Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Paraguay

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Paraguay

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Significant Advancement

In 2016, Paraguay made a significant advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government approved the National Strategy to Prevent Forced Labor and renewed the National Strategy for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor and Protection of Working Adolescents. The Government also published results from a 2015 survey on rural child labor and formalized an agreement to accelerate authorization of workplace inspection search warrants. In addition, the Government launched a project to promote decent work in the production of cotton by combatting poverty and discrimination, preventing and eradicating child labor and forced labor, formalizing employment, and promoting youth employment. However, children in Paraguay are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including cattle raising and domestic work. The funding and reach of existing social programs and law enforcement agencies hamper the Government’s ability to fully address the worst forms of child labor, particularly in rural areas.

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Children in Paraguay engage in the worst forms of child labor, including cattle raising and domestic work.(1-12) The 2011 National Survey of Child and Adolescent Activities found that 21 percent of all Paraguayan children were engaged in hazardous work.(2) The 2015 Survey of Activities of Rural Area Children and Adolescents, published in 2016, identified 384,677 children engaged in child labor in agriculture.(1) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Paraguay.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

10 to 14

10.4 (72,036)

Working children by sector

 

 

Agriculture

 

55.0

Industry

 

10.4

Services

 

34.6

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

94.2

Combining Work and School (%)

10 to 14

9.5

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

89.1

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2012, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(13)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Encuesta Permanente de Hogares (EPH), 2014.(14)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

 

Agriculture

Production of manioc, corn, beans, peanuts, sesame, sugarcane, tomato, lettuce, melons, sweet potato, peppers, onion, carrots, cabbage, yerba mate (stimulant plant), soy, wheat, stevia, cotton, and charcoal (1, 4, 5, 7, 8, 15-19)

Raising poultry, pigs, cattle,† sheep, and goats and producing milk (2, 5, 7)

Fishing, including using hooks and harpoons,† preparing bait, and cleaning fish†  (1)

Industry

Construction, activities unknown, and production of bricks (2, 4, 7-9, 19)

Limestone quarrying† and gold mining†   (2, 4, 7, 8, 19)

Services

Domestic work† (2, 6-12, 20)

Street work,† including vending, shoe shining, and begging (2, 4, 8, 9, 21)

Garbage dump scavenging† (2, 3, 22)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Debt bondage in cattle raising, dairy farms, and charcoal factories (4, 7)

Commercial sexual exploitation and domestic servitude, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2-4, 6-9, 19, 23)

Use in the production of child pornography (4, 24-27)

Use in illicit activities, including smuggling and drug trafficking (3, 4, 8, 19, 28)

Forced recruitment of children by non-state armed groups for use in armed conflict (4, 5, 8, 9, 19)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Criadazgo, a system whereby middle-class and wealthy families informally employ and house child domestic workers from impoverished families, is pervasive in Paraguay; the 2011 National Survey of Child and Adolescent Activities estimated 46,000 children were engaged in criadazgo.(2, 4, 12, 16, 19, 27) Children work alongside their parents in debt bondage on cattle ranches, dairy farms, and charcoal factories in the remote Chaco region.(4) The Paraguayan People’s Army (EPP) and the Armed Peasant Association recruit children to carry supplies and serve as lookouts or full-time combatants.(4, 5, 8, 19)

The 2011 National Survey of Child and Adolescent Activities indicated that children who speak Guaraní exclusively are more likely to be involved in child labor and have higher rates of school absence as compared to other working children; poverty is pervasive in rural Paraguay, where Guaraní is the predominant language.(2, 29) School buses or other forms of public transportation are limited in rural areas and school infrastructure is often inadequate in rural and indigenous communities. The Government has noted that girls from rural areas leave school at an earlier age than boys and estimated that more than 50 percent of children with disabilities could not attend school due to lack of access to public transportation.(4, 8, 19) Such challenges may leave these children more vulnerable to child labor.  Approximately 13 percent of children engaged in child labor in agriculture do not attend school and 11.8 percent of working children ages 14 to 17 have not completed primary school.(1, 30)

Paraguay has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Paraguay’s legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

