Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - India

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

India

2017 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Significant Advancement

In 2017, India made a significant advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The government ratified both ILO Convention 182 and Convention 138 and amended the Child Labor Act to prohibit children under age 18 from working in hazardous occupations and processes. The government also launched the Platform for Effective Enforcement for No Child Labor to more effectively enforce child labor laws and implement the National Child Labor Program. In addition, the government released a new National Plan of Action for Children that implements the National Policy for Children, which includes a focus on child laborers, trafficked children, and other vulnerable children. However, children in India engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in forced labor producing garments and quarrying stones. Children also perform dangerous tasks producing bricks. The Child Labor Act’s hazardous work prohibitions do not include all occupations in which children work in unsafe and unhealthy environments for long periods of time. Penalties for employing children are insufficient to deter violations, and the recruitment of children by non-state armed groups is not criminally prohibited.

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Children in India engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in forced labor producing garments and quarrying stones. Children also perform dangerous tasks in producing bricks. (1; 2; 3; 4) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in India.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

1.4 (3,253,202)

Working Children by Sector

5 to 14

 

Agriculture

 

56.4

Industry

 

33.1

Services

 

10.4

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

90.7

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

0.3

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

96.3

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2016, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2018. (5)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from National Sample Survey Round 68 (NSS-R68), 2011–2012. (6)

 

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Farming, including producing hybrid cottonseed and hybrid vegetable seeds, cultivating cotton, cultivating chili pepper and rice, and harvesting sugarcane, tobacco, and tea (7; 8; 9; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15) (16; 17; 18)

Processing cashew nuts† and seafood (19; 20; 21; 22)

Industry

Manufacturing garments, weaving silk fabric and carpets, producing raw silk thread (sericulture),† spinning cotton thread and yarn, and embellishing textiles with silver and gold (zari)† (23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29; 30; 31; 32)

Manufacturing glass bangles,† locks†, and brassware,† and polishing gems† (33; 34; 35; 36; 37; 38; 39; 40)

Rolling cigarettes (bidis)† and manufacturing incense sticks (agarbatti),† fireworks,† and matches† (41; 42; 43; 44)

Manufacturing footwear and bags, producing leather goods or accessories,† and stitching soccer balls (45; 46; 47; 48; 49; 50)

Producing bricks,† quarrying and breaking sandstone† and granite,† and mining and collecting mica† and coal† (3; 4; 2; 16; 51; 52; 53) (54; 55; 56; 57; 58; 59; 60; 61)

Services

Domestic work (62; 63)

Working in hotels,† food service, and tourism services (64; 65; 66; 67; 68)

Street work, including selling food and other goods, and scavenging and sorting garbage (69; 70; 71)

Construction† (72)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Forced labor in agriculture, including producing hybrid cottonseed and harvesting sugarcane, both sometimes as a result of human trafficking (73; 74; 75)

Forced labor in rice mills, quarrying stones, and producing bricks (2; 3; 76; 77; 78; 79; 80; 81)

Forced labor in producing garments, spinning cotton thread and yarn, and embroidering silver and gold into textiles (zari), (1; 30; 25; 82; 83; 26)

Forced labor in producing carpets, bangles, leather goods, plastic goods, footwear, and bags (84; 85; 86; 87; 38; 88; 89; 49; 90; 91) (92)

Forced labor in domestic work and begging, both sometimes as a result of human trafficking (62; 93; 94; 63; 75; 95)

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (96; 97; 75)

Forced recruitment of children by non-state armed groups for use in armed conflict

(98; 75; 99)

Use in illicit activities, including the use of children to traffic children (100)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

 

Within India, children are trafficked for commercial sexual exploitation and for forced labor in domestic service. (97; 95; 75) Children are also forced to work as bonded laborers in brick kilns and stone quarries to pay off family debts owed to moneylenders and employers. (2; 101) Children from India’s rural areas migrate or are trafficked for employment in industries, such as spinning mills and cottonseed production, in which they are forced to work in hazardous environments for little or no pay. (73; 25) In addition, armed Maoist groups reportedly recruited children to serve as soldiers in the states of Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, Odisha, and West Bengal. (99; 75)

Child victims of commercial sexual exploitation, forced labor, and human trafficking are more likely to be children from marginalized groups, such as low-caste Hindus, members of tribal communities, and religious minorities. (75) Children from marginalized groups also face barriers to accessing education. These children are sometimes subjected to discrimination and harassment from their teachers. (102; 103; 104)

