Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - India

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

India

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2016, India made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government adopted the Child Labor (Prohibition and Regulation) Amendment Act, which set the minimum age for work at 14 and raised the minimum age for hazardous work to 18, bringing India into compliance with the international standards. The Government also increased the financial assistance available under the Rehabilitation of Bonded Labor Scheme for children rescued from human trafficking and sexual exploitation. However, children in India are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in forced labor in the production of garments and quarrying stones. The hazardous work list attached to the new Child Labor Amendment Act is not comprehensive as it does not include areas of work where there is evidence that children work in unsafe and unhealthy environments for long periods of time. Also, while the Child Labor Act increases the penalties for employing children in prohibited child labor, these penalties are likely to be insufficient to deter violations. Additional gaps remain in the legal framework as the recruitment of children by non-state armed groups is not criminally prohibited.

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Children in India engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in forced labor in the production of garments and quarrying stones.(1, 2) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in India.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

1.4 (3,253,202)

Working children by sector

 

 

Agriculture

 

56.4

Industry

 

33.1

Services

 

10.4

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

90.7

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

0.3

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

97.5

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2014, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(3)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from National Sample Survey, 2011–2012.(4)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Farming, including producing hybrid cottonseed and hybrid vegetable seeds, cultivating and ginning cotton, cultivating chili pepper and rice, and harvesting sugarcane, tobacco, and tea (5-18)

Milling rice and processing cashew nuts and seafood (19-23)

Industry

Manufacturing garments, weaving silk fabric and carpets, producing raw silk thread (sericulture), spinning cotton thread and yarn, and embellishing textiles with silver and gold (zari) (12, 24-32)

Manufacturing glass bangles,† locks, and brassware, and polishing gems (33-40)

Rolling cigarettes (bidis) and manufacturing incense sticks (agarbatti),† fireworks,† and matches† (41-45)

Manufacturing footwear and bags, producing leather goods or accessories,† and stitching soccer balls (46-50)

Producing bricks,† quarrying and breaking stones,† including sandstone and granite, and mining† and collecting mica and coal (2, 16, 51-64)

Services

Domestic work (65)

Working in hotels, food service, and tourism services (66, 67)

Street work, including selling food and other goods, and scavenging and sorting garbage (49, 68, 69)

Construction work, and repairing automobiles and motorcycles (70, 71)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Forced labor in agriculture, including producing hybrid cottonseed and harvesting sugarcane, both sometimes as a result of human trafficking (6, 72-74)

Forced labor in rice mills, quarrying stones, and producing bricks (2, 52, 74-80)

Forced labor in producing garments, spinning cotton thread and yarn, embroidering silver and gold into textiles (zari), carpets, leather goods, plastic goods, bangles, footwear, and bags (1, 26-29, 81-91)

Forced labor in domestic work and begging, both sometimes as a result of human trafficking (65, 74, 92, 93)

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (74, 94, 95)

Forced recruitment of children by non-state armed groups for use in armed conflict (74, 96, 97)

Use in illicit activities, including the use of children to traffic children (98)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Within India, children are trafficked for commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor in domestic service.(12, 74, 95, 99) Children are also forced to work as bonded laborers in brick kilns and stone quarries to pay off family debts owed to moneylenders and employers.(2, 100) Children from India’s rural areas migrate or are trafficked for employment in industries, such as spinning mills and cottonseed production, where they are forced to work in hazardous environments for little or no pay.(6, 26) In addition, Maoist armed groups reportedly recruited children to serve as soldiers in the states of Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, Odisha, and West Bengal.(74, 96, 97)

Child victims of commercial sexual exploitation, forced labor, and human trafficking are more likely to be children from marginalized groups, such as low-caste Hindus, members of tribal communities, and religious minorities.(74) Children from marginalized groups also face barriers to accessing education. These children are sometimes subject to discrimination and harassment from their teachers. One report notes that some of these children are refused admission into schools.(79, 101)

India has ratified most key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

In March 2017, the Government ratified both ILO Convention 182 and Convention 138.(102)

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). However, gaps exist in India’s legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

14

Section 3(1) of the Child Labor (Prohibition and Regulation) Act (103)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Section 3A of the Child Labor (Prohibition and Regulation) Act (103)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Schedule to the Child and Adolescent Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act (104)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Section 4 of the Bonded Labor System (Abolition) Act; Sections 370 and 374 of the Penal Code; Section 79 of the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act (105-107)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Sections 366A, 366B, 370, 372 and 373 of the Indian Penal Code; Section 5 of the Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act (106, 108)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Sections 366A, 366B, 370A, 372 and 373 of the Indian Penal Code; Sections 4–7 of the Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act; Sections 13–15 of the Protection of Children from Sexual Offense Act; Section 67B of the Information Technology Act (106, 108-110)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Sections 76 and 78 of the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act; Section 32B(c) of the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substance Act (107, 111)