14

Article 1 of Law No. 2332; Article 58 of the Childhood and Adolescence Code (31, 32)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 54 of the Childhood and Adolescence Code; Article 3 of Decree No. 4951; Articles 122 and 125 of the Labor Code; Article 15 of the First Employment Law; Article 5 of Law No. 5407 on Domestic Work (31, 33-37)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Article 54 of the Childhood and Adolescence Code; Article 2 of Decree No. 4951; Article 15 of the First Employment Law; Articles 122, 125,  and 389 of the Labor Code; Article 5 of Law No. 5407 on Domestic Work (31, 33-37)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 5-7 of the Comprehensive Law Against Trafficking in Persons; Articles 125, 129, 223, and 320 of the Penal Code; Articles 10 and 54 of the Constitution (38-41)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 6 and 7 of the Comprehensive Law Against Trafficking in Persons; Articles 125, 129, and 223 of the Penal Code; Article 54 of the Constitution (38-41)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 135 and 223 of the Penal Code; Article 2.19 of Decree No. 4951; Article 31 of the Childhood and Adolescence Code (31, 33, 39, 41)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 1 of Law No. 1657; Article 32 of the Childhood and Adolescence Code (31, 42)

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

Yes

18

Articles 3 and 5 of the Obligatory Military Service Law (43, 44)

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Articles 3 and 5 of the Obligatory Military Service Law (43, 44)

Non-State Compulsory

No

 

 

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

15

Article 2 of Law No. 4088; Article 32 of the General Education Law No. 1264 (45, 46)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 76 of the Constitution; Article 32 of the General Education Law No. 1264 (38, 45)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor law and criminal law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor, Employment and Social Security (MTESS)

Enforce laws related to child labor, inspect workplaces for child labor, and fine companies found in violation of labor laws. Refer cases involving criminal violation of child labor to the Public Ministry or the National Secretariat for Children and Adolescents (SNNA).(5, 7)

National Police

Maintain a special unit of 33 police officers who handle complaints regarding trafficking in persons, including children, with offices in five cities.(5, 7)

The Public Ministry (Prosecutor’s Office)

Enforce criminal laws related to the worst forms of child labor by investigating and prosecuting violators and providing support to local prosecutors throughout Paraguay.(7

SNNA

Maintain a unit dedicated to fighting child trafficking and a hotline to report cases of human trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation of children, which received 10,622 calls in 2016. Provide social services to victims referred by law enforcement agencies. (5, 7, 28, 47)

The Public Defender’s Office

Maintain the Specialized Unit to Combat Human Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation of Children and Adolescents.(48)

Attorney General’s Office

Investigate and prosecute cases of child labor involving human trafficking via the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Unit, composed of 3 specialized prosecutors based in Asunción and 35 assistants.(5)

Ministry of Women’s Affairs

Provide social services to female victims of human trafficking, half of whom are estimated to be children. House an office dedicated to combating trafficking of children staffed with five dedicated personnel.(5, 7, 28)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, labor law enforcement agencies in Paraguay took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown (5)

$1.1 million (4)

Number of Labor Inspectors

56 (5)

30 (4)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (4)

No (4)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (5)

N/A

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Yes

Yes (4)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (5)

Yes (4)

Number of Labor Inspections

308 (49)

4,800 (4)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown

4,800 (4)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown

0 (4)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

7 (5)

17 (4)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

5 (5)

Unknown

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

2 (50)

Unknown

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (5)

Yes (4)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (5)

Yes (4)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (5)

Yes (4)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (5)

Yes (4)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (5)

Yes (4)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (5)

Yes (4)

 

As part of the Ministry of Labor, Employment and Social Security’s (MTESS) efforts to professionalize the labor inspectorate, all labor inspectors must now meet the minimum qualification of a university degree. During 2016, the MTESS reassigned some of the incumbent labor inspectors to other functions including training new staff, providing labor complaint customer service, and organizing inspection strategy.(4) The number of labor inspectors is insufficient for the size of Paraguay’s workforce, which includes over 3 million workers. According to the ILO’s recommendation of 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in developing economies, Paraguay should employ roughly 219 inspectors.(51-53) Government agencies, international organizations, NGOs, and labor organizations agree that inadequate funding and number of labor inspectors hamper the labor inspectorate’s capacity to enforce child labor laws, especially in the informal sector.(4, 5, 16) The inspectorate is particularly limited by the lack of dedicated vehicles or travel funds.(4, 5, 16)

