Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Ecuador

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Ecuador

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Significant Advancement

In 2016, Ecuador made a significant advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government significantly increased the number of labor inspectors, up from 139 in 2015 to 206. The Government also piloted a multi-sectoral protocol designed to facilitate identification and referral of child labor cases at the local level and developed a tool to collect information on child labor cases and better identify, assist, and monitor children in child labor. In addition, the Government launched “Give Dignity,” a campaign to further the goals of the National Program to Combat Child Begging, and signed 38 cooperative agreements to implement the program investing over $1.5 million to provide social services and training to more than 6,000 people, including child beggars. However, children in Ecuador perform dangerous tasks in agriculture. Children also engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. In addition, Ecuador lacks effective coordinating mechanisms to combat child labor, including its worst forms, and child labor programs that provide adequate coverage of the worst forms of child labor.

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Children in Ecuador perform dangerous tasks in agriculture. Children also engage in the worst forms of child labor, including commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking.(1-4) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Ecuador.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

3.5 (115,930)

Working children by sector

5 to 14

 

Agriculture

 

82.3

Industry

 

3.9

Services

 

13.8

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

97.5

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

3.8

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

108.8

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2016, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(5)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s Analysis of Statistics from Encuesta Nacional de Empleo, Desempleo, y Subempleo, 2016.(6)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of bananas,† palm oil,† timber,† and flowers,† including the use of chemical products and machetes (3, 7-12)

Fishing† (11-13)

Industry

Gold mining† and small-scale mining† (13, 14)

Production of bricks† (4, 15)

Construction,† including loading construction material, mixing materials to make concrete, and brickwork (4, 12, 15, 16)

Services

Domestic work† (11)

Unpaid household services (2)

Street work, including begging, shoe shining, selling newspapers, and vending (10-13, 17, 18)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (17, 19-22)

Use in illicit activities, including drug trafficking and robbery (4, 22)

Forced recruitment of children by Colombian non-state armed groups for use in armed conflict.(16, 23, 24)

Use in the production of pornography (10)

Forced labor in domestic work, street vending, and begging, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (18, 21, 25, 26)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Most children in child labor in Ecuador work in agriculture on small- and medium-sized farms; many of them perform dangerous tasks, such as using chemicals and machetes in banana and palm plantations.(4)

Children in Ecuador, particularly girls from poor families and migrant children from other Latin American countries, are also used in commercial sexual exploitation, including around illegal mines.(3, 4). Often migrating from rural towns to larger cities, children also engage in hazardous work in the production of construction materials.(4) In 2016, the Government reported an increase in human traffickers’ use of social media to recruit children.(4) Some of these children are trafficked to be exploited abroad, either sexually or for labor, while others are used in illicit activities, including drug trafficking and robbery. Children are also trafficked from small towns in the highlands to larger cities to be forced into begging and street vending.(4) Indigenous, Afro-Ecuadorian, and Colombian refugee children are especially vulnerable to human trafficking and are often recruited into forced labor under false promises of employment.(22)

Despite education being free in Ecuador, children face barriers to accessing education, including having to pay for uniforms and books, lack of space in public schools, and lack of transportation for children who must attend schools far from their homes.(27, 28) The 2016 earthquake exacerbated the problem of children traveling long distances to reach schools. Many indigenous children abandon school early, both in rural and urban areas.(12, 20) Specifically, almost half of all indigenous children in rural areas, and 37 to 40 percent of those in urban areas, do not attend secondary school, which can make them more vulnerable to child labor.(29) In March 2016, the Ministry of Education began implementing an administrative management system that was modified to capture child labor data to expand the knowledge base on child labor.(30)

Ecuador has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). The legal framework in Ecuador appears to be sufficient to address and protect children from the worst forms of child labor.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Section 5, Article 46 of the Constitution; Title V, Chapter 1, Article 82 of the Childhood and Adolescence Code (31, 32)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Title I, Article 2 and Title V, Chapter 1, Article 87 of the Childhood and Adolescence Code (32)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Title II, Chapter 1, Article 5 and Chapter 2, Article 8 of Resolution No. 016 of 2008; Article 5 of Ministerial Accord MDT–2015–0131 (33, 34)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 82, 91, 105, and 213 of the Integral Penal Code(3, 35) {, 2014`, #290;El Tiempo, 2016 #342}

