Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Ecuador

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Ecuador

2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2015, Ecuador made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government enacted legislation that expands the list of hazardous work for children to include dangerous agricultural activities and paid domestic indoor work. The National Plan to Eradicate Child Labor (2015–2017) was implemented and the Government also adopted a protective policy framework document on the elimination of child labor in domestic work and the protection of young domestic workers of legal working age. However, children in Ecuador are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in forced domestic work and commercial sexual exploitation. The number of labor inspectors responsible for enforcing laws related to child labor is insufficient to provide adequate coverage of the workforce. In addition, the Government lacks national coordinating mechanisms to combat child labor, including its worst forms; and child labor programs do not provide adequate coverage of the worst forms of child labor, including street work.

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Children in Ecuador are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in forced domestic work and commercial sexual exploitation, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking.(1-3) In 2013, the Government released the results of the Child Labor Survey, which indicates that 359,597 Ecuadorian children and adolescents work, or 8.6 percent of the population between the ages of 5 and 17. Data from this survey were not analyzed in time for inclusion in Table 1.(2, 4) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Ecuador.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

2.7 (75,689)

Working children by sector, ages 5 to 14 (%)

 

Agriculture

71.0

Industry

8.1

Services

21.0

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

96.9

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

2.4

Primary completion rate (%):

112.6

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2014, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(5)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s Analysis of Statistics from Encuesta Nacional de Empleo, Desempleo, y Subempleo (ENEMDU), 2011.(6)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of bananas,† palm oil,*† timber,*† and flowers,† including the use of chemical products*† and machetes* (3, 7-13)

Fishing† (12-14)

Industry

Gold mining† and small-scale mining† (2, 11, 14, 15)

Production of bricks* (16, 17)

Construction,† including loading construction material, mixing materials to make concrete, and brickwork (13, 17, 18)

Services

Domestic work*† (12)

Unpaid household services* (2)

Street work, including begging, shoe shining,* selling newspapers,* and vending* (10, 12-14, 19, 20)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (19, 21-23)

Use in illicit activities, including drug trafficking* (19)

Use in armed conflict by illegal Colombian non-state armed groups,* activities unknown (24, 25)

Use in the production of pornography* (10)

Forced labor in domestic work, street vending, and begging, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking* (20, 23, 26-30)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Reports indicate that children working in commercial sexual exploitation are induced by traffickers to recruit friends and classmates. Children are also used in commercial sexual exploitation in illegal mines.(3)

Although the Constitution provides for free education, in practice, students are sometimes required to pay for uniforms and books, which may be prohibitive.(31) Reports indicate that migrant children and children of certain ethnic groups face barriers to education. Indigenous children in rural and urban areas are found to abandon school early.(13, 22) For example, 48 percent of indigenous children do not attend secondary school in rural areas, and 37 to 40 percent do not attend secondary school in urban areas.(32)

Indigenous children and children of migrants and refugees are particularly vulnerable to involvement in child labor; 82 percent of children who work come from homes that are in extreme poverty and lack basic necessities.(3) In Ecuador, 44 percent of children were identified as indigenous in the 2010 census.(32) The Child Labor Survey indicates that Cotopaxi Province in the central highlands has the highest percentage of children working.(33)

Ecuador has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Section 5, Article 46 of the Constitution; Title V, Chapter 1, Article 82 of the Childhood and Adolescence Code (34, 35)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Title I, Article 2 and Title V, Chapter 1, Article 87 of the Childhood and Adolescence Code (35)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Title II, Chapter 1, Article 5 and Chapter 2, Article 8 of Resolution No. 016 of 2008; Article 5 of Ministerial Accord MDT–2015–0131 (36, 37)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 91, 92, 105, and 213 of the Integral Penal Code (38)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 91, 105, and 213 of the Integral Penal Code (38)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 91, 92, and 103 of the Integral Penal Code (38)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Articles 219 and 220 of the Integral Penal Code (38)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

N/A*

 

 

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

18

Title III, Chapter 4, Article 57 of the Childhood and Adolescence Code (35)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

15

Chapter 5, Article 38 of the Organic Intercultural Education Law (39)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Title VII, Article 4 of the Organic Intercultural Education Law; Chapter 5, Article 28 of the Constitution (34, 39)