An additional constraint to labor law enforcement is the legal requirement that the Public Ministry and the Ministry of Labor, Employment and Social Security (MTESS) secure a search warrant from a judge if an employer does not permit an inspector to enter a workplace and conduct an inspection. There is a lack of efficient and timely cooperation by judicial authorities in granting workplace inspection search warrants, as the system is paper-based and orders routinely take more than 3 months to arrive.(4, 5, 7, 16, 54) During the reporting period, the MTESS formalized an agreement with judicial authorities, which will go into effect in 2017, to accelerate the authorization of search warrants.(4)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in Paraguay took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (55)

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Yes (55)

Yes (4)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (55)

Yes (4)

Number of Investigations

68 (55)

77 (4)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown

71 (4)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

60 (55)

77 (4)

Number of Convictions

35 (55)

20 (4)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

No (4)

No (4)

 

In November 2016, the Attorney General’s office rescued 35 indigenous Ache victims, including 7 children, from forced labor producing charcoal on a farm in the Chaco.(4, 17, 47) During the reporting period, a judge in the city of Horqueta placed a 17 year old girl on house arrest for possession of a fire arm and EPP communications. (56) Government agencies, international organizations, NGOs, and labor organizations have observed that more specialized prosecutors are needed to support local prosecutors nationwide and to increase the Public Ministry’s ability to investigate and prosecute child labor cases involving human trafficking.(4, 5, 16) The Special Directorate to Fight the Trafficking of Persons and Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children has insufficient resources, including vehicles, fuel, and logistical support, to carry out investigations, particularly in remote areas, such as the Chaco, where the worst forms of child labor, human trafficking, and debt bondage are most prevalent. Overall, Paraguay’s law enforcement agencies lack resources, including staff and training, to sufficiently identify, investigate, and prosecute cases of the worst forms of child labor; as a result, the number of convictions of crimes related to the worst forms of child labor is insufficient and existing penalties are inadequate deterrents.(4, 5, 7, 16, 57)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Commission to Prevent and Eradicate the Exploitation of Children (CONAETI)

Lead government efforts against child labor and include representatives from the MTESS, the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights, the Ministry of Women’s Affairs, the SNNA, and other government agencies, as well as labor union representatives, industry associations, and NGOs.(7, 58)

Inter-Institutional Working Group on Preventing and Combating Human Trafficking

Coordinate interagency efforts to combat all forms of trafficking in persons, including child trafficking. Headed by the Ministry of Foreign Relations.(7, 20, 58)

Defense Councils for the Rights of Children and Adolescents

Coordinate efforts to protect children’s rights at the municipal level, including by maintaining a registry of children involved in economic activities and coordinating with vocational training programs for adolescents.(7, 31)

 

In 2016, the MTESS met regularly with the Ministries of Education and Health, however, coordination between these ministries remains insufficient to combat the worst forms of child labor.(4-7, 59)

The Government has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Strategy for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor and Protection of Working Adolescents (2016–2020)†

Aims to raise awareness and strengthen enforcement of child labor laws. Provides child laborers access to free, quality education and offers livelihood alternatives for their families.(4, 7, 58)

National Strategy to Prevent Forced Labor†

Aims to prevent and eradicate forced labor and care for victims.(60)

National Plan for Development (2014–2030)

Aims to reduce social exclusion and poverty, including by preventing and eliminating child labor.(61)

National Plan on Human Rights

Promotes human rights, including the prevention and elimination of child labor and forced labor.(62)

Inter-Institutional Agreement on Government Procurement

Prohibits Government procurement of goods or services involving child labor. Established between SNNA and the National Bureau for Public Contracts.(63)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

In 2016, the Government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

USDOL-Funded Projects

USDOL projects that aim to eliminate child labor, including its worst forms, through research, improved monitoring and enforcement, policy development, and awareness-raising. These projects include Country Level Engagement and Assistance to Reduce Child Labor (CLEAR), implemented by the ILO in 11 countries; Global Research on Child Labor Measurement and Policy Development, implemented by the ILO in 10 countries; Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues, implemented by the ILO in approximately 40 countries; and Paraguay Okakuaa (Paraguay Progresses), $6 million project implemented by Partners of the Americas.(64-66) For additional information about USDOL’s work, please visit our Web site.