India has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

In March 2017, the government ratified both ILO Convention 182 and Convention 138. (105)

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in India’s legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor, including the prohibition of recruitment of children by state and non-state armed groups.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

14

Section 3(1) of the Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act (106)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Section 3A of the Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act (106)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Schedule to the Child and Adolescent Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act (107)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Section 4 of the Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act; Sections 370 and 374 of the Penal Code; Section 79 of the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act (108; 109; 110)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Sections 366A, 366B, 370, 372 and 373 of the Indian Penal Code; Section 5 of the Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act (109; 111)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Sections 366A, 366B, 370A, 372 and 373 of the Indian Penal Code; Sections 4–7 of the Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act; Sections 13–15 of the Protection of Children from Sexual Offense Act; Section 67B of the Information Technology Act (109; 111; 112; 113)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Sections 76 and 78 of the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act; Section 32B(c) of the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substance Act (110; 114)

Prohibition of Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

N/A*

 

 

State Voluntary

Yes

16

 

Non-State

No

 

 

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

15

Section 3 of the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act (115)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Section 3 of the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act (115)

* No conscription (116)

 

In 2017, the government amended the Child and Adolescent Labour Act’s hazardous work list to include a schedule of occupations and processes in which children under age 18 are prohibited to work along with a further list of occupations and processes in which children under age 14 are prohibited from working in family enterprises. (107; 106) The government also developed Standard Operating Procedures for Enforcement of the Act. (117)

However, despite evidence that children work in unsafe and unhealthy environments for long periods of time in spinning mills, garment production, carpet making, and domestic work, not all children under age 18 are prohibited from working in occupations related to these sectors. (107; 28; 23; 32; 62)

The recruitment of children under age 18 by non-state armed groups is not criminally prohibited. (118) In addition, though sources report that the minimum age for voluntary recruitment into India’s Armed Forces is 16 and that individuals must be 18 to be deployed, research did not uncover a copy of the pertinent legislation. (119)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the operations of the State Government Labor Inspectorates that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

State Government Labor Inspectorates

Enforce state and national labor laws. Refer cases in violation of the law to state police. (69) Refer children to Child Welfare Committees for protection and rehabilitation services. (110)

State and Local Police

Enforce laws pertaining to child labor and human trafficking. (120) Submit information to District Magistrates to determine if a case should be prosecuted in District Court. (121) Refer children to Child Welfare Committees for protection and rehabilitation services. (110)

Anti-Human Trafficking Units

Investigate cases of human trafficking. Established in 264 local police jurisdictions throughout India. (122; 120)

Vigilance Committees

Rescue, release, and rehabilitate bonded laborers and family members. Assembled at the district and subdivision levels by the District Magistrate. (108)

State Revenue Department

Issue release certificates to free bonded laborers and family members from debt. (123)

Child Welfare Committees

Refer children in need of care and protection to welfare services providers under the Integrated Child Protection Scheme, including children involved in hazardous work, begging, and human trafficking, as well as those living on the streets. (110) Established 710 committees across the 660 districts in India. (124)

Central Bureau of Investigation’s Anti-Human Trafficking Unit

Investigate and prosecute cases involving the kidnapping and trafficking of women and children by professional gangs operating across multiple states. Take on cases by request of, or in agreement with, state governments. (125)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2017, labor law enforcement agencies in India took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the operations of the State Government Labor Inspectorates that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including that the central government does not collect data on state government and territory funding and employment of labor inspectors.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown* (118)

Unknown* (126)

Number of Labor Inspectors

Unknown* (118)

Unknown* (126)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (118)

Yes (126)

Training for Labor Inspectors

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (118)

Yes (126)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Unknown (118)

Yes (127)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (118)

Yes (126)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

173,471 (126)

Unknown (126)

Number Conducted at Worksites

Unknown (118)

Unknown (126)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

1,594 (126)

Unknown (126)

Number of Child Labor Violations for which Penalties were Imposed

Unknown* (118)

Unknown* (126)

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that were Collected

Unknown* (118)

Unknown* (126)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (118)

Yes (126)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (118)

Yes (126)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (118)

Yes (126)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (118)

Yes (126)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (118)

Yes (126)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (118)

Yes (126)

* The government does not publish this information. (126)

 

