Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - India

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

India

2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2015, India made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. More than 35,000 children were rescued from hazardous work conditions and were rehabilitated by the National Child Labor Project. State governments located approximately 30,000 missing children, including many involved in the worst forms of child labor, during two rescue and rehabilitation operations. The Ministry of Women and Children Development launched the Website Khoya-Paya, which allows parents and the general public to report and search for missing children. However, children in India are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in forced labor in the production of hybrid cottonseed and garments. The legal framework is inconsistent with international standards, as it does not prohibit work for children under age 14 or proscribe hazardous work for children under age 18. The law also does not provide legal protection for children working for household-based enterprises.

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Children in India are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in forced labor in the production of hybrid cottonseed and garments.(1-4) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in India.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

1.4 (3,253,202)

Working children by sector, ages 5 to 14 (%)

 

Agriculture

56.4

Industry

33.1

Services

10.4

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

90.7

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

0.3

Primary completion rate (%):

96.2

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2013, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(5)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from National Sample Survey, 2011–2012.(6)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Farming, including producing hybrid cottonseed and hybrid vegetable seeds,* cultivating and ginning† cotton, cultivating chili pepper,* and harvesting rice, sugarcane, tobacco,*† and tea* (3, 4, 7-17)

Processing cashew nuts*† and milling rice (18-20)

 

Industry

Manufacturing garments,† weaving silk fabric with a handloom,† producing raw silk thread (sericulture),† spinning cotton thread and yarn, embellishing textiles with silver and gold (zari),† weaving carpets,† embroidering textiles,* and sewing beads and buttons to fabric* (1, 17, 21-29)

Manufacturing glass bangles,† locks,† and brassware,† and polishing gems† (30-36)

Rolling cigarettes (bidis)† and manufacturing incense sticks (agarbatti),† fireworks,† and matches† (37-42)

Manufacturing footwear, producing leather goods or accessories,† and stitching soccer balls† (43-48)

Producing bricks,† quarrying† and breaking stones,† including sandstone* and granite,*† and mining† and collecting mica*† and coal* (14, 49-59)

Services

Domestic work† (60, 61)

Working in hotels,*† food service,*† bakeries,* and tourism services* (17, 62, 63)

Street work, including selling food*† and other goods,* and scavenging and sorting garbage*† (20, 48, 64)

Construction work,*† and repairing automobiles and motorcycles*† (65, 66)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Forced labor in agriculture, including producing hybrid cottonseed and harvesting sugarcane, both sometimes as a result of human trafficking (3, 67-69)

Forced labor in rice mills, quarrying stones, and producing bricks (50, 51, 67, 70-74)

Forced labor in producing garments, spinning cotton thread and yarn,* embroidering silver and gold into textiles (zari), carpets,* leather goods,* plastic goods,* bangles,* and footwear* (24-27, 75-81)

Forced labor in domestic work and begging,* each sometimes as a result of human trafficking* (17, 60, 61, 67, 82, 83)

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (67, 84, 85)

Use in armed conflict as a result of forced recruitment* (67, 86)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Children are trafficked within India for commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor in domestic service.(17, 61, 67, 85, 87) Children are forced to work as bonded laborers in brick kilns to pay off family debts owed to moneylenders and employers.(88) Children from India’s rural areas migrate or are trafficked for employment in industries, such as spinning mills and cottonseed production, where they are forced to work in hazardous environments for little or no pay.(3, 24) Children from marginalized groups, such as low-caste Hindus, members of tribal communities, and religious minorities, are more likely to be victims of forced labor, human trafficking, and commercial sexual exploitation.(67)

Children are reportedly recruited to serve as soldiers in Maoist armed groups in the states of Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, Odisha, and West Bengal.(67, 86)

Although the primary education completion rate is high in India, many children still face barriers to accessing education. This is particularly due to high rates of teacher absenteeism, the lack of schools in remote and rural locations, and the lack of drinking water and functioning toilets in schools.(74, 89) Children from marginalized groups are sometimes subject to discrimination and harassment from their teachers.(90) Some schools reportedly refuse admission to those children.(74)

