Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Philippines

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Philippines

2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Significant Advancement

In 2015, the Philippines made a significant advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. Government agencies signed a joint memorandum on the Rescue and Rehabilitation of Abused Domestic Workers, which established a protocol for interagency coordination on efforts to rescue and assist exploited domestic workers, including child domestic workers. The Inter-Agency Council Against Trafficking established five new regional task forces to support enforcement of criminal laws related to child labor and provided training on trafficking in persons to a total of 3,693 government personnel and 5,972 non-government participants. In addition, the Inter-Agency Council Against Child Pornography adopted a new strategic plan that aims to eradicate child pornography in the Philippines. However, children in the Philippines are engaged in child labor, including in the production of sugarcane, and in the worst forms of child labor, including in forced domestic work and commercial sexual exploitation. Despite the existence of strong mechanisms to respond to cases of child labor, enforcement of child labor laws remains challenging due to the limited number of inspectors and lack of resources for inspections.

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Children in the Philippines are engaged in child labor, including in the production of sugarcane, and in the worst forms of child labor, including in forced domestic work and commercial sexual exploitation.(1-10) The 2011 National Survey on Children indicated that 3.2 million children are engaged in child labor, of which approximately 3 million work in hazardous labor.(11) Most child labor occurs in the informal sector, with approximately 60 percent of these children working in agriculture.(11, 12) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in the Philippines.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

7.5 (1,549,677)

Working children by sector, ages 5 to 14 (%)

 

Agriculture

54.1

Industry

5.3

Services

40.5

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

93.7

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

7.8

Primary completion rate (%):

101.0

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2013, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(13)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Survey on Children, 2011.(14)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of sugarcane, including growing, weeding,* harvesting,* cutting,* and carrying sugarcane bundles* (1, 3, 6-8, 15)

Growing bananas, coconuts, corn, rice, rubber, and tobacco (1, 2, 6, 15)

Hog farming (6)

Production of palm oil,* including harvesting,* hauling,* and loading palm oil fruits* (4, 6, 15)

Deep-sea fishing† (1, 6, 16-18)

Industry

Mining† and quarrying,† including gold extraction (1, 3, 15, 17-23)

Manufacturing pyrotechnics† (1, 18, 24, 25)

Construction,† activities unknown (1, 17, 26)

Production of fashion accessories (27)

Services

Domestic work (1, 3, 28-31)

Street work, including scavenging, selling flowers,* and begging* (1, 8, 12, 17, 32)

Scavenging in dumpsites† and in rivers* (1, 18, 33, 34)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, including use in the production of pornography, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (10, 12, 18, 30, 35-37)

Forced labor, including domestic work, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (9, 10, 30, 38)

Use in armed conflict (34, 39, 40)

Forced begging* (3)

Use in illicit activities, including in the trafficking of drugs (3, 18, 19, 41)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Children, primarily girls, are trafficked domestically from rural communities as well as conflict- and disaster-affected areas to urban centers and tourist destinations for the purpose of domestic work and commercial sexual exploitation.(30, 42) An increasing number of Filipino children are coerced into performing sex acts for live Internet broadcast to paying foreigners.(36, 43)

Child soldiering remains a concern among non-government militias and terrorist organizations, predominately in the southern region of Mindanao.(10, 44) In 2015, there were reports that the Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters, the New People’s Army, and the Abu Sayyaf Group recruited and used children as both combatants and noncombatants. During the reporting period there were no reports of the recruitment or use of children by security forces of the state.(42)

Many Filipino children work as domestic workers, or kasambahays, and are particularly vulnerable to forced labor.(1, 28, 45) Child domestic workers often live and work in the private homes of their employers, where they are expected to work long hours; have limited access to education; and may be subjected to sexual, verbal, and physical abuse.(9, 30, 36, 45)

Although the law mandates free public education, many children are unable to attend school due to the prohibitive cost of books, uniforms, meals, and transportation.(1, 18, 46) During the reporting period, the UN confirmed incidents of military use of schools, armed forces operating near schools, and attacks on schools and their personnel, all leading to the disruption of classes, primarily in indigenous, conflict-affected communities.(44)

The Philippines has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Article 139 of the Labor Code; Section 16 of the Act Instituting Policies for the Protection and Welfare of Domestic Workers (47, 48)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 139 of the Labor Code (48)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Department Order 4 on Hazardous Work and Activities to Persons Below 18 Years of Age; Section 12-D of the Special Protection of Children Against Abuse, Exploitation, and Discrimination Act (49, 50)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Section 4-5 of the Expanded Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act; Section 12-D of the Special Protection of Children Against Abuse, Exploitation, and Discrimination Act (51, 52)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Section 12-D of the Special Protection of Children Against Abuse, Exploitation, and Discrimination Act; Sections 4-5 of the Expanded Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act; Article 4 of the: Special Protection of Children Against Abuse, Exploitation and Discrimination Act (50-52)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Section 12-D of the Special Protection of Children Against Abuse, Exploitation, and Discrimination Act; Article 3 of the Special Protection of Children Against Abuse, Exploitation and Discrimination Act; Section 4 of the Anti-Child Pornography Act; Section 4 of the Cybercrime Prevention Act (24, 50, 51, 53, 54)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Section 12-D of the Special Protection of Children Against Abuse, Exploitation, and Discrimination Act; Articles 6 and 10 of the Special Protection of Children Against Abuse, Exploitation, and Discrimination Act; Sections 5 and 8 of the Comprehensive Dangerous Drugs Act (50, 51, 55)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

N/A*

 

 