The Constitution of India gives state governments primary responsibility for the enforcement of labor laws. (128; 129) While the central government seeks to collect data on child labor violations and prosecutions, this information for 2017 was not yet released during the reporting period. The central government also does not collect data on state government and territory funding and employment of labor inspectors. (130; 126; 127)

The penalties for violating the Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act are likely insufficient to deter employers from hiring children. (118) Penalties include imprisonment for 6 months to 2 years and/or fines ranging from $300 to $700. (106)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2017, criminal law enforcement agencies in India took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including that not all states report the number of investigations, violations found, prosecutions initiated, and convictions.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Yes (127)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

Yes (127)

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown

Yes (127)

Number of Investigations

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Violations Found

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Convictions

Unknown

Unknown

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (110)

Yes (126)

 

The Constitution of India gives state governments primary responsibility for criminal law enforcement, including laws on child labor. (128; 126) In 2017, the Anti-Human Trafficking Cell of the Rajasthan Police launched Operation Milap, during which it rescued over 500 child laborers. (132; 133) State police in Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, and Telangana conducted Operation Muskan campaigns to rescue and rehabilitate missing children through referral to other government agencies, including many involved in the worst forms of child labor. (134; 135; 136)

The National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) collects law enforcement data from state governments regarding cases involving the Child Labor Act, Indian Penal Code articles related to human trafficking and the commercial sexual exploitation of children, and the Immoral Trafficking Act. (131) However, NCRB data does not provide comprehensive national totals for bonded labor or child labor offenses because not all states report these data. (131) In 2016, the most recent year for which NCRB published statistical data, state governments investigated 402 cases (including pending cases from the previous year) under the Child Labor Act, filed charges in and sent 139 cases to trial, and achieved convictions in 8 cases. (131) For crimes involving human trafficking offenses under the Indian Penal Code, state governments investigated 429 cases, filed charges in and sent 202 cases to trial, and achieved convictions in 4 cases. In addition, there were 5,248 cases investigated, 2,003 cases charged and sent for prosecution, and 37 cases convicted for crimes involving the commercial sexual exploitation of children under the India Penal Codes and the Immoral Trafficking Act. (131) However, NCRB data does not indicate whether offenders were investigated, charged, prosecuted, and convicted for multiple criminal offenses, preventing aggregate numbers from being provided in Table 7. (131) While the NCRB did not publish data on the punishments prescribed or enforced in 2016 for child labor-related convictions, NGO and news sources indicate that punishments were carried out in 2016 and 2017. (137; 65)

In addition, in 2016, there were 187 cases investigated, 103 cases charged and sent to trial, and 3 cases convicted involving the Bonded Labor System (Abolition) Act in 2016; however, these data were not disaggregated between adults and children and the punishments for offenders are unknown. (131) The Government of India also identified and removed 2,950 children from forced labor, 236 from commercial sexual exploitation, and 115 from domestic servitude in 2016. (138)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role and Description

Central Monitoring Committee

Supervise, monitor, and evaluate actions of the National Child Labor Projects (NCLPs) across India. Led by the Ministry of Labor and Employment (MOLE); some state governments maintain state-level Monitoring Committees to monitor the NCLPs in their states. (139)

Core Group on Child Labor

Coordinate the integration of social protection programs to reduce child labor. Comprises members from the Ministries of Human Resource Development; Women and Child Development; Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation; Rural Development; Social Justice and Empowerment; Home Affairs; and community governments (Panchayati Raj). Chaired by MOLE. (140)

Ministry of Home Affairs’ Anti-Human Trafficking Cell

Implement the government’s nationwide plan to combat human trafficking by coordinating with states to establish Anti-Human Trafficking Units and train thousands of officials to combat human trafficking. Requires states to submit quarterly reports to this coordinating body. (69; 120)

National Human Rights Commission

Monitor implementation of the Bonded Labor System (Abolition) Act. Monitor state governments’ actions to identify, release, and rehabilitate bonded laborers through quarterly submissions and exploratory and investigative missions. (141; 142)

National Commission for the Protection of Child Rights

Ensure that all laws, policies, programs, and administrative mechanisms are in accordance with the constitutional protections for children and the UN CRC. Inquire about child rights violations and failures to properly implement laws relating to child protection. (69; 143) Established in all 30 states and in 3 territories, including Delhi. (144)

 

Research was unable to determine whether the coordinating bodies were active during the reporting period.

