Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Philippines

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Philippines

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Significant Advancement

In 2016, the Philippines made a significant advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government released a revised and expanded list of hazardous occupations and activities prohibited for children, and passed the Children’s Emergency Relief and Protection Act, which increased measures to monitor and prevent child trafficking and child labor, including its worst forms, during national disasters. The Government also established the Internet Crimes Against Children office under the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Division to combat the Internet-facilitated commercial sexual exploitation of children. In addition, the Government updated the Philippine Program against Child Labor, and published the Revised Rules on Labor Laws Compliance System, which prioritizes establishments and workplaces that employ children for joint labor inspections. However, children in the Philippines perform dangerous tasks in the production of sugarcane. Children also engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in forced domestic work and commercial sexual exploitation. Despite the existence of strong mechanisms to respond to cases of child labor, enforcement of child labor laws remains challenging due to the limited number of inspectors, lack of resources for inspections, and inspectors’ inability to enter private homes.

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Children in the Philippines engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in forced domestic work and commercial sexual exploitation. Children also engage in the production of sugarcane, an industry that is considered dangerous for children in the Philippines.(1-8) The 2011 National Survey on Children indicated that 3.2 million children aged 5 to 17 years old engage in child labor, of which approximately 3 million work in hazardous labor.(9) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in the Philippines.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

7.5 (1,549,677)

Working children by sector

 

 

Agriculture

 

54.1

Industry

 

5.3

Services

 

40.5

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

93.7

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

7.8

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

101

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2013, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(10)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Survey on Children, 2011.(11)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of sugarcane, including growing, weeding, harvesting,† cutting,† and carrying sugarcane bundles† (1, 3-6, 12, 13)

Growing bananas, coconuts, corn, rice, rubber, and tobacco (3, 4, 13, 14)

Hog farming (4, 13)

Production of palm oil, including harvesting,† hauling,† and loading palm oil fruits (2-4)

Deep-sea fishing† (4, 15, 16)

Industry

Mining† and quarrying†, including gold and nickel extraction (1, 3, 16-20)

Manufacturing pyrotechnics† (12, 16, 21, 22)

Construction,† activities unknown (15, 23)

Production of fashion accessories (22)

Services

Child domestic work (1, 13, 24-27)

Street work, including scavenging, selling flowers, and begging (6, 12, 15, 28)

Scavenging in dumpsites† and in rivers (12, 16, 29)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, including use in the production of pornography, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (8, 12, 26, 30-32)

Forced labor, including domestic work, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (7, 8, 26, 33)

Forced recruitment of children by non-state armed groups for use in armed conflict(34-36)

Forced begging (32, 37, 38)

Use in illicit activities, including in the trafficking of drugs (32, 37, 39)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Children, primarily girls, are trafficked domestically from rural communities to urban centers and tourist destinations for the purpose of domestic work and commercial sexual exploitation.(26, 37) In addition, children are coerced into performing sex acts for live Internet broadcast to paying foreigners and local Filipinos, which usually take place in small internet cafes, private homes, or windowless dungeon-like buildings commonly known as “cybersex dens.”(8, 37, 40-43) Research indicates that the Philippines is the top global Internet source of commercial sexual exploitation of children in which exploiters pay between $20 to $150 for a live “sex show.”(44-46)

Many children work as domestic workers, or kasambahays, and are particularly vulnerable to forced labor.(24, 37, 47) Child domestic workers often live and work in the private homes of their employers, where they are expected to work long hours. These children may have limited access to education, and may be subjected to sexual, verbal, and physical abuse.(7, 26, 47, 48)

Child soldiering remains a concern among non-government militias and terrorist organizations, predominately in the southern region of Mindanao.(8, 37, 49) In 2016, the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) began implementing its four-step process of identifying and ending the recruitment and enlistment of children within the Bangsamoro Islamic Armed Forces as part of the UN-MILF Action Plan.(50, 51) However, limited evidence suggests that the MILF and the New People’s Army continue to use children to perform chores such as cooking and to fight; in one UN-verified incident, 15 children were used as human shields by Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters.(36, 37, 52, 53)

The Philippines has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). However, gaps exist in the Philippines’s legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Article 139 of the Labor Code; Section 16 of the Act Instituting Policies for the Protection and Welfare of Domestic Workers (54, 55)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 139 of the Labor Code (55)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Department Order 149 on Guidelines in Assessing and Determining Hazardous Work in the Employment of Persons Below 18 Years of Age; Sections 12-D and 16 of the Special Protection of Children Against Abuse, Exploitation, and Discrimination Act (56, 57)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Sections 4-5 of the Expanded Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act; Sections 12-D and 16 of the Special Protection of Children Against Abuse, Exploitation, and Discrimination Act (56, 58)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Sections 12-D and 16 of the Special Protection of Children Against Abuse, Exploitation, and Discrimination Act; Sections 4-5 of the Expanded Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act; (56, 58)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Sections 12-D and 16 of the Special Protection of Children Against Abuse, Exploitation, and Discrimination Act; Section 4 of the Anti-Child Pornography Act; Section 4 of the Cybercrime Prevention Act (56, 59, 60)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Sections 12-D and 16 of the Special Protection of Children Against Abuse, Exploitation, and Discrimination Act;