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 91, and 213 of the Integral Penal Code (35)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

No

 

Articles 91, 101, 103and 104 of the Integral Penal Code (35)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

No

 

Articles 219 and 220 of the Integral Penal Code (35)

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

N/A*

 

 

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Title III, Chapter 4, Article 57 of the Childhood and Adolescence Code ; Article 161 of the Constitution.(31, 32)

Non-state Compulsory

Yes

18

Section IV, Article 127 of the Penal Code; Title III, Chapter 4, Article 57 of the Childhood and Adolescence Code ; Article 161 of the Constitution.(31, 32, 35)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

15

Chapter 5, Article 38 of the Organic Intercultural Education Law (36)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Title VII, Article 4 of the Organic Intercultural Education Law; Chapter 5, Article 28 of the Constitution (31, 36)

* No conscription (31)

The law does not sufficiently prohibit commercial sexual exploitation, as the use, procuring, and offering of children for pornographic performances is not criminally prohibited.

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor and criminal law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor and Industrial Relations (MOL)

Monitor child labor, conduct labor inspections at work sites, and enforce child labor laws in the formal sector. Administer sanctions against companies found using child labor and collect fines.(3, 8, 10)

Ministry of Economic and Social Inclusion (MIES)

Provide remediation services to child laborers and their families. Assist victims of child labor found in the informal sector.(3, 37) With the Institute for Children and Families (INFA), provide social services and assist children who are victims of abuse, human trafficking, exploitative child labor, and sexual exploitation.(37, 38) Run seven protection centers staffed by social workers, doctors, psychologists, and educators.(37)

Attorney General’s Office

Enforce criminal laws against child labor, commercial sexual exploitation, and human trafficking.(16, 39)

Ministry of Interior

Oversee and evaluate all police actions, including the Judicial Anti-Trafficking Police Unit (ATU) and the National Police Unit for Crimes against Children and Adolescents (DINAPEN). ATU investigates human trafficking cases, rescues victims, and arrests traffickers.(10) DINAPEN investigates all crimes against children, including abuse, sexual exploitation, sex tourism, smuggling, kidnapping, exploitative child labor, and forced labor.(18, 40) DINAPEN anti-trafficking unit also investigates child trafficking cases.(3)

Office of the Prosecutor

Try cases related to the worst forms of child labor.(10)

Ministry of Education

Help victims of child labor reintegrate into school through the Special Protection program.(41)

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, labor law enforcement agencies in Ecuador took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown* (3)

$61,752 (4)

Number of Labor Inspectors

139 (3)

206 (4)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (3)

Yes (4)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (3)

Yes (4)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Yes (3)

Yes (4)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (3)

Yes(4)

Number of Labor Inspections

683 (3)

4,626 (4)

Number Conducted at Worksite

683 (3)

Unknown

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

0 (3)

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

520 (3)

368 (4)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown* (3)

Unknown* (4)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

Unknown* (3)

Unknown* (4)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (3)

Yes (4)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (3)

Yes (4)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (3)

Yes (4)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (3)

Yes (4)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (3)

Yes (4)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (3)

Yes (4)

*The Government does not publish this information.

According to the ILO, one of the major obstacles in combating child labor in Ecuador is the absence of an effective mechanism for receiving, routing, and addressing child labor charges and complaints.(4) While the Government has created new mechanisms for identifying and referring child labor victims, it does not apply them consistently and uniformly.(4)  Children recruited to commit illegal acts may end up in juvenile detention centers, despite Ecuadorian law prohibiting this. In addition, while Ecuadorian laws and regulations governing child labor are comprehensive, those regarding hazardous work are not equally enforced in rural areas and family-run businesses.(4)