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Combat: Yes

18

17

Section 5.A.4 of Memorandum Circular No. 13 on Selective Enlistment/Reenlistment of the Department of National Defense and the Armed Forces of the Philippines; 2003 Declaration on Ratifying the Optional Protocol (56-58)

Non-combat: Yes

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

18‡

Section 4 of the Enhanced Basic Education Act (18, 59)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Section 2 of the Philippine Constitution (60)

* No conscription (56)
‡ Age calculated based on available information

In December 2015, pursuant to the Sugarcane Industry Development Act, the Sugar Regulatory Administration issued guidelines which stipulate that in order to participate in the Government’s Block Farm program and receive resources, sugarcane farms must commit to implementing a farming system that is child labor free.(61, 62)

In 2015, the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) continued stakeholder consultations on the draft of a revised and expanded list of hazardous occupations and activities prohibited for children, which was adopted in February 2016.(63, 64)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE), Bureau of Working Conditions

Enforce child labor laws; regularly train inspectors and regional personnel. Inspect establishments and monitor compliance with labor laws in all sectors, including in the informal sector and agricultural and mining operations.(3) Register DOLE enforcement activities using the Labor Law Compliance System Management Information System, a Web-based application that uses tablet computers for transmitting and processing real-time data collected from the field using an electronic checklist.(41)

Rescue the Child Laborers Quick Action Teams (Sagip Batang Manggagawa SBM QAT)

Lead the regional mechanism for rescuing children who work in exploitative situations.(29) Detect, monitor, and respond to incidents of child labor using a cooperative, interagency approach involving DOLE, the Philippine National Police (PNP), the National Bureau of Investigation (NBI), the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD), local representatives of government agencies, local NGOs, labor unions, and the business community.(3, 41)

Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD)

Rehabilitate and reintegrate child laborers.(19, 29) Coordinate regional Special Action Units, with at least one dedicated staff member per region to conduct rescue operations for child laborers and cooperate with social workers to manage ongoing cases. Maintain 16 Crisis Intervention Units and 30 residential facilities nationwide to address cases of child abuse and support child abuse victims, including children exploited in hazardous labor.(18)

Philippine National Police (PNP)

Investigate and prosecute cases related to the worst forms of child labor.(38, 65) The PNP’s Women and Children’s Protection Center leads the enforcement of laws on child trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation of children as well as other tasks related to the protection of children.(3)

National Bureau of Investigation (NBI)

Investigate and prosecute child labor cases.(38, 65) Operate a national Trafficking in Persons Task Force, as well as a Task Force on the Protection of Children from Exploitation and Abuse.(36, 66)

Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency

Enforce the Comprehensive Dangerous Drugs Act. Maintain a national hotline for reporting cases of children used in illicit activities.(19) Coordinate with the DSWD to assist during rescue operations.(3)

 

In April 2015, the National Police Commission issued Resolution 2014–441 to strengthen and restructure the Women and Children’s Protection Center as a specialized unit under the Philippines National Police (PNP-WCPC). The PNP-WCPC’s new mandate includes responsibility for all investigations and operations relating to human trafficking.(42, 67)

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2015, labor law enforcement agencies in the Philippines took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

                                            

 Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$4,050,000 (41)

$706,480 (68)

Number of Labor Inspectors

462 (18)

536 (18, 69)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (18)

No (18)

Training for Labor Inspectors

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (41)

Yes (18)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (41)

Yes (18)

Number of Labor Inspections

69,749 (41)

44,524† (68)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown

Unknown (68)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown

Unknown (68)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown (41)

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

N/A

N/A

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

N/A

N/A

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (70)

Yes (68)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (70)

Yes (70)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (41)

Yes (18)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (41)

Yes (18)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (41, 71)

Yes (18)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (41)

Yes (18)

† Data are from January 1, 2015 to November, 2015.

For the second year in a row, the DOLE Bureau of Working Conditions hired additional Labor Laws Compliance Officers (LLCOs), bringing the total number to 536.(18, 41) However, according to the ILO’s recommendation of 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in industrializing economies, the Philippines should employ roughly 2,783 labor inspectors in order to adequately enforce labor laws throughout the country.(72-74) The Government noted that DOLE had limited funding for transportation, fuel, and other necessities to carry out inspections, particularly in the informal sector.(18) In 2015, 150 recently hired LLCOs received instruction during a 10-day basic course for new labor inspectors, which included an orientation on child labor issues. The DOLE Human Resource Development Service also conducts an ongoing series of capacity-building sessions for LLCOs on a variety of topics.(18) However, only LLCOs specifically involved in Rescue the Child Laborers Quick Action Teams (SBM QAT) regularly receive training on the enforcement of laws related to child labor.(18)

During the reporting period, DOLE identified 102 establishments with deficiencies in child labor law compliance, including employing children under the minimum age for work and engaging children in hazardous work.(18) Although DOLE does not have the authority to levy financial penalties for child labor law violations, from January to September 2015 DOLE ensured that five establishments found to be engaging six minors in commercial sexual exploitation were permanently closed; one establishment engaging two minors in hazardous work was temporarily closed.(18) SBM QATs conducted 10 rescue operations from January to September 2015 and removed 28 children from child labor in hazardous activities, including work on sugar plantations and in karaoke bars.(18) While the SBM QATs are permitted to conduct unannounced compliance visits in video karaoke bars, massage parlors, sauna/bath houses, and farms, they are not authorized to conduct visits in private homes to search for underage child domestic workers.(41)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2015, criminal law enforcement agencies in the Philippines took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Yes (68)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (41)

Yes (18)

Number of Investigations

610 (41, 63)

654† (18, 68)

Number of Violations Found

440 (41, 69)

159 (18, 69)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

138 (41, 69)

102 (18, 69)

Number of Convictions

42 (41, 69)

40 (18, 69)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (41)

Yes (18)

† Data are from January 1, 2015 to November, 2015.