* No conscription (34)

In 2015, the Ministry of Labor (MOL) issued ministerial accord MDT–2015–0131, which expanded the list of hazardous activities for teenagers to include activities that require youth to be in forced physical positions, such as squats or push-ups, and requires the use of a safety net or scaffolding for children working at dangerous heights.(31, 37, 40)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor and Industrial Relations (MOL)

Monitor child labor, conduct labor inspections at work sites, and enforce child labor laws in the formal sector. Administer sanctions against companies found using child labor.(3, 10) Has a system to collect fines.(8)

Ministry of Economic and Social Inclusion (MIES)

Provide remediation services to child laborers and their families. Assist victims of child labor found in the informal sector.(3, 4) In the case of the Institute for Children and Families (INFA), provide social services and assist children who are victims of abuse, human trafficking, exploitative child labor, and sexual exploitation of all types.(4, 41) Run seven protection centers staffed by social workers, doctors, psychologists, and educators.(4)

Attorney General’s Office

Enforce criminal laws against child labor, commercial sexual exploitation, and human trafficking.(24, 42)

Ministry of Interior

Oversee and evaluate all police actions, including the Judicial Police Anti-Trafficking Police Unit (ATU) and the National Police Unit for Crimes against Children and Adolescents (DINAPEN). The ATU investigates human trafficking cases, rescues victims, and arrests traffickers.(10) DINAPEN investigates all crimes against children, including abuse, sexual exploitation, sex tourism, smuggling, kidnapping, exploitative child labor, and forced labor.(20, 43) The DINAPEN anti-trafficking unit also investigates child trafficking cases.(3) Police units have officers in each province dedicated to victims and witness protection.(4, 44)

Office of the Prosecutor

Conduct investigations and try cases related to the worst forms of child labor.(10)

Ministry of Education

Provide immediate educational services for victims of child labor.(45)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2015, labor law enforcement agencies in Ecuador took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown* (43)

Unknown* (3)

Number of Labor Inspectors

164 (43)

139 (3)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (43)

Yes (3)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (43)

Yes (3)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Yes (43)

Yes (3)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (43)

Yes (3)

Number of Labor Inspections

24,745 (43)

683 (3)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown

683 (3)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown

0 (3)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

1,496 (43)

520 (3)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

117 (43)

Unknown* (3)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

Unknown

Unknown* (3)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (43)

Yes (3)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (43)

Yes (3)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Unknown (43)

Yes (3)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Unknown (43)

Yes (3)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (43)

Yes (3)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (43)

Yes (3)

*The Government does not make this information publicly available.

According to the ILO recommendation of 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in industrializing economies, Ecuador should employ about 489 inspectors to adequately enforce labor laws throughout the country.(3, 46-48) Research indicates inspectors often lack the necessary resources to carry out their mandate, and the number of inspections conducted in 2015 decreased significantly from 2014.(3, 42, 43) Labor inspectors and police officers sometimes encountered language barriers in rural areas when conducting inspections and enforcing laws in indigenous towns, and inspectors sometimes had no access to transportation to conduct inspections.(3, 42) During the reporting period, the ILO and a local NGO worked with the MOL to develop training guides for labor inspectors.(42) However, sources indicate that labor inspectors lack adequate knowledge of child labor laws, the processes in place for referring children to the appropriate social services, and how to impose penalties consistent with the law.(3)

In 2015, the Government drafted a strategy to identify the most risk-prone sectors for child labor to improve the quality and targeting of inspections. As of early 2016, implementation of the strategy had not yet begun.(3) MOL has 10 technicians in the Project to Eradicate Child Labor (PETI) who refer children to the appropriate social services agencies and local enforcement officials investigate the cases.(3, 13)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2015, criminal law enforcement agencies in Ecuador took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (43)

Yes (43)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown* (43)

N/A (3)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (43)

Yes (3)

Number of Investigations

Unknown* (43)

948 (3)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown* (43)

1,422 (3)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown* (43)

Unknown* (3)

Number of Convictions

Unknown* (43)

Unknown* (3)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (43)

Yes (3)

*The Government does not make this information publicly available.

