Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Philippines

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Philippines

2017 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2017, the Philippines made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The government passed the Free Internet Access in Public Places Act, which aims to prevent and combat the online sexual exploitation of children. The government also amended the Guidelines in Assessing and Determining Hazardous Work in the Employment of Persons Below 18 Years of Age to include more agricultural work activities. In addition, the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) piloted a referral system to connect children engaged in small-scale gold mining to social services. Although the government made meaningful efforts in all relevant areas during the reporting period, it did not adequately protect children engaged in drug trafficking from inappropriate incarceration, penalties, or physical harm. In addition, the enforcement of child labor laws remains challenging, especially due to the limited number of inspectors, lack of resources for inspections, and inspectors’ inability to assess penalties. Children in the Philippines also engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in armed conflict, and in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. In addition, children perform dangerous tasks in agriculture and gold mining.

Expand All

Children in the Philippines engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in armed conflict and in commercial sexual exploitation. Children also perform dangerous tasks in agriculture and gold mining. (1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6; 7; 8) The Survey on Children indicated that 3.2 million children aged 5 to 17 years old engage in child labor, of which approximately 3 million engage in hazardous work. (9) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in the Philippines.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

7.5 (1,549,677)

Working children by sector

 

 

Agriculture

 

54.1

Industry

 

5.3

Services

 

40.5

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

93.7

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

7.8

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

101.3

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2015, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2018. (10)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Survey on Children, 2011. (11)

 

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of sugarcane,† including growing, weeding, harvesting,† cutting,† and carrying sugarcane bundles† (12; 2; 13; 3; 4; 14)

Growing bananas, coconuts, corn, rice, rubber, and tobacco (2; 13; 14; 15)

Hog farming (13; 14)

Production of palm oil, including harvesting,† hauling,† and loading palm oil fruits (1; 2; 13)

Deep-sea fishing† (13; 16)

Industry

Mining† and quarrying†, including for gold and nickel (12; 2; 16; 17; 18; 19; 7)

Manufacturing pyrotechnics† (16; 20; 21)

Construction,† activities unknown (22; 23)

Production of fashion accessories (21)

Services

Child domestic work (12; 14; 24; 25)

Street work, including scavenging, selling flowers, and begging (4; 26; 27; 28)

Scavenging in dumpsites† and in rivers (16; 29; 30)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, including use in the production of pornography, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (31; 24; 32; 33; 28; 34)

Forced labor, including domestic work, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (5; 24; 35)

Forced recruitment of children by non-state armed groups for use in armed conflict (6; 36; 37; 8)

Forced begging (28; 38)

Use in illicit activities, including in the distribution, procurement, and sale of drugs, including methamphetamine (shabu) (28; 38; 39; 40)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

 

The use of children in illicit activities, specifically in the distribution, procuring, and selling of drugs, including a cheap methamphetamine known as shabu, has become a cause for concern for the Philippine government. (41; 8; 28; 39; 9; 38) The government continued its anti-drug campaign, which began in 2016, and did not adequately protect children engaged in drug trafficking from inappropriate incarceration, penalties, or physical harm. (42; 43; 44; 45; 46) According to national police statistics, out of the 800,000 drug users and dealers who registered with authorities by the end of November 2017, 24,000 were identified as minors, and of those minors, 400 were classified to be trafficking drugs. (47) In 2017, the police and armed persons, allegedly associated with the police, killed a number of children suspected to be drug dealers. (48; 49; 44; 42; 46; 47; 50; 51; 52; 53) There is also a report that some children arrested for drug-related offenses were beaten and abused by police, and possibly forced to be photographed with drugs planted by police. (50) Additionally, there is a report of children being arrested for alleged involvement in drug dealing, and sent to detention centers, commonly known as Bahay ng Pag-Asa, or “House of Hope,” across the country. (46) It has been reported that children in these detention centers are routinely subject to physical and emotional abuse, deprived of liberty, and forced into overcrowded and unhygienic cells. (46; 54; 55; 56)

Children, primarily girls, are trafficked domestically from rural communities to urban centers and tourist destinations for the purpose of domestic work and commercial sexual exploitation. (57; 34) Research indicates that the Philippines is the top global internet source of commercial sexual exploitation of children, where children are coerced into performing sex acts for live Internet broadcast to paying foreigners and local Filipinos, which usually take place in small internet cafes, private homes, or windowless dungeon-like buildings commonly known as “cybersex dens.” (58; 59; 60; 61; 62; 34)

Child soldiering also remains a concern among non-government militias and terrorist organizations, predominately in the southern island of Mindanao. (8) In Marawi City, many children as young as age 7 were recruited, paid, and trained as fighters by the Maute Group, a terrorist organization linked to ISIS. Reports indicate that these children aided the Maute Group, including as fighters, during the Marawi City crisis in 2017, when ISIS-affiliated terrorists took over the city and captured civilian hostages, resulting in a battle with government forces for the city’s control. (36; 63; 37; 64) In addition, research suggests that the Abu Sayyaf Group, the Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters, the Moro National Liberation Front, and the New People’s Army continue to recruit children in schools for use as human shields, cooks, and fighters. (6; 65; 66)

The Philippines has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The government’s laws and regulations are in line with relevant international standards (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Article 139 of the Labor Code; Section 16 of the Act Instituting Policies for the Protection and Welfare of Domestic Workers (67; 68)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 139 of the Labor Code (68)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Department Order 149 on Guidelines in Assessing and Determining Hazardous Work in the Employment of Persons Below 18 Years of Age; Department Order 149A on Guidelines in Assessing and Determining Hazardous Work in the Employment of Persons Below 18 Years of Age; Sections 12-D and 16 of the Special Protection of Children Against Abuse, Exploitation, and Discrimination Act (69; 70; 71)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Sections 4-5 of the Expanded Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act; Sections 12-D and 16 of the Special Protection of Children Against Abuse, Exploitation, and Discrimination Act (69; 72)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Sections 12-D and 16 of the Special Protection of Children Against Abuse, Exploitation, and Discrimination Act; Sections 4-5 of the Expanded Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act (69; 72)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Sections 12-D and 16 of the Special Protection of Children Against Abuse, Exploitation, and Discrimination Act; Section 4 of the Anti-Child Pornography Act; Section 4 of the Cybercrime Prevention Act; (69; 73; 74)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Sections 12-D and 16 of the Special Protection of Children Against Abuse, Exploitation, and Discrimination Act;