Sections 5 and 8 of the Comprehensive Dangerous Drugs Act (56, 61)

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

Yes*

18

Section 14 in the Providing for the Development, Administration, Organization, Training and Maintenance and Utilization of the Citizen Armed Forces of the Philippines, and for Other Purposes Act (62)

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Section 12 in the Providing for the Development, Administration, Organization, Training and Maintenance and Utilization of the Citizen Armed Forces of the Philippines, and for Other Purposes Act (62)

Non-state Compulsory

Yes

18

Sections 12-D and 16 in the Special Protection of Children Against Abuse, Exploitation and Discrimination Act (56)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

18‡

Section 4 of the Enhanced Basic Education Act (16, 63)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Section 2 of the Philippine Constitution (64)

* No conscription (65)
‡ Age calculated based on available information

In 2016, the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) released a revised and expanded list of hazardous occupations and activities prohibited for children and Guidelines for the Employment of Migratory Sugarcane Workers, which prohibit the use of children on sugarcane fields.(37, 42, 57, 66) In addition, the Government passed the Children’s Emergency Relief and Protection Act in May 2016, in which the Philippine National Police, the Department of Social Welfare and Development, and the Armed Forces of the Philippines will act as operating units and local councils in areas affected by national disasters and calamities and monitor and prevent child trafficking and child labor, including its worst forms.(37, 42, 67, 68)

In 2016, the Philippine Congress introduced House Bill No. 002 that seeks to lower the age of criminal responsibility from 15 to nine years old. The bill does not outline the rights of the children who encounter this law, including their right to access a lawyer and disadvantages children who are socioeconomically challenged and would struggle to obtain legal assistance.(69)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor law and criminal law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE), Bureau of Working Conditions

Enforce child labor laws; regularly train inspectors and regional personnel. Inspect establishments and monitor compliance with labor laws in all sectors, including in the informal sector and agricultural and mining operations.(1) Register DOLE enforcement activities using the Labor Law Compliance System Management Information System.(70)

Rescue the Child Laborers Quick Action Teams (Sagip Batang Manggagawa SBM QAT)

Lead the regional mechanism for rescuing children who work in exploitative situations.(25) Detect, monitor, and respond to incidents of child labor using a cooperative and interagency approach.(37, 71) In 2016, rescued 65 children engaged in child labor.(42)

Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD)

Rehabilitate and reintegrate child laborers.(25, 72) Coordinate regional Special Action Units, with at least one dedicated staff member per region to conduct rescue operations for child laborers and cooperate with social workers to manage ongoing cases. Maintain 16 Crisis Intervention Units and 30 residential facilities nationwide, as well as social media accounts, to address cases of child abuse and support child abuse victims, including children exploited in hazardous labor.(16, 37)

Philippine National Police (PNP)

Investigate and prosecute cases related to the worst forms of child labor.(33, 73) The PNP’s Women and Children’s Protection Center leads the enforcement of laws on child trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation of children as well as other tasks related to the protection of children.(1)

National Bureau of Investigation (NBI)

Investigate and prosecute child labor cases.(33, 73) Operate a national Trafficking in Persons Task Force, as well as a Task Force on the Protection of Children from Exploitation and Abuse.(48, 74)

Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency

Enforce the Comprehensive Dangerous Drugs Act. Maintain a national hotline for reporting cases of children used in illicit activities.(72) Coordinate with the DSWD to assist during rescue operations.(1)

In May 2016, DOLE issued the Revised Rules on Labor Laws Compliance System, which prioritizes establishments and workplaces that employ children for joint assessments that would involve the labor inspector, the employer’s representatives, and the employees. If the complaint on an employer involves a violation of the Special Protection of Children against Child Abuse, Exploitation and Discrimination Act, the Manual on Conduct of Inspection, Rescue and Enforcement Proceedings in Child Labor Cases pursuant to Department Circular No. 02, Series of 2010, will apply. (37, 75)

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, labor law enforcement agencies in the Philippines took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$706,480 (76)

$3,385,649 (77)

Number of Labor Inspectors

536 (16, 78)

574 (37)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (16)

No (37)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (16)

Yes (77)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A

Yes (37)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (16)

Unknown

Number of Labor Inspections

44,524 (76)

60,374 (37)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown (76)

Unknown

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown (76)

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown

22 (37)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

N/A

Unknown

Number of Penalties Imposed that Were Collected

N/A

Unknown

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (76)

Yes (37)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (79)

Yes (37)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (16)

Yes (37)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (16)

Yes (37)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (16)

Yes (37)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (16)

Yes (37)

In 2016, DOLE hired 41 additional Labor Laws Compliance Officers and conducted a Training of Labor Laws Compliance Officers on Child Labor Assessment to enhance personnel’s capacity to detect and assess child labor incidents. However, enforcement of child labor laws remains challenging due to the lack of resources for inspections.(16, 37, 70) The number of labor inspectors is insufficient for the size of the Philippines’s workforce, which includes over 42 million workers. According to the ILO’s recommendation of one inspector for every 15,000 workers in developing economies, the Philippines should employ roughly 2,783 labor inspectors in order to adequately enforce labor laws throughout the country.(37, 80-82) While the Inspectorate’s funding increased in 2016, the Government noted that DOLE’s funding for maintenance and operating expenses was insufficient to carry out inspections across the country’s 16 regions, particularly in more rural areas.(37, 77)