In 2015, the PNP-WCPC employed 4,316 personnel, assigned to 2,493 women and children’s desks throughout the country. In addition, the Anti-Trafficking Division of the National Bureau of Investigation maintained 16 agents responsible for the investigation of human trafficking cases, with five additional investigators assigned to monitor international airports.(18) However, the limited number of law enforcement agents dedicated expressly to child trafficking and the commercial sexual exploitation of children continued to hinder the Government’s ability to investigate and prosecute complaints and violations.(18, 41)

During the reporting period, the Government organized trainings to build the capacity of law enforcement officials to investigate and prosecute human trafficking cases, including child labor trafficking cases. The Inter-Agency Council Against Trafficking (IACAT) conducted 26 trainings with 1,056 government personnel, and the IACAT Task Forces conducted a total of 132 trainings for 2,637 government personnel and for 5,972 non-government participants.(18) The PNP-WCPC also provided training for 1,037 police officers on human trafficking and child labor laws.(18)

In 2015, the DSWD reported providing assistance to a total of 57 child victims of commercial sexual exploitation, including for prostitution, pornography, and cyber-pornography, and 26 children who had been involved in armed conflict.(18, 68) IACAT also operated the 24/7 Action line against Human Trafficking to receive and respond to requests for assistance and referrals from trafficking victims, their families, and the public.(3) In 2015, the hotline received 28 reports involving minors.(18) As some enforcement agencies do not disaggregate data on the number of investigations, violations, prosecutions, and convictions related to the worst forms of child labor by age, there are some gaps in information in these areas.(18)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Child Labor Committee (NCLC)

Coordinate national efforts to combat child labor under DOLE.(29) Promote information-sharing at the national, regional, and provincial levels.(19) Composed of more than 25 government agencies, international organizations, and trade unions.(75)

Inter-Agency Council Against Trafficking (IACAT)

Coordinate, monitor, and oversee efforts to combat trafficking in persons, including child trafficking. Co-chaired by the Department of Justice and the DSWD, and work with other government agencies and two NGOs representing women and children.(3, 66) Composed of 24 anti-human trafficking task forces established in eight regions and seven interagency task forces in major seaports and airports.(3, 18, 41) In 2015, established five new anti-human trafficking task forces for a total of 24 nationwide.(18) Received a budget of $1.69 million in 2015, a decrease from the $2.3 million allocated in 2014.(18, 36)

Inter-Agency Council for the Welfare of Children (CWC)

Operate a monitoring and response system through its Subcommittee on Children Affected by Armed Conflict and Displacement to assist children engaged in armed conflict, including recruitment and use of child soldiers.(38)

Inter-Agency Committee on Children Involved in Armed Conflict

Advocate for protecting children and preventing the involvement of children in armed conflict. Composed of 14 government agencies and chaired by the CWC.(41) Coordinate and monitor the implementation of the Children in Armed Conflict Program Framework.(3) Convene on a bimonthly basis for reporting and monitoring.(41)

Inter-Agency Council Against Child Pornography

Monitor and implement the Anti-Child Pornography Act of 2009.(76) Chaired by the DSWD, with numerous members, including the Department of Justice, the Department of Labor and Employment, the NBI, and three NGO representatives.(68)

 

In 2015, several government agencies signed a Joint Memorandum Circular (JMC) on the Protocol on the Rescue and Rehabilitation of Abused Kasambahay (domestic workers). The JMC establishes guidelines for improved coordination between relevant agencies in the protection of abused or exploited domestic workers, including child domestic workers.(18, 77)

Although the National Child Labor Committee (NCLC) is responsible for coordinating government efforts to combat child labor, the committee does not have a clear legal mandate under Republic Act No. 9231 on the elimination of the worst forms of child labor and lacks a specific budgetary appropriation to fund its operations.(75) These factors limit the effectiveness of the NCLC in its role as the lead coordination mechanism on child labor policy and programming.(75)

The Government of the Philippines has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

Philippine Program Against Child Labor (PPACL) Strategic Framework (2007–2015)

Lays out a blueprint for reducing the prevalence of child labor by 75 percent.(29, 78, 79) Objectives include improving access for children and their families to appropriate services to help prevent incidences of child labor and to reintegrate former child laborers.(29, 80) Includes the Convergence Action Plan (HELP ME.: health, education, livelihood, prevention, protection and prosecution, monitoring, and evaluation), which aims to reduce the worst forms of child labor by 2016 and to remove 893,000 children from hazardous child labor across 15,568 target barangays (districts).(79, 81) Has been allocated $220 million for implementation over 4 years.(81, 82) In August 2015, the NCLC began updating the PPACL for the period of 2016–2020.(83) In addition, the Government finalized a Joint Memorandum Circular (JMC) to provide policy guidance in the implementation of the HELP ME program.(18) Specifically, the JMC clarifies the target beneficiaries and geographical coverage of the program, defines the roles and responsibilities of the government agencies involved, establishes a framework for interagency collaboration, and specifies the requirements for reporting, monitoring, and evaluation.(84)

National Strategic Action Plan Against Trafficking in Persons (2012–2016)

Contains specific provisions on preventing trafficking of children, including raising awareness and creating local programs to prevent children from being lured by traffickers.(3, 19)

