Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Paraguay

Bricks
Bricks
Child Labor Icon
Cattle
Cattle
Child Labor Icon
Forced Labor Icon
Pornography
Pornography
Child Labor Icon
Stones (Limestone)
Stones (Limestone)
Child Labor Icon
Sugarcane
Sugarcane
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beans
Beans
Child Labor Icon
Cabbages
Cabbages
Child Labor Icon
Carrots
Carrots
Child Labor Icon
Corn
Corn
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Fish
Fish
Child Labor Icon
Goats
Goats
Child Labor Icon
Hogs
Hogs
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Lettuce
Lettuce
Child Labor Icon
Manioc/Cassava
Manioc/Cassava
Child Labor Icon
Melons
Melons
Child Labor Icon
Onions
Onions
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Peanuts
Peanuts
Child Labor Icon
Peppers
Peppers
Child Labor Icon
Poultry
Poultry
Child Labor Icon
Sesame
Sesame
Child Labor Icon
Sheep
Sheep
Child Labor Icon
Sweet Potato
Sweet Potato
Child Labor Icon
Tomatoes
Tomatoes
Child Labor Icon
Yerba Mate (Stimulant Plant)
Yerba Mate (Stimulant Plant)
Child Labor Icon
Paraguay
2017 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Significant Advancement

In 2017, Paraguay made a significant advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The government approved a regulation to strengthen enforcement of labor laws and standards, including on child labor, and established a fund with the International Organization for Migration to provide immediate assistance to victims of child labor and human trafficking. The Ministry of Labor, Employment, and Social Security also established a regional office in Villarrica, released labor law enforcement statistics, and law enforcement officials attended training on labor trafficking. In addition, the government increased child and forced labor investigations in the remote Chaco region, where labor exploitation in Paraguay is most prevalent. However, children in Paraguay are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including cattle raising and domestic servitude. Limited funding for law enforcement agencies and social programs hamper the government’s ability to fully address the worst forms of child labor, particularly in rural areas.

Children in Paraguay engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in cattle raising and domestic servitude, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. (1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6; 7; 8; 9) The 2011 National Survey of Child and Adolescent Activities found that 21 percent of all Paraguayan children were engaged in hazardous work. (2) The 2015 Survey of Activities of Rural Area Children and Adolescents, published in 2016, identified 384,677 children engaged in child labor in agriculture. (1) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Paraguay.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

10 to 14

8.2 (56,492)

Working children by sector

 

 

Agriculture

 

41.8

Industry

 

10.5

Services

 

47.7

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

94.8

Combining Work and School (%)

10 to 14

7.1

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

89.1

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2012, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2018. (10)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Encuesta Permanente de Hogares (EPH), 2016. (11)

 

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

 

Sector/Industry

Activity

 

Agriculture

Production of manioc/cassava, corn, beans, peanuts, sesame, sugarcane, tomato, lettuce, melons, sweet potato, peppers, onion, carrots, cabbage, yerba mate (stimulant plant), soy, wheat, stevia, and charcoal (1; 12; 13; 14; 15; 16; 5)

Raising poultry, pigs, cattle,† sheep, and goats and producing milk (2; 13; 14)

Fishing, including using hooks and harpoons,† preparing bait, and cleaning fish† (1)

Industry

Construction, activities unknown, and production of bricks (2; 12; 14; 5)

Limestone quarrying† and gold mining† (2; 12; 14; 5; 17)

Services

Domestic work† (2; 18; 14; 19; 4; 7; 8; 20; 6)

Street work,† including vending, shoe shining, and begging (2; 12; 19; 21; 5; 9)

Horse jockeying (5)

Garbage dump scavenging† (2; 3; 22)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Debt bondage in cattle raising, dairy farms, and charcoal factories (12; 5; 23; 24)

Commercial sexual exploitation and domestic servitude, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (3; 25; 5; 24; 6; 9)

Use in the production of child pornography (12; 26; 27; 28; 29; 5)

Use in illicit activities, including smuggling and drug trafficking (3; 12; 30; 5)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

