Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Philippines

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Philippines

2014 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Significant Advancement

In 2014, the Philippines made a significant advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The National Child Labor Committee (NCLC) finalized its Strategic Plan for 2014 — 2016, which will serve as the operational framework to address components of the Philippine Program Against Child Labor (PPACL). Four NCLC subcommittees conducted year-end assessments on the accomplishments of their respective 2014 strategic plans to identify the implementation gaps and formulate their 2015 strategic plans under the PPACL Strategic Framework. The Inter-Agency Council Against Trafficking (IACAT) trained over 5,000 service providers to ensure the protection, prevention, and prosecution of human trafficking cases, and established three additional regional task forces bringing the countrywide total to 19. However, children in the Philippines are engaged in child labor, including in agriculture and domestic work. Despite nearly doubling the number of Labor Law Compliance Officers (LLCO), enforcement of child labor laws remains challenging due to the limited number of inspectors and lack of resources for inspections.

 

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Children in the Philippines are engaged in child labor, including in agriculture and domestic service.(1-5) The 2011 National Survey on Children indicated that 3.2 million children are engaged in child labor, of which approximately 3 million work in hazardous labor.(6) Most child labor occurs in the informal sector, with approximately 60 percent working in agriculture.(7) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in the Philippines.

Table 1. Statistics on Children's Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

7.5 (1,549,677)

Working children by sector, ages 5 to 14 (%)

 

Agriculture

54.1

Industry

5.3

Services

40.5

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

93.7

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

7.8

Primary completion rate (%):

91.3

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2009, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(8)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children's Work Project's analysis of statistics from Survey on Children, 2011.(9)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children's Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of sugarcane, bananas, coconuts, corn, hogs, palm oil,* rice, rubber, and tobacco (1, 10-14)

Industry

Mining† and quarrying,† including gold extraction (1-3, 11, 13, 15-17)

Deep-sea fishing† (1, 3, 15, 18)

Manufacturing pyrotechnics† (1, 15, 19, 20)

Construction,*† activities unknown (1, 3)

Used in the production of fashion accessories (21)

Services

Domestic work (1, 5, 11, 15, 22-24)

Street work, including scavenging and begging* (1, 3, 7)

Scavenging in dumpsites† (1, 11, 15, 19)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation sometimes as a result of human trafficking (7, 11, 24-27)

Forced labor, including domestic work, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (7, 24, 28-30)

Used in the production of pornography (7, 11, 25, 27)

Used in armed conflict as combatants, human shields, guides, messengers, and porters, sometimes as a result of forced recruitment (7, 25, 31, 32)

Forced begging* (11)

Used in illicit activities, including the trafficking of drugs (2, 11, 15, 33)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Children, primarily girls, are trafficked from rural to urban areas for domestic work and commercial sexual exploitation.(7, 24, 29) Emerging reports indicate that boys are increasingly trafficked for commercial sexual exploitation, particularly for child pornography.(25, 29) In addition, very young Filipino children are coerced to perform sex acts for live Internet broadcast to paying foreigners. This typically occurs in private residences or Internet cafés, and it is often facilitated by family members.(27) The Philippine National Police (PNP) noted that child trafficking for labor is prevalent from Lanao del Sur Province in Mindanao.(11, 34)

Children commonly work as domestic workers orkasambahays.(1, 22, 23) Many child domestic workers work long hours, and their isolation in the homes where they work creates the potential for sexual harassment and verbal and physical abuse.(24, 27, 30, 35) Child domestic workers are often denied access to education.(22, 23, 35) Some children end up in situations of forced labor, especially those who receive no pay or have their wages withheld.(23, 29, 35)

Child soldiering is a problem, particularly among antigovernment and terrorist organizations.(7, 24, 25, 31, 32) Sources indicate that children continue to be found in the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF), working as guides, messengers, and porters.(7, 25, 31) In early 2014, the Government of the Philippines signed a peace agreement with the MILF, completing negotiations that had been ongoing for more than a decade.(32, 36) UNICEF conducted preventative programs with the group on the recruitment and use of children. The MILF also reconstituted a panel to monitor implementation of the UN-MILF Action Plan to monitor cases of grave child rights violations.(32, 33)