India has ratified most key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

 

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

 

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

No

 

 

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

14

Section 3 of the Child Labor Prohibition and Regulation Act (91)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Parts A and B of the Schedule in the Child Labor Prohibition and Regulation Act (92)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Section 4 of the Bonded Labor System (Abolition) Act; Sections 370 and 374 of the Penal Code; Section 79 of the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act (93-95)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Sections 366A, 366B, 370, 372 and 373 of the Indian Penal Code; Section 5 of the Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act (94, 96)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Sections 366A, 366B, 370A, 372 and 373 of the Indian Penal Code; Sections 4–7 of the Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act; Sections 13–15 of the Protection of Children from Sexual Offense Act; Section 67B of the Information Technology Act (94, 96-98)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Sections 76 and 78 of the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act; Section 32B(c) of the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substance Act (95, 99)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

N/A*

 

 

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Combat: Yes

18

17

Military Regulations (100-102)

Non-Combat: Yes

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

14

Section 3 of the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act (103)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Section 3 of the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act (103)

* No conscription (104)

In 2015, the Government approved a new Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, which serves to consolidate and amend the previous juvenile justice law. The Act strengthens the legal framework prohibiting the use of children in illicit activities by criminalizing the use of children in the trafficking of drugs.(95) The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act also mandates that any child in need of care and protection be brought before the Child Welfare Committee. This includes any child age 18 and younger who is found working in prohibited occupations and processes, in excess of permitted working hours, and outside permitted hours of work.(95)

In 2012, amendments to the Child Labor Prohibition and Regulation Act were proposed to set the minimum age for work at 14, proscribe hazardous work for children under age 18, and increase penalties for violations.(105) In 2015, the proposed amendments were revised by the Ministry of Labor and Employment and were re-approved by the Cabinet. The most recent draft includes an exception that allows children under age 14 to work in nonhazardous occupations and outside of school hours.(106) The bill awaits approval by both Houses of Parliament and final approval by the President of India.(107)

The lack of a national minimum age for employment is inconsistent with international standards and probably increases the likelihood that young children will engage in child labor. The minimum age of 15 for hazardous work is also not consistent with international standards.(91) Additionally, regulations for hazardous work do not extend to children working for their families in household-based enterprises. (91)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

State Government Labor Inspectorates

Enforce state and national labor laws. Refer cases in violation of the law to state police.(48) Refer children to Child Welfare Committees for protection and rehabilitation services.(95)

State and Local Police

Enforce laws pertaining to child labor and human trafficking.(108) Submit information to District Magistrates to determine if a case should be prosecuted in District Court.(109) Refer children to Child Welfare Committees for protection and rehabilitation services.(95)

Anti-Human Trafficking Units

Investigate cases of human trafficking. Established in 226 local police jurisdictions throughout India.(110)

Vigilance Committees

Rescue, release, and rehabilitate bonded laborers and family members. Assembled at the district and subdivision levels by the District Magistrate.(93)

State Revenue Department

Issue release certificates to free bonded laborers and family members from debt.(111)

District Court Magistrates

Prosecute cases involving violations of child labor, forced labor, and human trafficking laws in District Courts.(109)

Child Welfare Committees

Refer children in need of care and protection to welfare services providers under the Integrated Child Protection Scheme, including children involved in hazardous work, begging, and human trafficking, as well as those living on the streets.(95) Established in 619 of India’s 660 districts.(112)

Ministry of Home Affairs

Provide guidance and training to all state governments by outlining the specific steps that state police and officials must take when handling cases of child trafficking and forced child labor.(113)

Central Bureau of Investigation’s Anti-Human Trafficking Unit

Investigate and prosecute cases involving the kidnapping and trafficking of women and children by professional gangs operating across multiple states. Take on cases by request of, or in agreement with, state governments.(114, 115)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2015, labor law enforcement agencies in India took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown

Unknown (107)

Number of Labor Inspectors

Unknown

Unknown (107)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (107)