Embrace Program

(Programa Abrazo)†

SNNA program to assist children engaged in exploitative work by providing them and their families with health and education services, food deliveries, and cash transfers conditioned on children’s school attendance and withdrawal from work.(58) Works closely with NGO Fortalecer in the implementation of ILO-IPEC programs and with the Sugarcane Growers’ Association, Ministry of Education and Culture, and CONAETI to set up programs tailored to at-risk children who work during the sugarcane harvesting season.(7)

Combating Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Girls, Boys and Adolescents in Trips and Tourism†

National campaign of the National Secretariat for Tourism and the Association of Female Tourism Executives to raise awareness on protecting children from commercial sexual exploitation.(6)

Promotion of Decent Work in the Cotton Supply Chain (2016-2018)*

Government of Brazil-funded project implemented by the ILO to promote decent work in cotton through exchanges on combatting poverty and discrimination, preventing and eradicating child labor and forced labor, formalizing employment, and promoting youth employment and equality.(67, 68)

Well-Being Conditional Cash Transfer Program (Tekoporã)†

Government-administered program through the Secretariat for Social Action. Provides conditional cash transfers to families in rural communities.(5) Incorporates aspects of the Embrace Program, such as the family monitoring methodology, to ensure beneficiary children do not engage in child labor.(7)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Paraguay.

The 2012 Law Against Trafficking in Persons requires the Ministry of Women’s Affairs to provide compensation and financial assistance to victims of sexual and labor trafficking, including minors. However, the Government has not allocated funding for the Ministry of Women’s Affairs to implement such a program, and most victims did not have access to comprehensive care.(5, 16, 40, 69) Although Paraguay has programs that target child labor, the scope and funding level of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem, and programs are limited by the absence of government education and health services in rural areas. Additional programs are needed to reach the large numbers of working children, especially in agriculture, including cattle herding, and domestic work.(5, 16) The Government lacks appropriate programs and social services for the disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration of children associated with armed groups. (5, 59)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Paraguay (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under 18 by non-state armed groups.

2016

Enforcement

Strengthen the labor inspectorate by permitting inspectors to determine and assess penalties for child labor violations.

2016

Make information on the number of penalties imposed and collected for child labor violations publicly available.

2016

Increase the number of labor inspectors trained and responsible for providing enforcement of child labor laws to meet international standards and increase the funding and resources available to the labor inspectorate, including dedicated vehicles and travel funds.

2009 – 2016

Build enforcement capacity to address children’s work in the informal sector.

2014 – 2016

Implement the agreement to accelerate authorization of workplace inspection search warrants to improve the cooperation mechanisms among judicial authorities and labor enforcement officials.

2013 – 2016

Establish a referral mechanism between criminal authorities and social services to ensure victims of the worst forms of child labor receive appropriate services.

2016

Ensure children associated with armed groups are referred to appropriate rehabilitation and reintegration programs.

2015 – 2016

Increase efforts to prosecute crimes related to the exploitation of children in the worst forms of child labor, including by hiring and training more specialized prosecutors; providing resources, such as vehicles and fuel, to enable investigations in remote areas, such as the Chaco; developing coordination and referral mechanisms for government agencies to refer relevant cases to the Public Ministry; and increasing penalties for crimes.

2012 – 2016

Coordination

Strengthen interagency coordinating mechanisms, with particular focus on the communication between the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Health, to combat child labor, including its worst forms.

2013 – 2016

Social Programs

Increase access to education for children vulnerable to child labor, particularly children living in rural and indigenous communities, including in the Chaco, and children with disabilities.

2014 – 2016

Further expand government programs to assist more families and children affected by child labor, including in agriculture and domestic work.

2010 – 2016

Implement disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration programs for children associated with armed groups and ensure these children receive sufficient rehabilitation services.