Children have been found in the Moro National Liberation Front where abductions have been reported, including for the use of children as human shields, as well as in the Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters (BIFF) and the New People's Army. Children have also been used as both combatants and non-combatants by the Abu Sayyaf Group.(7, 31-33, 37) In September, combatants from the BIFF attended workshops led by UNICEF, the Bangsamoro Development Agency, and Plan International on topics including children in armed conflict, the framework for child protection, and monitoring and reporting grave violations.(33) In addition, the UN has raised concerns about the use of children by security forces of the state.(7, 25)

Although the law mandates free education, many children do not attend school because the costs of books, uniforms, meals, and transportation are prohibitive for many families.(1, 2, 38) In addition, distant school locations are often not accessible to rural students, especially at the secondary school level.(7, 38, 39)

Typhoon Haiyan hit the Philippines in late 2013, leaving behind devastation that affected millions of people.(40, 41) Prior to the typhoon, children were already heavily involved in agriculture; the loss of family livelihoods and incomes has increased child labor in hazardous work.(42-44) Adult migration for work and displacement from their homes have made children more vulnerable to exploitation in hazardous work and/or human trafficking.(25, 27, 42, 43, 45, 46)

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The Philippines has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Article 139 of the Labor Code; Section 16 of Republic Act No. 10361: An Act Instituting Policies for the Protection and Welfare of Domestic Workers (47, 48)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 139 of the Labor Code (48)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Republic Act No. 679, as further amended by Presidential Decree No. 148, Woman and Child Labor Law, Department Order 4 (49)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Section 4 of Republic Act No. 10364: Expanded Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act of 2012 (50)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Section 12-D of Republic Act No. 9231: Act Providing for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor and Affording Stronger Protection for the Working Child; Sections 4-5 of Republic Act No. 10364: Expanded Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act of 2012; Article 4 of Republic Act No. 7610: Special Protection of Children Against Abuse, Exploitation and Discrimination Act (50-52)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Section 12-D of Republic Act No. 9231: Act Providing for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor and Affording Stronger Protection for the Working Child; Article 3 of Republic Act No. 7610: Special Protection of Children Against Abuse, Exploitation and Discrimination Act; Section 4 of Republic Act No. 9775: Anti-Child Pornography Act of 2009; Chapter 2, Section 4 of Republic Act No. 10175: Cybercrime Prevention Act (19, 51-54)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Section 12-D of Republic Act No. 9231: Act Providing for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor and Affording Stronger Protection for the Working Child; Articles 6 and 10 of Republic Act No. 7610: Special Protection of Children Against Abuse, Exploitation, and Discrimination Act; Sections 5 and 8 of Republic Act No. 9165: Comprehensive Dangerous Drugs Act (51, 52, 55)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

Yes

18

Memorandum Circular No. 13 on Selective Enlistment/Reenlistment of the Department of National Defense and the Armed Forces of the Philippines; Article 10 of Republic Act No. 7610: Special Protection of Children Against Abuse, Exploitation and Discrimination Act (51, 56)

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Combat: Yes

18 17

Section 5.A.4 of Memorandum Circular No. 13 on Selective Enlistment/Reenlistment of the Department of National Defense and the Armed Forces of the Philippines; 2003 Declaration on Ratifying the Optional Protocol (56, 57)

Noncombat: Yes

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

18

Section 4 of the Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013 (8, 58)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Section 2 of the Philippine Constitution (59)

During the reporting period, the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) received approval from stakeholders for the revised Department Order No. 4, the hazardous work list for children.(60) The draft document is pending review by the tripartite executive committee and the tripartite industrial peace committee, both of which are required prior to endorsement to the Secretary.(61)

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The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE), Bureau of Working Conditions (BWC)

Enforce child labor laws and regularly train inspectors and regional personnel. Inspect establishments and monitor compliance with labor laws in all sectors, including the informal sector, nontraditional and informal establishments, and agricultural and mining operations.(11)