     

 

Criadazgo, a practice in which middle-class and wealthy families informally employ and house child domestic workers from impoverished families, is pervasive in Paraguay; the 2011 National Survey of Child and Adolescent Activities estimated that more than 46,000 children were engaged in criadazgo. Many of these children are in situations of domestic servitude, subjected to violence and abuse, and highly vulnerable to sex trafficking. (2; 12; 8; 15; 29; 5; 24; 9) Children are subjected to commercial sexual exploitation in Ciudad del Este; in the Tri-Border area between Paraguay, Argentina and Brazil; and along commercial shipping routes on the Paraguay River. (24; 5) Children work alongside their parents in debt bondage on cattle ranches, dairy farms, and charcoal factories in the remote Chaco region. (12; 5; 23; 24) Children shine shoes on the street and in the Palace of Justice, the Supreme Court building. (12)

Children from rural and indigenous communities face difficulties accessing and completing their education, including language barriers. (31; 32) The 2011 National Survey of Child and Adolescent Activities indicated that children who speak Guaraní exclusively are more likely to be involved in child labor and have higher rates of school absence compared to other working children; poverty is pervasive in rural Paraguay, where Guaraní is the predominant language. (2; 33) School buses or other forms of public transportation are limited in rural areas, and school infrastructure is often inadequate in rural and indigenous communities. The government has noted that girls from rural areas leave school at an earlier age than boys and estimated that more than 50 percent of children with disabilities could not attend school due to lack of access to public transportation. (12; 5) Such challenges may leave these children more vulnerable to child labor. Approximately 13 percent of children engaged in child labor in agriculture do not attend school and 11.8 percent of working children ages 14 to 17 have not completed primary school. (1; 34)

Paraguay has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Paraguay’s legal framework to adequately protect children from the worst forms of child labor, including the lack of prohibition of child recruitment by non-state armed groups.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

14

Article 1 of Law No. 2332; Article 58 of the Childhood and Adolescence Code (35; 36)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 54 of the Childhood and Adolescence Code; Article 3 of Decree No. 4951; Articles 122 and 125 of the Labor Code; Article 15 of the First Employment Law; Article 5 of Law No. 5407 on Domestic Work (35; 37; 38; 39; 40; 41)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Article 54 of the Childhood and Adolescence Code; Article 2 of Decree No. 4951; Article 15 of the First Employment Law; Articles 122, 125, and 389 of the Labor Code; Article 5 of Law No. 5407 on Domestic Work (35; 37; 38; 39; 40; 41)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 5-7 of the Comprehensive Law Against Trafficking in Persons; Articles 125, 129, 223, and 320 of the Penal Code; Articles 10 and 54 of the Constitution (42; 43; 44; 45)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 6 and 7 of the Comprehensive Law Against Trafficking in Persons; Articles 125, 129, and 223 of the Penal Code; Article 54 of the Constitution (42; 43; 44; 45)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 135 and 223 of the Penal Code; Article 2.19 of Decree No. 4951; Article 31 of the Childhood and Adolescence Code (35; 37; 43; 45)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 1 of Law No. 1657; Article 32 of the Childhood and Adolescence Code (35; 46)

Prohibition of Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

Yes

18

Articles 3 and 5 of the Obligatory Military Service Law (47; 48)

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Articles 3 and 5 of the Obligatory Military Service Law (47; 48)

Non-State

No

 

 

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

15

Article 2 of Law No. 4088; Article 32 of the General Education Law No. 1264 (49; 50)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 76 of the Constitution; Article 32 of the General Education Law No. 1264 (42; 49)

 

In January 2017, the government approved a regulation to strengthen enforcement of labor laws and standards, including on child labor. (51)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the operations of the Ministry of Labor, Employment and Social Security (MTESS) that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor, Employment and Social Security (MTESS)

Enforce laws related to child labor, inspect workplaces for child labor, and fine companies found in violation of labor laws. Refer cases involving criminal violation of child labor to the Public Ministry or the National Secretariat for Children and Adolescents (SNNA). (13; 14)

