Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Bangladesh

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Bangladesh

2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2015, Bangladesh made a moderate advancement in its efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government published the results of the 2013 National Child Labor Survey and approved the Domestic Workers Protection and Welfare Policy which will set the minimum age for domestic work at 14 years. The National Child Labor Welfare Council as well as two Divisional Child Labor Welfare Councils met for the first time to discuss child labor elimination activities. However, children in Bangladesh are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in the production of bricks and forced child labor in the production of dried fish. The legal framework does not protect children working in informal economic sectors, including small farms and street work, where child labor is most prevalent. The law does not specify the activities and number of hours per week of light work that are permitted for children that are 12 and 13 years of age. The Government lacks the capacity to enforce child labor laws as the number of labor inspectors is insufficient for the size of Bangladesh’s workforce and fines are inadequate to deter child labor law violations.

Expand All

Children in Bangladesh are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in the production of bricks and forced child labor in the production of dried fish.(1-3) The Government published its 2013 National Child Labor Survey during the reporting period. The survey data show that 1,698,894 children ages 5 to 17 are engaged in legally prohibited child labor, while 1,751,475 children are engaged in permitted forms of work.(4) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Bangladesh.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

4.3 (1,326,411)

Working children by sector, ages 5 to 14 (%)

 

Agriculture

39.7

Industry

29.4

Services

30.9

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

81.2

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

6.8

Primary completion rate (%):

73.5

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2011, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(5)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Child Labor Survey, 2013.(6) Data on working children, school attendance, and children combining work and school are not comparable with data published in the previous version of this report because of differences between surveys used to collect the data.

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Farming, including harvesting and processing crops,* raising poultry, grazing cattle,* gathering honey,* and harvesting tea leaves* (4, 7-11)

Fishing* and drying fish (4, 7, 8)

Harvesting and processing shrimp (10, 12, 13)

Industry

Quarrying and mining, including salt† (4, 8, 14)

Producing garments, textiles, jute textiles, leather,† footwear,† and imitation jewelry*† (8, 10, 15-19)

Manufacturing bricks,† glass,† hand-rolled cigarettes (bidis),† matches,† soap,† steel furniture,† aluminum products,*† plastic products,*† and melamine products* (1, 3, 4, 8, 10, 18, 20, 21)

Ship breaking† (10, 22, 23)

Carpentry,* welding,*† and construction*† (4, 7, 10, 24)

Services

Domestic work (25-27)

Working in transportation, pulling rickshaws,* and street work, including garbage picking, recycling,*† vending, begging, and portering (4, 7, 10, 14, 28)

Working in hotels,* restaurants,* bakeries,*† and retail shops* (4, 10, 14, 18, 24)

Repairing automobiles*† (10, 14, 24)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Forced labor in the drying of fish and the production of bricks* (2, 11, 29-31)

Forced begging* (31, 32)

Use in illicit activities, including drug dealing* (11)

Commercial sexual exploitation,* sometimes as a result of human trafficking* (10, 31, 33, 34)

Forced domestic work (11, 31, 35)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Some Bangladeshi children are trafficked internally, and others are trafficked to India and Pakistan for commercial sexual exploitation.(31) Some children in Bangladesh work under forced labor conditions in the dried fish sector and in the production of bricks to help pay off family debts to local moneylenders.(29, 31) Children are forced to beg on the streets, including some who have been kidnapped by gangs.(32)

According to the National Education Policy, education is free and compulsory in Bangladesh through eighth grade, but several factors contribute to children not completing primary school, such as high student-teacher ratios and short school days of only 2 to 3 hours. The associated costs of education, including books and uniforms, also prevent many children from attending school.(4, 36)

Bangladesh has ratified most key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

 

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

14

Section 34 of the Bangladesh Labor Act (37)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Sections 39–42 of the Bangladesh Labor Act (37)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Sections 39–42 of the Bangladesh Labor Act; Statutory Regulatory Order Number 65 (37, 38)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Sections 370 and 374 of the Penal Code; Sections 3, 6, and 9 of the Prevention and Suppression of Human Trafficking Act (39, 40)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Sections 3 and 6 of the Prevention and Suppression of Human Trafficking Act; Section 6 of the Suppression of Violence Against Women and Children Act (40, 41)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Sections 372 and 373 of the Penal Code; Sections 78 and 80 of the Children’s Act; Section 3 of the Prevention and Suppression of Human Trafficking Act; Section 8 of the Pornography Control Act (39, 40, 42, 43)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