Sections 5 and 8 of the Comprehensive Dangerous Drugs Act (69; 75)

Prohibition of Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

Yes*

18

Section 14 in the Providing for the Development, Administration, Organization, Training and Maintenance and Utilization of the Citizen Armed Forces of the Philippines, and for Other Purposes Act (76)

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Section 12 in the Providing for the Development, Administration, Organization, Training and Maintenance and Utilization of the Citizen Armed Forces of the Philippines, and for Other Purposes Act (76)

Non-state

Yes

18

Sections 12-D and 16 in the Special Protection of Children Against Abuse, Exploitation and Discrimination Act (69)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

18‡

Section 4 of the Enhanced Basic Education Act (77)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Section 2 of the Philippine Constitution (78)

* No conscription (76)
‡ Age calculated based on available information (77)

 

In August 2017, the government signed into law the Free Internet Access in Public Places Act, which requires the Department of Information and Communications Technology (DICT) to develop rules and guidelines to prevent and combat the online sexual exploitation of children pursuant to existing laws. The DICT will coordinate with the Inter-Agency Council Against Child Pornography and consult with telecommunications companies and civil society organizations to fulfill this mandate. (79; 80) In January 2017, the National Telecommunications Commission ordered internet service providers in the Philippines to block commonly accessed websites that feature child pornography and violate the Anti-Child Pornography Act. (81; 73)

During the reporting period, the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) also amended its Guidelines in Assessing and Determining Hazardous Work in the Employment of Persons Below 18 Years of Age to clarify that children are prohibited from most work activities that involve planting, plowing, harvesting, handling pesticides and fertilizers, work in slaughterhouses, and animal rearing. (8; 70)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the authority of the Department of Labor and Employment that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE), Bureau of Working Conditions

Enforce child labor laws; regularly train inspectors and regional personnel. Inspect establishments and monitor compliance with labor laws in the formal sector. (82) Register DOLE enforcement activities using the Labor Law Compliance System Management Information System. (83)

Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD)

Rehabilitate and reintegrate child laborers. (84) Coordinate regional Special Action Units, with at least one dedicated staff member per region to conduct rescue operations for child laborers and cooperate with social workers to manage ongoing cases. Maintain 16 Crisis Intervention Units and 30 residential facilities nationwide, as well as social media accounts, to address cases of child abuse and support child abuse victims, including children exploited in hazardous labor. (16; 38)

Philippine National Police (PNP)

Investigate and prosecute cases related to the worst forms of child labor. (35; 85) In the case of the Women and Children’s Protection Center, enforces laws on child trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation of children. (12) Oversee the Internet Crimes Against Children office within its Anti-Trafficking in Persons Division, which aims to combat the online sexual exploitation of children. (86)

Rescue the Child Laborers Quick Action Teams (Sagip Batang Manggagawa SBM QAT)

Lead the regional mechanism for rescuing children who work in exploitative situations. (87) Detect, monitor, and respond to incidents of child labor using a cooperative and interagency approach. Permitted to conduct unannounced compliance visits in video karaoke bars, massage parlors, sauna/bath houses, and farms when a child labor complaint is made. (38; 87) Chaired by DOLE. (87)

National Bureau of Investigation (NBI)

Investigate and prosecute child labor cases. (35; 85) Operate a national Trafficking in Persons Task Force, as well as a Task Force on the Protection of Children from Exploitation and Abuse. (88; 89)

Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency

Enforce the Comprehensive Dangerous Drugs Act. Maintain a national hotline for reporting cases of children used in illicit activities. (84) Coordinate with the DSWD to assist during rescue operations. (12)

National Telecommunications Commission

Enforce the Anti-Child Pornography Law. Coordinate with Internet Service Providers to block websites containing child pornographic material. (81; 73)

 

During the reporting period, the Department of Social Welfare and Development piloted a referral system in Camarines Norte to refer children engaged in small-scale gold mining to social services to withdraw them from work and place them into education programs. (90)

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2017, labor law enforcement agencies in the Philippines took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the authority of the Department of Labor and Employment that may hinder adequate child labor enforcement, including penalty assessment authorization.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$3,385,649 (91)

$3,450,260 (8)

Number of Labor Inspectors

574 (38)

574 (8)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (38)

No (8)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (91)

Yes (8)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Yes (38)

Yes (8)

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown

Yes (8)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

60,374 (38)

60,732 (92)

Number Conducted at Worksites

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

22 (38)

52 (8)

Number of Child Labor Violations for which Penalties were Imposed

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that were Collected

Unknown

Unknown

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (38)

Yes (8)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (38)

Yes (8)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (38)

Yes (8)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (38)

Yes (8)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (38)

Yes (8)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (38)

Yes (8)

 

Enforcement of child labor laws remains challenging due to the lack of resources for inspections and the limited number of inspectors. (16; 38; 83) The number of labor inspectors is likely insufficient for the size of the Philippines’s workforce, which includes approximately 42 million workers. According to the ILO’s technical advice of a ratio approaching 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in developing economies, the Philippines would employ roughly 2,783 labor inspectors. (38; 93; 94; 95) While the government slightly increased funding for the labor inspectorate in 2017, research indicates that this funding was insufficient to adequately enforce child labor laws across the country’s 16 regions, and particularly in rural areas where child labor is prevalent. (8; 96; 97)

In addition, enforcement of child labor protections is not adequate for children employed in the informal sector and small- and medium-size enterprises, particularly in agriculture, due to DOLE’s lack of capacity and resources. (98; 49) While the Rescue the Child Laborers Quick Action Teams are permitted to conduct unannounced compliance visits in video karaoke bars, massage parlors, sauna/bath houses, and farms, they are not authorized to conduct visits in private homes to search for underage child domestic workers. (83)

In 2017, Rescue the Children Quick Action Teams conducted 16 rescue operations and removed 43 child laborers from hazardous and exploitative working conditions.