National Police

Maintain a special unit of 33 police officers who handle complaints regarding trafficking in persons, including children, with offices in five cities. (13; 14)

Public Ministry (Prosecutor’s Office)

Enforce criminal laws related to the worst forms of child labor by investigating and prosecuting violators and providing support to local prosecutors throughout Paraguay. (14)

SNNA

Maintain a unit dedicated to fighting child trafficking and a hotline to report cases of human trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation of children. Provide social services to victims referred by law enforcement agencies. (13; 14; 30; 23)

Public Defender’s Office

Maintain the Specialized Unit to Combat Human Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation of Children and Adolescents. (52)

Attorney General’s Office

Investigate and prosecute cases of child labor involving human trafficking through the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Unit. Comprises 3 specialized prosecutors based in Asunción and 35 assistants. (13)

Ministry of Women’s Affairs

Provide social services to female victims of human trafficking, half of whom are estimated to be children. House an office staffed with five personnel dedicated to combating trafficking of children. (13; 14; 30)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2017, labor law enforcement agencies in Paraguay took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the operations of the MTESS that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including financial resource allocation.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$1.1 million (12)

$1.1 million (5)

Number of Labor Inspectors

30 (12)

35 (5)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (12)

No (5)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

N/A

Yes (5)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Yes (12)

Yes (5)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (12)

Yes (5)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

4,800 (12)

667 (5)

Number Conducted at Worksites

4,800 (12)

275 (5)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

17 (12)

27 (5)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties were Imposed

Unknown

27 (5)

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed That were Collected

Unknown

27 (5)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (12)

Yes (5)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (12)

Yes (5)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (12)

Yes (5)

        Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (12)

Yes (5)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (12)

Yes (5)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (12)

Yes (5)

 

In 2017, the MTESS opened a regional office in Villarrica and signed letters of intent with two Fair Trade sugarcane producer associations to promote efforts to address child labor. (53) During the year, labor inspectors received training on agricultural labor inspections, which included field work and pilot exercises. The MTESS also coordinated with the Prosecutor’s Office to streamline the labor violation complaint process to avoid duplicative complaints triggering multiple inspections of the same worksite, resulting in fewer labor inspections in 2017 than in 2016. (53; 54)

Although Paraguay has ratified ILO C. 81, its labor inspectors are contractors rather than public officials. Due to the instability of contract employment, the authority and training of these labor inspectors may be called into question. The number of labor inspectors is likely insufficient for the size of Paraguay’s workforce, which includes over 3 million workers. According to the ILO’s technical advice of a ratio approaching 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in developing economies, Paraguay would employ roughly 229 inspectors. (55; 56; 57) Government agencies, international organizations, NGOs, and labor organizations agree that inadequate funding and the insufficient number of labor inspectors hamper the labor inspectorate’s capacity to enforce child labor laws, especially in the informal sector, including in agriculture and domestic work. (5; 9) The inspectorate is particularly limited by the lack of dedicated vehicles or travel funds. (5) An additional constraint to labor law enforcement is the lack of efficient and timely cooperation by judicial authorities in granting workplace inspection search warrants to the Public Ministry and the MTESS when an employer does not permit an inspector to enter a workplace to conduct an inspection. The system is paper-based and orders routinely take more than 3 months to arrive. (12; 13; 14; 15; 58) During the year, the MTESS provided training to labor inspectors to implement the 2016 agreement with judicial and law enforcement authorities, intended to go into effect in 2017, to accelerate the authorization of search warrants. (12; 5)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2017, criminal law enforcement agencies in Paraguay took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including the lack of a referral mechanism between criminal authorities and social services.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Yes (5)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Yes (12)

Yes (5)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (12)

Yes (5)

Number of Investigations

77 (12)

15 (5)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown (54)

15 (54)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown (54)

15 (54)

Number of Convictions

Unknown (54)

14 (54)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

No (12)

No (5)

 