Yes (107)

Training for Labor Inspectors

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Labor Inspections

269,628 (116)

143,914 (116)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown

Unknown

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

1,660 (107)

Unknown (107)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

Unknown

Unknown

Routine Inspections Conducted

Unknown

Unknown

Routine Inspections Targeted

Unknown

Unknown

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (107)

Yes (107)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (107)

Yes (107)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (107)

Yes (107)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (107)

Yes (107)

 

The Constitution of India gives state governments primary responsibility for the enforcement of labor laws.(108, 117) While the central government seeks to collect data on child labor violations and prosecutions, this information for 2015 was not yet released during the reporting period. The central government does not collect data on state government funding and employment of labor inspectors.(118) Labor inspection data represent only the number of inspections that were carried out under the Child Labor Prohibition and Regulation Act.(116)

The penalties for violating the Child Labor Prohibition and Regulation Act by employing children include imprisonment for 3 months to 1 year and/or fines ranging from $160 to $320. These penalties are insufficient to deter employers from employing children in the worst forms of child labor.(107)

During the reporting period, the minimum wage courts in Andhra Pradesh continued to order employers to pay 10 times the amount of the back wages owed to children working in hazardous and nonhazardous occupations, in addition to other penalties imposed for violating child labor laws.(119, 120)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2015, criminal law enforcement agencies in India took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown

Yes (121)

Number of Investigations

3,530 (122)

Unknown

Number of Violations Found

1,737 (122)

Unknown

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

1,545 (123)

Unknown

Number of Convictions

37 (123)

Unknown

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (95)

Yes (95)

 

The Constitution of India gives state governments primary responsibility for criminal law enforcement, including laws prohibiting the worst forms of child labor.(117) The central government does not systematically collect and publish data on criminal law enforcement across India’s states and union territories.(107) The National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) does collect data on investigations, violations, prosecutions, and convictions involving criminal activities. However, not all state governments report these data to the central government.(124)

In 2015, for the first time, the NCRB published data for the year 2014 on criminal investigations, violations, prosecutions, and convictions related to crimes against children. In 2014, under the Child Labor Prohibition and Regulation Act, there were only 177 investigations, 74 violations, 74 new prosecutions and 48 continuing prosecutions from 2013, and 3 convictions.(122, 123) In 2014, there were 3,353 investigations, 1,655 violations, 471 new prosecutions and 2,161 continuing prosecutions from 2013, and 34 convictions for crimes related to commercial sexual exploitation of children.(122, 123) According to the NCRB, during 2014 there were 90 investigations, 39 violations, 37 new prosecutions and 79 cases continuing prosecutions from 2013, and 5 convictions in cases involving the Bonded Labor System (Abolition) Act; however, these data were not disaggregated for adults and children.(125)

During the reporting period, the National Human Rights Commission organized a regional workshop for the states of Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand to train law enforcement officials and Vigilance Committees on the laws prohibiting bonded labor and the process for identification, release, and rehabilitation of bonded laborers.(121)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

Central Monitoring Committee

Supervise, monitor, and evaluate actions of the National Child Labor Projects (NCLPs) across India. Some state governments maintain State-Level Monitoring Committees to monitor the NCLPs in their states.(126)

Core Group on Child Labor

Coordinate the integration of social protection programs to reduce child labor. Composed of members from the Ministries of Human Resource Development; Women and Child Development; Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation; Rural Development; Social Justice and Empowerment; Home Affairs; and community government (Panchayati Raj). Chaired by the Ministry of Labor and Employment (MOLE).(127)

Ministry of Home Affairs’ Anti-Human Trafficking Cell

Implement the Government’s nationwide plan to combat human trafficking by coordinating with states to establish Anti-Human Trafficking Units and train thousands of officials to combat human trafficking. Requires states to submit quarterly reports to this coordinating body.(48, 108)

National Human Rights Commission

Monitor implementation of the Bonded Labor System (Abolition) Act. Monitor state government actions to identify, release, and rehabilitate bonded laborers through quarterly submissions and exploratory and investigative missions.(128, 129)