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

N/A*

 

 

State Voluntary

Yes

16

Military Regulations (112, 113)

Non-State Compulsory

No

 

 

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

15

Section 3 of the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act (114)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Section 3 of the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act (114)

* No conscription (115)

In 2016, the Government approved the Child Labor (Prohibition and Regulation) Amendment Act, which establishes a minimum age for work at 14 and raised the minimum age for hazardous work to 18.(103) In 2017, the Government amended the Child Labor Act’s hazardous work list to include a schedule of occupations where all children under 18 are prohibited from working and children under 14 are prohibited from helping, including family enterprises.(104) This hazardous work schedule is not comprehensive as children under 18 are not prohibited from working in spinning mills, garment production, carpet making, and domestic work, which are areas of work where there is evidence that children work in unsafe and unhealthy environments for long periods of time.(104) In addition, while the Act increases the penalties for violating the Child Labor Amendment Act, the penalties are likely insufficient to deter employers from employing children in prohibited child labor.(116) Penalties for violating the law include imprisonment for 6 months to 2 years and/or fines ranging from $300 to $700.(103)

During the reporting period, the Jharkhand State government also passed the Jharkhand Private Employment Agency and Domestic Employee Bill, which prohibits employment placement agencies from employing children under the age 18.(117)

Gaps remain in the legal framework as the recruitment of children under 18 by non-state armed groups is not criminally prohibited.(116)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

State Government Labor Inspectorates

Enforce state and national labor laws. Refer cases in violation of the law to state police.(49) Refer children to Child Welfare Committees for protection and rehabilitation services.(107)

State and Local Police

Enforce laws pertaining to child labor and human trafficking.(118) Submit information to District Magistrates to determine if a case should be prosecuted in District Court.(119) Refer children to Child Welfare Committees for protection and rehabilitation services.(107)

Anti-Human Trafficking Units

Investigate cases of human trafficking. Established in 226 local police jurisdictions throughout India.(120)

Vigilance Committees

Rescue, release, and rehabilitate bonded laborers and family members. Assembled at the district and subdivision levels by the District Magistrate.(105)

State Revenue Department

Issue release certificates to free bonded laborers and family members from debt.(121)

Child Welfare Committees

Refer children in need of care and protection to welfare services providers under the Integrated Child Protection Scheme, including children involved in hazardous work, begging, and human trafficking, as well as those living on the streets.(107) Established in 619 of India’s 660 districts.(122)

Central Bureau of Investigation’s Anti-Human Trafficking Unit

Investigate and prosecute cases involving the kidnapping and trafficking of women and children by professional gangs operating across multiple states. Take on cases by request of, or in agreement with, state governments.(123, 124)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, labor law enforcement agencies in India took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown* (116)

Unknown* (116)

Number of Labor Inspectors

Unknown* (116)

Unknown* (116)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (125)

Yes (116)

Training for Labor Inspectors

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (116)

Yes (116)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A

Unknown (116)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (116)

Yes (116)

Number of Labor Inspections

146,595 (116)

Unknown (116)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown (116)

Unknown (116)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown (116)

Unknown (116)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

678 (116)

Unknown (116)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown* (116)

Unknown* (116)

Number of Penalties Imposed that Were Collected

Unknown* (116)

Unknown* (116)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (116)

Yes (116)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (116)

Yes (116)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (116)

Yes (116)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (116)

Yes (116)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (116)

Yes (116)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (116)

Yes (116)

* The Government does not publish this information.

The Constitution of India gives state governments primary responsibility for the enforcement of labor laws.(118, 126) While the central government seeks to collect data on child labor violations and prosecutions, this information for 2016 was not yet released during the reporting period. The central government also does not collect data on state government and territory funding and employment of labor inspectors.(127)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in India took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (128)

Unknown

Number of Investigations

5,188 (129)

Unknown

Number of Violations Found

2,166 (129)

Unknown

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

1,735 (129)

Unknown

Number of Convictions

72 (129)

Unknown

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (107)

Yes (107)

 

The Constitution of India gives state governments primary responsibility for criminal law enforcement, including laws prohibiting the worst forms of child labor.(126) The National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) collects data from state government on investigations, violations, prosecutions, and convictions involving criminal activities, but not all states report these data.(129) Data published is for the previous reporting period.(129)