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Policy on Child Labor

Describes actions for combating hazardous labor for children, including implementing legislation and providing direct assistance to children. (145) During the reporting period, the policy was implemented through programs operated by MOLE and the Ministry of Women and Child Development (MWCD) with the rescue of 30,979 children from labor through the National Child Labor Project Scheme. (146; 147; 127)

State Action Plans on Child Labor

Details state governments’ activities and programs to eliminate child labor from hazardous industries. Child labor action plans in place in 10 state governments: Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Orissa, and Tamil Nadu. (148; 149; 150; 151; 152; 153) In 2017, Telangana state approved a State Action Plan for Elimination of Child and Adolescent Labor. (154)

National Policy for Children

Seeks to guide laws, policies, plans, and programs affecting children. Sets out the policy that state governments should take all necessary measures to track, rescue, and rehabilitate child laborers, trafficked children, and other vulnerable children, and to ensure that out-of-school children can access education. (155) During the reporting period, the policy released a National Plan of Action for Children (NPAC) that focuses on four key areas: survival, health, and nutrition; education and development; protection; and participation. (146; 147; 127; 156)

‡ The Government had other polices which may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor. (157; 158)

In 2017, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including barriers to education encountered by marginalized communities.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor‡

Program

Description

National Child Labor Project (NCLP) Scheme†

MOLE scheme that operates at the district level to identify working children, withdraw them from hazardous work, and provide them with education and vocational training. Sets up and administers NCLP schools, mainstreams children into formal education, and provides them with stipends, meals, and health checkups. (146) Comprises approximately 3,000 NCLP special training centers that accommodate approximately 120,000 children. Through the Grants-in-Aid Scheme, MOLE funds NGOs to set up rehabilitation projects in districts that do not have an NCLP Scheme. (146) In 2017, the government launched PENCIL (Platform for Effective Enforcement of No Child Labor), an online portal that allows government officials, NGOs, and law enforcement to share information and coordinate on child labor cases at the national, state, and local levels in an attempt to improve enforcement of child labor laws and the implementation of the NCLP scheme. (159; 160)

Integrated Child Protection Scheme (ICPS)†

MWCD scheme that provides children in need of protection—including children withdrawn from hazardous work, forced labor, and human trafficking—with food and accommodation in government-run shelters, as well as non-institutional care in foster homes and adoptive families. Provides rehabilitation and reintegration services to rescued children. (147) Through the Welfare of Working Children in Need of Care and Protection program, provides non-formal education and vocational training to street children and working children living in urban areas not covered by NCLP schemes. (147) In 2017, revised to increase allocations. (161)

Childline†

MWCD-funded 24-hour toll-free emergency telephone service for children in distress. Includes Childline India Foundation-operated telephone service in cities across India, which connects children in need of assistance with hospitals, child welfare committees, shelter homes, and police. (147) In 2016–2017, $6.4 million was granted to fund Childline services in 413 locations. (162)

TrackChild†

MWCD-implemented online portal tracks missing children and facilitates information sharing about missing and vulnerable children among stakeholders, including child protection units, police stations, and Child Welfare Committees. (147; 163) In 2017, established the Khoya-Paya (Lost and Found) website to allow parents and the general public to report and search for missing children. (164; 147)

Central Sector Scheme for Rehabilitation of Bonded Labourers, 2017†

MOLE program, rescues and rehabilitates adult and child bonded laborers. Provides rescued bonded laborers with financial assistance and social protection services. (146) Supports funding of surveys at the district level on the prevalence of bonded labor and the rehabilitation of bonded laborers identified through the surveys. (165; 166) As of September 30, 2017, more than $14 million provided to state governments for the rehabilitation of 289,222 bonded laborers. (166)

Anti-Human Trafficking Activities†

MWCD-operated anti-human trafficking activities, in collaboration with NGOs and state governments. (147) Supports projects to help reintegrate, rehabilitate, and repatriate human trafficking victims, including children, through the Ujjawala scheme. Also provides short-term housing and rehabilitation services, including vocational training for women and adolescent girls, through the Swadhar Greh scheme. (147)

† Program is funded by the Government of India.
‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. (167; 168; 169; 170)

 

State governments conduct district-level surveys on bonded labor under the Rehabilitation of Bonded Labor Scheme. However, in surveyed districts, data were not available on the number of victims of bonded labor, including children. (171; 172)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in India (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that the types of hazardous work prohibited for children under age 18 are comprehensive, especially in the sectors in which children work in unsafe and unhealthy conditions for long periods of time such as in spinning mills, garment production, carpet making and domestic work.