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2017, criminal law enforcement agencies in the Philippines took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of criminal law enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including training of investigators. In addition, the government continued its anti-drug campaign, which began in 2016, and did not ensure that children in the worst forms of child labor were protected from inappropriate incarceration, penalties, or physical harm. (48; 53; 49; 44; 42)

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Yes (38)

No (8)

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown

Yes (99)

Number of Investigations

Unknown

75 (8)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown

25 (8)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

54 (38)

25 (8)

Number of Convictions

38 (38)

3 (8)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (38)

Yes (8)

 

Police and armed persons killed children who were suspected to be involved in drug dealing. (8; 50; 52; 51) Though information on specific cases was limited, there were at least three reported instances of suspected children engaged in drug trafficking being killed in 2017 by law enforcement in connection with the government-directed campaign against illegal drugs, as well as several other instances of children reportedly killed by vigilantes allegedly tied to the police. (50) In addition, there were collateral deaths of children caught in the crossfire during police operations connected to the drug war. (53; 51; 50; 47) Some high-level government officials at times suggested that killing suspected drug traffickers and users was necessary to wipe out drug-related crime, increasing the vulnerability of children being used in the drug trade. (53; 50; 43; 100; 101; 102)

A small number of police officers implicated in a killing of a minor associated with the drug war have been charged with murder; the case was ongoing at the end of the reporting period. (100; 101; 102; 50; 53; 42) In 2017, cases in which children were killed by law enforcement officers and armed civilians, perpetrators were most often not held criminally accountable, including for deaths allegedly connected to the anti-drug campaign. The Philippine National Police (PNP) refer children involved in drug trafficking to the DSWD to receive shelter or rehabilitation programs. (40)

In 2017, the Philippine National Police’s Women and Children Protection Center (PNP-WCPC) investigated 35 cases of child trafficking, which resulted in the rescue of 355 children. The government reported the conviction of 36 trafficking offenders in 22 trafficking cases involving 57 minors. (92) In 19 of these convictions involving online sexual exploitation of children, the government offered the defendant a plea agreement to avoid re-traumatization of child victims who would otherwise have had to serve as witnesses during the trial. (92) With the support of NGO and foreign government donors, the PNP-WCPC personnel participated in numerous training programs to enhance PNP personnel’s investigative skills in combatting the online sexual exploitation of children and other forms of child trafficking. (99; 92)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including the structure, functions, and funding of the National Child Labor Committee.

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role and Description

National Child Labor Committee (NCLC)

Coordinate national efforts to combat child labor and chaired by DOLE. (84) Promote information-sharing at the national, regional, and provincial levels. (84) Composed of 16 government agencies, workers’ organizations, 1 employers’ group, and 1 umbrella nongovernmental organization. (103)

Inter-Agency Council Against Trafficking (IACAT)

Coordinate, monitor, and oversee efforts to combat human trafficking, including child trafficking. Co-chaired by the Department of Justice and the DSWD. (12; 89) Composed of 24 anti-human trafficking task forces established in eight regions and seven interagency task forces in major seaports and airports. (12; 16; 83)

Inter-Agency Council for the Welfare of Children (CWC)

Operate a monitoring and response system to assist children engaged in armed conflict. (35)

Inter-Agency Committee on Children Involved in Armed Conflict

Advocate for protecting children and preventing the involvement of children in armed conflict. Chaired by the CWC. (83) Coordinate and monitor the implementation of the Children in Armed Conflict Program Framework. (12)

Inter-Agency Council Against Child Pornography

Monitor and implement the Anti-Child Pornography Act. (104) Composed of 12 government agencies and 3 nongovernmental organizations. (103) Chaired by the DSWD. (105)

Juvenile Justice and Welfare Council

Lead community outreach and education efforts, through offices located throughout the country, to prevent the use of children in illicit activities, including drug trafficking. Manage livelihood, rehabilitation, food, and scholarship programming. (40)

 

In March 2017, the Department of Labor and Employment’s Secretary submitted a draft executive order to the Acting Head of the Presidential Management Staff that aims to reorganize the National Child Labor Committee (NCLC), redefine its functions, and allocate funds to support its projects and activities, which would accelerate the elimination of child labor in the Philippines. At the end of the reporting period, the Office of the President was still reviewing the draft executive order. (106; 8; 103)

The government has established policies that are consistent with relevant international standards on child labor (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

Philippine Program Against Child Labor (2016-2022)

Aims to remove one million children from child labor by the year 2025. (38) Implementation led by the Department of Labor and Employment’s Bureau of Workers with Special Concerns. (107)

National Strategic Action Plan Against Trafficking in Persons (2017–2021)†

Aims to address labor trafficking and the online sexual exploitation of children. (108) In 2017, through the Inter-Agency Council Against Trafficking, held consultations to identify gaps and challenges, establish priorities, targets, and goals, and secure commitment from stakeholders. (34)

Inter-Agency Council Against Child Pornography Three-Year Strategic Plan (2015–2017)

Aims to eradicate child pornography in the Philippines by focusing efforts in five strategic areas: (a) advocacy and prevention; (b) law enforcement and prosecution; (c) protection, recovery, and reintegration; (d) research, monitoring, and management of information systems; and (e) partnerships and networking. (109; 2; 1; 12)

Philippine Development Plan (2017-2022)†

Aims to build the socioeconomic resilience of individuals and families by reducing their vulnerability to various risks and disasters; this includes the goal of universal social protection for all Filipinos. (8) Aims to reduce the number of children engaged in child labor by 30 percent or roughly 630,000 children. (103)

National Strategic Framework for Plan Development for Children (Child 21) (2000–2025)

Sets out broad goals for national government agencies, local governments, and NGOs to achieve improved quality of life for Filipino children by 2025. (89; 110) Addresses concerns related to the worst forms of child labor under the section on children in need of special protection. (16)

