; and the Attorney General’s Office. (45)

* Mechanism to coordinate efforts to address child labor was created during the reporting period.

 

Weak coordination between ministries providing social services has caused difficulties in ensuring that children rescued from working in the informal sector receive adequate social assistance. (3) In 2017, the government used SURTI to collect data on child labor and better identify, assist, and monitor children in child labor; however, the government does not publish this information. (6) The ILO and MOL report that SURTI has assisted in efforts to improve coordination to address child labor. (6) However, research was unable to determine the extent of SURTI’s success in improving coordination.

In 2017, Ecuador and Peru signed the Tumbes Declaration to jointly address trafficking in persons and better serve trafficking victims, including children. (18; 23) The Ministry of Tourism exchanged best practices with regional tourism ministries to prevent child sex tourism and human trafficking and trained hotel owners and employees of 120 hotels on identifying, responding to, and reporting suspected cases of child sex tourism and human trafficking. (18) The Ministry of Tourism also coordinated activities to prevent child sex tourism and trafficking in persons with ECU911 (Ecuador’s national emergency phone line), the ministries of foreign affairs and labor, and local governments. (18)

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including implementation.

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Plan to Eradicate Child Labor (2015–2017)

Establish strategy to eradicate child labor in Ecuador by 2017. (2) The Plan, approved in 2016, is being implemented. (46)

Lifetime Plan (Plan Toda Una Vida) (2017–2021)†

Aims to support vulnerable populations from birth to advanced age through a series of social welfare programs. Aims to reduce child labor of children between ages 5 and 14 to 2.7 percent by 2021. (6; 47) Launched on November 28, 2017. (6) Led by the Technical Secretariat for the Lifetime Plan. (48)

National Plan to Combat Human Trafficking, Sexual and Labor Exploitation, and Other Forms of Exploitation

Establish processes to prevent, investigate, and impose legal sanctions against human trafficking, commercial sexual exploitation, and other forms of abuse. Enacted by decree in 2006 to protect and restore the rights of victims. (17; 49; 50) In 2017, the government failed to approve the revised version of this plan and instead continued to operate under an older version. (22)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

In 2017, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including the adequacy of efforts to address the worst forms of child labor.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor‡

Program

Description

Project to Eradicate Child Labor (PETI) (2014–2017)

MOL project under the National Plan for Good Living to prevent hazardous child labor in agriculture, manufacturing, construction, and mining. (46; 9) In 2017, the MOL held an interagency event in recognition of the International Day Against Child Labor. (43) As of 2017, this program has educated almost 10,000 people about child labor in the provinces of Los Rios and Bolivar. (43)

Business Network for a Child Labor Free Ecuador

UN initiative, works to gain commitment from participating industries to promote the prevention and elimination of child labor in their supply chains, trains businesses on child labor prevention, and creates employment opportunities for the parents of children engaged in child labor. (51; 52) In 2017, the MOL held an event to promote the network in Cuenca among 20 local businesses. So far, 38 companies are members of the network, which raised child labor awareness by training 14,000 participants. (53)

National Program to Combat Child Begging†

Raises awareness about child begging; aims to facilitate social services for children begging in the streets. (54; 55) In 2017, raised awareness through the Give Dignity campaign. (43)

USDOL-funded initiatives

Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues (GAP), a $15.9 million project implemented by the Global March to End Child Labor. (56) Building Effective Policies Against Child Labor in Ecuador and Panama (2012–2016), a $4.3 million project implemented by the ILO in collaboration with Casa Esperanza, Comunidades y Desarrollo en Ecuador (COMUNIDEC), and Fundación Esquel. (57; 58) EducaFuturo Project (2012–2017), an $8.1 million project implemented by Partners of the Americas, in collaboration with Expoflores, COMUNIDEC, and Fundación de las Americas. Additional information is available on the USDOL website.