In 2015, DINAPEN employed 635 agents nationwide to handle all crimes against children, including 23 officers in its anti-trafficking unit. The ATU employed 20 agents based in Quito.(3) During the reporting period, DINAPEN and the ATU conducted operations to combat commercial sexual exploitation, child trafficking, child begging, and exploitative child labor.(3) The Government of Ecuador works with several NGOs to provide services to child victims of trafficking, including shelter, food, job training, legal assistance, and psychological and medical care.(10)

Sources indicate that DINAPEN officers lack sufficient human and material resources to adequately investigate reported cases of child abuse and the use of children in the micro-trafficking of drugs.(3) Although the DINAPEN anti-trafficking unit and the ATU assist in complex cases of child trafficking, DINAPEN is unable to investigate all potential cases of child trafficking.(3)

Although the Government has established a Coordinating Ministry of Social Development, research found no evidence of mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

Inter-institutional Committee for the Eradication of Child Labor

Coordinate government efforts to combat child labor.(3) In 2015, reviewed the Unified System of Registering Child Labor (SURTI), a new mechanism to file and respond to child labor complaints.(3, 42)

Inter-Agency Committee against Trafficking in Persons*

Coordinate government efforts to combat human trafficking, including child trafficking. Established as part of the National Plan to Combat Human Trafficking, Sexual and Labor Exploitation, and other Forms of Exploitation.(42)

Coordinating Ministry of Social Development

Convene government ministries to discuss issues, including child labor.(3) In 2015, improved protection and shelter services for victims of human trafficking.(42)

National Council for Intergenerational Equity

Coordinate interagency efforts to protect vulnerable populations, including children.(3)

Local Autonomous Governments

Participate in coordinating mechanisms to combat child labor and implement the guidelines provided by the National Council.(3) Mayors are held accountable to ensure that children do not work, and they can be fined if children are discovered to be working.(49)

Ministry of Tourism and DINAPEN

Coordinate prevention work against the commercial sexual exploitation of minors.(42, 50)

* Mechanism to coordinate efforts to address child labor was created during the reporting period.

In 2015, the Interagency Steering Committee (IAC) was disbanded as the Government shifted its strategy to focus on government actors through the Coordinating Ministry of Social Development; however, meetings on child labor issues occur only infrequently.(3)

The Government of Ecuador has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Plan to Eradicate Child Labor (2015–2017)†

Establishes strategy for the eradication of child labor in Ecuador by 2017.(3)

Project to Eradicate Child Labor (PETI) (2014–2017)

MOL program to prevent hazardous child labor in agriculture, manufacturing, construction, and mining. Aims to strengthen the legal framework and enforcement mechanisms to combat child labor, to design strategies for the protection of vulnerable youth, to strengthen public-private cooperation, and to establish an identification and referral system for children removed from exploitative labor situations.(13)

Ecuador Without Child Labor

Seeks to increase efforts to eradicate child labor by improving data collection, strengthening labor inspections, and carrying out awareness-raising activities in 150 municipalities. Government agencies work with the private sector and other actors to address child labor in agriculture, construction, and flower sectors.(51) The Government signed an agreement with the agriculture, flower, livestock, and construction sectors to coordinate actions and promote joint programs for the elimination of child labor in those sectors.(51, 52) MIES entered into 206 agreements with local governments and organizations throughout the country to help up to 41,000 children and improved protection and shelter to victims of human trafficking.(4)

National Plan for Good Living (2013–2017)

Seeks to improve living conditions for all citizens and promote social inclusion and decent work. Eradicating child labor and providing access to decent work for adolescents of legal working age are guiding policies under Objectives 2 and 9 of the plan.(53) Provides conceptual framework for plans to combat child labor, including PETI.(42)

National Plan to Combat Human Trafficking, Sexual and Labor Exploitation, and other Forms of Exploitation†

Establishes processes to prevent, investigate, and impose legal sanctions for human trafficking, commercial sexual exploitation, and other forms of abuse, and to protect and restore the rights of victims of these crimes.(54, 55)

Declaration of the Establishment of the Regional Initiative: Latin America and the Caribbean Free of Child Labor (2014–2020)

Regional initiative launched in 2013 at the Third Global Conference on Child Labor. The declaration re-emphasizes signatories’ commitments to eradicate all child labor by 2020. Also recognizes that child labor contributes to social and economic inequality.(56-58) In 2015, shared best practices with counterparts in Brazil, Colombia, Panama, and Peru.(42)