No

 

Section 79 of the Children’s Act (42)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Service

N/A*

 

 

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

16, 17

Air Force and Army regulation titles unknown (44, 45)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

11

Section 2 of the Primary Education (Compulsory) Act (46)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 17 of the Constitution (47)

* No conscription (48)

The Bangladesh Labor Act excludes the informal economic sectors in which child labor is most prevalent, including domestic work, street work, and work on small agricultural farms with less than five employees.(37, 43, 49)

Although the labor law stipulates that children over 12 years of age may engage in light work that does not endanger their health or interfere with their education, the law does not specify the activities or the number of hours per week that light work is permitted.(37)

The use of children in pornographic performances is not criminally prohibited.(40, 43) The use of children in the production of drugs is not criminally prohibited.(42)

The 2010 National Education Policy raised the age of compulsory education from grade 5 (age 10) to grade 8 (age 14); however, until the legal framework is amended to reflect the new compulsory education age, the policy is not enforceable.(50, 51)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Department of Inspection for Factories and Establishments, Ministry of Labor and Employment

Enforce labor laws, including those relating to child labor and hazardous child labor.(52)

Bangladesh Police

Enforce Penal Code provisions protecting children from forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation.(49, 53)

Bangladesh Labor Court

Prosecute labor law cases, including child labor law violations. Impose fines or sanctions against employers that violate labor laws.(54)

TIP Monitoring Cell of Bangladesh Police

Investigate cases of human trafficking, forced labor, and commercial sexual exploitation, including those involving children. Enforce anti-trafficking provisions of the Prevention and Suppression of Human Trafficking Act.(55)

Child Protection Networks

Respond to a broad spectrum of violations against children, including child labor. Comprises officials from various agencies with mandates to protect children, prosecute violations, monitor interventions, and develop referral mechanisms at the district and subdistrict levels between law enforcement and social welfare services.(7)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2015, labor law enforcement agencies in Bangladesh took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$2.9 million (52)

$4.1 million (11)

Number of Labor Inspectors

194 (43)

284 (11)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (54)

No (54)

Training for Labor Inspectors

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Yes (11)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

No (43)

Yes (11)

Number of Labor Inspections

25,525 (43)

31,836 (43)

Number Conducted at Worksite

25,525 (43)

31,836 (43)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

6 (54)

40 (43)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown (54)

Unknown (54)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

Unknown (54)

Unknown (54)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (56)

Yes (11)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (56)

Yes (11)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (56)

Yes (11)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (56)

Yes (11)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (52)

Yes (52)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

No (52)

No (52)

 

In 2015, the Department of Inspection for Factories and Establishments (DIFE) provided training to labor inspectors on building and fire safety, occupational safety and health, and labor laws, which included child labor laws.(11)

Although DIFE hired 90 additional labor inspectors during 2015, the number of labor inspectors is still insufficient for the size of Bangladesh’s workforce.(11) According to the ILO standard of 1 inspector for every 40,000 workers in less developed economies, Bangladesh should employ about 2,000 inspectors to adequately enforce labor laws throughout the country.(57-59) Reports indicate that inspections rarely occur at unregistered factories and establishments, places where children are more likely to be employed.(12, 60)

The penalty of a $62 fine for a child labor law violation is an insufficient deterrent.(7, 56) According to the Ministry of Labor and Employment, information on penalties imposed and fines collected resides with the labor courts; however, research did not reveal information about penalties.(54)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2015, criminal law enforcement agencies in Bangladesh took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (61)

Yes (62)

Number of Investigations

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Violations Found

Unknown

178 (63)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Convictions

Unknown

Unknown

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (52, 61, 64)

Yes (52)

 

In 2015, the Ministry of Home Affairs, in coordination with IOM, UNICEF, and UNODC, conducted anti-human-trafficking training for law enforcement officials.(62)