Inter-Agency Council Against Child Pornography Three-Year Strategic Plan†

Aims to eradicate child pornography in the Philippines by focusing efforts in five strategic areas: (1) advocacy and prevention; (2) law enforcement and prosecution; (3) protection, recovery, and reintegration; (4) research, monitoring, and management of information systems; and (5) partnerships and networking.(85)

Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Convention Against Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (ACTIP) (2015)†

Establishes a regional anti-human trafficking framework among 10 ASEAN Member States, including the Philippines, to improve coordination on investigation and prosecution of trafficking in persons cases and to enhance assistance for victims. Unanimously adopted in June 2015, the Convention was signed by the relevant heads of state on November 21, 2015.(86, 87)

Medium-Term Philippine Development Plan
(2011–2016)

Aims to strengthen monitoring mechanisms for child protection laws, develop strategies for responding to child trafficking and pornography concerns, and implement an enhanced program for preventing the engagement of children in armed conflict.(19)

Philippine Labor and Employment Plan
(2011–2016)

Operates within the framework of the Medium-Term Philippine Development Plan and includes the goal of reducing exploitive child labor.(3, 19, 88)

National Strategic Framework for Plan Development for Children (Child 21)
(2000–2025)

Sets out broad goals for national government agencies, local governments, and NGOs to achieve improved quality of life for Filipino children by 2025.(29, 66, 89) Addresses concerns related to the worst forms of child labor under the section on children in need of special protection.(18)

National Plan of Action for Children (2011–2016)

Serves as an agenda for implementation of Child 21.(66) Child labor elimination and prevention strategies are mainstreamed throughout the document, particularly in goal two on child protection, which specifies that children should be free from violence, abuse, neglect, and exploitation.(18)

UNDAF for the Pacific Region (2012–2018)

Identifies major development priorities, including reducing and eliminating child labor.(90)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

In 2015, the Department of Education developed a draft policy on child labor, which establishes a system to identify and refer in-school child laborers to appropriate service providers through the Government’s HELP ME Convergence Program. Currently, the draft policy is awaiting stakeholder validation and finalization.(83)

In 2015, the Government of the Philippines funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Child Labor Prevention and Elimination Program†

DOLE program that implements local awareness-raising campaigns, institutes child labor-monitoring mechanisms, and requires barangays to develop child labor elimination plans.(91)

Campaign for Child-Labor Free Barangays

DOLE program to eliminate child labor in villages through community awareness-raising on child labor and anti-human trafficking laws, and through government livelihood programs and guidelines.(3, 31, 92) Between January and November 2015, DOLE declared 106 barangays child labor-free, bringing the total number to 159 since 2014.(93) DOLE regional offices awarded Child Labor-Free Establishment Certificates to 58 establishments, bringing the total number of certified establishments up to 163 nationwide.(93)

Livelihood for Parents of Child Laborers (Kasama Program)†

DOLE program that provides livelihood assistance to parents, guardians or other family members of child laborers. (65, 92, 93)  In 2015, 5,084 parents received services. (94)

Project Angel Tree†

DOLE program that distributes donated shoes, school bags, and other supplies to children at risk of, or engaged in, child labor.(29, 65, 92) In 2015, a total of 2,905 child laborers or children at risk for child labor received supplies.(94)

Convening Stakeholders to Develop and Implement Strategies to Reduce Child Labor and Improve Working Conditions in Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining (COSTREC-ASGM) (2015–2019)*

$5 million USDOL-funded, 3.5-year project implemented by the ILO that aims to support efforts to reduce child labor and improve working conditions in artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Ghana and the Philippines. The project supports efforts to (1) implement laws, policies, and action plans to address child labor and working conditions in ASGM; (2) increase access of ASGM communities to livelihood and social protection programs; and (3) develop tools to increase transparency and monitoring of child labor and working conditions in gold mining supply chains.(95)

Recovery and Reintegration Program for Trafficked Persons†

DSWD and IACAT program that provides recovery and reintegration services to victims of human trafficking and raises awareness in vulnerable communities.(42) Includes the National Referral System, which strengthens coordination among agencies providing services to human trafficking victims through the use of standard referral and reporting forms.(42) There are 149 referral networks established in 16 regions.(41) In 2015, received a budget of $483,662.(18)

Special Social Services for Children in Armed Conflict†

DSWD program that provides special services to protect and rehabilitate children after direct or indirect involvement in armed conflict.(96) Includes services such as emergency evacuation and rescue; family reunification; provision of food, clothing, and shelter; and psychosocial rehabilitation.(65)

Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues

USDOL-funded project implemented by the ILO in approximately 40 countries to support the priorities of the Roadmap for Achieving the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor by 2016, established by The Hague Global Child Labor Conference in 2010. Aims to build the capacity of the national government and develop strategic policies to address the elimination of child labor and forced labor, improve the evidence base on child labor and forced labor through data collection and research, and strengthen legal protections and social services delivery for child domestic workers in the Philippines.(97) In 2015, organized a workshop to discuss adoption of the Roadmap to Eliminate Child Labor in Domestic Work in the Philippines.(64, 98) The Roadmap has been submitted to the National Child Labor Committee for endorsement.(98, 99)

Country Level Engagement and Assistance to Reduce (CLEAR) Child Labor

USDOL-funded capacity building project implemented by the ILO in at least 10 countries to build local and national capacity of the Government to address child labor. Aims to improve legislation addressing child labor issues, including by bringing local or national laws into compliance with international standards, improve monitoring and enforcement of laws and policies related to child labor, implement a National Action Plan on the elimination of child labor, and enhance the implementation of national and local policies and programs aimed at the reduction and prevention of child labor in the Philippines.(83) In 2015, facilitated the finalization of the Case Flow Management Protocol, a comprehensive plan detailing the management process for dealing with child labor cases, from identification and reporting, to prosecution of criminal actions and imposition of administrative sanctions. Currently, the National Child Labor Committee has approved the Protocol and the official adoption process is underway.(76, 83)