National Plan of Action for Children (2011–2016)

Serves as an implementation roadmap for the National Strategic Framework for Plan Development for Children. (89) Child labor elimination and prevention strategies are included throughout the document, particularly in goal 2 on child protection, which specifies that children should be free from violence, abuse, neglect, and exploitation. (16)

Child Protection Compact Partnership (2017-2021)†

Aims to improve the response to child trafficking, including live streaming online of child sexual exploitation and child trafficking for labor purposes, by (1) increasing criminal investigations, prosecutions, and convictions; (2) strengthening the government’s and civil society’s capacities to identify and provide comprehensive services for victims; and (3) strengthening existing community-based mechanisms that identify and protect victims of child trafficking. (111; 112) In April 2017, the government committed approximately $800,000 for its implementation. (92)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.
‡ The government has other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor. (113; 114; 71)

In 2017, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including with the provision of adequate programs to address victims of child pornography.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor‡

Program

Description

Child Labor Prevention and Elimination Program (Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program)

DSWD program that provides conditional grants to poor families with children to improve their access to health care, adequate nutrition, and education; implements local awareness-raising campaigns; institutes child labor-monitoring mechanisms; and requires neighborhoods to develop child labor elimination plans. (115; 116) Covers 1,627 cities and municipalities in 79 provinces and all 17 regions. (83) Program will include a child labor module that will impart information on the effects of child labor to project participants and the family’s role to combat child labor. (38; 117)

Campaign for Child-Labor Free Barangays

DOLE program that aims to eliminate child labor in villages by raising awareness of child labor and human trafficking laws, and through government livelihood programs and guidelines. (118) In 2017, DOLE declared 6 additional neighborhoods child labor free, bringing the total number to 343 since 2014. (92) By 2016, DOLE regional offices have certified 210 establishments as child labor free. (38)

Livelihood for Parents of Child Laborers (Kabuhayan para sa Magulang ng Batang Manggagawa)†

DOLE program that provides livelihood assistance to parents, guardians or other family members of child laborers. (85) In 2017, 3,430 parents of child laborers received livelihood assistance. (92)

Recovery and Reintegration Program for Trafficked Persons†

DSWD and IACAT program that provides recovery and reintegration services to victims of human trafficking and raises awareness in vulnerable communities. Includes the National Referral System, which strengthens coordination among agencies providing services to human trafficking victims through the use of standard referral and reporting forms. (119) There are 149 referral networks established in 16 regions. (38)

USDOL-Funded Projects

USDOL projects in the Philippines that aim to eliminate child labor in artisanal and small-scale gold mines, and its worst forms, by improving the capacity of the national government, the implementing the National Action Plan Against Child Labor, conducting research and data collection, developing strategic policies, drafting legislation, and supporting social services delivery for child domestic workers. These projects include Country Level Engagement and Assistance to Reduce Child Labor (CLEAR), implemented by the ILO in at least 11 countries; Global Action Program (GAP) on Child Labor Issues, implemented by the ILO in approximately 40 countries; Building a Generation of Safe and Healthy Workers: SafeYouth@Work implemented by the ILO with the Philippines as one of the three pilot countries; and “CARING Gold Mining Project,” Convening Stakeholders to Develop and Implement Strategies to Reduce Child Labor and Improve Working Conditions in Artisanal and Small-scale Gold Mining (ASGM) (2015–2019), implemented by the ILO with the Philippines as one of the two pilot countries. (120; 121; 122; 123) In 2017, the CARING Gold Mining Project began implementing Strategic Helpdesks for Information, Education, Livelihoods and other Development Interventions, which will allow for the collection of child labor data. (90) Additional information is available on the USDOL website.

Alternative Learning System Program†

Department of Education program that offers non-formal education to out-of-school children, including child laborers and children displaced from military conflict, as well as opportunities to attain a certificate of education equivalency. Has received between $7-15 million and has benefited 500,000 children as of 2015. (124)

† Program is funded by the Government of the Philippines.
‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. (85; 125; 126)

 

Evidence suggests family members commercially exploit children sexually through live streaming and production of pornography. (58; 31; 34; 59) Although programs exist to assist victims of human trafficking, the Philippines lacked programs to rehabilitate children who have been victims of online commercial sexual exploitation in large part because this is an emerging issue within the country. (38) In addition, there are not adequate programs to provide awareness of this problem and its impact on child victims. (58; 61; 62)

Although the government has implemented programs in small-scale mining, research found no evidence that it has carried out programs specifically designed to assist children engaged in commercial sexual exploitation, most notably, child pornography. (103; 8) In addition, although the DSWD works in consultation with parents and community leaders to determine how best to assist children suspected of being involved in the drug trade, the DSWD does not have programs specifically designed to increase protections for or assistance to children engaged in drug trafficking to address their heightened vulnerability.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in the Philippines (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Enforcement

Authorize the Labor Inspectorate to assess penalties.

2015 – 2017

Increase the number of labor inspectors responsible for enforcing laws related to child labor, as well as resources available in order to provide adequate coverage of the workforce, particularly in rural areas where child labor is prevalent.

2014 – 2017

Build enforcement capacity to address child labor protections for children employed in the informal sector, including agricultural work.

2017

Publish labor and criminal law enforcement information, including the number of labor inspections conducted at worksites, the number of child labor violations for which penalties were imposed, the number of child labor penalties imposed that were collected, and whether initial trainings were conducted for new criminal investigators.

2015 – 2017

Enhance efforts to prevent the inappropriate incarceration of, and violence against, children suspected to be engaged in the production and trafficking of drugs.

2017

Prosecute law enforcement officials and civilians responsible for the killing of children engaged in the drug trade.

2017

Ensure that investigators receive training on new laws related to the worst forms of child labor.

2017

Coordination

Issue the proposed executive order to restructure the National Child Labor Committee and ensure it has the legal mandate and resources necessary to effectively coordinate national efforts to combat child labor.