Prevention of Sexual Exploitation of Children and Adolescents

Ministry of Tourism program that seeks to prevent commercial sexual exploitation by creating regulations and awareness campaigns in the tourism sector. (59) In 2017, trained staff from 120 hotels exchanged best practices in preventing child sex tourism and trafficking, and coordinated child sex tourism and trafficking prevention activities with ECU911, the Ministries of Foreign Affairs and Labor, and local governments. (6)

Eloy Alfaro Workers’ Symphonic Orchestra (Orquesta Sinfónica de los Trabajadores Eloy Alfaro)†

Orchestra that performs to raise awareness of child labor. (3) Established by MOL in 2016, comprises more than 200 former child laborers from Quito and Cuenca who take daily music lessons funded by MOL. (3) In 2017, played at the International Day Against Child Labor. (43)

Grants for Human Development

Conditional cash transfer program run by MIES that supplements household income for vulnerable families. (60; 56) In December 2017, the government increased the benefit for heads of household to $150 per month, depending on the number of children in the family. (43)

Mission Tenderness (Misión Ternura)†*

Seeks to promote the development of children under age 5 by combating malnutrition, increasing the number of children participating in early childhood education programs, and increasing participation of children from poor and vulnerable families in public childhood development programs. (6)

Less Poverty, More Development (Menos Pobreza, Más Desarrollo)†*

Aims to reduce extreme poverty from 8 percent to 3.5 percent by 2021, in part, through a conditional cash transfer for families living below the poverty line. (61; 6) In December 2017, the government increased the benefit from $50 to $150 for heads of household, depending on the number of children in the family. (6; 61)

Youth Impulse (Impulso Joven)†*

Seeks to increase job training and higher education opportunities for at-risk youth, support youth entrepreneurship through preferential loans, and connect employers with at-risk youth. (6)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Ecuador.
‡ The government has other social programs which may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor. (3; 7; 62; 63; 64)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Ecuador (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Enforcement

Publish the number of labor inspections conducted, child labor violations found, penalties imposed and collected for child labor violations, as well as the number of criminal violations found.

2014 – 2017

Ensure that laws and regulations governing child labor, and especially hazardous labor, are enforced consistently throughout the country, including in rural areas and family-run businesses.

2016 – 2017

Increase the number of labor inspectors in accordance with the ILO technical advice.

2009 – 2017

Ensure that inspectors receive sufficient resources, such as transportation, to adequately carry out their duties.

2014 – 2017

Ensure that labor inspectors have sufficient knowledge of existing laws, penalties, and processes to conduct inspections and refer victims to social services.

2015 – 2017

Ensure that police investigators receive sufficient resources to investigate cases of the worst forms of child labor.

2016 – 2017

Coordination

Strengthen coordinating mechanisms between ministries providing social services to victims of child labor, especially in the informal sector, and the mechanism for receiving, routing, and addressing child labor complaints.

2015 – 2017

Policies

Update the National Plan to Combat Human Trafficking, Sexual Exploitation and Labor Exploitation, and Other Forms of Exploitation.

2017

Social Programs

Enhance efforts to eliminate barriers and make education, particularly secondary education, accessible for all children, including indigenous and refugee children and children from rural areas, by removing school-related fees, increasing classroom space, and providing adequate transportation.

2014 – 2017

 

1. Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (INEC). Se presentan resultados de la Primera Encuesta Nacional de Trabajo Infantil. Accessed March 28 2014. [Source on file].

2. U.S. Embassy- Quito. Reporting, January 22, 2016.

3. —. Reporting, January 17, 2017.

4. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed January 4, 2018. http://data.uis.unesco.org/. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

5. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 5, 2014. Analysis received January 12, 2018. Please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

6. U.S. Embassy- Quito. Reporting, January 16, 2018.

7. —. Reporting, January 31, 2013.

8. Government of Ecuador, Ministry of Economic and Social Inclusion. Response to USDOL request. February 5, 2015. [Source on file].