According to the NCRB, during 2015 there were 136 investigations, 71 violations, 65 new prosecutions and 108 cases continuing prosecutions from 2014, and 1 conviction in cases involving the Bonded Labor System (Abolition) Act; however, these data were not disaggregated for adults and children.(129)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

Central Monitoring Committee

Supervise, monitor, and evaluate actions of the National Child Labor Projects (NCLPs) across India. Led by MOLE; some state governments maintain State-Level Monitoring Committees to monitor the NCLPs in their states.(130)

Core Group on Child Labor

Coordinate the integration of social protection programs to reduce child labor. Composed of members from the Ministries of Human Resource Development; Women and Child Development; Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation; Rural Development; Social Justice and Empowerment; Home Affairs; and community government (Panchayati Raj). Chaired by the Ministry of Labor and Employment (MOLE).(131)

Ministry of Home Affairs’ Anti-Human Trafficking Cell

Implement the Government’s nationwide plan to combat human trafficking by coordinating with states to establish Anti-Human Trafficking Units and train thousands of officials to combat human trafficking. Requires states to submit quarterly reports to this coordinating body.(49, 118)

National Human Rights Commission

Monitor implementation of the Bonded Labor System (Abolition) Act. Monitor state government actions to identify, release, and rehabilitate bonded laborers through quarterly submissions and exploratory and investigative missions.(132, 133)

National Commission for the Protection of Child Rights

Ensure that all laws, policies, programs, and administrative mechanisms are in accordance with the constitutional protections for children and the UN CRC. Inquire about child rights violations and failures to properly implement laws relating to child protection.(49, 134) Established in all 30 states and in 3 territories, including Delhi.(135)

The Government has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor‡

Policy

Description

National Policy on Child Labor

Describes actions for combating hazardous child labor for children, including implementing legislation and providing direct assistance to children.(136) During the reporting period, the policy was implemented through programs operated by MOLE and Ministry of Women and Child Development (MWCD).(137, 138)

State Action Plans on Child Labor

Details state governments’ activities and programs to eliminate child labor from hazardous industries. Only 10 of 29 state governments have child labor action plans: Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, and Telangana.(139-144)

National Policy for Children

Seeks to guide laws, policies, plans, and programs affecting children. Sets out the policy that state governments should take all necessary measures to track; rescue; and rehabilitate child laborers, trafficked children, and other vulnerable children; and to ensure that out-of-school children can access education.(145) During the reporting period, the policy was implemented through programs operated by MOLE and MWCD.(133, 138)

‡ The Government had other polices which may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor.(146, 147)

In 2016, the Ministry of Women and Child Development issued Standard Operating Procedures for investigating cases of missing children, including cases of bonded labor, exploitative child labor, child trafficking.(148, 149)

In 2016, the Government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor‡

Program

Description

National Child Labor Project (NCLP) Scheme†

MOLE scheme that operates at the district level to identify working children, withdraw them from hazardous work, and provide them with education and vocational training. Sets up and administers NCLP schools, mainstreams children into formal education, and provides them with stipends, meals, and health checkups.(137) Comprises 2,860 NCLP special training centers that accommodate approximately 130,000 children. Through the Grants-in-Aid Scheme, MOLE funds NGOs to set up rehabilitation projects in districts that do not have an NCLP Scheme.(137) Between April 1, 2015, and March 31, 2016, rehabilitated 54,335 child workers who were rescued from hazardous work conditions.(116)

Rehabilitation of Bonded Labor Scheme†

MOLE program that rescues and rehabilitates adult and child bonded laborers. Provides rescued bonded laborers with financial assistance and social protection services.(150) Supports the funding of surveys at the district level on the prevalence of bonded labor and the rehabilitation of bonded laborers identified through the surveys.(151) As of September 30, 2015, more than $14 million was provided to state governments for the rehabilitation of 282,429 bonded laborers.(150) In 2016, the Government increased the financial assistance from approximately $312 to $1,700 for adult males, $3,300 for adult females and children, and $5,000 for females and children rescued from human trafficking and sexual exploitation, disabled persons, and transgender people.(152)

Integrated Child Protection Scheme (ICPS)†

MWCD scheme that provides children in need of protection—including children withdrawn from hazardous work, forced labor, and human trafficking—with food and shelter in children’s homes, shelter homes, and open shelters, as well as non-institutional care in foster homes and adoptive families. Provides rehabilitation and reintegration services to rescued children.(135) Through the Welfare of Working Children in Need of Care and Protection program, ICPS provides non-formal education and vocational training to street children and working children living in urban areas not covered by MOLE schemes.(153)