2015 – 2017

Social Programs

Institute programs to address and combat the root causes of families profiting from the sexual abuse and exploitation of their children via live streaming and in the production of child pornography.

2017

Rehabilitate children who have been victimized through sexual abuse and exploitation via live streaming and in the production of child pornography by their families.

2017

Raise awareness of the problem of families exploiting their children for money through the production of child pornography and live streaming, and its detrimental impact on child victims.

2017

Develop programs to increase protections for and provide assistance to children engaged in drug trafficking to address their heightened vulnerability.

2017

Ensure that Bahay ng Pag-Asa child detention centers in the Philippines do not subject children to physical or emotional abuse and have adequate resources to remedy overcrowding and unhygienic conditions.

2017

1. Center for Trade Union and Human Rights. Children of the Sunshine Industry: Child Labor and Workers' Situation in Oil Palm Plantations in Caraga. July 8, 2012. https://laborrights.org/publications/children-sunshine-industry-child-labor-and-workers%E2%80%99-situation-oil-palm-plantations.

2. Palatino, Mong. Rising Child Labor Abuse in the Philippines. February 17, 2015 . http://thediplomat.com/2015/02/rising-child-labor-abuse-in-the-philippines/.

3. Torres, Joe. Chronic poverty is fueling child labor in the Phillipines. January 29, 2015 . http://www.ucanews.com/news/chronic-poverty-is-fueling-child-labor-in-the-philippines/72891.

4. Torres, Joe, and Jefry Tupas. Not enough done to combat child labor in Philippines, critics say. June 15, 2015. http://www.ucanews.com/news/not-enough-done-to-combat-child-labor-in-philippines-critics-say/73782.

5. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation Concerning Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29) Philippines (Ratification: 2005) Published: 2014. Accessed: November 5, 2014. http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/english/iloquery.htm.

6. United Nations Security Council. Report of the Secretary-General on children and armed conflict in the Philippines. April 5, 2017. https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/N1709255.pdf.

7. Human Rights Watch. "What … if Something Went Wrong?”: Hazardous Child Labor in Small-Scale Gold Mining in the Philippines. 2015. https://www.hrw.org/report/2015/09/29/what-if-something-went-wrong/hazardous-child-labor-small-scale-gold-mining#290612.

8. U.S. Embassy- Manila. Reporting, January 30, 2018.

9. Government of the Philippines- National Statistics Office. The Number of Working Children 5 to 17 Years Old is Estimated at 5.5 Million (Preliminary Results of the 2011 Survey on Children). Accessed: February 14, 2015. http://psa.gov.ph/content/number-working-children-5-17-years-old-estimated-55-million-preliminary-results-2011-survey.

10. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed: March 3, 2018. http://data.uis.unesco.org/. For more information, please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

11. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Survey on Children, 2011. Analysis received January 12, 2018. For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

12. U.S. Embassy- Manila. Reporting, January 17, 2014.

13. Castro, Charita. Child Sakadas in Philippine Agriculture: Researching Injury Hazards for Working Children in the Context of International Labor Standards and United States Foreign Policy [Ph.D diss.]- The George Washington University. 2007. [Source on file].

14. UCW. Understanding Child Labour and Youth Employment in the Philippines. December 2015. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---asia/---ro-bangkok/---ilo-manila/documents/publication/wcms_447853.pdf.

15. Chavez, Jenina Joy, et al. The Economics of Tobacco Farming in the Philippines. 2016. http://aer.ph/industrialpolicy/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/REPORT-The-Economics-of-Tobacco-Farming-in-the-Philippines-LAYOUT.pdf.

16. U.S. Embassy- Manila. Reporting, January 19, 2016.

17. Center for Trade Union and Human Rights. Teens exposed to hazardous work in Surigao mining firm. September 1, 2014. http://ctuhr.org/teens-exposed-to-hazardous-work-in-surigao-mining-firm/.

18. Sabillo, K.A. Where have all the children gone? August 4, 2014. http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/626282/where-have-all-the-children-gone.

19. Williams, Evan. Children of the Dirty Gold [Television Program]. June16, 2015. http://www.sbs.com.au/news/dateline/story/children-dirty-gold.

20. Mindanao Examiner. Philippines Fireworks Factories Warned vs. Hiring Minors. December 25, 2013. [Source on file].

21. Aldaba, F, et al. Employers' Demand for Child Labor in the Pyrotechnics and Fashion Accessories Industries in the Philippines. ILO. December 2005. [Source on file].

22. Bernal, Buena. Negligence, child labor seen in Bulacan warehouse accident. February 5, 2015. http://www.rappler.com/nation/81561-labor-offense-bulacan-warehouse-accident.

23. —. 3 child laborers rescued from Cebu construction site. June 30, 2015. https://www.rappler.com/nation/97930-child-laborers-rescued-cebu-construction-site.

24. ILO. Application of International Labour Standards 2014 ( I ). 2014. http://www.ilo.org/ilc/ILCSessions/103/reports/reports-to-the-conference/WCMS_235054/lang--en/index.htm.

25. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Philippines (Ratification: 2000) Published: 2014. Accessed: November 5, 2014. http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/english/iloquery.htm.

26. Free the Slaves. Amihan Abueva: Fighting Child Sexual Exploitation in the Philippines [Film]. January 21, 2015. http://www.freetheslaves.net/video/freedom-awards-2008-amihan-abueva-philippines-william-wilberforce-award-winner/.

27. Nacnac, Denise and Michael Valera. On Trinoma-SM footbrige, boy sells flowers and reads his way to school. November 23, 2016. https://www.rappler.com/move-ph/153210-young-brothers-sell-sampaguita-food-school-allowance.

28. Badilla, N. Child labor: A problem ignored. The Manila Times. October 3, 2015. http://www.manilatimes.net/child-labor-a-problem-ignored/221982/.

29. Catholic News Online. Filipino Children Forced to Scavenge Through Rubbish for Pennies a Day. July 5, 2015 . http://www.catholic.org/news/international/asia/story.php?id=61759.