Although the Government significantly increased the number of labor inspectors in 2016, they are insufficient for the size of Ecuador’s workforce, which includes more than 4.8 million workers. According to the ILO recommendation of 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in developing economies, Ecuador should employ about 323 labor inspectors.(3, 4, 42-44) Furthermore, inspectors often lack the necessary resources, such as transportation, to fulfill their mandate.(3, 4, 39) Training guides for labor inspectors developed by the Government and ILO were released in 2016.(4, 39) In May 2016, training for labor inspectors on child labor and labor risks was extended to also include field officers from the Ministry of Labor’s Project to Eradicate Child Labor.(30) The Government also organized a training of trainers on child labor eradication.(45) However, labor inspectors still lack adequate knowledge of child labor laws and processes for referring children to the appropriate social services and imposing penalties consistent with the law.(3)

In 2016, the Government implemented the National Plan of Progressive Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor (2014–2017), a strategy to identify the most risk-prone sectors for child labor and improve the quality and targeting of inspections.(3, 46)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in Ecuador took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (40)

Yes (4)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A (3)

N/A (4)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (3)

Yes (4)

Number of Investigations

948 (3)

Unknown

Number of Violations Found

1,422 (3)

Unknown

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown* (3)

Unknown* (4)

Number of Convictions

Unknown* (3)

Unknown * (4)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (3)

Yes (4)

*The Government does not publish this information.

National Police Unit for Crimes against Children and Adolescents (DINAPEN) officers lack sufficient human and material resources to adequately investigate the use of children in the trafficking of drugs.(3)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

Inter-institutional Committee for the Eradication of Child Labor

Coordinate Government efforts to combat child labor.(3) Last convened in April 2016.(46)

Inter-Agency Committee against Trafficking in Persons

Coordinate Government efforts to combat human trafficking, including child trafficking. Established as part of the National Plan to Combat Human Trafficking, Sexual and Labor Exploitation, and other Forms of Exploitation.(39) Led by MOI, involves several ministries and government agencies.(16)

Coordinating Ministry of Social Development (MCDS)

Convene government ministries to discuss issues, including child labor.(3) In 2015, improved protection and shelter services for victims of human trafficking.(39)

National Council for Intergenerational Equity (CNII)

Coordinate interagency efforts to protect vulnerable populations, including children.(3)

Local Autonomous Governments

Participate in coordinating mechanisms to combat child labor and implement the guidelines provided by CNII.(3) Mayors are held accountable to ensure that children do not work, and can be fined if children are found working.(47)

Ministry of Tourism and DINAPEN

Coordinate prevention work against the commercial sexual exploitation of minors.(39, 48)

Inter-Agency Table for the Eradication of Child Labor (Mesa Interinstitucional de Erradicación del Trabajo Infantil)

Coordinates regional efforts to address child labor.(49) Participants include MIES; regional councils of Childhood and Adolescence; Ministries of Education, Labor, and Interior; MCDS; DINAPEN; and the Attorney General’s Office.(49) Met regularly in 2016 or when a new case regarding child exploitation was presented.(46)

Weak coordination between ministries providing social services has caused difficulties in ensuring that children rescued from working in the informal sector receive adequate social assistance.(4) In 2016, the Government launched Sistema Unico de Registro de Trabajo Infantil (SURTI), a platform to register and monitor child labor cases; improve coordination between government agencies, ministries, and police assisting child labor victims; and inform public policies relating to child labor prevention and eradication.(50) The Government also participated in piloting the Routes of Restitution of Rights in Child Labor (RRD), a multi-sectoral protocol designed to facilitate identification and referral of child labor cases at the local level in Guamote and Quininde.(4, 51, 52) Research was unable to determine if SURTI and RRD are linked.