2016 – 2017

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under age 18 by non-state armed groups.

2016 – 2017

Enforcement

Collect and publish national-level data on labor law enforcement, including funding, the number of labor inspectors, the number of labor inspections and those conducted at workplaces, the number of violations found and the penalties imposed and collected for child labor law violations.

2014 – 2017

Create meaningful penalties for employment of children in prohibited child labor to ensure that they effectively deter violations.

2014 – 2017

Collect and publish national-level data from all state governments on the number of criminal investigations, violations, prosecutions, convictions, and punishments for all crimes involving the worst forms of child labor. Clarify in existing data whether cases reported involve multiple offenders.

2009 – 2017

Coordination

Publish information on activities undertaken by coordinating bodies.

2017

Government Policies

Work with state governments that do not currently have State Action Plans for the elimination of child labor to establish such plans.

2011 – 2017

Social Programs

Penalize education officials who engage in discrimination and harassment of children and reduce barriers to education, in particular those from marginalized communities.

2014 – 2017

Make data and findings from district-level bonded labor surveys publicly available.

2009 – 2017

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2. UNICEF Institute for Statistics. Children's Lives Cast in Stone: Child Labour and the Sandstone Industry in Kota and Bundi. 2015. [Source on file].

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5. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed March 3, 2018. http://data.uis.unesco.org/. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

6. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from National Child Activity Survey (SIMPOC), 2013. Analysis received January 12, 2018. Please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

7. Venkateswarlu, Davuluri. Cotton’s Forgotten Children: Child Labour and Below Minimum Wages in Hybrid Cottonseed Production in India. Utrecht. July 2015. http://www.indianet.nl/pdf/CottonsForgottenChildren.pdf.

8. —. Soiled Seeds: Child Labour and Underpayment of Women in Vegetable Seed Production in India. Utrecht. November 2015. http://www.indianet.nl/pdf/SoiledSeeds.pdf.

9. Prayas Center for Labor Research and Action. Investigating Incidence of Child Labor in Cotton Ginning Factories of Gujarat. International Labor Rights Forum. August 2012. http://www.laborrights.org/sites/default/files/publications-and-resources/Child%20Labor%20in%20Cotton%20Ginning%20Report.pdf.

10. U.S. Embassy- New Delhi. Reporting, June 2, 2015.

11. Bhasin, Sukhmeet. Women, children forced to transplant paddy owing to labour shortage. The Tribune. June 25, 2015. http://www.tribuneindia.com/news/bathinda/womenchildrenforcedtotransplantpaddyowingtolabourshortage/98577.html.

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16. Malhotra, Sarika. Invisible Hands. Business Today. June 7, 2015. http://www.businesstoday.in/features/child-labour-in-india-how-it-being-hidden-from-authorities/story/219448.html.

17. Centre for Workers' Management. Brewing Misery: Condition of Working Families in Tea Plantations in West Bengal and Kerala. January 2015. http://www.laborrights.org/sites/default/files/publications/Brewing%20Misery%20-%20A%20report%20on%20tea%20plantations%20in%20WB.pdf.

18. Compliance Advisor Ombudsman. CAO Investigation of IFC Environmental and Social Performance in Relation to: Amalgamated Plantations Private Limited (APPL), India. September 6, 2016. http://www.cao-ombudsman.org/cases/document-links/documents/CAOInvestigationReportofIFCinvestmentinAPPL_EN.PDF.

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20. Press Trust of India. 91 Child Workers Rescued in Ganjam. The New Indian Express. July 13, 2015. http://www.newindianexpress.com/nation/91ChildWorkersRescuedinGanjam/2015/07/13/article2917904.ece.

21. Unnikrishnan, Hiran. Child labour rampant in seafood units: police. The Hindu. September 1, 2016. http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Kochi/Child-labour-rampant-in-seafood-units-police/article14616051.ece.

22. Press Trust of India. 8 minor boys rescued from human trafficking. Business Standard. May 5, 2016. http://www.business-standard.com/article/pti-stories/8-minor-boys-rescued-from-human-trafficking-116050500612_1.html.

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