Anti-Human Trafficking Activities†

MWCD-operated anti-human trafficking activities, in collaboration with NGOs and state governments.(138) Supports projects to help reintegrate, rehabilitate, and repatriate human trafficking victims, including children, through the Ujjawala scheme. Also provides short-term housing and rehabilitation services, including vocational training for women and adolescent girls, through the Swadhar Greh scheme.(138)

Childline†

MWCD-funded 24-hour toll-free emergency telephone service for children in distress. Includes Childline India Foundation-operated telephone service in cities across India, which connects children in need of assistance with hospitals, child welfare committees, shelter homes, and police.(138) In 2015–2016, $9.5 million was granted to fund Childline services in 366 cities.(138)

TrackChild†

MWCD-implemented online portal that tracks missing children and facilitates information sharing about missing and vulnerable children among stakeholders, including child protection units, police stations, and Child Welfare Committees.(138, 154) Established the Khoya-Paya (Lost and Found) website to allow parents and the general public to report and search for missing children.(155)

† Program is funded by the Government of India.
‡ The Government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms.(156-159)

In 2016, state governments, such as Odisha and Maharashtra, continued to conduct Operation Muskaan campaigns to rescue and rehabilitate missing children, including many involved in the worst forms of child labor.(160, 161) During the reporting period, the Chief Minister of Bihar State announced that children rescued from child labor will receive approximately $370 from the Chief Minister’s Relief Fund.(162)

State governments conduct district-level surveys on bonded labor under the Rehabilitation of Bonded Labor Scheme. However, in surveyed districts, data were not available on the number of victims of bonded labor, including children.(91, 163)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in India (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that the types of hazardous work prohibited for children under 18 are comprehensive.

2016

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under age 18 by non-state armed groups.

2016

Increase the penalties for employing children in prohibited child labor.

2014 – 2016

Enforcement

Collect and publish national-level data on labor law enforcement, including the number of labor inspectors and the number of penalties issued and collected for child labor law violations.

2014 – 2016

Collect and publish national-level data from all state governments on the number of criminal investigations, violations, prosecutions, and convictions for all crimes involving the worst forms of child labor.

2009 – 2016

Government Policies

Work with all state governments to develop State Action Plans for the elimination of child labor where they do not currently exist.

2011 – 2016

Social Programs

Reduce barriers to education by promoting equal access to education for children from marginalized communities.

2014 – 2016

Make data and findings from district-level bonded labor surveys publicly available.

2009 – 2016

1.         India Committee of the Netherlands. Unfree and Unfair: Poor Living Conditions and Restricted Freedom of Movement of Young Migrant Garment Workers in Bangalore. Utrecht; January 2016. http://www.indianet.nl/pdf/UnfreeAndUnfair.pdf.

2.         UNICEF. Children's Lives Cast in Stone: Child Labour and the Sandstone Industry in Kota and Bundi; 2015. Source on file.

3.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed December 16, 2016 http://data.uis.unesco/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary education. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary education. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. The calculation includes all new entrants to the last grade (regardless of age). Therefore, the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

4.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from National Sample Survey, 2011-2012. Analysis received December 16, 2016. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

5.         Venkateswarlu, D. Cotton’s Forgotten Children: Child Labour and Below Minimum Wages in Hybrid Cottonseed Production in India. Utrecht; July 2015. http://www.indianet.nl/pdf/CottonsForgottenChildren.pdf.

6.         Global March Against Child Labour. Dirty Cotton: A Research on Child Labour, Slavery, Trafficking and Exploitation in Cotton and Cotton Seed Farming in India. New Delhi; 2012. http://www.globalmarch.org/sites/default/files/Dirty-Cotton-Report.pdf.

7.         Venkateswarlu, D. Soiled Seeds: Child Labour and Underpayment of Women in Vegetable Seed Production in India. Utrecht; November 2015. http://www.indianet.nl/pdf/SoiledSeeds.pdf.

8.         Venketeswarlu, D, and Jacob Kalle. Wages of Inequality: Wage Discrimination and Underpayment in Hybrid Seed Production in India; December 2012. http://www.fairlabor.org/sites/default/files/documents/reports/wages-of-inequality.pdf.

9.         Institute for Human Development. Base Line Survey Report of Haryana. New Delhi; 2012. Source on file.

10.       Institute for Human Development. Base Line Survey Report of Punjab: Child Labour in Cotton Growing Fields. New Delhi; 2012. Source on file.