Rescue the Child Laborers Quick Action Teams (Sagip Batang Manggagawa — SBM)

Lead the regional mechanism for rescuing children who work in exploitative and dangerous situations.(15) Interagency quick action mechanism partnering with the Philippine National Police (PNP); the National Bureau of Investigation (NBI); the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD); local representatives of various government agencies; local NGOs; labor unions; and the business community in a cooperative effort to detect, monitor, and respond to instances of child labor in the formal and informal sectors.(11, 33) Exchange information on child labor cases in meetings of the Regional Child Labor Committees and in conferences of regional SBM Quick Action Teams. Refer child laborers to DSWD for rehabilitation and reintegration.(33)

Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD)

Rehabilitate and reintegrate children.(2, 15) Coordinate regional Special Action Units, with at least one dedicated staff member per region to conduct rescue operations for child laborers and cooperate with social workers to manage the ongoing cases of victims.(15) Maintain 16 Crisis Intervention Units and 30 residential facilities nationwide to address cases of child abuse and support child abuse victims, including children exploited in hazardous labor.(11, 33)

Philippine National Police (PNP)

Investigate and prosecute child labor cases.(29, 62) Lead the enforcement of child trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation of children laws as well as other tasks related to the protection of children by the PNP's Women and Children's Protection Center.(11) Maintain 1,833 women and children's desks throughout the country with a total of 3,675 personnel.(27)

National Bureau of Investigation (NBI)

Investigate and prosecute child labor cases.(29, 62) Operate a national Trafficking in Persons Task Force to conduct preliminary investigations and prosecute trafficking in persons cases, as well as a Task Force on the Protection of Children from Exploitation and Abuse.(27, 63) Employ 16 agents and investigators assigned to investigate cases of trafficking and illegal recruitment in the Anti-Trafficking Division.(33)

Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency (PDEA)

Enforce the Comprehensive Dangerous Drugs Act, Republic Act No. 9165. Maintain a national hotline for reporting cases of children used in illicit activities.(2) Coordinate with DSWD to assist during rescue operations once information is verified through surveillance.(11)

Law enforcement agencies in the Philippines took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms.

Labor Law Enforcement

DOLE's Bureau of Working Conditions (BWC) increased the number of Labor Laws Compliance Officers (LLCOs) during the year by more than double, raising the number from 237 to 572.(33, 64) Despite the increase in the number of LLCOs, NGOs report that enforcement of labor laws, particularly DOLE's ability to monitor and investigate child labor law violations, remains difficult due to the limited number of inspectors and lack of logistical resources.(33) DOLE includes a child labor component in its training for labor inspectors.(11)

The budget of DOLE's regional offices for inspection activities increased from $2.73 million in 2013 to $4.05 million in 2014. The Government indicated that it has sufficient office facilities but lacks funding for transportation, fuel, and other necessities to carry out inspections, particularly in the informal sector.(33) During the year, DOLE started using a Labor Law Compliance System Management Information System, a Web-based application system that uses tablet computers for transmitting and processing real-time data collected from the field using an electronic checklist.(33)

Rescue the Child Laborers SBM Quick Action Teams conducted 15 rescue operations in five regions that led to the rescue of 78 children working in hazardous activities. These children were then referred to the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) for rehabilitation and reintegration.(33) While the SBM Quick Action Teams can conduct unannounced compliance visits in video karaoke bars, massage parlors, sauna/bath houses and farms, they are not authorized to conduct visits in private homes to search for underage child domestic workers.(33)

DOLE's BWC reported that in the National Capital Region, 86 minors were found working part-time making local delicacies.(64) Research did not find the total number of child labor inspections conducted, the number of violations identified, or the number of children assisted as a result of inspections because the Government does not have a system in place to disaggregate data.(33)

Criminal Law Enforcement

During the reporting period, the Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency (PDEA) employed 35 drug enforcement officers per region who were involved in anti-illegal drug operations, however there are no officers dedicated solely to investigating cases involving children in illicit activities. Two focal persons per PDEA regional office were designated to oversee operations involving children in illicit activities.(33) From January to November, the PDEA and other law enforcement units conducted 14,801 anti-drug operations, an 80 percent increase in the number of operations conducted in 2013. Of these operations, 120 cases involved the use of minors.(33)