During the reporting period, the Special Directorate to Fight the Trafficking of Persons and Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children increased child and forced labor investigations conducted in the Chaco region, where the worst forms of child labor, human trafficking, and debt bondage are most prevalent. In addition, 150 prosecutors, investigators, judges, migration officials, and labor inspectors attended training sessions on labor trafficking. (5) However, government agencies, international organizations, NGOs, and labor organizations have observed a need for more specialized prosecutors to support local prosecutors nationwide and increase the Public Ministry’s ability to investigate and prosecute cases involving human trafficking. (12; 13; 15; 6) In addition, investigations were limited by insufficient resources, including vehicles, fuel, and logistical support. Overall, Paraguay’s criminal law enforcement agencies lack resources, including staff and training, to sufficiently identify, investigate, and prosecute cases of the worst forms of child labor. As a result, the number of convictions of crimes related to the worst forms of child labor is insufficient and existing penalties are inadequate deterrents. (12; 13; 14; 15; 59; 5; 6)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including among agencies.

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role and Description

National Commission to Prevent and Eradicate the Exploitation of Children (CONAETI)

Lead government efforts against child labor and include representatives from the MTESS, the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights, the Ministry of Women’s Affairs, the SNNA, and other government agencies, as well as labor union representatives, industry associations, and NGOs. (14; 60) In 2017, celebrated its 15 year anniversary by launching a commemorative postage stamp to raise awareness on child labor and government efforts to address it. (61)

Inter-Institutional Working Group on Preventing and Combating Human Trafficking

Coordinate interagency efforts to combat all forms of trafficking in persons, including child trafficking. Headed by the Ministry of Foreign Relations. (14; 20; 60)

Defense Councils for the Rights of Children and Adolescents (CODENIs)

Coordinate efforts to protect children’s rights at the municipal level, including by maintaining a registry of adolescent workers and coordinating with vocational training programs for adolescents. (14; 35) In 2017, the CODENI of Paso Yobai piloted new computer and smartphone platforms for the adolescent worker registry. (53) In response to a televised report from May 2017 on children engaged in informal gold mining in Paso Yobai, the CODENI of Paso Yobai and the SNNA held several workshops for families, teachers, and representatives of Paso Yobai’s miners association in June 2017 to raise awarenss on the risks of child labor in mining . (53)

 

During the reporting period, the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Unit of the Attorney General’s office coordinated with the SNNA and other government agencies to conduct community outreach on human trafficking in low-income areas. (5) Government agencies responsible for addressing child labor share information and coordinate efforts informally, but coordination between the MTESS and the Ministries of Education and Health remains insufficient to combat the worst forms of child labor. In addition, the CODENIs require additional financial and human resources to fulfill their mission to address child labor. (12; 13; 18; 14; 62)

The government has established policies that are consistent with relevant international standards on child labor (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Strategy for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor and Protection of Working Adolescents (2016–2020)

Aims to raise awareness and strengthen enforcement of child labor laws. Provides child laborers with access to free quality education and offers livelihood alternatives for their families. (12; 14; 60)

National Strategy to Prevent Forced Labor

Aims to prevent and eradicate forced labor and care for victims. (63)

National Plan for Development (2014–2030)

Aims to reduce social exclusion and poverty, including by preventing and eliminating child labor. (64)

National Plan on Human Rights

Promotes human rights, including the prevention and elimination of child labor and forced labor. (65)

Inter-Institutional Agreement on Government Procurement

Prohibits government procurement of goods or services involving child labor. Established between the SNNA and the National Bureau for Public Contracts. (66)

In 2017, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including with regard to coverage and funding to fully address the problem in all sectors.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

USDOL-Funded Projects

USDOL projects that aim to eliminate child labor, including its worst forms, through research, improved monitoring and enforcement, policy development, and awareness-raising. These projects include Country Level Engagement and Assistance to Reduce Child Labor (CLEAR), implemented by the ILO in 11 countries; Global Research on Child Labor Measurement and Policy Development, implemented by the ILO in 10 countries; Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues, implemented by the ILO in approximately 40 countries; and Paraguay Okakuaa (Paraguay Progresses), $6 million project implemented by Partners of the Americas. (67; 68; 69) For additional information about USDOL’s work, please visit our website.