The TIP Monitoring Cell of the Bangladesh Police reportedly has insufficient funds and staff to adequately address cases of child trafficking, forced child labor, and commercial sexual exploitation of children.(61)

The Bangladesh Police report that from February to December 2015 there were 982 cases of human trafficking and 1 conviction for crimes involving human trafficking. Disaggregated data for investigations and convictions involving child victims are not provided.(63) The police also report that 110 children were recovered from human trafficking during the same time period.(63)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Child Labor Welfare Council

Coordinate efforts undertaken by various government agencies to eliminate child labor and assess the implementation of the National Child Labor Elimination Policy provide advice. Chaired by the Ministry of Labor and Employment, comprises officials representing relevant government ministries, international organizations, child advocacy groups, and employer and worker organizations.(65) The Council held its first meeting in May 2015.(66)

Counter-Trafficking National Coordination Committee, Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA)

Coordinate government ministries involved in countering international and domestic human trafficking, including child trafficking.(55) Integrate the work of government agencies and international and local NGOs on human trafficking through bimonthly coordination meetings. Oversee district counter-trafficking committees, which oversee counter-trafficking committees for subdistricts and for smaller administrative units.(55, 64, 67)

Rescue, Recovery, Repatriation, and Integration Task Force, MHA

Coordinate Bangladesh and India’s efforts to rescue, recover, repatriate, and reintegrate victims of human trafficking, particularly children. Liaise with various ministries, government departments, NGOs, and international organizations that assist trafficked children.(64, 68)

 

In 2015, Divisional Child Labor Welfare Councils in Chittagong and Rangpur met for the first time to discuss child labor elimination activities.(11)

The Government of Bangladesh has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Child Labor Elimination Policy (NCLEP) (2010–2015)

Guides law making and policy making to eliminate the worst forms of child labor through interventions that will remove children from the worst forms of child labor and provide them with viable work alternatives.(69, 70)

Child Labor National Plan of Action (NPA) (2012–2016)

Identifies strategies for implementing and mainstreaming the NCLEP, including developing institutional capacity, increasing access to education and health services, raising social awareness, strengthening law enforcement, and creating prevention and reintegration programs.(71)

Sixth Five-Year Plan (2011–2015)

Includes the elimination of child labor as a Government priority and identifies the NCLEP and its NPA as the Government’s central strategy to eliminate child labor.(72)

National Plan of Action to Combat Human Trafficking (2015–2017)†

Establishes goals to meet international standards and best practices for anti-human-trafficking initiatives, including prevention of human trafficking; protection of survivors and victims of human trafficking; legal justice for survivors and victims of human trafficking; development of advocacy networks; and establishment of an effective monitoring, evaluation, and reporting mechanism.(55)

National Labor Policy

Includes provisions on the prohibition of child labor in the informal and formal employment sectors in urban and rural areas. States that the Government will take necessary actions to ensure that children do not engage in hazardous labor and aims to create opportunities for children to access primary education.(73)

National Education Policy*

Specifies the Government’s education policy, including pre-primary, primary, secondary, vocational and technical, higher, and non-formal education policies. Increases the compulsory age for free education to grade 8 (age 14).(51)

National Plan of Action for Education for All (2003–2015)

Includes provisions that target child laborers for non-formal basic education programs.(74)

National Skills Development Policy

Outlines a skills development program for legally working-age children as a means of contributing to a workplace free from child labor.(75)

National Policy for Children

Aims to mitigate child labor by implementing steps set out in the NCLEP strategies for eliminating child labor.(76)

* Child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy.
† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

In 2015, the Government approved the Domestic Workers Protection and Welfare Policy, which will come into effect in 2016.(11, 77) The policy sets the minimum age for domestic work at 14 years; however, children between ages 12 and 13 can work as domestic workers with parental permission.(11) The policy, however, is not legally enforceable.(43)

During the year, the Government also approved the Seventh Five-Year Plan, which lays out actions to be taken by the Government to reduce child labor and eliminate the worst forms of child labor.(78)

In 2014, the Government drafted the National Corporate Social Responsibility Policy for Children that will provide guidance to businesses in the formal and non-formal sector on how to respect and protect the rights of children.(36, 79)

In 2015, the Government of Bangladesh funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Eradication of Hazardous Child Labor, Phase III†