During the reporting period, DOLE identified 22 establishments in three regions with deficiencies in child labor law compliance and permanently closed two establishments that engaged four children in commercial sexual exploitation. In addition, SBM QATs conducted 23 rescue operations and removed 36 children working in hazardous activities.(37) While the SBM QATs are permitted to conduct unannounced compliance visits in video karaoke bars, massage parlors, sauna/bath houses, and farms, they are not authorized to conduct visits in private homes to search for underage child domestic workers.(70)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in the Philippines took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (76)

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

Yes (37)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (16)

Unknown

Number of Investigations

654 (16, 76)

Unknown

Number of Violations Found

159 (16, 78)

Unknown

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

102 (16, 78)

54 (37)

Number of Convictions

40 (16, 78)

38 (37)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (16)

Yes (37)

In 2016, the PNP-WCPC employed 4,527 personnel, assigned to 1,918 women and children’s desks throughout the country. In addition, the Anti-Trafficking Division of the National Bureau of Investigation maintained nine agents responsible for the investigation of human trafficking cases, with no investigators currently assigned to monitor international airports.(37)

The PNP-WCPC established the Internet Crimes Against Children office under the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Division to combat the Internet-facilitated commercial sexual exploitation of children.(37, 83) The PNP-WCPC also provided 419 police officers 32 different trainings on human trafficking and child labor laws, and it launched two manuals: the Revised Standard Operating Procedures on Trafficking in Persons Investigation and the Manual in Handling Cases of Children at Risk and Children in Conflict with the Law.(37) In addition, the Government organized trainings to build the capacity of law enforcement officials to investigate and prosecute human trafficking cases, including child labor trafficking cases. The Inter-Agency Council Against Trafficking (IACAT) conducted 26 trainings with 1,056 government personnel, and the IACAT Task Forces conducted a total of 168 trainings for a total of 13,229 participants, including 3,922 government personnel.(37) The IACAT also conducted 43 rescue operations that rescued 32 children.(42)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Child Labor Committee (NCLC)

Coordinate national efforts to combat child labor under DOLE.(25) Promote information-sharing at the national, regional, and provincial levels.(72) Composed of more than 25 government agencies, international organizations, and trade unions.(13)

Inter-Agency Council Against Trafficking (IACAT)

Coordinate, monitor, and oversee efforts to combat human trafficking, including child trafficking. Co-chaired by the Department of Justice and the DSWD.(1, 74) Composed of 24 anti-human trafficking task forces established in eight regions and seven interagency task forces in major seaports and airports.(1, 16, 70). In 2016, established a Memorandum of Understanding to coordinate efforts to combat the trafficking of children.(37)

Inter-Agency Council for the Welfare of Children (CWC)

Operate a monitoring and response system to assist children engaged in armed conflict, including recruitment and use of child soldiers.(33)

Inter-Agency Committee on Children Involved in Armed Conflict

Advocate for protecting children and preventing the involvement of children in armed conflict. Chaired by the CWC.(70) Coordinate and monitor the implementation of the Children in Armed Conflict Program Framework.(1)

Inter-Agency Council Against Child Pornography

Monitor and implement the Anti-Child Pornography Act of 2009.(84) Chaired by the DSWD.(76)

In 2016, the Government proposed an executive order that aims to restructure the role of the National Child Labor Committee (NCLC) and allocate funds to support its projects and activities, which would enhance the NCLC’s role as the lead coordination mechanism on child labor policy and programming.(37, 85)

In March 2016, the NCLC, DOLE, and members of the Technical Working Group on Decent Work convened to update the Philippine Program against Child Labor, which set a goal of withdrawing one million child laborers by 2022, with a priority placed on removing children from domestic work.(67)

The Government of the Philippines has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

Philippine Program against Child Labor (2017-2022)

Aims to remove one million children from child labor by the year 2025.(37) Implementation led by the Bureau of Workers with Special Concerns.(67)

National Strategic Action Plan Against Trafficking in Persons (2012–2016)

Raises awareness and creates local programs to prevent children from being victimized by human traffickers.(1, 72)

Inter-Agency Council Against Child Pornography Three-Year Strategic Plan†

Aims to eradicate child pornography in the Philippines by focusing efforts in five strategic areas: (1) advocacy and prevention; (2) law enforcement and prosecution; (3) protection, recovery, and reintegration; (4) research, monitoring, and management of information systems; and (5) partnerships and networking.(86)

Medium-Term Philippine Development Plan (2011–2016)

Aims to strengthen monitoring mechanisms for child protection laws, develop strategies for responding to child trafficking and pornography concerns, and implement an enhanced program for preventing the engagement of children in armed conflict.(72)

Philippine Labor and Employment Plan (2011–2016)

Operates within the framework of the Medium-Term Philippine Development Plan and includes the goal of reducing exploitive child labor.(1, 72, 87)

National Strategic Framework for Plan Development for Children (Child 21) (2000–2025)

Sets out broad goals for national government agencies, local governments, and NGOs to achieve improved quality of life for Filipino children by 2025.(25, 74, 88) Addresses concerns related to the worst forms of child labor under the section on children in need of special protection.(16)