The Government has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Plan to Eradicate Child Labor (2015–2017)

Establish strategy to eradicate child labor in Ecuador by 2017.(3) The Plan, approved in 2016, is being implemented.(46)

National Plan for Good Living (2013–2017) (Plan Nacional del Buen Vivir)

Improve living conditions for all citizens and promote social inclusion and decent work, including eradicating child labor.(53) In 2016, the Government implemented the awareness-raising campaign, Ecuador Without Child Labor.(46)

National Plan to Combat Human Trafficking, Sexual and Labor Exploitation, and other Forms of Exploitation

Establish processes to prevent, investigate, and impose legal sanctions against human trafficking, commercial sexual exploitation, and other forms of abuse. Enacted by decree in 2006 to protect and restore the rights of victims.(22, 54, 55) In 2016, the Government trained labor inspectors and other relevant actors on the List of Hazardous Occupations or Activities prohibited for children.(46)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

In 2016, the Government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

UDSOL-funded initiatives

Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues (GAP), a $15.9 million project implemented by the Global March to End Child Labor.(56) Building Effective Policies Against Child Labor in Ecuador and Panama (2012–2016), a $3.5 million project implemented by the ILO.(57) EducaFuturo Project (2012–2017), a $6.5 million project implemented by Partners of the Americas, in collaboration with Expoflores, COMUNIDEC, and FUDELA.(58) Additional information is available on the USDOL Web site.

Project to Eradicate Child Labor (PETI) (2014–2017)

MOL project under the National Plan for Good Living to prevent hazardous child labor in agriculture, manufacturing, construction, and mining. In the first trimester of 2016, PETI launched awareness raising campaigns in 13 cities, reaching around 3,500 people nationwide.(46, 59) In 2016, PETI trained and raised awareness of 20,755 people on child labor and referred 368 children and adolescents to receive social services due to their vulnerability to child labor.(46)

Business Network for a Child Labor Free Ecuador

UN initiative, works to gain commitment from participating industries to promote the prevention and elimination of child labor in their supply chains.(60-62)  In 2016, coordinated donations to benefit children affected by the April 2016 earthquake.(46) Through this program, the Government and the Government of Brazil exchanged best practices to address child labor.(46)

Prevention of Sexual Exploitation of Children and Adolescents†

Ministry of Tourism program that seeks to prevent commercial sexual exploitation by creating regulations and awareness campaigns in the tourism sector.(63) In 2016, for the first time, all travel agencies and tourist guides were required to take online training on how to detect child labor exploitation in all its forms to obtain work permits in the tourism industry.(46)

National Program to Combat Child Begging†

Raises awareness about child begging; aims to facilitate social services for children begging in the streets.(64, 65) In 2016, the Government launched “Give Dignity” (Da Dignidad), a campaign to further program goals, and signed 38 cooperative agreements, investing over $1.5 million and helping more than 6,000 people.(65) Although no recent statistical data are available on the magnitude of begging, 417 children were rescued from begging in the streets of Duran, Guayaquil, and Saborondon between January and March 2016.(46)

Eloy Alfaro Workers’ Symphonic Orchestra (Orquesta Sinfónica de los Trabajadores Eloy Alfaro)*†

Established by MOL in 2016, orchestra performs to raise awareness of child labor. Comprises more than 200 former child laborers from Quito and Cuenca. MOL provides funding for daily music lessons for the children.(4) In 2016,  performed a child labor awareness-raising concert, with 1,000 people attending.(46)

Grants for Human Development†

MIES conditional cash transfer program supplements household income, targeting vulnerable families.(14, 66, 67) In 2016, budgetary constraints reduced the number of families in the program by 75 percent.(4)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Ecuador.
‡ The Government has other social programs which may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor.(4, 10, 56, 68)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Ecuador (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that the law prohibits the use, procurement, and offering of children for pornographic performances.

2016

Ensure that the law specifically prohibits the use of children in illicit activities, including in the production and distribution of drugs.

2016

Enforcement

Publish the number of labor inspections done by site visit and desk review, penalties imposed and collected for child labor violations, and criminal investigations, violations, prosecutions and convictions relating to the worst forms of child labor.

2014 – 2016

Ensure that children recruited by adults to commit illegal acts are not placed in juvenile detention centers.

2016

Ensure that laws and regulations governing child labor, and especially hazardous labor, are enforced consistently throughout the country, including in rural areas and family-run businesses.

2016

Increase the number of labor inspectors responsible for enforcing child labor laws in accordance with the ILO recommendation.

2009 – 2016

Ensure that inspectors receive sufficient resources, such as transportation and translators, to effectively carry out their duties.