11.       Prayas Center for Labor Research and Action. Investigating Incidence of Child Labor in Cotton Ginning Factories of Gujarat. Ahmedabad; August 2012. http://www.laborrights.org/sites/default/files/publications-and-resources/Child%20Labor%20in%20Cotton%20Ginning%20Report.pdf.

12.       U.S. Embassy- New Delhi. reporting, June 2, 2015.

13.       Bhasin, S. "Women, children forced to transplant paddy owing to labour shortage." The Tribune, Bathinda, June 25, 2015. http://www.tribuneindia.com/news/bathinda/womenchildrenforcedtotransplantpaddyowingtolabourshortage/98577.html.

14.       Nandy, D. Child Rights Situation Analysis: Children of Families Engaged in Sugarcane Farming in Maharashtra. Pune; 2012. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/262840261_Child_rights_situation_analysis_of_children_of_families_working_in_engaged_in_sugarcane_farming_in_Maharashtra.

15.       Fair Labor Association. Task and Risk Mapping of Sugarcane Production in India; September 2012. http://www.fairlabor.org/sites/default/files/documents/reports/task_and_risk_mapping_of_sugarcane_production_in_india.pdf.

16.       Malhotra, S. "Invisible Hands." Business Today [online] June 7, 2015 [cited October 29, 2015]; http://www.businesstoday.in/features/child-labour-in-india-how-it-being-hidden-from-authorities/story/219448.html.

17.       Centre for Workers' Management. Brewing Misery: Condition of Working Families in Tea Plantations in West Bengal and Kerala; January 2015. http://www.laborrights.org/sites/default/files/publications/Brewing%20Misery%20-%20A%20report%20on%20tea%20plantations%20in%20WB.pdf.

18.       Compliance Advisor Ombudsman. CAO Investigation of IFC Environmental and Social Performance in Relation to: Amalgamated Plantations Private Limited (APPL), India; September 6, 2016. http://www.cao-ombudsman.org/cases/document-links/documents/CAOInvestigationReportofIFCinvestmentinAPPL_EN.PDF.

19.       "Minor labourers rescued in Koraput." The Hindu, Berhampur, February 22, 2015. http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/other-states/minor-labourers-rescued-in-koraput/article6920806.ece.

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21.       Faleiro, S. "Children Who Sell Themselves." New York Times, New York, September 6, 2011. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/07/opinion/07iht-edfaleiro07.html?_r=1&pagewanted=print.

22.       "Child labour rampant in seafood units: police." The Hindu, Kochi, September 1, 2016. http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Kochi/Child-labour-rampant-in-seafood-units-police/article14616051.ece.

23.       Press Trust of India. "8 minor boys rescued from human trafficking." Business Standard, May 5, 2016. http://www.business-standard.com/article/pti-stories/8-minor-boys-rescued-from-human-trafficking-116050500612_1.html.

24.       Save the Children. The Hidden Workforce: A Study on Child Labour in the Garment Industry in Delhi; 2015. Source on file.

25.       Human Rights Watch. Small Change: Bonded Child Labor in India's Silk Industry. New York; January 2003. http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/india0103.pdf.

26.       Martje Theuws, and Pauline Overeem. Flawed Fabrics: The abuse of girls and women workers in the South Indian textile industry. Amsterdam; October 2014. https://www.somo.nl/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/Flawed-fabrics.pdf.

27.       Centre for Research on Multinational Corporations (SOMO), and India Committee of the Netherlands. Maid in India: Young Dalit Women Continue to Suffer Exploitative Conditions in India's Garment Industry. Amsterdam; April 2012. https://www.somo.nl/maid-in-india/.

28.       Bachpan Bachao Andolan. Zari (Embroidery) Campaign, bba.org.in, [online] [cited December 5, 2014]; http://bba.org.in/?q=content/zari-embroidery-campaign.

29.       Press Trust of India. "Ten child labourers rescued from zari unit." [online] March 14, 2015 [cited June 28, 2017]; http://www.business-standard.com/article/pti-stories/ten-child-labourers-rescued-from-zari-unit-115031400737_1.html.

30.       Bachpan Bachao Andolan. "30 child labourers rescued from zari unit." [online] July 15, 2013 [cited June 28, 2017]; http://www.bba.org.in/?q=tags/child-labour-zari-industry.

31.       Kara, S. Tainted Carpets: Slavery and Child Labor in India's Hand-Made Carpet Sector. Cambridge; 2014. http://fxb.harvard.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/5/2014/01/Tainted-Carpets-Released-01-28-14.pdf.

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