Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Bangladesh

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Bangladesh

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Minimal Advancement

In 2016, Bangladesh made a minimal advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Education Act of 2016, which makes education compulsory through eighth grade (age 14), was drafted and endorsed by the Prime Minister’s cabinet but has not yet been adopted by Parliament. However, children in Bangladesh perform dangerous tasks in garment production. Children also engage in the worst forms of child labor, including forced child labor in the production of dried fish and bricks. The labor law does not prohibit children from working in informal economic sectors, including in domestic work, on the streets, and in small-scale agriculture. The law also does not specify the activities and number of hours per week of light work that are permitted for children ages 12 and 13. In addition, the number of labor inspectors is insufficient for the size of Bangladesh’s workforce, and fines are inadequate to deter child labor law violations.

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Children in Bangladesh perform dangerous tasks in garment production. Children also engage in the worst forms of child labor, including forced child labor in the production of dried fish and bricks.(1-3) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Bangladesh.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

4.3 (1,326,411)

Working children by sector

5 to 14

 

Agriculture

 

39.7

Industry

 

29.4

Services

 

30.9

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

89.4

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

1.9

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

98.5

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2015, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(4)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Labour Force Survey, 2013.(5)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Farming, including harvesting and processing crops, including tobacco, raising poultry, grazing cattle, gathering honey, and harvesting tea leaves (6-10)

Drying and processing fish (7, 8, 10)

Harvesting and processing shrimp (11-13)

Industry

Quarrying and mining, including salt† (8, 14)

Producing garments, textiles (jute), leather,† footwear,† and imitation jewelry† (1, 7, 15-23)

Manufacturing bricks,† glass,† hand-rolled cigarettes (bidis),† matches,† soap,† furniture (steel),† aluminum products,† metal utensils, plastic products,† and melamine products (7, 8, 18, 24-29)

Ship breaking† (13, 30, 31)

Carpentry, welding,† construction,† and breaking bricks† and stones† (1, 8, 13, 32, 33)

Services

Domestic work (1, 34-36)

Working in transportation, pulling rickshaws, and street work, including garbage picking, recycling,† vending, begging, shoe repairing, and portering (1, 8, 10, 13, 14, 37)

Working in hotels, restaurants, bakeries,† and retail and grocery shops (1, 8, 10, 14, 18, 32)

Repairing automobiles† (10, 14, 32)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Forced labor in the drying of fish and the production of bricks (2, 3, 7, 28, 38)

Forced begging (3, 10)

Use in illicit activities, including smuggling and selling drugs (7, 10, 39)

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (3, 40, 41)

Forced domestic work (3, 7, 10, 42)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

According to the National Education Policy, education is free and compulsory in Bangladesh through eighth grade (age 14). However, several factors contribute to children not attending school, such as inadequate access to water and sanitation facilities and the costs associated with education, including books and uniforms.(8, 43)

Bangladesh has ratified most key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

 

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Bangladesh’s legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

No

14

Section 34 of the Bangladesh Labor Act (44)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Sections 39–42 of the Bangladesh Labor Act (44)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Sections 39–42 of the Bangladesh Labor Act; Statutory Regulatory Order Number 65 (44, 45)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Sections 370 and 374 of the Penal Code; Sections 3, 6, and 9 of the Prevention and Suppression of Human Trafficking Act (46, 47)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Sections 3 and 6 of the Prevention and Suppression of Human Trafficking Act; Section 6 of the Suppression of Violence Against Women and Children Act (47, 48)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

No

 

Sections 372 and 373 of the Penal Code; Sections 78 and 80 of the Children’s Act; Sections 3 and 6 of the Prevention and Suppression of Human Trafficking Act; Section 8 of the Pornography Control Act (46, 47, 49, 50)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

No

 

Section 79 of the Children’s Act (49)

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

N/A*

 

 

State Voluntary

Yes

16, 17

Air Force and Army regulation titles unknown (51, 52)

Non-state Compulsory

No

 

 

Compulsory Education Age

No

11

Section 2 of the Primary Education (Compulsory) Act (53)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 17 of the Constitution (54)

* No conscription (55)