2014 – 2016

Ensure that labor inspectors have sufficient knowledge of existing laws, penalties, and processes for referring victims to social services.

2015 – 2016

Ensure that police investigators receive sufficient resources to investigate cases of the worst forms of child labor.

2016

Coordination

Strengthen coordinating mechanisms to combat child labor, including its worst forms.

2015 – 2016

Social Programs

Enhance efforts to eliminate barriers and make education, particularly secondary education, accessible for all children, including indigenous children and children from rural areas, by removing school-related fees, increasing classroom space, and providing adequate transportation.

2014–2016

Expand child labor programs that target the worst forms of child labor.

2009 – 2016

1.         Agencia Pública de Noticias del Ecuador y Suramérica. "Cerca de Mil Millones Cuesta Erradicar el Trabajo Infantil en Ecuador en Veinte Años." andes.info.ec [online] June 13, 2012 [cited March 24, 2014]; http://andes.info.ec/actualidad-videos/3174.html.

2.         Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (INEC). Se presentan resultados de la Primera Encuesta Nacional de Trabajo Infantil [online] [cited March 28 2014]; [Source on file].

3.         U.S. Embassy- Quito. reporting, January 22, 2016.

4.         U.S. Embassy - Quito. reporting, January 17, 2017.

5.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed December 16, 2016; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary education. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. The calculation includes all new entrants to the last grade (regardless of age). Therefore, the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

6.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from ENEMDU, 2016. Analysis received April 13, 2017. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information,  please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

7.         Government of Ecuador. Written Communication. Submitted in response to USDOL Federal Register Notice (April 25, 2011) "Request for Information on Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor". Quito; May 25, 2011. [Source on file].

8.         U.S. Embassy- Quito. reporting, February 9, 2012.

9.         USDOS official E-mail communication to USDOL Official. reporting, July 17, 2012.

10.       U.S. Embassy- Quito. reporting, January 31, 2013.

11.       Government of Ecuador, Ministry of Economic and Social Inclusion. Response to USDOL request Government of Ecuador; February 5, 2015. [Source on file].

12.       Ministerio de Trabajo y Relaciones Laborales. PETI - Proyecto de Erradicación del Trabajo Infantil 2014–2017. Quito; June 2013. http://www.trabajo.gob.ec/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/PROYECTO-PETI-2014-2017.pdf.

13.       "Ecuador se propone erradicar este año el trabajo infantil en mataderos." El Universo, Guayaquil, June 7, 2012. http://www.eluniverso.com/2012/06/07/1/1356/ecuador-propone-erradicar-ano-trabajo-infantil-mataderos.html.

14.       "El trabajo infantil cayó a cerca del 6% en 2011 en Ecuador; según el INEC." El Universo, Guayaquil, June 4, 2012. http://www.eluniverso.com/2012/06/04/1/1447/trabajo-infantil-cayo-cerca-6-2011-ecuador-segun-inec.html.

15.       "Trabajo Infantil baja pero persiste." El Mercurio, Quito, August 31 2015. http://www.elmercurio.com.ec/493353-trabajo-infantil-baja-pero-persiste/#.Vv1KNMJf3AV.

16.       U.S. Embassy- Quito. reporting, February 19, 2015.

17.       Observatorio social del Ecuador. Niñez, migración y fronteras. Quito; 2013. [Source on file].

18.       U.S. Embassy- Quito. reporting, February 18, 2014.

19.       Parra, JR. "Ecuador: Refugee Women and Girls Turning to Sex Work." globalvoicesonline.org [online] April 24, 2012 [cited October 26, 2012]; http://globalvoicesonline.org/2012/04/24/ecuador-refugee-women-and-girls-turning-to-sex-work/.

20.       Ecuadorian Ministry of Economic and Social Inclusion, National Council for Intergenerational Equality, and UNICEF. La niñez y adolescencia en el Ecuador contemporáneo: avances y brechas en el ejercicio de derechos. Quito; 2014. www.unicef.org/ecuador/NA_Ecuador_Contemporaneo.pdf.

21.       U.S. Department of State. "Ecuador," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015. Washington, DC; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/243559.pdf.