Philippines ABK3 LEAP—Livelihoods, Education, Advocacy, and Protection to Reduce Child Labor in Sugarcane
(2011–2016)

$16.5 million USDOL-funded, 4-year and 11-month project implemented by World Vision to reduce child labor in sugar-producing areas in 11 provinces of the Philippines.(100) Seeks to provide education services to 54,000 children engaged in, or at risk of engaging in, the worst forms of child labor, and to provide livelihood assistance to 28,090 households of targeted children. Engages the sugar industry in raising awareness of child labor among sugar workers and their families.(100, 101) In 2015, supported 45 barangays to pass and approve policies aimed at reducing child labor.(97)

Social Amelioration Program (SAP)†

DOLE, National Tripartite Council, and Sugar Industry program that provides a cash bonus to sugar workers and funds social protection, livelihood, and education programs for sugar workers and their families through a tax imposed on refined sugar.(102, 103) In 2015, the Sugar Industry Foundation Incorporated conducted a study analyzing the implementation and replicability of SAP. Recommendations for policy makers and industry leaders include raising awareness about SAP in order to reach more beneficiaries and revisiting the legal mandate for the program to ensure that the amount of money distributed to sugar workers is sufficient to meet their present needs.(104)

Conditional Cash Transfer Program (Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino)†

DSWD and Local Government Unit social assistance and development program that provides conditional grants to poor families with children to improve their access to health care, adequate nutrition, and education.(91, 105, 106) Covers 1,627 cities and municipalities in 79 provinces and all 17 regions.(41) Targets households of child laborers and includes a condition prohibiting hazardous child labor as a program requirement.(82, 107) In 2015, more than 300,000 beneficiaries graduated from high school.(108) Program budget for 2015 was $1.31 billion, targeted to provide grants to 4.4 million households.(68)

Alternative Learning System Program†

Department of Education program that offers non-formal education to out-of-school children, including child laborers, as well as opportunities to attain a certificate of education equivalency.(46, 109) Has limited resources, represents approximately 1 percent of the Department of Education’s budget, and has only 1 teacher for every 24 communities, so it cannot reach many out-of-school youth.(46, 68, 92)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of the Philippines.

 

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in the Philippines (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Enforcement

Authorize the labor inspectorate to assess penalties.

2015

Increase the number of labor inspectors responsible for enforcing laws related to child labor and resources available in order to provide adequate coverage of the workforce.

2014 – 2015

Authorize SBM QATs to conduct compliance visits in private homes to search for underage child domestic workers.

2014 – 2015

Make information publicly available on the number of labor inspections conducted at worksites, the number conducted by desk review, and the number of child labor law violations found; and ensure that the total number of criminal investigations, violations, prosecutions, and convictions related to the worst forms of child labor are disaggregated by age.

2015

Dedicate law enforcement agents to child trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation of children issues so they may effectively investigate and prosecute those issues.

2013 – 2015

Coordination

Ensure that the National Child Labor Committee has the legal mandate and resources necessary to effectively coordinate national efforts to combat child labor, including its worst forms.

2015

Social Programs

Ensure that all children are able to safely access and attend school and do not face prohibitive costs for education-related expenses.

2010 – 2015

Provide necessary resources to help more out-of-school youth access the Alternative Learning System program so they can complete their basic education.

2011 – 2015

 

 

1.         ILO-IPEC. Baseline Survey for the ILO-IPEC TBP Phase 2. Draft Report. Manila; 2011. [source on file].

2.         ECLT Foundation. Agriculture and Tobacco, ECLT, [online] 2010 [cited February 14, 2013]; [source on file].

3.         U.S. Embassy- Manila. reporting, January 17, 2014.

4.         Center for Trade Union and Human Rights. Children of the Sunshine Industry, [online] October 4 [cited http://ctuhr.org/children-of-the-sunshine-industry/.

5.         Palatino, M. Rising Child Labor Abuse in the Philippines, The Diplomat, [online] February 17, 2015 [cited February 17, 2015]; http://thediplomat.com/2015/02/rising-child-labor-abuse-in-the-philippines/.

6.         Castro, CL. Child sakadas in Philippine agriculture: Researching injury hazards for working children in the context of international labor standards and United States foreign policy. Washington, DC: The George Washington University; May 20, 2007.

7.         Torres, J. "Chronic poverty is fueling child labor in the Phillipines." ucanews.com [online] January 29, 2015 [cited November 15, 2015]; http://www.ucanews.com/news/chronic-poverty-is-fueling-child-labor-in-the-philippines/72891.

8.         Torres, J. Not enough done to combat child labor in Philippines, critics say, UCAnews, [online] June 15, 2015 [cited January 5, 2016]; http://www.ucanews.com/news/not-enough-done-to-combat-child-labor-in-philippines-critics-say/73782.

9.         ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29) Philippines (ratification: 2005) Published: 2014; accessed November 5, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/english/iloquery.htm.

10.       U.S. Department of State. "Philippines," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015. Washington, DC; July 27, 2015; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/243561.pdf.

11.       National Statistics Office. The Number of Working Children 5 to 17 Years Old is Estimated at 5.5 Million (Preliminary Results of the 2011 Survey on Children), [online] [cited February 14, 2015]; http://www.census.gov.ph/content/number-working-children-5-17-years-old-estimated-55-million-preliminary-results-2011-survey.