9. Ministerio de Trabajo y Relaciones Laborales. PETI - Proyecto de Erradicación del Trabajo Infantil 2014–2017. June 2013. http://www.trabajo.gob.ec/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/PROYECTO-PETI-2014-2017.pdf.

10. IOM. Diagnostico Situacional Sobre la Trata de Personas en la Provincia de Pichincha. 2017. [Source on file].

11. El Mercurio. Trabajo Infantil baja pero persiste. August 31 2015. [Source on file].

12. U.S. Embassy- Quito. Reporting, February 19, 2015.

13. UCW. Entendiendo el trabajo infantil y el empleo juvenil en Ecuador. September 2017. http://www.ucw-project.org/attachment/27092017229Ecuador_interagency_report_12092017.pdf.

14. Observatorio Social del Ecuador. Niñez, migración y fronteras. 2013. [Source on file].

15. U.S. Embassy- Quito. Reporting, February 18, 2014.

16. Ecuadorian Ministry of Economic and Social Inclusion, National Council for Intergenerational Equality, and UNICEF. La niñez y adolescencia en el Ecuador contemporáneo: avances y brechas en el ejercicio de derechos. 2014. [Source on file].

17. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016: Ecuador. Washington, DC. June 30, 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/258879.pdf.

18. U.S. Embassy- Quito. Reporting, February 8, 2018.

19. U.S. Embassy- Quito official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 11, 2015.

20. U.S. Embassy- Quito. Reporting, February 15, 2017.

21. Ecuavisa. Autoridades investigan tráfico de niños. May 8, 2013. http://www.ecuavisa.com/articulo/noticias/actualidad/30157-autoridades-investigan-trafico-de-ninos.

22. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2017: Ecuador. Washington, DC. June 27, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2017/271180.htm.

23. U.S. Department of State official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 27, 2018.

24. IOM. Diagnostico Situacional Sobre la Trata de Personas en la Provincia de Guayas. 2017. [Source on file].

25. —. Diagnostico Situacional Sobre la Trata de Personas en la Provincia de Manabi. 2017. Source on file].

26. U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2017: Ecuador. Washington, DC. April 20, 2018. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/277573.pdf.

27. —. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2016: Ecuador. Washington, DC. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265796.pdf.

28. UNICEF. Panorama de la situación de la niñez y adolescencia indígena en América Latina: El derecho a la educación y a la protección en Ecuador. 2014. [Source on file].

29. Government of Ecuador. Constitución del Ecuador. Enacted: 2008. http://www.asambleanacional.gov.ec/documentos/Constitucion-2008.pdf.

30. —. Código de la Niñez y Adolescencia with modifications until 2009. Enacted: 2003. [Source on file].

31. —. Resolución No. 16 CNNA. Enacted: 2008. [Source on file].

32. —. List of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Adolescents. Official Register. 2015. [Source on file].

33. —. Código Orgánico Integral Penal. Enacted: 2014. http://www.asambleanacional.gob.ec/system/files/document.pdf.

34. —. Ley Orgánica de Movilidad Humana. Enacted: January 31, 2017. [Source on file].

35. —. Ley Orgánica de Educación Intercultural. Enacted: 2011. [Source on file].

36. —. Reglamento a la Ley Organica de Movilidad Humana. August 3, 2017. http://www.cancilleria.gob.ec/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/decreto_111.pdf.

37. U.S. Embassy- Quito. Reporting, January 17, 2014.

38. U.S. Embassy- Quito official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 17, 2016.

39. U.S. Embassy- Quito. Reporting, January 13, 2015.

40. Government of Ecuador. Buenos Resultados del Plan de Reinserción Escolar. February 20, 2013. http://www.inclusion.gob.ec/buenos-resultados-del-plan-de-reinsercion-escolar/.

41. CIA. The World Factbook. Accessed March 18, 2018. https://www.cia.gov/Library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2095rank.html. Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

42. ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. ILO Committee on Employment and Social Policy. November 2006: GB.297/ESP/3. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf.