National Commission for the Protection of Child Rights

Ensure that all laws, policies, programs, and administrative mechanisms are in accordance with the constitutional protections for children and the UN CRC. Inquire about child rights violations and failures to properly implement laws relating to child protection.(48, 130) Established in all 29 states and in 3 union territories, including Delhi.(131) During 2015, the Bihar State Commission traveled to districts throughout the state to meet with local government officials, village councils, and schools to raise awareness of the value of education.(17)

 

In 2015, 275 representatives from state and local governments, law enforcement agencies, and civil society, convened to discuss challenges and solutions to human trafficking trends in the Bihar-Jharkhand region, including child labor trafficking. The meeting was hosted by the United States Consulate General Kolkata and a local NGO.(132, 133)

The Government of India has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Policy on Child Labor

Describes actions for combating hazardous child labor for children under age 14, including implementing legislation and providing direct assistance to children.(134)

State Action Plans on Child Labor

Details state governments’ activities and programs to eliminate child labor from hazardous industries. Only 10 of 29 state governments have child labor action plans: Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, and Telangana.(135-140)

National Policy for Children

Seeks to guide laws, policies, plans, and programs affecting children. Sets out the policy that state governments should take all necessary measures to track; rescue; and rehabilitate child laborers, trafficked children, and other vulnerable children; and to ensure that out-of-school children can access education.(141)

National Skills Development Policy

Includes provisions for alternative education and skill development for child laborers and children removed from the worst forms of child labor.(142)

Twelfth 5-Year Plan (2012–2017)

Details how the Government should implement its social protection schemes, including provisions for education, health, and increased livelihood support. Recommends amending the child labor law so that the minimum age for work is consistent with the compulsory education age.(143)

 

In 2015, the Government of India funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

National Child Labor Project (NCLP) Scheme†

MOLE scheme that operates at the district level to identify working children under age 14, withdraw them from hazardous work, and provide them with education and vocational training. Sets up and administers NCLP schools, mainstreams children into formal education, and provides them with stipends, meals, and health checkups.(129) Comprises 5,167 NCLP training centers that accommodate approximately 235,000 children. Between April 1, 2015, and September 30, 2015, rehabilitated 35,148 child workers who were rescued from hazardous work conditions.(129)

Grants-in-Aid Scheme†

MOLE scheme that funds NGOs to set up special training centers in districts that do not have an NCLP Scheme. Identifies child laborers, withdraws children from hazardous work, and provides former child laborers with vocational training and formal education.(129)

Rehabilitation of Bonded Labor Scheme†

MOLE program that rescues and rehabilitates adult and child bonded laborers. Provides rescued bonded laborers with approximately $312 and offers assistance through additional social protection schemes.(129) Supports the funding of surveys at the district level on the prevalence of bonded labor and the rehabilitation of bonded laborers identified through the surveys.(144) As of May 31, 2014, more than $12 million was provided to state governments for the rehabilitation of 279,360 bonded laborers.(129)

Integrated Child Protection Scheme †

Ministry of Women and Child Development (MWCD) scheme that provides children in need of protection—including children withdrawn from hazardous work, forced labor, and human trafficking—with food and shelter in children’s homes, shelter homes, and open shelters, as well as non-institutional care in foster homes and adoptive families. Provides rehabilitation and reintegration services to rescued children.(131)

Welfare of Working Children in Need of Care and Protection†

MWCD scheme that provides non-formal education and vocational training to street children and working children living in urban areas not covered by MOLE schemes.(145) From 2014 to 2015, projects funded by this scheme were reduced from 89 to 32, as it is being phased out because the Integrated Child Protection Scheme provides similar services under its open shelter component.(131)

Anti-Human Trafficking Activities†

MWCD-operated anti-human trafficking activities, in collaboration with NGOs and state governments.(146) Supports projects to help reintegrate, rehabilitate, and repatriate human trafficking victims, including children, through the Ujjawala scheme. Also provides short-term housing and rehabilitation services, including vocational training for women and adolescent girls, through the Swadhar Greh scheme.(146)