30. Pickles, Kate. Beneath the poverty line: Horrific pictures of Filipino children sifting through rivers of rubbish in desperate bid to find something to sell. Daily Mail. July 3, 2015. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3148193/Beneath-poverty-line-Children-Philippines-risk-lives-sifting-floating-rubbish-filthy-rivers-material-sell-survive.html.

31. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016: Philippines. Washington, DC. June 30, 2016. https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2016/258843.htm.

32. ILO-IPEC. Ending child labour in domestic work and protecting young workers from abusive working conditions. June 12, 2013. http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/download.do?type=document&id=21515.

33. Lowe, Aya. Philippines Faces Hurdles to Shut Down Sex Trafficking. Philippines Faces Hurdles to Shut Down Sex Trafficking. http://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/asiapacific/philippines-faces-hurdles-to-shut-down-sex-trafficking-8225132.

34. U.S. Embassy- Manila. Reporting, February 16, 2018.

35. —. Reporting, February 15, 2013.

36. Fonbuena, Carmela. I met a former Maute soldier. He’s a child. June 14, 2017. https://www.rappler.com/newsbreak/in-depth/172587-maute-child-soldiers-marawi.

37. The Straits Times. The child soldiers in Marawi: Philippine Daily Inquirer. The Straits Times. August 31, 2017. http://www.straitstimes.com/asia/se-asia/the-child-soldiers-in-marawi-philippine-daily-inquirer.

38. U.S. Embassy- Manila. Reporting, February 1, 2017.

39. Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency. PDEA Expresses Concern Over Rising Incidence of Minors Involved in Illegal Drug Activities; Supports Senate Resolution No. 19. August 21, 2016. [Source on file].

40. U.S. Embassy- Manila official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 29, 2018.

41. CNN Philippines Staff. PDEA: Cases of minors used in drug-related activities rose from 2006 to 2016. CNN Philippines. September 6, 2016. http://cnnphilippines.com/news/2016/09/06/pdea-minors-drug-related-cases.html.

42. Reuters. Death of a Schoolboy. August 25, 2017. http://fingfx.thomsonreuters.com/gfx/rngs/PHILIPPINES-DRUGS/010050JX18M/index.html.

43. Amnesty International. If You are Poor, You are Killed - Extrajudicial Executions in the Philippines' “War on Drugs". 2017. [Source on file].

44. Enano, Jhesset O. Group finds 74 minors in drug war body count. April 6, 2018. http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/980513/group-finds-74-minors-in-drug-war-body-count.

45. Brookings Institution. The human rights consequences of the war on drugs in the Philippines. August 8, 2017. https://www.brookings.edu/testimonies/the-human-rights-consequences-of-the-war-on-drugs-in-the-philippines/.

46. Philippines NGO. Interview with USDOL Official,. June 26, 2018. [Source on file].

47. Baldwin, Clare and Andrew R.C. Marshall. Duterte targers Philippine children in bid to widen drug war. February 14, 2017. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-philippines-drugs-children-insight/duterte-targets-philippine-children-in-bid-to-widen-drug-war-idUSKBN15T1NB.

48. Kine, Phelim. Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte's 'War on Drugs', Human Rights Watch. September 7, 2017. https://www.hrw.org/news/2017/09/07/philippine-president-rodrigo-dutertes-war-drugs.

49. U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2017: Philippines. 2018. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/277355.pdf.

50. Amnesty International. Philippines: ICC must examine ‘war on drugs’ crimes as child killings go unpunished. December 4, 2017. https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2017/12/philippines-icc-must-examine-war-on-drugs-crimes/.

51. Lingao, Amanda. SPECIAL REPORT: At least 29 minors killed in gov't war on drugs, group says. CNN Philippines. August 25, 2017. http://cnnphilippines.com/news/2017/08/21/Minors-killed-in-war-on-drugs.html.

52. Kaiman, Jonathan. In the Philippines, poverty and corruption fuel the drug trade. Los Angeles Times. February 28, 2017. http://www.latimes.com/world/asia/la-fg-philippines-corruption-2017-story.html.

53. Al Jazeera. Rodrigo Duterte interview: Death, drugs and diplomacy. October 16, 2016. https://www.aljazeera.com/programmes/talktojazeera/2016/10/exclusive-rodrigo-duterte-war-drugs-161015100325799.html.

54. Fr. Shay Cullen, SSC. What Philippine officials found in child detention centers. January 16, 2016. http://www.manilatimes.net/what-philippine-officials-found-in-child-detention-centers/239813/.

55. —. Children abused in detention. June 24, 2018. http://www.manilatimes.net/children-abused-in-detention/411729/.

56. United Nations Committee Against Torture. Concluding observations on the third periodic report. June 2, 2016. http://docstore.ohchr.org/SelfServices/FilesHandler.ashx?enc=6QkG1d%2fPPRiCAqhKb7yhsgznA20o03W4ewclL3J%2fFce9G6Dau8FH2NIMXqB31lXxG%2bRJi%2fYd2%2brduk5zGugrupVQWdVg4Xn9zony3mNy4%2bEDbvevMYz3wc7EaP%2bnb46A.

57. Duerr, Roxana Isabel. Philippines struggling to tackle child prostitution. Deutsche Welle. October 3, 2015. http://www.dw.com/en/philippines-struggling-to-tackle-child-prostitution/a-18305386.

58. Holmes, O. How child sexual abuse became a family business in the Philippines. The Guardian. May 30, 2016. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/may/31/live-streaming-child-sex-abuse-family-business-philippines.

59. Walk Free Foundation. The Global Slavery Index Philippines. 2016. http://www.globalslaveryindex.org/country/philippines/.

60. Terre des Hommes Netherlands. Fullscreen View: An Exploratory Study on the Background and Psychosocial Consequences of Webcam Child Sex Tourism in the Philippines. November 4, 2013. https://www.terredeshommes.nl/sites/tdh/files/uploads/research_report_2.pdf.

61. Jalea, Mary Gleefer. Social media tool for child trafficking. The Manila Times. October 21, 2017. http://www.manilatimes.net/social-media-tool-child-trafficking/357750/.