Declaration of Cancún 2015†

Resulted from the XIX Inter-American Conference of Ministers of Labor in December 2015 to promote decent work with social inclusion throughout the Americas. Aims to foster policies to eliminate labor exploitation, including child labor, and to promote education and vocational training for youth.(59, 60) Participating countries each adopted a Plan of Action that prioritizes the elimination of child labor, including through data collection, enforcement of labor laws, and the development of social protection policies for children and families.(60, 61)

Sectorial Strategy to Eradicate Child Labor (2014–2017)

Outlines national priorities and goals for each ministry in eliminating child labor. Delegates responsibilities and budget to each ministry to achieve goals.(43)

Binational Plan†

Strategic alliance between Ecuador and Peru to progressively eradicate child labor.(3)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

The MOL has completed the Sectorial Strategy to Eradicate Child Labor (2014–2017), which is pending approval and implementation. The plan will foster coordination in among governmental agencies responsible for the eradication of child labor.(3)

In 2015, the Government of Ecuador funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Grants for Human Development†

MIES conditional cash transfer program, supplements household income. Also targets vulnerable families and conditions payments on keeping children under age 15 in school and taking them for medical checkups.(15, 62, 63) Working children whose families receive grants are more likely to stay in school rather than work, particularly children between the ages of 11 and 15.(64, 65)

National Program to Combat Child Begging†

Government program that raises awareness about child begging in originating and receiving communities.(28) In 2015, MIES invested $1,456,000 in 44 cooperation agreements, which affected 4,941 individuals found begging or at risk.(3) DINAPEN rescued 1,318 children and adolescents during its operations to combat child begging during the reporting period.(42)

School Meals Program†

Government program that provides free meals to school children across the country. In 2015, 2.3 million students benefited from the program.(3, 66)

Business Network for a Child Labor Free Ecuador†

UN initiative that seeks to gain commitment from participating industries to promote the prevention and elimination of child labor in their supply chains.(67-69) Businesses participating in the program have three commitments: to promote zero tolerance of child labor, to conduct a supply chain analysis to determine if there is child labor, and to develop strategies to prevent and eradicate child labor in the supply chain.(68) In 2015, in collaboration with the MOL, a new reporting system was created to facilitate the transfer of information from the Business Network to MOL. During the reporting period there were 26 active business members.(3)

Eradication of Child Labor in Latin America (Phase 4) (2011–2015)

$4.5 million Government of Spain-funded, 3-year multi-country project for the eradication of child labor.(3, 70)

Education and Monitoring Program for the Eradication of Child Labor (2012–2015)

$1.3 million Government of Spain-funded, 3-year multi-country education and monitoring program for the eradication of child labor.(70)

Support to the Partnership Program to Prevent and Eliminate Child Labor in the Americas (2009–2017)

$3.8 million Government of Brazil-funded, 9-year project that supports exchange of good practices to combat child labor between Bolivia, Ecuador, Paraguay, and Timor-Leste.(70)

Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues Project

USDOL-funded project implemented by the ILO in approximately 40 countries to support the priorities of the Roadmap for Achieving the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor by 2016 established by the Hague Global Child Labor Conference in 2010. Aims to build the capacity of the national Government and develop strategic policies to address the elimination of child labor and forced labor, and strengthen legal protections and social services delivery for child domestic workers in Ecuador.(71) In 2015, adopted the protective policy framework document on the elimination of child labor in domestic work and the protection of young domestic workers of legal working age.(71)

Building Effective Policies Against Child Labor in Ecuador and Panama (2012–2016)

$3.5 million USDOL-funded, 4-year project implemented by ILO-IPEC, aims to strengthen policy and enforcement of child labor laws and occupational health and safety services.(40) Promotes lesson sharing between Ecuador, Panama, and other countries. In Ecuador, piloting efforts to address the link between child labor and disabilities.(40) In 2015, developed and adopted the hazardous work list and assisted the MOL in revising the National Plan. Developed a training module on eradicating child labor in collaboration with the Ecuadoran Service for Professional Training and provided training to 60 MOL child labor inspectors and other stakeholders.(40) In collaboration with the MOL, piloted (SURTI), which refers victims of child labor to social services providers.(3, 40)