Childline†

MWCD-funded 24-hour toll-free emergency telephone service for children in distress. Includes Childline India Foundation-operated telephone service in cities across India, which connects children in need of assistance with hospitals, child welfare committees, shelter homes, and police.(131) In 2014–2015, granted $7.8 million to fund Childline services in 283 cities.(131)

TrackChild†

MWCD-implemented online portal that tracks missing children and facilitates information sharing about missing and vulnerable children among stakeholders, including child protection units, police stations, and Child Welfare Committees.(147) In 2015, launched the website Khoya-Paya (Lost and Found), which allows parents and the general public to report and search for missing children.(148)

Testing Methodologies to Support Informal Economy Workers and Small Producers to Combat Hazardous Child Labor in Their Own Sectors*

Irish Aid-funded, 1-year project implemented by the global trade union IndustriALL to build the capacity of informal economy workers to organize themselves and negotiate for better working conditions, including the elimination of hazardous child labor. Targets families working in the sandstone quarry areas of Rajasthan.(151)

Education for All Scheme (Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan)

Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) scheme that seeks to ensure the achievement of universal elementary education and addresses the education needs of 192 million children, including the provision of appropriate schooling facilities and qualified teachers.(149) Linked to NCLP scheme to ensure children’s smooth transition from NCLP schools into the formal education system.(150)

Enhancing Teacher Effectiveness in Bihar Operation*†

Government of Bihar program supported by the World Bank to develop institutions for teacher education, increase the number of qualified elementary school teachers, and improve teacher accountability, including teacher attendance.(151)

Midday Meal Program†

MHRD scheme that provides free lunch to children in government-run primary and upper primary schools, and to NCLP students.(152)

National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme†

Ministry of Rural Development (MRD) scheme that provides 100 days of employment to every rural adult living below the poverty line. Research has shown that this program can lead to a reduction in child labor and increased household expenditures on children’s education.(153, 154)

National Rural Livelihoods Mission †

MRD scheme that enables poor households to access gainful self-employment and skilled wage employment opportunities through social mobilization, institutional building, financial inclusion, and livelihood promotion.(155) Includes projects in 10 districts of 5 states that identify and rehabilitate bonded laborers through the provision of loans and the promotion of alternative livelihoods.(156)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of India.

In 2015, two campaigns were conducted by state governments to rescue and rehabilitate missing children, including many involved in the worst forms of child labor.(157) Many of India’s missing children are trafficked for forced and bonded labor, commercial sexual exploitation, and illicit activities.(158) In 2015, trained police personnel identified and rescued 9,146 children in January during Operation Smile and 19,742 children in July during Operation Muskaan.(157)

During the reporting period, state governments continued to conduct district-level surveys on bonded labor under the Rehabilitation of Bonded Labor Scheme. However, in surveyed districts, data were not available on the number of victims of bonded labor, including children.(150)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in India (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ratify ILO C. 182.

2014 – 2015

Establish a minimum age for employment consistent with international standards.

2009 – 2015

 

Increase the minimum age for employment in hazardous occupations to 18 to comply with international standards.

2009 – 2015

 

Ensure that relevant child labor laws and regulations apply equally to children working in formal businesses as well as household-based enterprises.

2009 – 2015

Enforcement

Collect and publish national-level data on labor law enforcement, including the number of labor inspectors and the number of penalties issued for child labor law violations.

2014 – 2015

Increase the penalties for employing children in the worst forms of child labor.

2014 – 2015

Collect and publish national-level data on the number of criminal investigations, violations, prosecutions, and convictions related to the worst forms of child labor.

2014 – 2015

Publish disaggregated data on the investigations and prosecutions involving violations for all the laws dealing with the worst forms of child labor.

2009 – 2015

Government Policies

Work with state governments to develop State Action Plans for the elimination of child labor where they do not currently exist.

2011 – 2015

Social Programs

 

Reduce barriers to education access through programs to address teacher absenteeism, improve school facilities and sanitation, and promote equal access to education for children from marginalized communities.