In 2016, the Education Act was drafted and endorsed by the Prime Minister’s cabinet. After it is adopted by Parliament, this law will make education compulsory through eighth grade (age 14) and bring Bangladesh into compliance with international standards.(43) The 2010 National Education Policy raised the age of compulsory education from fifth grade (age 10) through eighth grade (age 14); however, until the legal framework is amended to reflect the new compulsory education age, the policy is not enforceable.(13, 56)

The Bangladesh Labor Act does not cover the informal economic sectors in which child labor is most prevalent, including domestic work, street work, and work on small agricultural farms with fewer than five employees.(44, 57, 58) Also, the types of hazardous work prohibited for children do not cover garment production and fish drying; both are areas of work in which there is evidence that children work in unsafe and unhealthy environments for long periods of time.(45)

Although the labor law stipulates that children older than 12 may engage in light work that does not endanger their health or interfere with their education, the law does not specify the activities or the number of hours per week that light work is permitted.(44)

In addition, the use of children in pornographic performances is not criminally prohibited.(47, 59) The use of children in the production of drugs is also not criminally prohibited.(49) The legal framework also does not prohibit the recruitment of children by non-state armed groups.(60)

Research did not uncover a public version of the military regulations that set the minimum age for voluntary military recruitment.

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor law and criminal law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Department of Inspection for Factories and Establishments

Enforce labor laws, including those relating to child labor and hazardous child labor.(61)

Bangladesh Police

Enforce Penal Code provisions protecting children from forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation.(57, 62) In the case of the Trafficking in Persons (TIP) Monitoring Cell, investigate cases of human trafficking and enforce anti-trafficking provisions of the Prevention and Suppression of Human Trafficking Act.(63)

Bangladesh Labor Court

Prosecute labor law violations, including those related to child labor, and impose fines or sanctions against employers.(64)

Child Protection Networks

Respond to violations against children, including child labor. Comprises officials from various agencies with mandates to protect children, prosecute violations, monitor interventions, and develop referral mechanisms at the district and sub-district levels between law enforcement and social welfare services.(10)

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, labor law enforcement agencies in Bangladesh took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$4.1 million (7)

$3.9 million (61)

Number of Labor Inspectors

284 (7)

267 (61)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (64)

No

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (7)

Yes (65)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (7)

Yes (65)

Number of Labor Inspections

31,836 (59)

30,421 (61)

Number Conducted at Worksite

31,836 (59)

30,421 (61)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown

Unknown (61)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

46 (61)

45 (61)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown (64)

0 (61)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

Unknown (64)

0 (61)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (7)

Yes (61)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (7)

Yes (61)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (7)

Yes (61)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (7)

Yes (65)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (65)

Yes (61)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

No (65)

No (61)

The number of labor inspectors is insufficient for the size of Bangladesh’s workforce, which includes more than 83 million workers. According to the ILO recommendation of 1 inspector for every 40,000 workers in less developed economies, Bangladesh should employ 2,090 inspectors.(66-68) Reports indicate that inspections rarely occur at unregistered factories and establishments, where children are more likely to be employed.(11, 43, 69)

In addition, the penalty of a $62 fine for a child labor law violation is an insufficient deterrent.(70, 71) According to the Ministry of Labor and Employment, information on penalties imposed and fines collected resides with the labor courts.(64) Although research did not reveal information about penalties for cases in 2015, the Government reported that the cases in 2016 are under trial, and penalties have not yet been imposed.(61)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in Bangladesh took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (72)

Yes (73)

Number of Investigations

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Violations Found

178 (74)

5 (73)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Convictions

Unknown

Unknown

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (63)

Yes (63)

The Government reported that in 2016 it initiated investigations for 168 cases related to forced labor and 122 cases related to sex trafficking. Five children were identified as human trafficking victims, but the nature of the crimes was not provided.(73) The Government also reported that two child trafficking victims were rescued, repatriated, and rehabilitated.(73) However, the TIP Monitoring Cell reportedly lacked the necessary funds and staff to sufficiently address cases of child trafficking.(75) In addition, there is a report that the Child Protection Networks are not operating 2 years after their launch due to a lack of funds.(76)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Description