EducaFuturo Project (2012–2016)

$6.5 million USDOL-funded, 4-year project implemented by Partners of the Americas to combat the worst forms of child labor among the most vulnerable populations, including Afro-descendants, migrants, and indigenous children, by providing them with educational and livelihood services in Ecuador and Panama.(72) The project also promotes lesson sharing between Ecuador, Panama, and other countries. In Ecuador, the project is piloting efforts to address the link between child labor and disabilities.(72) Since the start of the project, provided educational services to 2,584 children and provided livelihood services to 500 households in Ecuador.(73)

Projects to Combat Human Trafficking and Exploitation

National INFA program to assist children who are engaged in child labor or who are victims of human trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation. Works closely with law enforcement officials to protect children and provide social services at 86 INFA centers across the country.(10)

Prevention of Sexual Exploitation of Children and Adolescents from Tourism†

Ministry of Tourism program that seeks to prevent sexual exploitation by creating regulations and awareness campaigns in the tourism sector.(74)

Awareness Raising Activities†

MOL programs to raising awareness of child labor issues and build the capacity of stakeholders to combat child labor. In 2015, held 60 street theater presentations and 46 events to commemorate World Day Against Child Labor, which reached 21,876 public officials, employers, and children.(3)

† Program is funded by the Government of Ecuador.

Although Ecuador has a program that targets child labor in street work, including begging, the scope of the National Program to Combat Child Begging is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem. Sources also indicate that during the reporting period, the number of child laborers in street work, including begging, increased slightly.(3)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Ecuador (Table 9).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Enforcement

Make information publicly available on the funding for the labor inspectorate.

2015

Significantly increase the number of labor inspectors responsible for enforcing child labor laws in accordance with the ILO’s recommendation.

2009 – 2015

Ensure that labor inspectors are familiar with existing laws, penalties, and referral processes for victims.

2015

Make publicly available the number of penalties imposed and collected, prosecutions initiated, and convictions made.

2014 – 2015

Ensure that inspectors receive adequate resources, such as transportation and translators, to effectively carry out their duties and investigate all cases of child labor.

2014 – 2015

Coordination

Establish coordinating mechanisms to combat child labor, including its worst forms.

2015

Social Programs

Expand efforts to improve access to education for all children, particularly for children from different ethnic groups and migrant children.

2014 – 2015

 

Expand child labor programs that target the worst forms of child labor, including street work.

2009 – 2015

1.         Agencia Pública de Noticias del Ecuador y Suramérica. "Cerca de Mil Millones Cuesta Erradicar el Trabajo Infantil en Ecuador en Veinte Años." andes.info.ec [online] June 13, 2012 [cited March 24, 2014]; http://andes.info.ec/actualidad-videos/3174.html.

2.         Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (INEC). Se presentan resultados de la Primera Encuesta Nacional de Trabajo Infantil [online] [cited March 28 2014]; [source on file].

3.         U.S. Embassy- Quito. reporting, January 22, 2016.

4.         U.S. Embassy- Quito. reporting, January 17, 2014.

5.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. December 16, 2015; http://data.uis.unesco.org/.  Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school.  This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion.  This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary.  A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion.  Because the calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age), the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades.  For more information, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics:  Sources and Definitions" section of this report.

6.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from ENEMDU, 2011. Analysis received December 18, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult o collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms.  As a result, statistics on children's work in general are repored in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working chldren and other indicators used in this report, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistic: Sources and Definitions" section fo this report.

7.         Government of Ecuador. Written Communication. Submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor Federal Register Notice (April 25, 2011) "Request for Information on Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor". Quito; May 25, 2011.

8.         U.S. Embassy- Quito. reporting, February 9, 2012.

9.         USDOS official E-mail communication to USDOL Official. reporting, July 17, 2012.

10.       U.S. Embassy- Quito. reporting, January 31, 2013.

11.       International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC). Report for the WTO General Council Review of the Trade Policies of Ecuador. Brussels; November 2011. http://www.ituc-csi.org/report-for-the-wto-general-council,10063.