62. Murdoch, Lindsay. Children as young as two rescued from Philippine cybersex abuse dens. The Sydney Morning Herald. June 3, 2017. https://www.smh.com.au/world/children-as-young-as-two-rescued-from-philippine-cybersex-abuse-dens-20170603-gwjmg5.html.

63. Remitio, Rex. Nearly half of remaining Maute fighters in Marawi are children. CNN Philippines. August 27, 2017. http://cnnphilippines.com/news/2017/08/27/maute-fighters-marawi-children.html.

64. Betteridge-Moes, Maxine. What happened in Marawi? Al Jazeera. October 29, 2017. https://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2017/10/happened-marawi-171029085314348.html.

65. Villamor, Felipe. Militants’ Siege of Philippine Elementary School Ends After 12 Hours. The New York Times. June 21, 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/06/21/world/asia/school-philippines-bangsamoro-islamic-freedom-fighters.html.

66. Petty, Martin. Islamists lure youngsters in the Philippines with payments, promise of paradise. Reuters. September 20, 2017. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-philippines-militants-recruitment-ins/islamists-lure-youngsters-in-the-philippines-with-payments-promise-of-paradise-idUSKCN1BW05N.

67. Government of the Philippines. An Act Instituting Policies for the Protection and Welfare of Domestic Workers, No. 10361. Enacted: January 18, 2013. http://www.lawphil.net/statutes/repacts/ra2013/ra_10361_2013.html.

68. —. The Labor Code of the Philippines, Presidential Decree No. 442. Enacted: May 1, 1974. http://hrlibrary.umn.edu/research/Philippines/PD%20442%20-%20Labor%20Code%20of%20the%20Philippines.pdf.

69. —. An Act Providing For The Elimination Of The Worst Forms Of Child Labor And Affording Stronger Protection For The Working Child, Amending For This Purpose Republic Act No. 7610, No. 9231. Enacted: December 19, 2003. http://www.lawphil.net/statutes/repacts/ra2003/ra_9231_2003.html.

70. —. Guidelines in Assessing and Determining Hazardous Work in the Employment of Persons Below 18 Years of Age. January 16, 2017. https://www.dole.gov.ph/files/DO%20149%20A-17%20Amending%20Department%20Order%20No_%20149%20-%2016%20on%20Guidelines%20in%20Assessing%20and%20Determining%20Hazardous%20Work%20in%20the%20Employment%20of%20Persons%20below%2018%20years%20of%20age.pdf.

71. —. Guidelines in Assessing and Determining Hazardous Work in the Employment of Persons Below 18 Years of Age, Department Order No. 149. Enacted: February 15, 2016. http://www.dole.gov.ph/files/Dept%20Order%20No_%20149-2016(1).pdf.

72. —. Expanded Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act, No. 10364. Enacted: February 6, 2013. https://www.lawphil.net/statutes/repacts/ra2013/ra_10364_2013.html.

73. —. Anti-Child Pornography Act, No. 9775. Enacted: November 17, 2009. http://www.lawphil.net/statutes/repacts/ra2009/ra_9775_2009.html.

74. —. An Act Defining Cybercrime, Providing for the Prevention, Investigation, Suppression and the Imposition of Penalties Therefore and for Other Purposes, Republic Act No. 10175. Enacted: 2011. https://www.lawphil.net/statutes/repacts/ra2012/ra_10175_2012.html.

75. —. Comprehensive Dangerous Drugs Act of 2002, No. 9165. Enacted: June 7, 2002. http://www.lawphil.net/statutes/repacts/ra2002/ra_9165_2002.html.

76. —. Providing for the Development, Administration, Organization, Training and Maintenance and Utilization of the Citizen Armed Forces of the Philippines, and for Other Purposes Act, No. 7077. Enacted: June 27, 1991. http://www.lawphil.net/statutes/repacts/ra1991/ra_7077_1991.html.

77. —. Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013, No. 10533. Enacted: May 15, 2012. https://www.lawphil.net/statutes/repacts/ra2013/ra_10533_2013.html.

78. —. The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines. Enacted: February 11, 1987. https://www.lawphil.net/consti/cons1987.html.

79. —. Republic Act No 10929 "Free Internet Access in Public Places Act". August 2, 2017. https://www.senate.gov.ph/republic_acts/ra%2010929.pdf.

80. —. Rules and Regulations Implementing Republic Act No. 10929, known as the Free Internet Access in Public Places Act. Accessed: July 23, 2018. http://www.dict.gov.ph/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/IRR-RA-10929-Version-8.pdf.

81. Remitio, Rex. Gov't blocks major porn websites. CNN Philippines. January 20, 2017. http://cnnphilippines.com/news/2017/01/16/government-blocks-major-porn-websites.html.

82. ILO. E-mail Communication to USDOL official. April 13, 2018.

83. U.S. Embassy- Manila. Reporting, January 15, 2015.

84. —. Reporting, February 1, 2013.

85. U.S. Embassy- Manila official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 27, 2013.

86. Philippine National Police official. Interview with USDOL official. July 17, 2017.

87. Government of the Philippines- Department of Labor and Employment. Sagip Batang Manggagawa. http://www.bwsc.dole.gov.ph/images/InfoMaterials/SBM.pdf.

88. U.S. Embassy- Manila. Reporting, February 18, 2015.

89. U.S. Embassy- Manila official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 13, 2014.

90. ILO-IPEC. CARING Gold Mining Project. October 2017: Technical Progress Report. [Source on file].

91. U.S. Department of State official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 31, 2017.

92. U.S. Embassy- Manila official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 5, 2018.

93. CIA. The World Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/rp.html.

94. ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf.

95. UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf.

96. Zweynert, Astrid. Philippines bets on appeal of education to fight child labor. ABS-CBN News. November 20, 2015. http://news.abs-cbn.com/nation/11/20/15/philippines-bets-on-appeal-of-education-to-fight-child-labor.