National Plan of Action for Children (2011–2016)

Serves as an agenda for implementation of Child 21.(74) Child labor elimination and prevention strategies are mainstreamed throughout the document, particularly in goal two on child protection, which specifies that children should be free from violence, abuse, neglect, and exploitation.(16)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

In December 2016, the NCLC announced that it will launch three anti-child labor programs in early 2017 to support the Philippine Program against Child Labor 2016-2022.These programs will establish helpdesks and a local registry on child labor for referral to social services, integrate a new module on child labor with a conditional cash transfer program that will raise awareness of child labor and involve families in preventing and combating child labor, and provide interventions to address child labor in gold mines and improving these children’s working conditions.(89)

However, access to education remains a challenge in the Philippines. While the Philippine Constitution mandates free public education, many children are unable to attend school due to the prohibitive cost of books, uniforms, meals, and transportation.(16, 90)

In 2016, the Government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Child Labor Prevention and Elimination Program (Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program)

DSWD program that provides conditional grants to poor families with children to improve their access to health care, adequate nutrition, and education; implements local awareness-raising campaigns; institutes child labor-monitoring mechanisms; and requires barangays to develop child labor elimination plans. (91-93) Covers 1,627 cities and municipalities in 79 provinces and all 17 regions.(70) As of November 2016, there were 4,389,863 active household beneficiaries who received education and health services. Program will include a child labor module that will impart information on the effects of child labor to project participants and the family’s role to combat child labor.(37, 94)

Campaign for Child-Labor Free Barangays

DOLE program that aims to eliminate child labor in villages through community awareness-raising on child labor and anti-human trafficking laws, and through government livelihood programs and guidelines.(95) In 2016, DOLE declared 79 barangays child labor free, bringing the total number to 292 since 2014.(37) DOLE regional offices certified 28 establishments child labor free, bringing the total up to 210 since 2013.(37)

Livelihood for Parents of Child Laborers (Kabuhayan para sa Magulang ng Batang Manggagawa)†

DOLE program that provides livelihood assistance to parents, guardians or other family members of child laborers. (73, 96, 97) In 2016, prevented or removed a total of 2,108 child laborers or children at risk for child labor.(37)

Recovery and Reintegration Program for Trafficked Persons†

DSWD and IACAT program that provides recovery and reintegration services to victims of human trafficking and raises awareness in vulnerable communities.(98) Includes the National Referral System, which strengthens coordination among agencies providing services to human trafficking victims through the use of standard referral and reporting forms.(98) There are 149 referral networks established in 16 regions. In 2016, received a budget of $479,413.(37)

USDOL-Funded Projects

USDOL projects in the Philippines that aim to eliminate child labor in the sugar-cane provinces, artisanal and small-scale gold mines, and its worst forms, through improved capacity of the national government and legislation, the implementation of a National Action Plan, research, data collection, the development of strategic policies to address the elimination of child labor and forced labor, and stronger legal protections and social services delivery for child domestic workers. These projects include Country Level Engagement and Assistance to Reduce Child Labor (CLEAR), implemented by the ILO in at least 11 countries; Global Action Program (GAP) on Child Labor Issues, implemented by the ILO in approximately 40 countries; Building a Generation of Safe and Healthy Workers: Safe and Healthy Youth, implemented by the ILO with the Philippines as one of the three pilot countries; Philippines ABK3 LEAP—Livelihoods, Education, Advocacy, and Protection to Reduce Child Labor in Sugarcane (2011–2016), $16.5 million project implemented by World Vision; and “CARING Gold Mining Project,” Convening Stakeholders to Develop and Implement Strategies to Reduce Child Labor and Improve Working Conditions in Artisanal and Small-scale Gold Mining (ASGM) (2015–2019), implemented by the ILO with the Philippines as one of the two pilot countries. (99-102) For additional information about USDOL’s work, please visit our Web site.

Alternative Learning System Program†

Department of Education program that offers non-formal education to out-of-school children, including child laborers, as well as opportunities to attain a certificate of education equivalency. Has limited resources, represents approximately 1 percent of the Department of Education’s budget, and has only 1 teacher for every 24 communities, so it cannot reach many out-of-school youth.(76, 77, 96)

† Program is funded by the Government of the Philippines.
‡ The Government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms.(25, 73, 96, 103, 104)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in the Philippines (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Enforcement

Authorize the labor inspectorate to assess penalties.

2015 – 2016

Increase the number of labor inspectors responsible for enforcing laws related to child labor as well as resources available in order to provide adequate coverage of the workforce.

2014 – 2016

Authorize SBM QATs to conduct compliance visits in private homes to search for underage child domestic workers.

2014 – 2016

Publish information about the training system for labor inspectors, the number of labor inspections conducted at worksites and by desk review, whether routine inspections are conducted and targeted, and the number of child labor law violations found; and ensure that the total number of criminal investigations, violations, prosecutions, and convictions related to the worst forms of child labor are disaggregated by age.

2015 – 2016

Coordination

Pass the proposed executive order to restructure the National Child Labor Committee and ensure it has the legal mandate and resources necessary to effectively coordinate national efforts to combat child labor including its worst forms.

2015 – 2016

Government Policies

Ensure that all children are able to safely access and attend school and do not face prohibitive costs for education-related expenses.