Law enforcement agencies do not have specific funding to combat human trafficking or the use of children in illicit activities. Also, the limited number of law enforcement agents dedicated expressly to child trafficking and the commercial sexual exploitation of children continued to hinder the Government's ability to investigate and prosecute complaints and violations.(11, 33) The overall number of prosecutors assigned to specific anti-human trafficking task forces did increase, from 93 in 2013 to 135 in 2014.(27) The PNP has noted that child protection at the grassroots level remains weak as many local councils for the protection of children lack the resources to address issues.(11) Law enforcement agencies do not have budget allocations specifically for combating human trafficking, but do assign personnel and allocate resources from their general budgets, which are often determined by local government leaders.(33)

In 2014, the Philippine National Police (PNP) investigated 273 child trafficking cases, including 159 cases of trafficking for sexual exploitation and 114 cases for labor.(33, 64) The National Bureau of Investigation's (NBI) Anti-Trafficking Division investigated 28 cases of human trafficking, 19 of which involved the trafficking of children.(64) The Inter-Agency Council Against Trafficking (IACAT) task forces investigated 182 alleged trafficking in persons cases involving 811 victims. Of these cases, 69 involved minor victims.(33) Many cases of trafficking of minors, particularly for child labor, continue to be undocumented for fear of retaliation from employers.(11, 34)

DSWD reported assisting 424 minor victims of trafficking as well as 112 minor victims of prostitution and 24 victims of pornography. While there were no prosecutions reported for the recruitment and use of children in armed conflict, DSWD reported having assisted 22 minor children involved in conflict.(33) Enforcement agencies filed five criminal cases related to child prostitution at the prosecutor's office and local courts. Eight establishments found to have engaged 25 minors in prostitution were permanently closed by DOLE.(33)

In 2014, the Inter-Agency Council Against Trafficking (IACAT) provided a series of trainings for service providers to ensure the protection, prevention, and prosecution of human trafficking cases. IACAT's Training Section conducted 18 training sessions with 772 government personnel and IACAT task forces conducted 91 training sessions with 4,824 government personnel, mostly from the justice sector and other law enforcement agencies.(33) IACAT also operated the 24/7 Actionline against Human Trafficking to receive and immediately respond to requests for assistance and referrals from trafficking victims, their families, and the public.(11) From April 2014 to January 2015, the hotline assisted 23 alleged trafficking victims, 3 of whom were minors.(27)

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The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body Role & Description
National Child Labor Committee (NCLC) Coordinate national efforts to combat child labor under DOLE.(15) Promote information sharing at the national level and has been replicated at the regional and provincial levels.(2) Composed of more than 15 agencies and NGOs.(15)
Inter-Agency Council Against Trafficking (IACAT) Coordinate, monitor, and oversee ongoing implementation of efforts to combat trafficking in persons, including child trafficking. Co-chaired by the Department of Justice and DSWD, and works with other government agencies and two NGOs representing women and children.(11, 63) Currently composed of 19 anti-trafficking task forces established in eight regions and 7 interagency task forces in major seaports and airports.(11, 33) Meet regularly to share information and assessments, and coordinate member agencies' respective anti-trafficking initiatives and policies.(33) Received a budget of $2.3 million in 2014, up from $2.25 million in 2013.(27) During the reporting period, established three additional regional task forces.(33)
Inter-Agency Council for the Welfare of Children (CWC) Operate a monitoring and response system through its Subcommittee on Children Affected by Armed Conflict and Displacement for situations of children engaged in armed conflict, including recruitment and use of child soldiers.(29)
Inter-Agency Committee on Children Involved in Armed Conflict (IAC CIAC) Advocate for protecting children and preventing the involvement of children in armed conflict. Composed of 14 government agencies and chaired by CWC.(33) Work under the direct supervision of CWC as the lead agency in implementing the CIAC Program Framework to address the involvement of children in armed conflict.(11) Convene on a bimonthly basis for reporting and monitoring.(33)