Three-year Government program that targets 50,000 children between ages 10 and 14 for withdrawal from hazardous labor through non-formal education and skills development training.(69, 80)

Services for Children at Risk Project†

Ministry of Social Welfare (MSW) 5-year program that provides integrated child protection services to children engaged in child labor, including its worst forms.(52) The program has provided services to 2,692 children, including non-formal education, skills development education, and livelihood training.(35)

Urban Social Protection Initiative to Reach the Unreachable and Invisible and Ending Child Labor

UNICEF, MSW, and the Ministry of Women and Children’s Affairs (MWCA) 5-year project that provides conditional cash transfers and employment training, outreach and referral services, and social protection services for 500,000 children and 30,000 adolescents.(10, 81)

Reaching Out-of-School Children II (2012–2017)

$130 million World Bank-funded, 6-year program that provides out-of-school children with non-formal education, school stipends, free books, and school uniforms. Students attend learning centers called Ananda Schools until they are ready to join mainstream secondary schools.(82) As of June 2015, the program has provided education to 546,000 poor children in 20,162 learning centers.(83)

Child Sensitive Social Protection Project (2012–2016)

UNICEF-funded MSW program to reduce abuse, violence, and exploitation of children and youth by improving access to social protection services.(52) Provides conditional cash transfers of $26 each month for 18 months for underprivileged children to prevent them from working in child labor.(35) Services also include a stipend program for out-of-school adolescents.(84)

Enabling Environment for Child Rights

MWCA program, supported by UNICEF, that rehabilitates street children engaged in risky work. Supports 16,000 children in 20 districts through cash transfers.(36, 85) In 2015, the project launched a pilot initiative to provide 500 additional children in the Dhaka slums with assistance through mobile phone cash transfer.(85)

Primary Education Stipend Project, Phase III†

Ministry of Primary and Mass Education-implemented program that provides stipends to the children of poor families throughout Bangladesh in an effort to reduce child labor and mitigate the cost of education.(11)

Support Urban Slum Children to Access Inclusive Non-Formal Education

EU-funded program implemented by Save the Children to provide non-formal education to children in the urban slums of Dhaka and Chittagong and to mainstream students into the formal education system.(11)

Country Level Engagement and Assistance to Reduce (CLEAR) Child Labor Project

USDOL-funded, capacity-building project implemented by the ILO in at least 10 countries to build local and national capacity of the Government to address child labor. Aims to improve legislation addressing child labor issues, including by bringing local or national laws into compliance with international standards; improve monitoring and enforcement of laws and policies related to child labor; develop, validate, adopt, and implement a National Action Plan on the elimination of child labor; and enhance the implementation of national and local policies and programs aimed at the reduction and prevention of child labor in Bangladesh.(66)

Expanding the Evidence Base and Reinforcing Policy Research for Scaling-up and Accelerating Action Against Child Labor

USDOL-funded research project implemented by the ILO in 7 countries, including Bangladesh, to accelerate country level actions to address child labor by collecting new data, analyzing existing data, building capacity of governments to conduct research in this area, and supporting governments, social partners and other stakeholders to identify areas of policy intervention against child labor.(86) The Government’s Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, in consultation with the ILO, drafted and published the National Child Labor Survey.(86)

Shelter Project†

MSW-administered support services for vulnerable people who have experienced violence, including human trafficking. Includes nine multipurpose shelters and eight crisis centers that provide services to women and children.(31, 52)

Child Help Line 1098

MSW-implemented and UNICEF-supported 24-hour emergency telephone line. Connects children at risk to social protection services.(87)

National Helpline Center†

National Helpline Center for Violence Against Women and Children-operated 24/7, toll-free hotline. Provides support and guidance to children involved in violent and hazardous situations.(52)

Vulnerable Group Development Program†

MWCA program that provides vulnerable families with food assistance and training in alternative income-generating opportunities.(70, 88, 89)

† Program is funded by the Government of Bangladesh.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Bangladesh (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ratify the Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons.

2013 – 2015

Ensure that the law’s minimum age protections apply to children working in the informal sector, including in domestic work, on the streets, and in small-scale agriculture.

2009 – 2014

Ensure that the law specifies the activities and the number of hours per week that children between ages 12 and 13 are permitted to perform light work.