2015 – 2016

1.         ILO and Dirección General de Estadística Encuestas y Censos. Trabajo infantil y adolescente en el sector rural agrícola, pecuario, forestal y de pesca y piscicultura en Paraguay - Encuesta de actividades de niños, niñas y adolescentes – EANA RURAL 2015. Geneva, Organización Internacional del Trabajo; Servicio de Principios y derechos fundamentales en el trabajo (FUNDAMENTALS); Dirección General de Estadística, Encuestas y Censos del Paraguay (DGEEC); 2016. http://www.ilo.org/santiago/sala-de-prensa/WCMS_533723/lang--es/index.htm.

2.         ILO and Dirección General de Estadística Encuestas y Censos. Magnitud y características del trabajo infantil y adolescente en el Paraguay; 2013.

3.         UNICEF. Situación del Derecho a la Protección Infantil y Adolescente en Paraguay. Asunción; December 2014. http://www.unicef.org/paraguay/spanish/unicef-situacionderechoproteccion.pdf.

4.         U.S. Embassy- Asunción. reporting, January 18, 2017.

5.         U.S. Embassy- Asunción. reporting, January 15, 2016.

6.         U.S. Embassy- Asunción. reporting, February 1, 2016.

7.         U.S. Embassy- Asunción. reporting, February 3, 2014.

8.         U.S. Department of State. "Paraguay," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2015. Washington, DC; April 13, 2016; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/253245.pdf.

9.         U.S. Department of State. "Paraguay," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016. Washington, DC; June 30, 2016; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/258881.pdf.

10.       Agenzia Fides. "AMERICA/PARAGUAY - Complaints regarding child abuse, who are exploited as domestic servants, continue." fides.org [online] March 11, 2016 [cited November 6, 2016]; http://www.fides.org/en/news/59610#.WB_dKOErLyU.

11.       Carneri, S. "EXPLOITATION OF CHILD DOMESTIC LABOUR IN PARAGUAY, A HIDDEN, DEEP-ROOTED CUSTOM." equaltimes.org [online] August 12, 2016 [cited November 6, 2016]; http://www.equaltimes.org/exploitation-of-child-domestic?lang=en#.WB_emeErLyU.

12.       Tegel, S. "The 'adoption' of Paraguayan children as domestic help." The Washington Post, Asuncion, June 13, 2016; A-Section. LexisNexis.

13.       UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed December 16, 2016]; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. Because the calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age), the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

14.       UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Encuesta Permanente de Hogares (EPH), 2014. Analysis received December 15, 2016. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

15.       ICF Macro. Child Labor in the Sugarcane Industry in Paraguay: Quantitative Research and Data Collection. Calverton, MD; October 2011.

16.       U.S. Embassy- Asunción. reporting, January 15, 2015.

17.       Ultimahora.com. "Esclavitud: Indígenas rescatados cobraron sus salarios." [online] November 19, 2016 [cited January 24, 2017]; http://www.ultimahora.com/esclavitud-indigenas-rescatados-cobraron-sus-salarios-n1041162.html.

18.       U.S. Department of State. "Paraguay," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2014. Washington, DC; https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/236920.pdf.

19.       U.S. Department of State. "Paraguay," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2016. Washington, DC; March 3, 2017; https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265818.pdf.

20.       U.S. Embassy- Asunción. reporting, March 5, 2014.

21.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual direct request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Paraguay (ratification: 2001) Published: 2014; accessed April 17, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3149343:NO.

22.       ABC Color. "Muchas “Liz” siguen en Cateura." abc.com.py [online] February 10, 2014 [cited March 25, 2015]; http://www.abc.com.py/nacionales/muchas-liz-siguen-en-cateura-1213703.html.

23.       Secretaría Nacional de la Niñez y la Adolescencia. Situación sobre CRIADAZGO en nuestro país, Government of Paraguay, [online] February 26, 2014 [cited April 16, 2015]; http://www.snna.gov.py/noticia/142-situacin-sobre-criadazgo-en-nuestro-pas.html#.VTARp9zF98F.

24.       ABC Color. "Pornografía infantil: poca ayuda de proveedores." abc.com.py [online] April 6, 2015 [cited February 17, 2016]; http://www.abc.com.py/nacionales/poca-ayuda-de-las-proveedoras-de-internet-1353780.html.