During the year, the Inter-Agency Council for the Welfare of Children and partner agencies trained 176 frontline workers in Mindanao, using the Protocol on Monitoring, Reporting, and Response System on Grave Child Rights Violations in Situations in Armed Conflict.(27) The training and orientation covered 10 provinces in Mindanao and was provided to social workers, teachers, police officers, health workers, Local Government Unit officers, and personnel of the Armed Forces of the Philippines.(33)

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The Government of the Philippines has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 7).

Table 7. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Child Labor Committee (NCLC) Strategic Plan (2014–2016)†

Serves as the operational framework of the NCLC to pursue various components of the PPACL up to the deadline in 2016.(60) In 2014, four NCLC subcommittees conducted year-end assessments on the accomplishments of their respective 2014 strategic plans to identify implementation gaps and formulate their 2015 strategic plans under the PPACL Strategic Framework.(33)

Philippine Program Against Child Labor (PPACL) Strategic Framework (2007–2015)

Lays out a blueprint for reducing the prevalence of child labor by 75percent.(15, 65, 66) Identifies concrete objectives such as improving access for children and their families to appropriate services to help prevent incidences of child labor and to reintegrate former child laborers.(15, 67) Includes the Convergence Action Plan (H.E.L.P. M.E.: health, education, livelihood and prevention, protection and prosecution, monitoring, and evaluation), which aims to reduce the worst forms of child labor by 2016 and to remove 893,000 children from hazardous child labor across 15,568 target barangays (districts).(66, 68) During the reporting period, 75,724 child laborers in 406,887 households were profiled for program inclusion.(33) Has been allocated $220 million for implementation over 4 years, from 2013 to 2016.(34, 68, 69) Includes the Batang Malaya Child Labor-Free Philippines Campaign, which institutionalizes the Survey on Children to be regularly conducted by the Government; mainstreams child labor prevention into local development plans; adds child labor elimination as a requirement in conditional cash transfer programs; strengthens the labor inspectorate to monitor child labor; improves enforcement of Republic Act No. 9231; and strengthens the NCLC through a legal mandate, budget, and a dedicated secretariat.(70)

Medium-Term Philippine Development Plan (MTPDP) (2011–2016)

Specifies government commitments to strengthen mechanisms for monitoring the implementation of child protection laws, to develop strategies to respond to child trafficking and pornography, and to implement an enhanced program for preventing children from being engaged in armed conflict.(2)

Philippine Labor and Employment Plan (2011–2016)

Operates within the framework of the MTPDP and includes the goal of reducing exploitive child labor.(2, 11, 71)

National Strategic Action Plan Against Trafficking in Persons (2012–2016)

Contains specific provisions on preventing trafficking of children, including raising awareness and creating local programs to prevent children from being lured by traffickers.(2, 11) In 2014, the Government conducted a monitoring and evaluation workshop to assess each member agency's compliance to the National Strategic Action Plan Against Trafficking in Persons.(33)

National Plan of Action for Children*

Approved by CWC, is designed to continue and implement Child 21.(63)Connected to the MTPDP with three strategic components: (1)policy and legislative agenda, (2)programs and strategies, and (3)governance.(63)

National Strategic Framework for Plan Development for Children (Child 21) (2000–2025)*

Sets out broad goals for national government agencies, local governments, and NGOs to achieve improved quality of life for Filipino children by 2025.(15, 63, 72)

UN Development Assistance Framework (2012–2018)

Identifies major development priorities, including reducing and eliminating child labor.(73)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.
* Child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy.