2015

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the use of children in illicit activities, particularly in the production of drugs.

2015

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits all offenses related to the sexual exploitation of children for pornographic performances.

2015

Ensure that the legal framework reflects the policy that education is compulsory through grade eight and is consistent with the minimum age for work.

2012 – 2015

Enforcement

Ensure effective enforcement of citations and penalties for labor law violations, including authorizing the inspectorate to assess penalties for child labor law violations.

2014 – 2015

Publish information on the number of penalties that were issued for child labor law violations.

2012 – 2015

Create referral mechanisms among relevant agencies to facilitate the provision of legal and social services to child laborers, including in the worst forms of child labor.

2013 – 2015

Hire a sufficient number of labor inspectors for the size of Bangladesh’s workforce.

2009 – 2015

Ensure that labor inspections are conducted at unregistered factories and small businesses with sufficient frequency.

2013 – 2015

Publish information on the enforcement of laws on the worst forms of child labor, including the number of investigators, the number of investigations, the number of prosecutions, the number of convictions, and penalties implemented.

2012 – 2015

Provide police with sufficient resources to enforce violations involving human trafficking, forced labor, and the commercial sexual exploitation of children.

2014 – 2015

Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the National Education Policy.

2014 – 2015

Social Programs

Implement programs that seek to address the prohibitive fees associated with education.

2013 – 2015

1.         Gayle, D. "Inside the Perilous Brick-Making Factories in Bangladesh: Millions of Workers Face Harsh Conditions as They Toil to Keep Pace with the Country's Breakneck Construction Boom." The Daily Mail, London, August 17, 2013. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2396250/Bangladesh-brick-factories--Millions-workers-face-harsh-conditions.html.

2.         Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. Working Children in Dry Fish Industry in Bangladesh. Dhaka; December 2011.

3.         Bangladesh Institute of Labour Studies. Health Hazards of Child Labour in Brick Kilns of Bangladesh; 2014.

4.         Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. Child Labor Survey Bangladesh 2013. Dhaka, Government of Bangladesh; October 2015. http://www.bbs.gov.bd/WebTestApplication/userfiles/Image/LatestReports/ChildLabourSurvey2013.pdf.

5.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed December 16, 2015]; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. Because the calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age), the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

6.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from LFS Survey, 2005-06. Analysis received December 18, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

7.         U.S. Department of State. "Bangladesh," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2014. Washington, DC; June 25, 2015; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/236846.pdf.

8.         U.S. Embassy- Dhaka. reporting, January 23, 2014.

9.         UNICEF. Assessment of the Situation of Children and Women in the Tea Gardens of Bangladesh. New York; 2011.

10.       U.S. Embassy- Dhaka. reporting, February 13, 2013.

11.       U.S. Embassy- Dhaka. reporting, February 23, 2016.

12.       Environmental Justice Foundation. Impossibly Cheap: Abuse and Injustice in Bangladesh's Shrimp Industry. London; 2014. http://ejfoundation.org/sites/default/files/public/Impossibly_Cheap_Web.pdf.

13.       Solidarity Center. The Plight of Shrimp-Processing Workers of Southwestern Bangladesh; 2012. http://www.solidaritycenter.org/Files/pubs_bangladesh_shrimpreport2012.pdf.

14.       International Trade Union Confederation. Internationally Recognized Core Labour Standards in Bangladesh. Geneva; September 24 and 26, 2012. http://www.ituc-csi.org/IMG/pdf/bangladesh-final.pdf.

15.       Hunter, I. "Crammed into squalid factories to produce clothes." dailymail.com [online] November 30 2015 [cited December 4, 2015]; http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3339578/Crammed-squalid-factories-produce-clothes-West-just-20p-day-children-forced-work-horrific-unregulated-workshops-Bangladesh.html.

16.       Human Rights Watch. Toxic Tanneries: The Health Repercussions of Bangladesh's Hazaribagh Leather. New York; October 2012. http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/bangladesh1012webwcover.pdf.

17.       UCANEWS. "The Extremely Unhealthy Life of the Bangladesh Tannery Worker." ucanews.com [online] March 5, 2014 [cited March 7, 2014]; http://www.ucanews.com/news/the-extremely-unhealthy-life-of-the-bangladesh-tannery-worker/70421.