22.       U.S. Department of State. "Ecuador," in Trafficking in Persons Report - 2016. Washington, DC June 30, 2016; https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/258879.pdf.

23.       U.S. Embassy- Quito official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 11, 2015.

24.       U.S. Embassy - Quito. reporting, February 15, 2017.

25.       "Autoridades investigan tráfico de niños." ecuavisa.com [online] July 2, 2013 [cited 2014]; http://www.ecuavisa.com/articulo/noticias/actualidad/30157-autoridades-investigan-trafico-de-ninos.

26.       "Mendicidad, el tercer 'mejor negocio'." Diario Hoy, Quito, January 4, 2012. [Source on file].

27.       U.S. Department of State. "Ecuador," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2015. Washington, DC; April 13, 2016; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/253223.pdf.

28.       U.S. Department of State. "Ecuador," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - 2016. Washington, DC March 3, 2017; https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265796.pdf.

29.       UNICEF. Panorama de la situación de la niñez y adolescencia indígena en América Latina: El derecho a la educación y a la protección en Ecuador 2014. [Source on file].

30.       ILO-IPEC. Building Effective Policies Against Child Labor in Ecuador and Panama: Technical Progress Report April 2016. Geneva; 2016. [Source on file].

31.       Government of Ecuador. Constitución del Ecuador, enacted 2008. http://www.asambleanacional.gov.ec/documentos/Constitucion-2008.pdf.

32.       Government of Ecuador. Código de la Niñez y Adolescencia with modifications until 2009, enacted 2003. [Source on file].

33.       Government of Ecuador. Resolución No. 16 CNNA, enacted 2008. [Source on file].

34.       Government of Ecuador. List of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Adolescents. Official Register 2015. [Source on file].

35.       Government of Ecuador. Código Orgánico Integral Penal, enacted 2014. http://www.asambleanacional.gob.ec/system/files/document.pdf.

36.       Government of Ecuador. Ley Orgánica de Educación Intercultural enacted 2011. [Source on file].

37.       U.S. Embassy- Quito. reporting, January 17, 2014.

38.       Government of Ecuador. Crea el Instituto de la Niñez y la Familia (INFA), Decreto N° 1.170, enacted 2008. http://www.sipi.siteal.org/normativas/98/decreto-ndeg-11702008-crea-el-instituto-de-la-ninez-y-la-familia-infa.

39.       U.S. Embassy- Quito official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 17, 2016.

40.       U.S. Embassy- Quito. reporting, January 13, 2015.

41.       Government of Ecuador. Buenos Resultados del Plan de Reinserción Escolar; February 20, 2013. http://www.inclusion.gob.ec/buenos-resultados-del-plan-de-reinsercion-escolar/.

42.       CIA. The World Factbook, [online] [cited March 18, 2017]; https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors based on the country’s level of development as determined by the UN.

43.       ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a “sufficient number” of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a “sufficient” number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

44.       UN. "World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex"; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies," “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies," and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

45.       ILO-IPEC. Building Effective Policies Against Child Labor in Ecuador and Panama: Technical Progress Report October 2016. Geneva; 2016. [Source on file].

46.       U.S. Embassy - Quito official. E-mail communication to, USDOL official. May 8, 2017.

47.       Ministerio de Relaciones Laborales. Logros en la Erradicación del Trabajo Infantil, [cited June 12, 2013]; [Source on file].

48.       Government of Ecuador, National Police Unit for Crimes against Children and Adolescents. Written Communication. Submitted in response to USDOL request. Quito; January 14, 2015. [Source on file].

49.       Ministerio de Inclusión Económica y Social. Erradicación del Trabajo Infantil en el Sector Agrícola, El Nuevo Enfoque para el Ecuador, [cited April 11, 2017 http://www.inclusion.gob.ec/erradicacion-del-trabajo-infantil-en-el-sector-agricola-el-nuevo-enfoque-para-el-ecuador/.

50.       Ministerio de Trabajo. Una Herramienta Más Para Prevenir y Erradicar el Trabajo Infantil. November 1, 2016 http://www.trabajo.gob.ec/surti-una-herramienta-mas-para-prevenir-y-erradicar-el-trabajo-infantil/.