25.       ABC Color. "Cae español por pornografía infantil." abc.com.py [online] February 10, 2016 [cited February 17, 2016]; http://www.abc.com.py/edicion-impresa/judiciales-y-policiales/cae-espanol-por-pornografia-infantil-1451907.html.

26.       ABC Color. "Imputan a modelo por pornografía infantil." abc.com.py [online] May 13, 2015 [cited February 17, 2016]; http://www.abc.com.py/nacionales/imputan-a-modelo-por-pornografia-infantil-1366453.html.

27.       U.S. Embassy- Asunción. reporting, February 17, 2015.

28.       U.S. Embassy- Asunción. reporting, February 1, 2013.

29.       Rural Poverty Portal. Rural poverty in Paraguay, International Fund for Agricultural Development, [online] [cited February 10, 2017]; https://www.ruralpovertyportal.org/country/home/tags/paraguay.

30.       UNFPA. PARAGUAY JOVEN Informe sobre juventud 2015. Asunción; June 2016. http://www.unfpa.org.py/download/Informe%20Juventud%20COMPLETO%20FINAL.pdf.

31.       Government of Paraguay. Código de la Niñez y la Adolescencia, No. 1680, enacted May 30, 2001. http://www.snna.gov.py/archivos/documentos/c%C3%B3digo%20de%20la%20ni%C3%B1ez_final_2013_ovyc7p1m.pdf.

32.       Government of Paraguay. Ley No. 2332, enacted December 19, 2003. http://paraguay.justia.com/nacionales/leyes/ley-2332-dec-19-2003/gdoc/.

33.       Government of Paraguay. El Listado de Trabajo Infantil Peligroso, Decree 4951, enacted March 22, 2005. http://www.sipi.siteal.org/sites/default/files/sipi_normativa/decreto_no_4951_de_2005._reglamenta_la_ley_no_1657_de_2001.pdf.

34.       Government of Paraguay. Código del Trabajo, No. 213, enacted June 15, 1993. http://www.bacn.gov.py/MjYwOA==&ley-n-213.

35.       Government of Paraguay. Ley No. 1980/02 De Primer Empleo, enacted September 20, 2002. http://www.cird.org.py/juventud/primer_empleo/docs/ley_primer_empleo.doc.

36.       Government of Paraguay. Ley No. 5407 Del Trabajo Doméstico, enacted October 12, 2015. http://www.mtess.gov.py/application/files/9514/5571/6905/gaceta_ley_del_Trabajo_Domestico.pdf.

37.       Government of Paraguay. Ley Nº 496 Que Modifica, Amplia y Deroga Artículos de la Ley 213/93, Codigo del Trabajo, enacted August 22, 1995. http://www.mtess.gov.py/index.php/download_file/view_inline/536.

38.       Government of Paraguay. Constitución Política de 1992, enacted June 20, 1992.

39.       Government of Paraguay. Código Penal de Paraguay, No. 1.160/97, enacted November 26, 1997.

40.       Government of Paraguay. Ley Integral Contra la Trata de Personas, No. 4788, enacted September 6, 2012.

41.       Government of Paraguay. Ley Nº 3.440/08 Que Modifica Varias Disposiciones de la Ley N° 1.160/97, Código Penal, enacted July 16, 2008. http://www.pj.gov.py/images/contenido/ddpi/leyes/ley-3440-2008-que-modifica-el-codigo-penal.pdf.

42.       Government of Paraguay. Ley No. 1657, enacted January 10, 2001. http://paraguay.justia.com/nacionales/leyes/ley-1657-jan-10-2001/gdoc/.

43.       Government of Paraguay. Ley que Deroga el Artículo 10 y Modifica el Artículo 5 de la Ley Número 569/75 "Del Servicio Militar Obligatorio", No. 3360, enacted November 6, 2007. http://paraguay.justia.com/nacionales/leyes/ley-3360-nov-2-2007/gdoc/.

44.       Government of Paraguay. Ley del Servicio Militar Obligatorio, LEY N° 569, enacted December 1975. http://paraguay.justia.com/nacionales/leyes/ley-569-dec-24-1975/gdoc/.