12.       U.S. Department of State. "Philippines," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2013. Washington, DC; February 27, 2014; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm.

13.       UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed December 16, 2015]; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. Because the calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age), the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

14.       UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Survey on Children (SOC), 2011. Analysis received December 18, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

15.       Mong Palatino. Rising Child Labor Abuse in the Philippines The Diplomat, [online] February 17 [cited February 17, 2015 http://thediplomat.com/2015/02/rising-child-labor-abuse-in-the-philippines/.

16.       FAO, and ILO. Good Practice Guide for Addressing Child Labor in Fisheries and Aquaculture: Policy and Practice (Preliminary Version). Geneva; December 2011. ftp://ftp.fao.org/FI/DOCUMENT/child_labour_FAO-ILO/child_labour_FAO-ILO.pdf.

17.       ILO, and Philippine National Statistics Office. 2011 Survey on Children. Manila; June 26, 2012. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---asia/---ro-bangkok/---ilo-manila/documents/meetingdocument/wcms_184097.pdf.

18.       U.S. Embassy- Manila. reporting, January 19, 2016.

19.       U.S. Embassy- Manila. reporting, February 1, 2013.

20.       Center for Trade Union and Human Rights. Teens exposed to hazardous work in Surigao mining firm, [online] September 1, 2014 [cited http://ctuhr.org/teens-exposed-to-hazardous-work-in-surigao-mining-firm/.

21.       Inquirer.net. Where have all the children gone?, [online] [cited http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/626282/where-have-all-the-children-gone.

22.       Juliane Kippenberg. "What ... if Something Went Wrong?" Hazardous Child Labor in Small-Scale Gold Mining in the Philippines. New York, Human Rights Watch; September 29, 2015. https://www.hrw.org/video-photos/video/2015/09/29/philippines-children-risk-death-gold.

23.       Williams, E. "Children of the Dirty Gold," Dateline. Sydney: SBS Dateline; June 16, 2015; 23 min., 56 sec., television program; [cited February 16, 2016]; http://www.sbs.com.au/news/dateline/story/children-dirty-gold.

24.       U.S. Department of State. "Philippines," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2012. Washington, DC; April 19, 2013; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2012&dlid=204231.

25.       "Philippines fireworks factories warned vs. hiring minors." Mindanao Examiner, Mindanao, December 25, 2013. [source on file].

26.       Bernal, B. Negligence, child labor seen in Bulacan warehouse accident, Rappler, [online] February 5, 2015 [cited January 5, 2015]; http://www.rappler.com/nation/81561-labor-offense-bulacan-warehouse-accident.

27.       Aldaba, F, et al.,. Employers’ Demand for Child Labor in the Pyrotechnics and Fashion Accessories Industries in the Philippines.ILO; 2005 December 2005. [hard copy on file].

28.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Philippines (ratification: 2000) Published: 2012; accessed February 14, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/english/iloquery.htm.

29.       U.S. Embassy- Manila. reporting, January 24, 2012.

30.       ILO. Application of International Labour Standards 2014 ( I ). Geneva; 2014. Report No. III (Part 1A). http://www.ilo.org/ilc/ILCSessions/103/reports/reports-to-the-conference/WCMS_235054/lang--en/index.htm.

31.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Philippines (ratification: 2000) Published: 2014; accessed November 5, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/english/iloquery.htm.

32.       Free the Slaves. "Amihan Abueva: Fighting Child Sexual Exploitation in the Philippines," Washington D.C.: January 21,, 2015; 2 min., 37 sec., Film; December 23, 2015; http://www.freetheslaves.net/video/freedom-awards-2008-amihan-abueva-philippines-william-wilberforce-award-winner/.

33.       Catholic Online. "Filipino children forced to scavenge through rubbish for pennies a day." catholic.org [online] July 5, 2015 [cited 2015]; http://www.catholic.org/news/international/asia/story.php?id=61759.

34.       U.S. Department of State. "Philippines," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2014. Washington, DC; June 25, 2015; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/236682.pdf.

35.       ILO-IPEC. Ending Child Labour in Domestic Work and Protecting Young Workers from Abusive Working Conditions. Geneva; June 12, 2013. http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/download.do?type=document&id=21515.

36.       U.S. Embassy- Manila. reporting, February 18, 2015.

37.       Lowe, A. "Philippines faces hurdles to shut down sex trafficking." channelnewsasia.com [online] August 23, 2015 [cited November 16, 2015];

38.       U.S. Embassy- Manila. reporting, February 15, 2013.

39.       United National General Assembly Security Council. Report of the Secretary-General on Children and Armed Conflict (S/2015/409); June 5, 2015. http://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/s_2015_409.pdf.

40.       Gutierrez, J. "Philippines strives to end recruitment of child soldiers." IRINnews.org [online] May 20, 2015 [cited November 15, 2015]; http://www.irinnews.org/report/101517/philippines-strives-to-end-recruitment-of-child-soldiers.

41.       U.S. Embassy- Manila. reporting, January 15, 2015.

42.       U.S. Embassy- Manila. reporting, February 29, 2016.

43.       Murdoch, L. "61-year-old Australian arrested for human trafficking in Philippines." The Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney, May 14, 2015; World. http://www.smh.com.au/world/61yearold-australian-arrested-for-human-trafficking-in-philippines-20150514-gh1g0e.html.

44.       UN General Assembly Security Council. Report of the Secretary-General on Children and Armed Conflict (A/70/836–S/2016/360) April 20, 2016. http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/2016/360.