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In 2014, the Government of the Philippines funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms. The Government has other programs that may have an impact on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

DOLE Child Labor Prevention and Elimination Program‡

DOLE program that implements local awareness-raising campaigns, institutes child labor monitoring mechanisms, and requires barangays to develop child labor elimination plans with short- and long-term objectives.(74) Includes the Campaign for Child-Labor Free Barangays, which seeks to make villages child labor-free through community orientations on child labor and anti-trafficking laws, and through government livelihood programs and guidelines.(11, 24, 34, 75) From January to October, 7 resolutions and 14 ordinances were passed at the local level in support of the Child Labor-Free Barangay Program. In addition, three Voluntary Codes of Conduct on the Elimination of Child Labor in the Sugar Industry were formulated and adopted in the sugarcane-growing provinces of Batangas, Bukidnon, and Negros Occidental.(33) Also, during the reporting period, DOLE regional offices awarded Child Labor-Free Establishment Certificates to 76 establishments nationwide.(33) Program also includes the Livelihood for Parents of Child Laborers (KASAMA) program, which provides funds to parents of working children for projects such as raising livestock, producing souvenirs, food vending, and other service professions.(62, 74, 76) DOLE regional offices provided livelihood assistance to 9,396 parents of child workers and children-at-risk in 16 regions.(33) A third component, Project Angel Tree, redistributes shoes, school bags, toys, and other supplies donated by private sponsors to children at risk of, or engaged in, child labor.(15, 62, 76) From January to October, a total of 4,585 children received school supplies.(33) Sources indicate that the program's budget is not sufficient compared to the size of the problem.(11)

Conditional Cash Transfer program (Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino) Program)‡

DSWD and Local Government Unit social assistance and development program that provides conditional grants to poor families with children, from newborn to age 17, to improve their access to health care, adequate nutrition, and education.(11, 15, 77, 78) Covers 1,627 cities and municipalities in 79 provinces and all 17 regions.(33) Specifically targets households of child laborers and includes a condition prohibiting hazardous child labor as a program requirement.(69, 79) Provided assistance to 4.09 million households as of June 2014. Budget was increased from $1.2 billion in 2013 to $1.44 billion in 2014; however, funding remains insufficient to fully address the scope of the problem.(33, 64)

Alternative Learning System (ALS) Program*‡

Department of Education program that offers nonformal education to out-of-school children, including child laborers, as well as opportunities to attain a certificate of education equivalency.(80) Has limited resources, represents less than 1percent of the Department of Education's budget, and has only one teacher for every 24 communities, so it cannot reach many out-of-school youth.(38, 76)

Social Amelioration Program (SAP)*‡

DOLE, National Tripartite Council, and Sugar Industry program that provides a cash bonus to sugar workers and funds social protection, livelihood, and education programs for sugar workers and their families through a tax imposed on refined sugar.(81, 82) Integrated Services for Migratory Sugar Workers Program under the SAP seeks to improve the livelihoods of migrant sugar workers and their families as well as increase income.(15, 82) Includes services such as educational materials and scholarships.(62, 76) Also provides skills training and other capacity-building opportunities to beneficiaries through DOLE's Bureau of Workers and Special Concerns and DOLE regional offices.(11)

Recovery and Reintegration Program for Trafficked Persons‡

DSWD and IACAT program that provides services to victims of trafficking and raises awareness in vulnerable communities. Includes services such as shelters, crisis intervention, awareness campaigns, and residential facilities.(28, 29) Includes the National Referral System, a mechanism to strengthen the referral networks of agencies dealing with trafficked persons by allowing case managers to efficiently handle trafficking in persons cases through the use of standard referral and reporting forms, ensuring uniformity of documents and avoiding repetition of interviews of human trafficking survivors. There are 149 referral networks established in 16 regions.(33) Received a budget of $532,440 for 2014.(27)

Special Social Services for Children in Armed Conflict‡

DSWD program that provides special services to protect and rehabilitate children after their direct or indirect involvement in armed conflict.(83) Includes services such as emergency evacuation and rescue; family reunification; provision of food, clothing, and shelter; and psychosocial rehabilitation.(62)

Philippines ABK3 LEAP — Livelihoods, Education, Advocacy, and Protection to Reduce Child Labor in Sugarcane (2011–2016)