2014 – 2015

Make data and findings from district-level bonded labor surveys publicly available.

2009 – 2015

 

 

1.         Nicola Phillips, Resmi Bhaskaran, Dev Nathan, and C. Upendranadh. Child Labour in Global Production Networks: Poverty, Vulnerability and 'Adverse Incorporation' in the Delhi Garments Sector. Delhi; June 2011. https://www.escholar.manchester.ac.uk/api/datastream?publicationPid=uk-ac-man-scw:103085&datastreamId=FULL-TEXT.PDF.

2.         Dhanya, MB. Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work and Informal Economy in India:Trends, Initiatives and Challenges. Noida, V.V. Giri National Labour Institute; 2013. http://www.vvgnli.org/sites/default/files/publication_files/NLI-SERIES-105-F.pdf.

3.         Global March Against Child Labour. Dirty Cotton: A Research on Child Labour, Slavery, Trafficking and Exploitation in Cotton and Cotton Seed Farming in India. New Delhi; 2012. http://www.globalmarch.org/sites/default/files/Dirty-Cotton-Report.pdf.

4.         Venketeswarlu, D. Soiled Seeds: Child Labour and Underpayment of Women in Vegetable Seed Production in IndiaIndia Committee of the Netherlands; November 2015. http://www.indianet.nl/pdf/SoiledSeeds.pdf.

5.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed January 16, 2015] http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. Because the calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age), the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

6.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from NSS Survey, 2009-2010. Analysis received December 18, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

7.         Venkateswarlu, D. Cotton’s Forgotten Children: Child Labour and Below Minimum Wages in Hybrid Cottonseed Production in IndiaIndia Committee of the Netherlands; July 2015. http://www.indianet.nl/pdf/WagesOfInequality.pdf.

8.         Davuluri Venketeswarlu, and Jacob Kalle. Wages of Inequality: Wage Discrimination and Underpayment in Hybrid Seed Production in IndiaFair Labor Association and India Committee of the Netherlands; December 2012. http://www.fairlabor.org/sites/default/files/documents/reports/wages-of-inequality.pdf.

9.         Institute for Human Development. Base Line Survey Report of Haryana; 2012.

10.       Institute for Human Development. Base Line Survey Report of Punjab: Child Labour in Cotton Growing Fields; 2012.

11.       Bhasin, S. "Women, children forced to transplant paddy owing to labour shortage." The Tribune, Bathinda, June 25, 2015. http://www.tribuneindia.com/news/bathinda/womenchildrenforcedtotransplantpaddyowingtolabourshortage/98577.html.

12.       Nandy, D. Child Rights Situation Analysis: Children of Families Engaged in Sugarcane Farming in Maharashtra; 2012. http://www.savethechildren.in/images/childrights.pdf.

13.       Fair Labor Association. Task and Risk Mapping of Sugarcane Production in India; September 2012. http://www.fairlabor.org/sites/default/files/documents/reports/task_and_risk_mapping_of_sugarcane_production_in_india.pdf.

14.       Malhotra, S. "Invisible Hands." businesstoday.in [online] June 7, 2015 [cited October 29, 2015]; http://www.businesstoday.in/features/child-labour-in-india-how-it-being-hidden-from-authorities/story/219448.html.

15.       Centre for Workers' Management. Brewing Misery Brewing Misery - Condition of Working Families in Tea Plantations in West Bengal and Kerala; January 2015. http://www.laborrights.org/sites/default/files/publications/Brewing%20Misery%20-%20A%20report%20on%20tea%20plantations%20in%20WB.pdf.

16.       Prayas Center for Labor Research and Action. Investigating Incidence of Child Labor in Cotton Ginning Factories of Gujarat. Ahmedabad; August 2012. http://www.laborrights.org/sites/default/files/publications-and-resources/Child%20Labor%20in%20Cotton%20Ginning%20Report.pdf.

17.       U.S. Embassy- New Delhi. reporting, June 2, 2015.

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