51.       Fundación Esquel. Prueba Piloto de la Ruta de Restitución de Derechos de NNA en Situación de Trabajo Infantil en Quininde. 2016. [Source on file].

52.       Government of Ecuador. Ordenanza Intercultural de Prevención y Erradicación del Trabajo Infantil en el Cantón Guamote, enacted 2016. http://municipiodeguamote.gob.ec/concejo-cantonal/normativa-legal/ordenanzas/1675-ordenanza-intercultural-de-prevencion-y-erradicacion-del-trabajo-infantil-en-el-caton-guamote/file.

53.       Government of Ecuador. National Plan for Good Living (2013--2017). Quito; 2013. http://www.buenvivir.gob.ec.

54.       Ministerio del Interior. Ecuador consolida acciones para combatir el delito de trata de personas. March 31, 2016 2015. http://www.ministeriointerior.gob.ec/ecuador-consolida-acciones-para-combatir-el-delito-de-trata-de-personas/#.

55.       IOM Ecuador. Bi-monthly meeting of the prevention bureau of the national plan to combat human trafficking with the participation of IOM Ecuador. Quarterly Newsletter. 2015. https://www.iom.int/sites/default/files/mission_newsletter/file/IOM-Ecuador-Quarterly-Newsletter-April-July-2015.pdf.

56.       ILO-IPEC. Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues. Technical Progress Report. Geneva; October 2016. [Source on file]

57.       ILO-IPEC. Building Effective Policies against Child Labour in Ecuador and Panama Technical Progress Report Geneva; October 2015.

58.       USDOL. EDUCAFUTURO: Project to Combat Child Labor Among Vulnerable Populations in Ecuador and Panama by Providing Direct Education and Livelihood Services. Project Summary. Washington, DC; 2012. https://www.dol.gov/ilab/projects/summaries/RegionalPanamaEcuador_Educafuturo.pdf.

59.       Ministerio de Trabajo. Mas de 3500 Personas Sensibilizadas Sobre Trabajo Infantil en el Primer Trimestre de 2016. 2016. http://www.trabajo.gob.ec/mas-de-3-500-personas-sensibilizadas-sobre-trabajo-infantil-en-el-primer-trimestre-de-2016/.

60.       Ministerio de Relaciones Laborales. Informe USDOL 2012. Quito; 2013. [Source on file].

61.       Government of Ecuador. Red de Empresas por un Ecuador Libre de Trabajo Infantil, [Previously online] August 20, 2012 [cited April 8, 2013]; [Source on file].

62.       Red Pacto Global Ecuador. Se presentan logros de la red de empresas por un Ecuador libre de trabajo infantil en 2014, [Online ] December 2, 2014 [cited January 27, 2015]; [Source on file].

63.       Government of Ecuador. Consejo Nacional para la Igualdad Intergeneracional (CNII) Políticas, programas y proyectos, , [cited January 28, 2015]; http://igualdad.gob.ec/ninez/politicas-programas-y-servicios.html.

64.       Government of Ecuador, National Institute for Childhood and Family. Da Dignidad: Por un Ecuador sin Mendicidad, [online] [cited January 20, 2014]; [Source on file].

65.       Ministerio de Inclusión Económica y Social. "Más de 1 millón de dólares invierte el MIES para erradicar la mendicidad." 2016 [cited November 24, 2016]; http://www.inclusion.gob.ec/mas-de-1-millon-de-dolares-invierte-el-mies-para-erradicar-la-mendicidad/.

66.       Ministerio de Inclusión Económica y Social. Bono de Desarrollo Humano, [cited April 4, 2013]; [Source on file].

67.       Andes. Las políticas sociales de Ecuador disminuyen el trabajo infantil y consolidan una tendencia, [online] June 4, 2013 [cited April 4, 2013]; http://www.andes.info.ec/econom%C3%AD/2914.html.

68.       Ministerio de Educación. "Programa de Alimentación Escolar, ." 2013 [cited March 15, 2017]; https://educacion.gob.ec/programa-de-alimentacion-escolar/.

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