2010 – 2016

Social Programs

Provide necessary resources to help more out-of-school youth access the Alternative Learning System program so they can complete their basic education.

2011 – 2016

1.           U.S. Embassy- Manila. reporting, January 17, 2014.

2.           Center for Trade Union and Human Rights. Children of the Sunshine Industry, Center for Trade Union and Human Rights [Online] October 4, 2012 [cited January 2, 2015]; http://ctuhr.org/children-of-the-sunshine-industry/.

3.           Palatino, M. "Rising Child Labor Abuse in the Philippines." thediplomat.com [online] February 17, 2015 [cited February 17, 2015]; http://thediplomat.com/2015/02/rising-child-labor-abuse-in-the-philippines/.

4.           Castro, C. Child Sakadas in Philippine Agriculture: Researching Injury Hazards for Working Children in the Context of International Labor Standards and United States Foreign Policy [Ph.D diss.]: The George Washington University; 2007. [Source on file]

5.           Torres, J. "Chronic poverty is fueling child labor in the Phillipines." ucanews.com [online] January 29, 2015 [cited November 15, 2015]; http://www.ucanews.com/news/chronic-poverty-is-fueling-child-labor-in-the-philippines/72891.

6.           Joe Torres and Jefry Tupas. "Not enough done to combat child labor in Philippines, critics say." ucanews.com [online] June 15, 2015 [cited January 5, 2016]; http://www.ucanews.com/news/not-enough-done-to-combat-child-labor-in-philippines-critics-say/73782.

7.           ILO CEACR. Individual Observation Concerning Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29) Philippines (ratification: 2005) Published: 2014; accessed November 5, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/english/iloquery.htm.

8.           U.S. Department of State. "Philippines," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016. Washington, DC; June 30, 2016; https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2016/258843.htm.

9.           National Statistics Office. The Number of Working Children 5 to 17 Years Old is Estimated at 5.5 Million (Preliminary Results of the 2011 Survey on Children), National Statistics Office [online] July 18, 2012 [cited February 14, 2015]; http://psa.gov.ph/content/number-working-children-5-17-years-old-estimated-55-million-preliminary-results-2011-survey.

10.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed December 16, 2016; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary education. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. The calculation includes all new entrants to the last grade (regardless of age). Therefore, the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

11.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Survey on Children, 2011. Analysis received April 13, 2017. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

12.         U.S. Department of State. "Philippines," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2015. Washington, DC; April 13, 2016; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/253005.pdf.

13.         UCW. Understanding Child Labour and Youth Employment in the Philippines. Rome; December 2015. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---asia/---ro-bangkok/---ilo-manila/documents/publication/wcms_447853.pdf.

14.         Jenina Joy Chavez, JD, Qing Li, and Madeiline Joy Aloria. The Economics of Tobacco Farming in the Philippines. Atlanta; 2016. http://aer.ph/industrialpolicy/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/REPORT-The-Economics-of-Tobacco-Farming-in-the-Philippines-LAYOUT.pdf.

15.         ILO, and Philippine National Statistics Office. 2011 Survey on Children. Manila; June 26, 2012. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---asia/---ro-bangkok/---ilo-manila/documents/meetingdocument/wcms_184097.pdf.

16.         U.S. Embassy- Manila. reporting, January 19, 2016.

17.         Center for Trade Union and Human Rights. Teens exposed to hazardous work in Surigao mining firm, Center for Trade Union and Human Rights, [online] September 1, 2014  [cited January 2, 2015]; http://ctuhr.org/teens-exposed-to-hazardous-work-in-surigao-mining-firm/.

18.         Sabillo, KA. "Where have all the children gone?" inquirer.net, [online] August 4, 2014 [cited November 24, 2014]; http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/626282/where-have-all-the-children-gone.

19.         Williams, E. Children of the Dirty Gold [Television program]. Sydney: SBS Dateline; June 16, 2015, 23 min., 56 sec., [Accessed February 16, 2016]; http://www.sbs.com.au/news/dateline/story/children-dirty-gold.

20.         Human Rights Watch. “What … if Something Went Wrong?”: Hazardous Child Labor in Small-Scale Gold Mining in the Philippines Human Rights Watch; 2015. https://www.hrw.org/report/2015/09/29/what-if-something-went-wrong/hazardous-child-labor-small-scale-gold-mining#290612.

21.         "Philippines Fireworks Factories Warned vs. Hiring Minors." Mindanao Examiner, Mindanao, December 25, 2013. [Source on file].

22.         Aldaba, F., et al. Employers’ Demand for Child Labor in the Pyrotechnics and Fashion Accessories Industries in the Philippines.ILO; December 2005. [Source on file].

23.         Bernal, B. "Negligence, child labor seen in Bulacan warehouse accident." rappler.com [online] February 5, 2015 [cited January 5, 2015]; http://www.rappler.com/nation/81561-labor-offense-bulacan-warehouse-accident.

24.         ILO CEACR. Individual Observation Concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Philippines (ratification: 2000) Published: 2012; accessed February 14, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/english/iloquery.htm.