Immediate Assistance Fund*

Provides immediate, temporary assistance to victims of child labor and human trafficking. Established by the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Unit of the Attorney General’s office with support from the IOM.

Embrace Program (Programa Abrazo)†

SNNA program to assist children engaged in exploitative work by providing them and their families with health and education services, food deliveries, and cash transfers conditioned on children’s school attendance and withdrawal from work. (58) Works closely with the NGO Fortalecer in the implementation of ILO-IPEC programs and with the Sugarcane Growers’ Association, Ministry of Education and Culture, and CONAETI to set up programs tailored to at-risk children who work during the sugarcane harvesting season. (14) In 2017, received $6.7 million in funding and targeted children at risk of child labor in garbage dumps, brick factories, lumber harvesting, and sugarcane. (5)

Combating Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Girls, Boys and Adolescents in Trips and Tourism†

National campaign of the National Secretariat for Tourism and the Association of Female Tourism Executives to raise awareness on protecting children from commercial sexual exploitation. (18)

Promotion of Decent Work in the Cotton Supply Chain (2016-2018)

Government of Brazil-funded project implemented by the ILO to promote decent work in cotton through exchanges on combatting poverty and discrimination, preventing and eradicating child labor and forced labor, formalizing employment, and promoting youth employment and equality. (70; 71)

Well-Being Conditional Cash Transfer Program (Tekoporã)†

Government-administered program through the Secretariat for Social Action. Provides conditional cash transfers to families in rural communities. (13) Incorporates aspects of the Embrace Program, such as the family monitoring methodology, to ensure participant children do not engage in child labor. (14) In 2017, received $60 million and assisted approximately 335,000 children. (5)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Paraguay.

 

The 2012 Law Against Trafficking in Persons requires the Ministry of Women’s Affairs to provide compensation and financial assistance to victims of sexual and labor trafficking, including minors. However, the government has not allocated funding for the Ministry of Women’s Affairs to implement such a program, and most victims did not have access to comprehensive care. (13; 15; 44; 72; 6) Although Paraguay has programs that target child labor, the coverage and funding of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem, and programs are limited by the absence of government education and health services in rural areas. Additional programs are needed to reach the large numbers of working children, especially in agriculture, including cattle herding, and domestic work. (13; 15; 5; 6)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Paraguay (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under age 18 by non-state armed groups.

2016 - 2017

Enforcement

Strengthen the Labor Inspectorate by permitting inspectors to determine and assess penalties for child labor violations.

2016 - 2017

Strengthen the Labor Inspectorate by making labor inspectors public officials rather than contractors.

2017

Increase the number of labor inspectors to meet the ILO’s technical advice and increase the funding and resources available to the labor inspectorate, including dedicated vehicles and travel funds.

2009 – 2017

Build enforcement capacity to address child labor in the informal sector, including in agriculture and domestic work.

2014 – 2017

Implement the agreement to accelerate authorization of workplace inspection search warrants to improve the cooperation mechanisms among judicial authorities and labor enforcement officials.

2013 – 2017

Establish a referral mechanism between criminal authorities and social services to ensure that victims of the worst forms of child labor receive appropriate services.

2016 - 2017

Increase efforts to prosecute crimes related to the exploitation of children in the worst forms of child labor, including by hiring and training more specialized prosecutors; providing resources, such as vehicles and fuel, to enable investigations in remote areas, such as the Chaco; developing coordination and referral mechanisms for government agencies to refer relevant cases to the Public Ministry; and increasing penalties for crimes.

2012 – 2017

Discontinue the practice of allowing children to shine shoes in government buildings, including the Palace of Justice.

2017

Coordination

Strengthen interagency coordinating mechanisms, with particular focus on the communication between the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Health, to combat child labor, including its worst forms.

2013 – 2017

Provide additional financial and human resources to the CODENIs to strengthen their ability to address child labor at the municipal level.