$16.5 million, USDOL-funded, 4-year and 11-month project implemented by World Vision to reduce child labor in sugar-producing areas in 11provinces of the Philippines.(84) Seeks to provide education services to 54,000 children engaged in, or at risk of engaging in, the worst forms of child labor, and to provide livelihood assistance to 28,090 households of targeted children. Engages the sugar industry in raising awareness of child labor among sugar workers and their families.(84, 85) In 2014, introduced Child Labor Monitoring Systems to stakeholders in 31 cities and municipalities, and in 3 provinces.(33)

Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues

USDOL-funded project implemented by the ILO in approximately 40 countries to support the priorities of the Roadmap for Achieving the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor by 2016 established by the Hague Global Child Labor Conference in 2010. Aims to build the capacity of the national government and develop strategic policies to address the elimination of child labor and forced labor, improve the evidence base on child labor and forced labor through data collection and research, and strengthen legal protections and social service delivery for child domestic workers in the Philippines. In 2014, facilitated technical advice to DOLE in the finalization of the revised Hazardous Work List for Children.(86)

Country Level Engagement and Assistance to Reduce (CLEAR) Child Labor

USDOL-funded capacity building project implemented by the ILO in at least 10 countries to build local and national capacity of the Government to address child labor. Aims to improve legislation addressing child labor issues, including by bringing local or national laws into compliance with international standards, improve monitoring and enforcement of laws and policies related to child labor, implement a national action plan on the elimination of child labor, and enhance the implementation of national and local policies and programs aimed at the reduction and prevention of child labor in the Philippines. In 2014, conducted meetings with officials of the Department of Education and DOLE for the creation of an Education Roadmap to Eliminate Child Labor and began work on an assessment of existing educational programs.(60)

UNICEF Country Program (2012–2016)*

Program that supports the Government of the Philippines in fulfilling the rights of children, paying particular attention to vulnerable children. Contributes to the MTPDP, 2015 Education for All plan, and the Basic Education Sector Reform Agenda.(87)

* The impact of this program on child labor does not appear to have been studied.
‡ Program is funded by the Government of the Philippines.

During the year, DOLE's Institute for Labor Studies conducted a study in coordination with the Bureau of Workers with Special Concerns to examine the link between the Livelihood for Parents of Child Laborers program and the children's work situation and well-being. The research documented changes in the lives of former beneficiaries as a result of the program, assessed the contributions of the intervention, and gathered insights on how to enhance the impact and improve the future design.(33) Overall, the program was not found to have improved the work situation or well-being of the beneficiaries due to the limited benefits they received. Improvement was, however, observed when the program provided parents with counseling on family values and the importance of education.(64)

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Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in the Philippines (Table 9).

Table 9. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Enforcement

Increase the number of labor inspectors responsible for enforcing laws related to child labor and resources available in order to provide adequate coverage of the workforce.

2014

Authorize SBM Quick Action Teams to conduct visits in private homes for underage child domestic workers.

2014

Track and report the number of child labor violations, penalties, and convictions, as well as the number of children removed and assisted from child labor, and analyze the effectiveness of enforcement.

2014

Dedicate law enforcement agents to child trafficking, children engaged in illicit activities, and CSEC issues so they may effectively investigate and prosecute those issues.

2013–2014

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the National Strategic Framework for Plan Development for Children (Child 21) policy.

2014

Social Programs

Conduct research to determine the types of activities carried out by children working in construction in order to inform policies and programs.

2013–2014

Take steps to ensure that all children have access to schools and do not face prohibitive costs for education-related expenses.

2010–2014

Provide necessary resources to help more out-of-school youth access ALS so they can complete their basic education.

2011–2014

Assess the impact that existing social programs may have on child labor.

2011–2014

 

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1.ILO-IPEC. Baseline Survey for the ILO-IPEC TBP Phase 2. Draft Report. Manila; 2011. [source on file].

2.U.S. Embassy- Manila. reporting, February 1, 2013.

3.ILO, Philippine National Statistics Office. 2011 Survey on Children. Manila; June 26, 2012.

4.ILO Committee of Experts. Observation concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Philippines (ratification: 1998) Published: 2012; accessed December 1, 2014;

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