12.       Government of Ecuador Ministry of Economic and Social Inclusion. Response to US DOL request February 5, 2015. hardcopy on file

13.       Ministerio de Trabajo y Relaciones Laborales. PETI - Proyecto de Erradicación del Trabajo Infantil 2014-2017. Quito; June 2013. http://www.trabajo.gob.ec/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/PROYECTO-PETI-2014-2017.pdf.

14.       "Ecuador se propone erradicar este año el trabajo infantil en mataderos." El Universo, Guayaquil, June 7, 2012; Economia. http://www.eluniverso.com/2012/06/07/1/1356/ecuador-propone-erradicar-ano-trabajo-infantil-mataderos.html.

15.       "El Trabajo Infantil Cayó a Cerca del 6% en 2011 en Ecuador; Segun el INEC." El Universo, Guayaquil, June 4, 2012; Pais. http://www.eluniverso.com/2012/06/04/1/1447/trabajo-infantil-cayo-cerca-6-2011-ecuador-segun-inec.html.

16.       Erradicación del trabajo infantil con pequeñas innovaciones tecnológicas, ECOSUR, [previously online] [cited April 17, 2014]; http://www.ecosur.org/index.php/edicion-38-agosto-2011/586-erradicacion-del-trabajo-infantil-con-pequenas-innovaciones-tecnologicas.

17.       "Trabajo Infantil baja pero persiste." El Mercurio, Cuenca, Ecuador, August 31 2015. http://www.elmercurio.com.ec/493353-trabajo-infantil-baja-pero-persiste/#.Vv1KNMJf3AV.

18.       U.S. Embassy- Quito official. reporting, February 19, 2015.

19.       Observatorio social del Ecuador. Niñez, migración y fronteras. Quito; 2013. http://www.odna.org.ec/ODNA-PDF/NiñezMigracionFrontera.pdf.

20.       U.S. Embassy- Quito. reporting, February 18, 2014.

21.       Parra, JR. "Ecuador: Refugee Women and Girls Turning to Sex Work." globalvoicesonline.org [online] April 24, 2012 [cited October 26, 2012]; http://globalvoicesonline.org/2012/04/24/ecuador-refugee-women-and-girls-turning-to-sex-work/.

22.       Ecuadorian Ministry of Economic and Social Inclusion, National Council for Intergenerational Equality, and UNICEF. La niñez y adolescenia en el Ecuador contemporáneo: avances y brechas en el ejercicio de derechos. Quito; 2014. www.unicef.org/ecuador/NA_Ecuador_Contemporaneo.pdf.

23.       U.S. Department of State. "Ecuador," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015. Washington, DC; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/243559.pdf.

24.       U.S. Embassy- Quito. reporting, February 19, 2015.

25.       U.S. Embassy- Quito official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 11, 2015.

26.       "Autoridades investigan tráfico de niños." ecuavisa.com [online] July 2, 2013 [cited 2014]; http://www.ecuavisa.com/articulo/noticias/actualidad/30157-autoridades-investigan-trafico-de-ninos.

27.       Rodríguez, M. "Trafico de menores: encuentran a 135 niños peruanos trabajando en Ecuador." El Comercio, Quito, February 6, 2011; News. http://elcomercio.pe/peru/709581/noticia-trafico-menores-encuentran-135-ninos-peruanos-trabajando-ecuador.

28.       Government of Ecuador's National Institute for Childhood and Family. Da Dignidad: Por un Ecuador sin Mendicidad, [online] [cited January 20, 2014]; [source on file].

29.       "Mendicidad, el tercer 'mejor negocio'." Diario Hoy, Quito, January 4, 2012. [source on file].

30.       IOM. La trata de personas en Ecuador, [online] April 12, 2011 [cited February 5, 2013]; http://www.unmultimedia.org/radio/spanish/2011/04/la-trata-de-personas-en-ecuador/.

31.       U.S. Department of State. "Ecuador," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2015. Washington, DC; April 2015; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/253223.pdf.

32.       UNICEF. Panorama de la situación de la niñez y adolescencia indígena en América Latina: El derecho a la educación y a la protección en Ecuador 2014. [source on file].

33.       Boudarène, K. "Ecuador: Child Labour down 10% in Six Years." argentinaindependent.com [online] August 22, 2013 [cited November 25, 2013]; http://www.argentinaindependent.com/currentaffairs/ecuador-child-labour-down-10-percent-in-six-years/.