43. U.S. Embassy- Quito official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 16, 2018.

44. Ministerio de Relaciones Laborales. Logros en la Erradicación del Trabajo Infantil. Accessed June 12, 2013. [Source on file].

45. Ministerio de Inclusión Económica y Social. Erradicación del Trabajo Infantil en el Sector Agrícola, El Nuevo Enfoque para el Ecuador. Accessed April 11, 2018. http://www.inclusion.gob.ec/erradicacion-del-trabajo-infantil-en-el-sector-agricola-el-nuevo-enfoque-para-el-ecuador/.

46. U.S. Embassy- Quito official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 8, 2017.

47. Government of Ecuador. Plan Nacional Toda una Vida. November 2017. http://www.planificacion.gob.ec/wp-content/uploads/downloads/2017/10/PNBV-26-OCT-FINAL_0K.compressed1.pdf.

48. —. Programa Misión Ternura. Accessed March 6, 2018. [Source on file].

49. Ministerio del Interior. Ecuador consolida acciones para combatir el delito de trata de personas. Accessed March 31, 2016. http://www.ministeriointerior.gob.ec/ecuador-consolida-acciones-para-combatir-el-delito-de-trata-de-personas/#.

50. IOM Ecuador. Bi-monthly meeting of the prevention bureau of the national plan to combat human trafficking with the participation of IOM Ecuador. Quarterly Newsletter. 2015. https://www.iom.int/sites/default/files/mission_newsletter/file/IOM-Ecuador-Quarterly-Newsletter-April-July-2015.pdf.

51. Red Pacto Global Ecuador. Se presentan logros de la red de empresas por un Ecuador libre de trabajo infantil en 2014. December 2, 2014. [Source on file].

52. El Tiempo. Ministerio de Trabajo impulsa red contra trabajo infantil. September 27, 2017. http://www.eltiempo.com.ec/noticias/region/12/421806/ministerio-de-trabajo-impulsa-red-contra-trabajo-infantil.

53. El Telégrafo. Trabajo infantil se evidencia más en el sector rural. July 20, 2017. http://www.eltelegrafo.com.ec/noticias/sociedad/4/trabajo-infantil-se-evidencia-mas-en-el-sector-rural.

54. Government of Ecuador, National Institute for Childhood and Family. Da Dignidad: Por un Ecuador sin Mendicidad. Accessed January 20, 2014. [Source on file].

55. Ministerio de Inclusión Económica y Social. Más de 1 millón de dólares invierte el MIES para erradicar la mendicidad. Accessed June 22, 2016. http://www.inclusion.gob.ec/mas-de-1-millon-de-dolares-invierte-el-mies-para-erradicar-la-mendicidad/.

56. Andes. Las políticas sociales de Ecuador disminuyen el trabajo infantil y consolidan una tendencia. June 4, 2013. [Source on file].

57. ILO-IPEC. Building Effective Policies Against Child Labor in Ecuador and Panama. October 2016: Technical Progress Report. [Source on file].

58. —. Building Effective Policies Against Child Labor in Ecuador and Panama. April 2016: Technical Progress Report. [Source on file].

59. Government of Ecuador. Consejo Nacional para la Igualdad Intergeneracional (CNII) Políticas, programas y proyectos. Accessed January 28, 2015. [Source on file].

60. Ministerio de Inclusión Económica y Social. Bono de Desarrollo Humano. Accessed April 4, 2013. [Source on file].

61. Agencia Efe. La Vicepresidenta de Ecuador presenta la misión "Menos pobreza, más desarrollo". January 9, 2018. https://www.efe.com/efe/america/politica/la-vicepresidenta-de-ecuador-presenta-mision-menos-pobreza-mas-desarrollo/20000035-3487517.

62. ILO-IPEC. Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues. October 2016: Technical Progress Report. [Source on file].

63. Ministerio de Educación. Programa de Alimentación Escolar. 2013. https://educacion.gob.ec/programa-de-alimentacion-escolar/.

64. ILO-IPEC Geneva official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 10, 2018.

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