25.         U.S. Embassy- Manila. reporting, January 24, 2012.

26.         ILO. Application of International Labour Standards 2014 ( I ). Report No. III (Part 1A). Geneva; 2014. http://www.ilo.org/ilc/ILCSessions/103/reports/reports-to-the-conference/WCMS_235054/lang--en/index.htm.

27.         ILO CEACR. Individual Observation Concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Philippines (ratification: 2000) Published: 2014; accessed November 5, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/english/iloquery.htm.

28.         Free the Slaves. Amihan Abueva: Fighting Child Sexual Exploitation in the Philippines [Film]. Washington, DC: Free the Slaves; January 21, 2015, 2 min., 37 sec., [Accessed December 23, 2015]; http://www.freetheslaves.net/video/freedom-awards-2008-amihan-abueva-philippines-william-wilberforce-award-winner/.

29.         Catholic News Online. "Filipino Children Forced to Scavenge Through Rubbish for Pennies a Day." catholic.org [online] July 5, 2015 [cited June 8, 2017]; http://www.catholic.org/news/international/asia/story.php?id=61759.

30.         ILO-IPEC. Ending child labour in domestic work and protecting young workers from abusive working conditions. Geneva; June 12, 2013. http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/download.do?type=document&id=21515.

31.         Lowe, A. "Philippines Faces Hurdles to Shut Down Sex Trafficking." channelnewsasia.com [online] August 23, 2015 [cited November 16, 2015]; http://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/asiapacific/philippines-faces-hurdles-to-shut-down-sex-trafficking-8225132.

32.         Badilla, N. "Child labor: A problem ignored." The Manila Times, Manila, October 3, 2015. http://www.manilatimes.net/child-labor-a-problem-ignored/221982/.

33.         U.S. Embassy- Manila. reporting, February 15, 2013.

34.         Gutierrez, J. "Philippines strives to end recruitment of child soldiers." IRINnews.org [online] May 20, 2015 [cited November 15, 2015]; http://www.irinnews.org/report/101517/philippines-strives-to-end-recruitment-of-child-soldiers.

35.         UN. reporting, 2016.

36.         Conde, C.H. Dispatches: Fighting Over Child Soldiers in the Philippines. Human Rights Watch, [online] February 16, 2016 [cited December 27, 2016];  https://www.hrw.org/news/2016/02/16/dispatches-fighting-over-child-soldiers-philippines.

37.         U.S. Embassy- Manila. reporting, February 1, 2017.

38.         Al Jazeera. Children in Philippines forced to beg to survive [Film]. Al Jazeera; October 28, 2016, 2 min., 4 sec., [Accessed February 2, 2017], http://video.aljazeera.com/channels/eng/videos/children-in-philippines-forced-to-beg-to-survive/4729308019001;jsessionid=2A602175AA45B94EE5613A5CEB1907A8.

39.         Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency. PDEA Expresses Concern Over Rising Incidence of Minors Involved in Illegal Drug Activities; Supports Senate Resolution No. 19. Press Release. Quezon City, August 21, 2016. http://pdea.gov.ph/images/PressRelease/2016PR/Aug2016PR/PR3822016.pdf.

40.         Holmes, O. "How child sexual abuse became a family business in the Philippines." theguardian.com [online] May 30, 2016 [cited February 6, 2017]; https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/may/31/live-streaming-child-sex-abuse-family-business-philippines.

41.         Walk Free Foundation. The Global Slavery Index Philippines, 2016 [cited February 6, 2017]; http://www.globalslaveryindex.org/country/philippines/.

42.         U.S. Embassy- Manila. reporting, February 13, 2017.

43.         Terre des Hommes Netherlands. Fullscreen View: An Exploratory Study on the Background and Psychosocial Consequences of Webcam Child Sex Tourism in the Philippines. Netherlands; November 4, 2013. https://www.terredeshommes.nl/sites/tdh/files/uploads/research_report_2.pdf.

44.         UNICEF. UNICEF study: 8 in 10 Filipino youth in danger of online sexual abuse. UNICEF [online] June 7, 2016 [cited April 3, 2017]; https://www.unicef.org/philippines/media_25534.html#.WOLzstIrLZ6.

45.         The Manila Times. "Philippines is No. 1 global source of child pornography." The Manila Times, Manila, June 11, 2016. http://www.manilatimes.net/philippines-is-no-1-global-source-of-child-pornography/267148/.

46.         International Justice Mission. Fact Sheet: Manila, Philippines Manila; 2016. http://www.ijm.org/sites/default/files/manila_factsheet_2016.pdf.

47.         Anti-Slavery International. Background: Forced Labour and Exploitation of Domestic Workers in the Philippines. Anti-Slavery International. [Source on file].

48.         U.S. Embassy- Manila. reporting, February 18, 2015.

49.         UN General Assembly Security Council. Report of the Secretary-General on Children and Armed Conflict (A/70/836–S/2016/360). Geneva; April 20, 2016. http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/2016/360.

50.         UN Office of the SRSG for Children and Armed Conflict. Philippines: Ending Use and Recruitment of Children for the Future of the Bangsamoro People. [cited December 9, 2016]; https://childrenandarmedconflict.un.org/philippines-children-recruitment/.

51.         United Nations General Assembly Human Rights Council. Annual report of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict. Geneva; December 22, 2016. http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/HRC/34/44&Lang=E&Area=UNDOC.