97. Department of Labor and Employment official. Interview with USDOL official. July 20, 2017. [Source on file].

98. Government of the Philippines. Transition of informal sector workers to formal economy gets boost. May 6, 2017. https://www.dole.gov.ph/news/view/3667.

99. —. ICAC Training. June 21, 2017. http://www.pnp.gov.ph/news-and-information/news/1009-icac-training.

100. Iyengar, Rishi. The Killing Time: Inside Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte's War on Drugs. Time. August 25, 2916. http://time.com/4462352/rodrigo-duterte-drug-war-drugs-philippines-killing/.

101. Reuters. Philippines orders arrest of three policemen in drug war's first murder case. February 7, 2018. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-philippines-drugs/philippines-orders-arrest-of-three-policemen-in-drug-wars-first-murder-case-idUSKBN1FR0U6.

102. Human Rights Watch. Philippines: Abusive ‘Drug War’ Targets Children. September 9, 2017. https://www.hrw.org/news/2017/09/09/philippines-abusive-drug-war-targets-children.

103. Government of the Philippines. Government Efforts to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor: Presentation to U.S. Department of Labor. July 18, 2017. [Source on file].

104. National Child Labor Committee. Case Flow Management Protocol on Child Labor. 2015. [Source on file].

105. U.S. Embassy- Manila official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 22, 2016.

106. Government of Philippines, Department of Labor and Employment. Addressing the Urgent Need to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor Through the Strenthening of the National Committee Against Child Labor, Reorganizing its Composition, Redifining its Functions, and Allocating Funds Thereof. 2017. [Source on file].

107. ILO-IPEC. Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues. October 2016: Technical Progress Report. [Source on file].

108. Government of the Philippines. IACAT Plans and Programs in Combating Labor Trafficking and Online Sexual Exploitation of Children: Presentation to U.S. Department of Labor. July 17, 2017. [Source on file].

109. Government of the Philippines- Inter-Agency Council Against Child Pornography. Inter-Agency Council Against Child Pornography Three-Year Strategic Plan (2015-2017). 2015. [Source on file].

110. UNICEF. Child 21. A Legacy to the Filipino Children of the 21st Century, Philippines National Strategic Framework for Plan Development for Children, 2000-2025. 2000. [Source on file].

111. Government of the Philippines. Justice Secretary Aguirre signs Child Protection Compact (CPC) partnership with US Embassy official. April 11, 2017. https://www.doj.gov.ph/news.html?title=Justice+Secretary+Aguirre+signs+Child+Protection+Compact+%28CPC%29+partnership+with+US+Embassy+official&newsid=518.

112. U.S. Department of State. Child Protection Compact Partnership Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Republic of the Philippines. April 11, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/tip/cpc/270110.htm.

113. Government of the Philippines. Guidance to Host Establishments in Ensuring Safe Workplaces for Senior High School Students under Work Immersion Program. July 14, 2017. https://www.dole.gov.ph/files/Labor%20Advisory%20No_%2009-17%20Guidance%20to%20Host%20Establisments%20in%20Ensuring%20Safe%20Workplaces%20for%20Senier%20High%20School%20Students%20under%20Work%20Immersion%20Program.pdf.

114. —. Implementing Rules and Regulations of Republic Act No. 10917 Amending for the Purpose Republic Act 9547 and 7323, Otherwise Known as the Special Program for the Employment of Students (SPES). March 20, 2017. [Source on file].

115. Government of the Philippines, Department of Social Welfare and Development. The Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program. Accessed: July 27, 2018. http://pantawid.dswd.gov.ph/index.php/about-us?showall=1.

116. Business World Onlline. DSWD to Expand Anti-Poverty Programs. January 5, 2014. http://www.bworldonline.com/content.php?section=Nation&title=DSWD-to-expand-anti-poverty-programs&id=81524.

117. ILO. Philippines bolsters fight against child labour. Accessed: May 31, 2017. http://www.ilo.org/manila/public/pr/WCMS_541499/lang--en/index.htm.

118. Government of the Philippines. Guidelines on the Certification of Child Labor-Free Barangay, Administrative Order No. 657. Enacted: December 15, 2014. http://bwsc.dole.gov.ph/images/ppacl/CLFB/CLFB-AO-657-14-Guidelines-on-the-certification-of-child-labor-free-barangay.pdf.

119. U.S. Embassy- Manila. Reporting, February 29, 2016.

120. World Vision Development Foundation. ABK3 LEAP: Livelihoods, Education, Advocacy and Protection to Reduce Child Labor in Sugarcane. October 2015: Technical Progress Report. [Source on file].

121. ILO-IPEC. Country Level Engagement and Assistance to Reduce (CLEAR) Child Labor Project. October 2015: Technical Progress Report. [Source on file].

122. U.S. Department of Labor. Project to Combat Exploitative Child Labor in Sugarcane Growing Areas of the Philippines. 2013: Technical Cooperation Project Summary. http://www.dol.gov/ilab/projects/summaries/Philippines_ABK_PhaseIII.pdf.

123. ILO-IPEC. Convening Stakeholders to Develop and Implement Strategies to Reduce Child Labor and Improve Working Conditions in Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining (COSTREC-ASGM). December 2015: Project Summary. http://www.dol.gov/ilab/projects/summaries/ILAB-FY15-GoldMiningProject.pdf.

124. Philippine Department of Education official. Interview with USDOL official. July 18, 2017.

125. Department of Labor and Employment- Bureau of Workers with Special Concerns. Social Amelioration Program in the Sugar Industry. March 2, 2014. http://www.bwsc.dole.gov.ph/programs-and-projects-submenu1/30-programs-projects/social-amelioration-program-in-the-sugar-industry.html.

126. Government of the Philippines. Strengthening the Social Amelioration Program in the Sugar Industry, Providing the Mechanics for its Implementation, and for Other Purposes Act, No. 6982. Enacted: May 1, 1991. http://www.chanrobles.com/republicactno6982.htm.

App

Want this report plus over a thousand pages of research in the palm of your hand? Download ILAB's Sweat & Toil App Today!