45.       Anti-Slavery International. Background: Forced Labour and Exploitation of Domestic Workers in the Philippines, Anti-Slavery International, [cited February 14, 2015]; [source on file].

46.       International Technology Management Corporation. Philippine Education Sector Assessment. Washington, DC, USAID; 2011. [hard copy on file].

47.       Government of the Philippines. An Act Instituting Policies for the Protection and Welfare of Domestic Workers, No. 10361, enacted January 18, 2013. http://www.lawphil.net/statutes/repacts/ra2013/ra_10361_2013.html.

48.       Government of the Philippines. The Labor Code of the Philippines, Presidential Decree No. 442, enacted May 1, 1974. http://www.cfo.gov.ph/pdf/PD%20No.%20442.pdf.

49.       Government of the Philippines. Hazardous Work and Activities to Persons Below 18 Years of Age, Department Order No. 4, enacted October 8, 1999. http://www.bwsc.dole.gov.ph/files/cl/DO4%20s_1999.pdf.

50.       Government of the Philippines. Act Providing for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor and Affording Stronger Protections for the Working Child, No. 9231, enacted December 19, 2003. http://www.lawphil.net/statutes/repacts/ra2003/ra_9231_2003.html.

51.       Government of the Philippines. Special Protection of Children against Abuse, Exploitation and Discrimination Act, No. 7610, enacted June 17, 1992. http://www.lawphil.net/statutes/repacts/ra1992/ra_7610_1992.html.

52.       Government of the Philippines. Expanded Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act of 2012, No. 10364, enacted February 6, 2013. http://www.gov.ph/2013/02/06/republic-act-no-10364/.

53.       Government of the Philippines. Anti-Child Pornography Act of 2009, No. 9775, enacted November 17, 2009. http://www.lawphil.net/statutes/repacts/ra2009/ra_9775_2009.html.

54.       Government of the Philippines. Republic Act No. 10175 An Act Defining Cybercrime, Providing for the Prevention, Investigation, Suppression and the Imposition of Penalties Therefore and for Other Purposes, enacted 2011. [source on file].

55.       Government of the Philippines. Comprehensive Dangerous Drugs Act of 2002, No. 9165, enacted June 7, 2002. http://www.lawphil.net/statutes/repacts/ra2002/ra_9165_2002.html.

56.       Child Soldiers International. "Appendix II: Data Summary Table on Recruitment Ages of National Armies," in Louder than words: An Agenda for Action to End State Use of Child Soldiers. London; 2012; http://www.child-soldiers.org/global_report_reader.php?id=562.

57.       Government of the Philippines. Memorandum Circular No. 13 on Selective Enlistment/Reenlistment of the Department of National Defense and the Armed Forces of the Philippines, enacted [source on file].

58.       Government of the Philippines. Declaration on Ratifying the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict, enacted August 26, 2003. https://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=IND&mtdsg_no=IV-11-b&chapter=4&lang=en#EndDec.

59.       Government of the Philippines. Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013, No. 10533, enacted May 15, 2012. [source on file].

60.       Government of the Philippines. The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines, enacted February 11, 1987. http://www.gov.ph/the-philippine-constitutions/the-1987-constitution-of-the-republic-of-the-philippines/.

61.       Government of the Philippines. Sugarcane Industry Development Act, No. 10659, enacted March 27, 2015. http://www.gov.ph/2015/03/27/republic-act-no-10659/.

62.       Sugar Regulatory Administration. Block Farm Accreditation Guidelines. Bacolod City, Department of Agriculture; December 17, 2015. http://www.sra.gov.ph/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/2015-2016-CL-10-BLOCK-FARM-ACCREDITATION-GUIDELINES0001.pdf.

63.       U.S. Embassy- Manila official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. January 15, 2015.

64.       ILO-IPEC. Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues. Technical Progress Report. Geneva; April 2015.

65.       U.S. Embassy- Manila official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 27, 2013.

66.       U.S. Embassy- Manila official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 13, 2014.

67.       Zurbano, J. "Bolster Protection of Women and Children." The Standard, Manila, January 27, 2015; News. http://manilastandardtoday.com/news/metro/169147/-bolster-protection-of-women-children-.html.

68.       U.S. Embassy- Manila official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 22, 2016.

69.       U.S. Embassy- Manila official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 14, 2016.

70.       ILO. Labour Inspection Structure and Organization; accessed April 7, 2016; http://www.ilo.org/labadmin/info/WCMS_209367/lang--en/index.htm.

71.       Child Labor Knowledge Sharing System (CLKSS), Government of the Philippines, [online] [cited January 1, 2016]; http://site.clkss.org.ph/services/cases.

72.       CIA. The World Factbook, [online] [cited March 18, 2016]; https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors based on the country’s level of development as determined by the UN.

73.       ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a “sufficient number” of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a “sufficient” number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

74.       UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex. New York; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies; “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies, and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

75.       UCW. Understanding Child Labour and Youth Employment in the Philippines. Rome; December 2015. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---asia/---ro-bangkok/---ilo-manila/documents/publication/wcms_447853.pdf.

76.       National Child Labor Committee. Case Flow Management Protocol on Child Labor. Manila; 2015. [source on file].

77.       Department of Labor and Employment. More cohesive rescue, rehabilitation of abused Kasambahay now guaranteed under new inter-agency agreement, [online] November 4, 2015 [cited March 1, 2016]; http://www.dole.gov.ph/news/view/2964.