18.       U.S. Embassy- Dhaka. reporting, December 10, 2015.

19.       Sarah Labowitz, and Dorothee Baumann-Pauly. Beyond the Tip of the Iceberg: Bangladesh’s Forgotten Apparel Workers. New York, NYU Stern Center for Business and Human Rights; December 2015. https://www.dropbox.com/sh/1dgl5tfeouvk0va/AADXiOywX4qW3AXpVEkbLhJWa?dl=0.

20.       "Child Labour in Bidi Factories." The Financial Express, Dhaka, 2012. http://www.thefinancialexpress-bd.com/old/index.php?ref=MjBfMTJfMTRfMTJfMV85MV8xNTMxMTg%3D.

21.       Anupom Roy, Debra Efroymson, Lori Jones, Saifuddin Ahmed, Islam Arafat, Rashmi Sarker, et al. "Gainfully Employed? An Inquiry into Bidi-dependent Livelihoods in Bangladesh." Tobacco Control, no. 21:313-317 (2012); http://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/content/21/3/313.full.pdf+html.

22.       Alam, S. "Unsafe Ship Breaking: Sitakunda Yard, a Ticking Time-Bomb." The Financial Express, Dhaka, February 5, 2011; Saturday Feature. http://recyclingships.blogspot.com/2011/02/unsafe-ship-breaking-sitakunda-yard.html.

23.       Federation for Human Rights. "Bangladesh Shipbreaking Still Dirty and Dangerous with at Least 20 Deaths in 2013." fidh.org [online] December 13, 2013 [cited March 7, 2014]; http://www.fidh.org/en/asia/bangladesh/14395-bangladesh-shipbreaking-still-dirty-and-dangerous-with-at-least-20-deaths.

24.       Hossain, MA. "Socio-Economic Problems of Child Labor in Rajshahi City Corporation of Bangladesh: A Reality and Challenges." Research on Humanities and Social Sciences, 2(no. 4):55-65 (2012); http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/RHSS/article/download/1796/1749.

25.       Md. Shuburna Chodhuary, Akramul Islam, and Jesmin Akter. Exploring the Causes and Process of Becoming Child Domestic Worker Dhaka, BRAC; January 2013. Report No. Working Paper No. 35. http://research.brac.net/workingpapers/Working_Paper_35.pdf.

26.       Emadul Islam, Kahled Mahmud, and Naziza Rahman. "Situation of Child Domestic Workers in Bangladesh." Global Journal of Management and Business Research, 13(no. 7)(2013); https://globaljournals.org/GJMBR_Volume13/4-Situation-of-Child-Domestic-Workers-in-Bangladesh.pdf.

27.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Bangladesh (ratification:2000) Published: 2010; accessed December 3, 2013; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:11003:0::NO:::.

28.       Khan, TZ. "Battery recycling ruining children's lives." Dhaka Tribune, Dhaka, January 18, 2014. http://www.dhakatribune.com/bangladesh/2014/jan/18/battery-recycling-ruining-childrens-lives.

29.       Jensen, KB. "Child Slavery and the Fish Processing Industry in Bangladesh." Focus on Georgraphy, 56(no. 2)(2013);

30.       Manik, M. "Child Labour at Brick Crushing Factory in Bangladesh." January 7, 2014. http://www.demotix.com/news/3625453/child-labour-brick-crushing-factory-bangladesh/all-media.

31.       U.S. Department of State. "Bangladesh," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015. Washington, DC; July 27, 2015; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/243558.pdf.

32.       Saad Hammadi, and Jason Burke. "Bangladesh Arrest Uncovers Evidence of Child Forced into Begging." The Guardian, London, January 9, January 9, 2011; World. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2011/jan/09/bangladesh-arrest-forced-begging.

33.       Integrated Regional Information Networks. "More Data Needed on Abandoned Children, Trafficking." IRINnews.org [online] September 6, 2012 [cited December 13, 2013]; www.irinnews.org/printreport.aspx?reportid=96250.