45.       Government of Paraguay. Ley General de Educación, No. 1264/98, enacted April 21, 1998.

46.       Government of Paraguay. Ley N 4088 Que Establece la Gratuidad de la Educaciín Inicial y de la Educaciín Media, enacted May 20, 2010. http://www.bacn.gov.py/NTg5&ley-n-4088.

47.       US Embassy Asunción official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 22, 2017.

48.       Ministerio Público. Lucha contra la Trata de Personas, Government of Paraguay, [online] [cited February 17, 2016]; http://www.ministeriopublico.gov.py/lucha-contra-la-trata-de-personas-i244.

49.       Secretaría del Trabajo y Previsión Social Banco de Buenas Practicas Sobre Inspección Laboral en Iberoamérica. Paraguay - Ficha de país; accessed July 14, 2016; http://bancoinspeccioniberoamerica.stps.gob.mx/Publico/Index.aspx.

50.       US Embassy Asunción official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 30, 2016.

51.       Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook, CIA, [online] [cited April 10, 2017]; https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors based on the country’s level of development as determined by the UN.

52.       ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a “sufficient number” of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a “sufficient” number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

53.       UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex. New York; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies; “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies, and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

54.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Labour Inspection Convention, 1947 (No. 81) Paraguay (ratification: 1967) Published: 2014; accessed February 10, 2017; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3150741.

55.       US Embassy Asunción official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 20, 2016.

56.       ABC Color. "Filmación muestra que menor estaba armada." abc.com.py [online] November 24, 2016 [cited February 17, 2016]; http://www.abc.com.py/nacionales/ftc-menor-estaba-armada-1540893.html.

57.       ILO Committee of Experts. Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Paraguay (ratification: 2001) Published: 2014; accessed February 10, 2017; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3149347.

58.       Government of Paraguay. Written Communication Submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor Request for Information; February 1, 2013

59.       US Embassy Asunción official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. January 26, 2017.

60.       Government of Paraguay. LA ESTRATEGIA NACIONAL DE PREVENCIÓN DEL TRABAJO FORZOSO, Decree 6285, enacted November 15, 2016. http://www.presidencia.gov.py/archivos/documentos/DECRETO6285_1a5msfru.pdf.

61.       Government of Paraguay. Paraguay para todos y todas: Propuesta de Política Pública para el Desarrollo Social 2010-2020. Asunción; 2010. http://www.mag.gov.py/POLITICAS%20PUBLICAS/PPDS%202010%202020.pdf.

62.       Government of Paraguay. PLAN NACIONAL DE DERECHOS HUMANOS, Decree 10747, enacted March 6, 2013. http://www.mre.gov.py/v1/DDHH/DECRETO10747.pdf.

63.       Secretaría Nacional de la Niñez y la Adolescencia and Dirección Nacional de Contrataciones Públicas. Convenio de Cooperación Interinstitutional entre la Secretaria de la Niñez y la Adolescencia (SNNA) y la Dirección Nacional de Contrataciones Públicas (DNCP). [previously online]; 2010. http://white.oit.org.pe/ipec/alcencuentros/interior.php?notCodigo=1778.

64.       ILO-IPEC. Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues. Technical Progress Report. Geneva; October 2014.

65.       ILO-IPEC. Country Level Engagement and Assistance to Reduce Child Labor (CLEAR) project. Geneva; October 2014.

66.       U. S. Department of Labor. Department of Labor, Government of Paraguay commit to support new $6 million program to combat child labor, USDOL, [online] [cited February 18, 2016]; http://www.dol.gov/opa/media/press/ilab/ILAB20152177.htm.

67.       ILO. Acuerdan iniciativa de Cooperación Sur-Sur entre Paraguay, Brasil y la OIT para la promoción del trabajo decente en la cadena de algodón, ILO, [online] [cited January 24, 2017]; http://www.ilo.org/santiago/sala-de-prensa/WCMS_527003/lang--es/index.htm.

68.       ILO. Cooperación sur-sur para la promoción del trabajo decente en los países productores de algodón en África y América Latina, ILO, [online] [cited January 24, 2017]; http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---americas/---ro-lima/---sro-santiago/documents/projectdocumentation/wcms_527004.pdf.

69.       U.S. Embassy- Asunción. reporting, April 30, 2015.

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