34.       Government of Ecuador. Constitución del Ecuador, enacted September 28, 2008. http://www.asambleanacional.gov.ec/documentos/Constitucion-2008.pdf.

35.       Government of Ecuador. Código de la Niñez y Adolescencia with modifications until 2009, enacted January 3, 2003. [source on file].

36.       Government of Ecuador. Resolución No. 16 CNNA, enacted May 8, 2008. [source on file].

37.       Ecuador, Go. List of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children. Official Register 2015. http://www.kva.com.ec/imagesFTP/20353.MDT_2015_0131_RO_525__18_6_15__EXPEDIR_EL_LISTADO_DE_ACTIVIDADES_PELIGROSAS_EN_EL_TRABAJO_DE_ADOLESCENTES.pdf.

38.       Government of Ecuador. Integral Penal Code enacted February 10, 2014. http://www.asambleanacional.gob.ec/system/files/document.pdf.

39.       Ecuador Ley Orgánica de Educación Intercultural enacted March 31, 2011. [source on file].

40.       USDOL. Building Effective Policies against Child Labour in Ecuador and Panama: Technical Progress Report October 2015. Washington, DC; 2015.

41.       Government of Ecuador. Crea el Instituto de la Niñez y la Familia (INFA), Decreto N° 1.170, enacted 2008. http://www.sipi.siteal.org/normativas/98/decreto-ndeg-11702008-crea-el-instituto-de-la-ninez-y-la-familia-infa.

42.       U.S. Embassy- Quito official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 17, 2016.

43.       U.S. Embassy- Quito. reporting, January 13, 2015.

44.       U.S. Embassy- Quito official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 21, 2015.

45.       Government of Ecuador. Buenos Resultados del Plan de Reinserción Escolar; 2013 February 20, . http://www.inclusion.gob.ec/buenos-resultados-del-plan-de-reinsercion-escolar/.

46.       UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex. New York; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies; “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies, and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

47.       ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a “sufficient number” of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a “sufficient” number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

48.       CIA. The World Factbook, [online] [cited March 18, 2016]; https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors based on the country’s level of development as determined by the UN.

49.       Ministerio de Relaciones Laborales. Logros en la Erradicación del Trabajo Infantil, Government of Ecuador, [online] [cited June 12, 2013]; http://trabajoinfantil.mrl.gob.ec:8081/infantil/LOGROS_EN_LA_ERRADICACION_DEL_TRABAJO_INFANTIL/creacion_de_la_mesa_interinstitucional.html.

50.       Government of Ecuador, National Police Unit for Crimes against Children and Adolescents. Written Communication. Submitted in response to USDOL request Quito; January 14, 2015.

51.       Government of Ecuador, Ministry of Social Development. Observaciones y Réplicas: Informe del Departamento de Trabajo de los Estados Unidos de América sobre Trabajo Infantil. Quito; December 9, 2011.

52.       ILO-IPEC. Project to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor through Horizontal Cooperation in South America: Technical Progress Report. Technical Progress Report. Geneva; October 2011.

53.       Government of Ecuador. National Plan for Good Living (2013-2017). Quito; 2013. http://www.buenvivir.gob.ec.

54.       Government of Ecuador Ministry of the Interior. Ecuador consolida acciones para combatir el delito de trata de personas. 2015. http://www.ministeriointerior.gob.ec/ecuador-consolida-acciones-para-combatir-el-delito-de-trata-de-personas/#.

55.       Ministry of the Interior. Bi-monthly meeting of the prevention bureau of the national plan to combat human trafficking with the participation of IOM Ecuador. Quarterly Newsletter. 2015. https://www.iom.int/sites/default/files/mission_newsletter/file/IOM-Ecuador-Quarterly-Newsletter-April-July-2015.pdf.

56.       ILO. "18th American Regional Meeting - Latin America and Caribbean Sign a Declaration to Free the Region from Child Labour." ilo.org [online ] November 17, 2014 [cited 2014]; http://www.ilo.org/caribbean/WCMS_314428/lang--en/index.htm.

57.       UN News Centre. "At UN-backed forum, Latin American, Caribbean nations pledge robust efforts against child labour." un.org [online] October 15, 2014 [cited 2014]; [source on file].