52.         Santos, A. "Ending the use of child soldiers in the Philippines,." DW [online ] September 26, 2016 [cited December 12, 2016]; http://www.dw.com/en/ending-the-use-of-child-soldiers-in-the-philippines/a-35890128.

53.         UN Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict. Philippines. 2016. https://childrenandarmedconflict.un.org/countries-caac/philippines/.

54.         Government of the Philippines. An Act Instituting Policies for the Protection and Welfare of Domestic Workers, No. 10361, enacted January 18, 2013. http://www.lawphil.net/statutes/repacts/ra2013/ra_10361_2013.html.

55.         Government of the Philippines. The Labor Code of the Philippines, Presidential Decree No. 442, enacted May 1, 1974. http://hrlibrary.umn.edu/research/Philippines/PD%20442%20-%20Labor%20Code%20of%20the%20Philippines.pdf.

56.         Government of the Philippines,. An Act Providing For The Elimination Of The Worst Forms Of Child Labor And Affording Stronger Protection For The Working Child, Amending For This Purpose Republic Act No. 7610, No. 9231, enacted December 19, 2003. http://www.lawphil.net/statutes/repacts/ra2003/ra_9231_2003.html.

57.         Government of the Philippines. Guidelines in Assessing and Determining Hazardous Work in the Employment of Persons Below 18 Years of Age, Department Order No. 149, enacted February 15, 2016. http://www.dole.gov.ph/files/Dept%20Order%20No_%20149-2016(1).pdf

58.         Government of the Philippines. Expanded Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act No. 10364, enacted February 6, 2013. http://www.gov.ph/2013/02/06/republic-act-no-10364/.

59.         Government of the Philippines. Anti-Child Pornography Act, No. 9775, enacted November 17, 2009. http://www.lawphil.net/statutes/repacts/ra2009/ra_9775_2009.html.

60.         Government of the Philippines. An Act Defining Cybercrime, Providing for the Prevention, Investigation, Suppression and the Imposition of Penalties Therefore and for Other Purposes, Republic Act No. 10175, enacted 2011. http://www.gov.ph/2012/09/12/republic-act-no-10175/.

61.         Government of the Philippines. Comprehensive Dangerous Drugs Act of 2002, No. 9165, enacted June 7, 2002. http://www.lawphil.net/statutes/repacts/ra2002/ra_9165_2002.html.

62.         Government of the Philippines. Providing for the Development, Administration, Organization, Training and Maintenance and Utilization of the Citizen Armed Forces of the Philippines, and for Other Purposes Act, No. 7077, enacted June 27, 1991. http://www.lawphil.net/statutes/repacts/ra1991/ra_7077_1991.html.

63.         Government of the Philippines. Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013, No. 10533, enacted May 15, 2012. http://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/2013/05/15/republic-act-no-10533/.

64.         Government of the Philippines. The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines, enacted February 11, 1987. http://www.gov.ph/the-philippine-constitutions/the-1987-constitution-of-the-republic-of-the-philippines/.

65.         Child Soldiers International. "Appendix II: Data Summary Table on Recruitment Ages of National Armies," in Louder than words: An agenda for action to end state use of child soldiers. London; 2012; https://www.child-soldiers.org/shop/louder-than-words-1.

66.         Government of the Philippines. Guidelines for the Employment of Migratory Sugarcane Workers Department Order No. 159, enacted June 22, 2016. https://www.dole.gov.ph/files/Dept%20Order%20No_%20159-16.pdf.

67.         ILO-IPEC. Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues. Technical Progress Report. Geneva; October 2016. [Source on file]

68.         Government of the Philippines. Children’s Emergency Relief and Protection Act, Republic Act No. 10821, enacted July 27, 2015. http://www.gov.ph/2016/05/18/republic-act-no-10821/.

69.         Government of the Philippines. House Bill No. 002 An Act Amending Republic Act No. 9344, As Amended by Republic Act No. 10630, And Reverting the Minimum Age of Criminal Responsibility From Fifteen (15) Years Old to Nine (9) Years Old. House of Representatives, enacted 2016. http://www.congress.gov.ph/legisdocs/basic_17/HB00002.pdf.

70.         U.S. Embassy- Manila. reporting, January 15, 2015.

71.         Government of the Philippines. Sagip Batang Manggagawa. Department of Labor and Employment, Manila; http://www.bwsc.dole.gov.ph/images/InfoMaterials/SBM.pdf.

72.         U.S. Embassy- Manila. reporting, February 1, 2013.

73.         U.S. Embassy- Manila official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 27, 2013.

74.         U.S. Embassy- Manila official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 13, 2014.

75.         Government of the Philippines. Revised Rules on Labor Laws Compliance System, Department Order No. 131-B, enacted May 30, 2016. http://www.dole.gov.ph/files/Dept%20Order%20No_%20131-B-16.pdf.

76.         U.S. Embassy- Manila official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 22, 2016.

77.         U.S. Department of State official. E-mail communication to, USDOL official. May 31, 2017.

78.         U.S. Embassy- Manila official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 14, 2016.

79.         ILO. Philippines: Labour Inspection Structure and Organization, ILO, [online] [cited April 7, 2016]; http://www.ilo.org/labadmin/info/WCMS_209367/lang--en/index.htm.