34.       Sharfuddin Khan, and Md Azad. Snatched Childhood: A Study Report on the Situation of Child Prostitutes in Bangladesh. Dhaka, Bangladesh Shishu Adhikar Forum; February 2013. http://bsafchild.net/pdf/CP.pdf.

35.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Labour Convention, adopted 2014 (No. 182) Bangladesh (ratification: 2001) Published: 2015; accessed November 5, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3184768.

36.       U.S. Embassy- Dhaka official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 13, 2015.

37.       Government of Bangladesh. Labour Law Statutory Regulatory Order Number 65, enacted June 2, 2006.

38.       Ministry of Labor and Employment-Child Labor Unit, Government of Bangladesh. List of Worst Forms of Works for Children. Dhaka; 2013.

39.       Government of Bangladesh. Penal Code, Act No. XLV, enacted 1860.

40.       Government of Bangladesh. The Prevention and Suppression of Human Trafficking Act, enacted 2012.

41.       Government of Bangladesh. The Suppression of Violence Against Women and Children, enacted 2000.

42.       Government of Bangladesh. Children's Act, No. 24, enacted June 20, 2013.

43.       U.S. Embassy- Dhaka official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 25, 2016.

44.       Bangladesh Army. Join Bangladesh Army, Army Headquarters, AG's Branch, Personnel Administration Directorate, [online] [cited November 4, 2014]; http://www.joinbangladesharmy.mil.bd/career-jobs.

45.       Bangladesh Air Force. How to Apply: BAF Airman, Bangladesh Air Force, [online] [cited November 11, 2014]; http://www.baf.mil.bd/recruitment/howtoairman.html.

46.       Government of Bangladesh. Primary Education (Compulsory) Act, 1990, enacted 1990.

47.       Government of Bangladesh. Constitution, enacted March 26, 1971.

48.       Government Bangladesh. The Army Act, 1952, enacted 1952. http://bdlaws.minlaw.gov.bd/print_sections_all.php?id=248.

49.       Save the Children. A Study on Child Rights Governance in Bangladesh Dhaka; 2012. http://www.scribd.com/doc/118626953/A-Study-on-Child-Rights-Governance-Situation-in-Bangladesh.

50.       U.S. Embassy- Dhaka official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 13, 2013.

51.       Government of Bangladesh. National Education Policy. Dhaka; 2010.

52.       Government of Bangladesh. U.S. Department of Labor Request for Information on Child Labor and Forced Labor. Washington, DC; April 30, 2015.

53.       U.S. Embassy- Dhaka official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 23, 2014.

54.       Department of Inspection for Factories and Establishments, Government of Bangladesh. Response to Questions from U.S. Government; February 24, 2015         

55.       Ministry of Home Affairs. National Plan of Action for Combating Human Trafficking 2015-2017. Dhaka, Government of Bangladesh,; January 2015. [source on file].

56.       USAID. Bangladesh Labor Assessment; April 2014. [source on file].

57.       Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook, CIA, [online] [cited March 25, 2016]; https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors based on the country’s level of development as determined by the UN.

58.       ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a “sufficient number” of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a “sufficient” number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

59.       UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex. New York; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies; “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies, and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

60.       ICF International Inc. Child Labor in the Informal Garment Production in Bangladesh. Washington, DC; August 2012.

61.       U.S. Embassy- Dhaka. reporting, February 17, 2015.

62.       U.S. Embassy- Dhaka. reporting, February 1, 2016.

63.       Bangladesh Police Force, Government of Bangladesh. Monthly Status of Human Trafficking Cases; accessed February 12, 2016; http://www.police.gov.bd/Human-Trafficking-Monthly.php?id=324.

64.       U.S. Embassy- Dhaka. reporting, March 3, 2014.

65.       Ministry of Labor and Employment. Circular: National Child Labor Welfare Committee. Dhaka, Government of Bangladesh; February 12, 2014.

66.       ILO-IPEC. Country Level Engagement and Assistance to Reduce (CLEAR) Child Labor Project. Technical Progress Report. Geneva; October 2015.

67.       U.S. Department of State. "Bangladesh," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2013. Washington, DC; June 19, 2013;

68.       Government of Bangladesh. RRRI Task Force Cell, [online] [cited November 7, 2014]; http://antitraffickingcell.gov.bd/.