78.       Bureau of Workers with Special Concerns. Philippine Program against Child Labor. Manila, Department of Labor and Employment; February 29, 2012. [source on file].

79.       ILO-IPEC. Towards a Child Labour-Free Philippines: Supporting the ‘Philippine Program against Child Labour’ in Building on Past Gains and Addressing Challenges. Technical Progress Report. Geneva; October 2012. [source on file].

80.       Bureau of Workers with Special Concerns. Philippine Program against Child Labor (PPACL) 2011-2012 Implementation Plan. Manila, Department of Labor and Employment; 2011. [source on file].

81.       Department of Labor and Employment. DOLE 2012: Breakthrough in Fight against Child Labor, [online] January 7, 2013 [cited February 14, 2015]; http://www.dole.gov.ph/news/view/1992.

82.       Department of Labor and Employment. CCT Conditionalities to Include Child Labor Prohibition, [online] January 18, 2013 [cited February 14, 2015]; http://www.dole.gov.ph/news/view/2002.

83.       ILO-IPEC. Country Level Engagement and Assistance to Reduce (CLEAR) Child Labor Project. Technical Progress Report. Geneva; October 2015. [source on file].

84.       Government of the Philippines. Memorandum Circular on HELP ME Convergence Program to Address Child Labor, enacted 2016. [source on file].

85.       Inter-Agency Council Against Child Pornography. Inter-Agency Council Against Child Pornography Three-Year Strategic Plan (2015-2017). Manila; 2015. [souce on file].

86.       ASEAN. ASEAN to Enhance Cooperation in Combating Transnational Crime, [Online] June 17, 2015 [cited December 22, 2015]; http://www.asean.org/asean-to-enhance-cooperation-in-combating-transnational-crime/.

87.       ASEAN. ASEAN Convention Against Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children. Kuala Lumpur; November 21, 2015. http://www.asean.org/storage/images/2015/November/actip/ACTIP.PDF.

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90.       United Nations System in the Philippines. Supporting Inclusive, Sustainable and Resilient Development: The United Nations Development Assistance Framework for the Philippines 2012-2018. Makati City, UN Coordination Office; 2011. [source on file].

91.       Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program, Government of the Philippines, [online] [cited March 1, 2016]; http://www.gov.ph/programs/conditional-cash-transfer/.

92.       Republic of the Philippines Embassy official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 15, 2012.

93.       Department of Labor and Employment. Baldoz Bares Strategies in Creating Child Labor-Free Barangays, [online] September 1, 2012 [cited February 14, 2015]; http://www.dole.gov.ph/news/view/1868.

94.       Department of Labor and Employment. In 2015: For three years in a row, DOLE acheives 'significant advancement' in battle against child labor. Manila: December 28, 2015. http://www.dole.gov.ph/news/view/3014.

95.       ILO-IPEC. Convening Stakeholders to Develop and Implement Strategies to Reduce Child Labor and Improve Working Conditions in Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining (COSTREC-ASGM). Project Summary. Geneva; December 2015. http://www.dol.gov/ilab/projects/summaries/ILAB-FY15-GoldMiningProject.pdf.

96.       Department of Social Welfare and Development. Community-Based Services for Children and Youth, [online] [cited [source on file].

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98.       ILO-IPEC. Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues. Technical Progress Report. Geneva; October 2015.

99.       Johnson, LJ. "Opening Address," in Workshop on adopting a roadmap to eliminate child labour in domestic work in the Philippines; January 19, 2015; Makati City: ILO; http://www.ilo.org/manila/public/sp/WCMS_340862/lang--en/index.htm.

100.     U.S. Department of Labor. Project to Combat Exploitative Child Labor in Sugarcane Growing Areas of the Philippines. Technical Cooperation Project Summary. Washington, DC; 2013. http://www.dol.gov/ilab/projects/summaries/Philippines_ABK_PhaseIII.pdf.

101.     World Vision Development Foundation. ABK3 LEAP: Livelihoods, Education, Advocacy and Protection to Reduce Child Labor in Sugarcane. Technical Progress Report; April 2014. [source on file].

102.     Government of the Philippines. Act Strengthening the Social Amelioration Program in the Sugar Industry, Providing the Mechanics for its Implementation, and for Other Purposes, enacted May 1, 1991. http://www.chanrobles.com/republicactno6982.htm.

103.     Department of Labor and Employment- Bureau of Workers with Special Concerns. Social Amelioration Program in the Sugar Industry, [cited [source on file].

104.     Braza, D. The Social Amelioration Program in the Sugar Industry in the Philippines. Manila, Sugar Industry Foundation Incorporated; 2015. [source on file].

105.     Department of Social Welfare and Development. The Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program, [online] 2013 [cited February 14, 2015]; http://pantawid.dswd.gov.ph/index.php/about-us?showall=1.

106.     Business World Online. "DSWD to Expand Anti-Poverty Programs." bworldonline.com [online] January 5, 2014 [cited January 8, 2015]; http://www.bworldonline.com/content.php?section=Nation&title=DSWD-to-expand-anti-poverty-programs&id=81524.

107.     World Vision Development Foundation. ABK3 LEAP: Livelihoods, Education, Advocacy and Protection to Reduce Child Labor in Sugarcane. Technical Progress Report; October 2013. [source on file].

108.     CNN Philippines. "Philippines' conditional cash transfer program world's 3rd largest - ADB." cnn.com [online] July 13, 2015 [cited 2015]; http://cnnphilippines.com/news/2015/07/13/philippines-conditional-cash-transfer-program-world-3rd-largest-adb.html.

109.     U.S. Embassy- Manila. reporting, January 28, 2011.