80.         CIA. The World Factbook, [online] [cited January 19, 2017]; https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/rp.html. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a "sufficient number" of labor inspectors based on the country's level of development as determined by the UN.

81.         ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a "sufficient number" of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a "sufficient" number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

82.         UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex. New York; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, "developed economies" equate to the ILO's classification of "industrial market economies," "economies in transition" to "transition economies," "developing countries" to "industrializing economies," and "the least developed countries" equates to "less developed countries." For countries that appear on both "developing countries" and "least developed countries" lists, they will be considered "least developed countries" for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

83.         Tacadena, K.G. "PNP creates office to combat online child sex trafficking." gmanetwork.com [online] July 13, 2016 [cited June 8, 2017]; http://www.gmanetwork.com/news/story/573500/news/nation/pnp-creates-office-to-combat-online-child-sex-trafficking.

84.         National Child Labor Committee. Case Flow Management Protocol on Child Labor. Manila; 2015. [Source on file].

85.         Government of the Philippines. Addressing the Urgent Need to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor Through the Strengthening of the National Committee Against Child Labor, Reorganizing its Composition, Redefining its Functions, and Allocating Funds Therefor Department of Labor and Employment, 2017. [Source on file].

86.         Inter-Agency Council Against Child Pornography. Inter-Agency Council Against Child Pornography Three-Year Strategic Plan (2015-2017). Manila; 2015. [Souce on file].

87.         Department of Labor and Employment. The Philippine Labor & Employment Plan 2011-2016. Manila; 2011. http://ncmb.ph/Others/dole/dole11.pdf.

88.         UNICEF. Child 21. A Legacy to the Filipino Children of the 21st Century, Philippines National Strategic Framework for Plan Development for Children, 2000-2025. Manila; 2000. [Source on file].

89.         Philippine Information Agency. DOLE, DSWD, ILO to launch three anti-child labor programs. Press Release. Quezon City, December 21, 2016.  http://news.pia.gov.ph/article/view/2131482248899/dole-dswd-ilo-to-launch-three-anti-child-labor-programs.

90.         Government of the Philippines. Out-of-School Children and Youth in the Philippines (Results from the 2013 Functional Literacy, Education and Mass Media Survey). Press Release. April 20, 2015.  https://psa.gov.ph/content/out-school-children-and-youth-philippines-results-2013-functional-literacy-education-and.

91.         Department of Social Welfare and Development. The Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program. [online] 2013 [cited February 14, 2015]; http://pantawid.dswd.gov.ph/index.php/about-us?showall=1.

92.         Business World Online. "DSWD to expand anti-poverty programs." bworldonline.com [online] January 5, 2014 [cited January 8, 2015]; http://www.bworldonline.com/content.php?section=Nation&title=DSWD-to-expand-anti-poverty-programs&id=81524.

93.         Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program, Government of the Philippines, [online] [cited March 1, 2016]; http://www.gov.ph/programs/conditional-cash-transfer/.

94.         ILO. Philippines bolsters fight against child labour, ILO [online] [cited May 31, 2017]; http://www.ilo.org/manila/public/pr/WCMS_541499/lang--en/index.htm.

95.         Government of the Philippines,. Guidelines on the Certification of Child Labor-Free Barangay, Administrative Order No. 657, enacted December 15, 2014. http://bwsc.dole.gov.ph/images/ppacl/CLFB/CLFB-AO-657-14-Guidelines-on-the-certification-of-child-labor-free-barangay.pdf.

96.         Republic of the Philippines Embassy official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 15, 2012.

97.         Department of Labor and Employment. Baldoz Bares Strategies in Creating Child Labor-Free Barangays, [online] September 1, 2012 [cited February 14, 2015]; http://www.dole.gov.ph/news/view/1868.

98.         U.S. Embassy- Manila. reporting, February 29, 2016.

99.         World Vision Development Foundation. ABK3 LEAP: Livelihoods, Education, Advocacy and Protection to Reduce Child Labor in Sugarcane. Technical Progress Report. Washington, DC; October 2015. [Source on file]

100.       ILO-IPEC. Country Level Engagement and Assistance to Reduce (CLEAR) Child Labor Project. Technical Progress Report. Geneva; October 2015. [Source on file]

101.       USDOL. Project to Combat Exploitative Child Labor in Sugarcane Growing Areas of the Philippines. Technical Cooperation Project Summary. Washington, DC; 2013. http://www.dol.gov/ilab/projects/summaries/Philippines_ABK_PhaseIII.pdf.

102.       ILO-IPEC. Convening Stakeholders to Develop and Implement Strategies to Reduce Child Labor and Improve Working Conditions in Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining (COSTREC-ASGM). Project Summary. Geneva; December 2015. http://www.dol.gov/ilab/projects/summaries/ILAB-FY15-GoldMiningProject.pdf.

103.       Department of Labor and Employment- Bureau of Workers with Special Concerns. Social Amelioration Program in the Sugar Industry, [online] April 5, 2010 [Source on file].

104.       Government of the Philippines. Strengthening the Social Amelioration Program in the Sugar Industry, Providing the Mechanics for its Implementation, and for Other Purposes Act, No. 6982, enacted May 1, 1991. http://www.chanrobles.com/republicactno6982.htm.

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