69.       ILO. 2012 Annual Review Under the Follow-up to the ILO 1998 Declaration Compilation of Baseline Tables. Annual Review. Geneva; 2012. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/@ed_norm/@declaration/documents/publication/wcms_091263.pdf.

70.       Government of Bangladesh. Written Communication. Submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor Federal Register Notice (November 26, 2012) "Request for Information on Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor". Washington, DC; January 2013.

71.       Government of Bangladesh. National Plan of Action for Implementing the National Child Labour Elimination Policy (2012-2016). Dhaka; 2013.

72.       Government of Bangladesh. Sixth Five Year Plan (FY2011-FY2015). Dhaka; 2011.

73.       Ministry of Labor and Employment, Government of Bangladesh. National Labor Policy. Dhaka; 2012.

74.       Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh, Ministry of Primary and Mass Education. National Plan of Action for Education for All 2003-2015 Components. Dhaka; 2003. http://www.mopme.gov.bd/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=456&Itemid=475.

75.       Ministry of Education. National Skills Development Policy. Dhaka, Government of Bangladesh,; 2011. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---asia/---ro-bangkok/---ilo-dhaka/documents/publication/wcms_113958.pdf.

76.       Ministry of Women and Children's Affairs, Government of Bangladesh. National Children Policy. Dhaka; February 2011. http://www.mowca.gov.bd/wp-content/uploads/National-Child-Policy-2011.pdf.

77.       International Domestic Workers Federation. Cabinet Adopts Domestic Workers Protection and Welfare Policy. Press Release; December 21, 2015. http://idwfed.org/en/updates/bangladesh-cabinet-clears-draft-policy-to-protect-domestic-workers-rights.

78.       Ministry of Planning. Seventh Five Year Plan (2016-2020). Dhaka, Government of Bangladesh; October 13, 2015. http://southernvoice-postmdg.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/Bangladesh-Planning-Commission-Seventh-Five-Year-Plan-FY2016-%E2%80%93-FY2020-Final-Draft-October-2015.pdf.

79.       Global Business Coalition for Education. Supporting the Right to Education in Bangladesh, [online] [cited May 14, 2015]; http://gbc-education.org/supporting-the-right-to-education-in-bangladesh/.

80.       Ministry of Labour and Employment, Government of Bangladesh. Selection of NGOs for Survey, Non-Formal Education, and Skills Development Training. Dhaka; 2011.

81.       UNICEF. Urban Social Protection Initiative to Reach the Unreachable and Invisible and Ending Child LaborBangladesh Country Office; September 2013. http://www.unicef.org/bangladesh/Cash_Transfer_web.pdf.

82.       World Bank. Second Chance Education for Children in Bangladesh. Press Release; January 27, 2014. http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2014/01/27/second-chance-education-for-children-in-bangladesh.

83.       World Bank. Reaching Out of School Children II. Technical Progress Report; June 17, 2015. http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/SAR/2015/06/17/090224b082f468fc/1_0/Rendered/PDF/Bangladesh000B0Report000Sequence005.pdf.

84.       Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies, Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, UNICEF Bangladesh. Ending Child Labour in Bangladesh. Dhaka; December 2014. http://www.unicef.org/bangladesh/Child_Labour.pdf.

85.       UNICEF. Underprivileged Children to Receive Cash Assistance through Mobile. Press Release. Dhaka; May 6, 2015. http://www.unicef.org/bangladesh/media_9298.htm.

86.       ILO-IPEC. Global SIMPOC. Technical Progress Report. Geneva; November 30, 2105.

87.       UNICEF. ‘Child Help Line-1098’ extended to support more vulnerable children. Press Release. Dhaka; October 12, 2015. http://www.unicef.org/bangladesh/media_9607.htm.

88.       Ministry of Women and Children Affairs, Government of Bangladesh. Medium Term Expenditure. Dhaka; 2011. www.mof.gov.bd/en/budget/11_12/mtbf/en/30_Women.pdf.

89.           Vulnerable Group Development Program, HEED Bangladesh, [online] August 27, 2011 [cited April 4, 2014]; http://www.heed-bangladesh.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=74&Itemid=104.

Download ILAB's Sweat & Toil app today. #endChildLabor

App icon