2017

Social Programs

Increase access to education for children vulnerable to child labor, particularly children living in rural and indigenous communities, including in the Chaco, and children with disabilities.

2014 – 2017

Further expand government programs to assist more families and children affected by child labor, including in agriculture and domestic work.

2010 – 2017

1. ILO and Dirección General de Estadística, Encuestas y Censos del Paraguay. Trabajo infantil y adolescente en el sector rural agrícola, pecuario, forestal y de pesca y piscicultura en Paraguay - Encuesta de actividades de niños, niñas y adolescentes - EANA RURAL 2015. Geneva. Organización Internacional del Trabajo; Servicio de principios y derechos fundamentales en el trabajo (FUNDAMENTALS). 2016. http://www.ilo.org/santiago/sala-de-prensa/WCMS_533723/lang--es/index.htm.

2. —. Magnitud y características del trabajo infantil y adolescente en el Paraguay. 2013. [Source on file].

3. UNICEF. Situación del Derecho a la Protección Infantil y Adolescente en Paraguay. Asunción. December 2014. http://www.unicef.org/paraguay/spanish/unicef-situacionderechoproteccion.pdf.

4. Agenzia Fides. America/Paraguay - Complaints regarding child abuse, who are exploited as domestic servants, continue. fides.org. March 11, 2016. http://www.fides.org/en/news/59610#.WB_dKOErLyU.

5. U.S. Embassy- Asunción. Reporting, January 18, 2018.

6. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Paraguay (ratification: 2001) Published: 2017. Accessed October 23, 2017. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3294985:NO.

7. Carneri, Santi. Exploitation of Child Domestic Labour in Paraguay, a Hidden, Deep-Rooted Custom. equaltimes.org. August 12, 2016. http://www.equaltimes.org/exploitation-of-child-domestic?lang=en#.WB_emeErLyU.

8. Tegel, Simeon. The "adoption" of Paraguayan children as domestic help. The Washington Post, Asuncion. June 13, 2016: A-Section. LexisNexis.

9. Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. End of mission statement of Urmila Bhoola, Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of slavery, including its causes and consequences following her visit to Paraguay between 17-24 July 2017. http://www.ohchr.org/en/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=21903&LangID=E.

10. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed March 3, 2018. http://data.uis.unesco.org/. For more information, please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

11. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Analysis received January 12, 2018. Please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

12. U.S. Embassy- Asunción. Reporting, January 18, 2017.

13. —. Reporting, January 15, 2016.

14. —. Reporting, February 3, 2014.

15. —. Reporting, January 15, 2015.

16. Ultimahora.com. Esclavitud: Indígenas rescatados cobraron sus salarios. November 19, 2016. http://www.ultimahora.com/esclavitud-indigenas-rescatados-cobraron-sus-salarios-n1041162.html.

17. Hoy. Paso Yobái: fiebre por oro expone a niños a peligros. May 10, 2017. http://www.hoy.com.py/nacionales/paso-yobai-fiebre-por-oro-expone-a-ninos-a-explotaciones.

18. U.S. Embassy- Asunción. Reporting, February 1, 2016.

19. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016: Paraguay. Washington, DC. June 30, 2016. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/258881.pdf.

20. U.S. Embassy- Asunción. Reporting, March 5, 2014.

21. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Paraguay (ratification: 2001) Published: 2014. Accessed April 17, 2014. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3149343:NO.

22. ABC Color. Muchas “Liz” siguen en Cateura. abc.com.py. February 10, 2014. http://www.abc.com.py/nacionales/muchas-liz-siguen-en-cateura-1213703.html.

23. U.S. Embassy- Asunción official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 22, 2017.

24. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2017: Paraguay. Washington, DC. June 27, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2017/271262.htm.

25. Secretaría Nacional de la Niñez y la Adolescencia. Situación sobre CRIADAZGO en nuestro país. Government of Paraguay. February 26, 2014. http://www.snna.gov.py/noticia/142-situacin-sobre-criadazgo-en-nuestro-pas.html#.VTARp9zF98F.

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