58.       "Declaración de Constitución de la Iniciativa Regional América Latina y el Caribe Libre de Trabajo Infántil, signed at the ILO's 18th Regional Meeting of the Americas, October 14, 2014." wordpress.com [online] October 14, 2014 [cited November 17, 2014]; https://iniciativaregionalcontraeltrabajoinfantil.files.wordpress.com/2014/10/declaracic3b3n-ir_espac3b1ol.pdf.

59.       Organization of American States. Segunda Reunion Tenica Preparatoria de la XIX Conferencia Interamericana de Ministros de Trabajo. Declaration of Cancun 2015. September 29, 2015. https://www.oas.org/en/sedi/dhdee/labor_and_employment/documentos/TRABAJO/19CIMT/CIDTR00020E02.doc.

60.       Organization of American States. Segunda Reunion Tenica Preparatoria de la XIX Conferencia Interamericana de Ministros de Trabajo. List of Participants. September 29, 2015. https://www.oas.org/en/sedi/dhdee/labor_and_employment/documentos/TRABAJO/19CIMT/doc14_Rev4_Textual_ListaParticipantes.doc.

61.       Organization of American States. Segunda Reunion Tenica Preparatoria de la XIX Conferencia Interamericana de Ministros de Trabajo. Plan of Action of Cancun. September 29, 2015. http://www.ioe-emp.org/fileadmin/ioe_documents/publications/Working%20at%20Regional%20Level/Americas/ES/_2015-08-27__C-182_ProyPlanAccion_XIXCIMT.pdf.

62.       Ministry of Economic and Social Inclusion. Bono de Desarrollo Humano, Government of Ecuador, [online] [cited April 4, 2013]; [source on file].

63.       Las Políticas Sociales de Ecuador Disminuyen el Trabajo Infantil y Consolidan Una Tendencia, Andes, [online] June 4, 2013 [cited April 4, 2013]; http://www.andes.info.ec/econom%C3%AD/2914.html.

64.       E. Edmonds, and N. Schady. Poverty Alleviation and Child Labor. Hanover, New Hampshire, Dartmouth College; 2011. http://www.dartmouth.edu/~eedmonds/povallev.pdf.

65.       Maxine Molyneux, and Marilyn Thomson. CCT Programmes and Women’s Empowerment in Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador. Policy Paper. London, CARE; 2011. www.careinternational.org.uk/research-centre.

66.       Educacion, Md. Government of Ecuador, [cited February 9 2016]; http://educacion.gob.ec/programa-de-alimentacion-escolar/.

67.       Ministerio de Relaciones Laborales. Informe USDOL 2012. Quito; 2013.

68.       Ministerio de Relaciones Laborales. Red de Empresas por un Ecuador Libre de Trabajo Infantil, Government of Ecuador, [online] August 20, 2012 [cited April 8, 2013]; http://www.pactoglobal.ec/2012/08/red-de-empresas-por-un-ecuador-libre-de-trabajo-infantil/.

69.       Red Pacto Global Ecuador. Se presentan logros de la red de empresas por un Ecuador libre de trabajo infantil en 2014, Red Pacto Global Ecuador [online ] December 2, 2014 [cited January 27, 2015]; http://www.pactoglobal.ec/2014/12/se-presentaron-logros-de-la-red-de-empresas-por-un-ecuador-libre-de-trabajo-infantil-en-2014/.

70.       ILO-IPEC Geneva official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 22, 2016.

71.       ILO-IPEC. Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues. Technical Progress Report. Geneva; October 2015.

72.       USDOL. EDUCAFUTURO: Project to Combat Child Labor Among Vulnerable Populations in Ecuador and Panama by Providing Direct Education and Livelihood Services. Project Summary. Washington, DC; 2012. http://www.dol.gov/ilab/map/countries/ecuador.htm.

73.       USDOL. Partners of the Americas -Educafuturo: Technical Progress Report October 2015. Washington, DC; 2015.

74.       Government of Ecuador. Consejo Nacional para la Igualdad Intergeneracional (CNII) Políticas, programas y servicios, September 29, 2014 [cited January 28, 2015]; http://igualdad.gob.ec/ninez/politicas-programas-y-servicios.html.