National Child Labor Welfare Council

Coordinate efforts undertaken by various government agencies to eliminate child labor and assess and provide advice on the implementation of the National Child Labor Elimination Policy. Chaired by the Ministry of Labor and Employment, comprises officials representing relevant government ministries, international organizations, child advocacy groups, and employer and worker organizations.(77) Two divisional level councils met for the first time in January 2016.(7)

Counter-Trafficking National Coordination Committee, Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA)

Coordinate the work of government agencies and international and local NGOs on international and domestic human trafficking, including child trafficking, through bimonthly meetings.(63) Oversee district counter-trafficking committees, which manage counter-trafficking committees for sub-districts and smaller administrative units.(63, 78, 79)

Rescue, Recovery, Repatriation, and Integration Task Force, MHA

Coordinate Bangladesh and India efforts to rescue, recover, repatriate, and reintegrate victims of human trafficking, particularly children. Liaise with various ministries, government departments, NGOs, and international organizations that assist trafficked children.(79, 80)

 

The Government has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

Child Labor National Plan of Action (2012–2016)

Identified strategies for developing institutional capacity, increasing access to education and health services, raising social awareness, strengthening law enforcement, and creating prevention and reintegration programs.(81)

Domestic Workers Protection and Welfare Policy

Sets the minimum age for domestic work at 14 years; however, children between ages 12 and 13 can work as domestic workers with parental permission.(82) However, is not legally enforceable.(59)

National Plan of Action to Combat Human Trafficking (2015–2017)

Establishes goals to meet international standards and best practices for anti-human-trafficking initiatives, including prevention of human trafficking; protection and legal justice for victims of human trafficking; development of advocacy networks; and establishment of an effective monitoring, evaluation, and reporting mechanism.(63)

National Education Policy

Specifies the Government’s education policy, including pre-primary, primary, secondary, vocational and technical, higher, and non-formal education policies. Sets the compulsory age for free education through eighth grade (age 14).(56)

Seventh Five Year Plan (2016–2020)

Includes the elimination of the worst forms of child labor, with a focus on child domestic workers and other vulnerable groups. Sets out actions to be taken by the Government, including forming a policy for children working in the formal sector, providing assistance to street children to protect them from exploitation, coordinating the Government and other stakeholders for effective rehabilitation, increasing working children’s access to formal and non-formal learning, and providing livelihood support to poor households with children. Approved in 2015 and launched in 2016.(83)

‡ The Government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor.(84, 85)

The Government has not included child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the National Education Policy.(56)

In 2016, the Government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Urban Social Protection Initiative to Reach the Unreachable and Invisible and Ending Child Labor (2012–2016)

UNICEF, the Ministry of Social Work (MSW), and the Ministry of Women and Children’s Affairs (MWCA) 5-year project that provided conditional cash transfers and employment training, outreach and referral services, and social protection services for 500,000 children and 30,000 adolescents.(13, 86)

Country Level Engagement and Assistance to Reduce (CLEAR) Child Labor Project

USDOL-funded, capacity-building project implemented by the ILO in 11 countries to build the capacity of local and national governments to address child labor.(87) In 2016, a draft report on the legal review of child labor-related laws and policies was prepared by the National Human Rights Commission.(87) Additional information is available on the USDOL Web site.

Reaching Out of School Children II (2012–2017)

$130 million World Bank-funded, 6-year program that provides out-of-school children with non-formal education, school stipends, free books, and school uniforms. Helps students attend learning centers called Ananda Schools until the students are ready to join mainstream secondary schools.(88) As of June 2016, has provided education to 690,000 poor children in 20,400 learning centers.(89)

Child Sensitive Social Protection Project (2012–2016)

MSW program, funded by UNICEF, to reduce abuse, violence, and exploitation of children and youth by improving access to social protection services.(65) Provided conditional cash transfers of $26 each month for 18 months to underprivileged children to prevent them from working in child labor.(42) Also includes a stipend program for out-of-school adolescents.(90)

Enabling Environment for Child Rights†

MWCA program, supported by UNICEF, that rehabilitates street children engaged in risky work by withdrawing them from child labor and enrolling them in school. Supports 16,000 children in 20 districts through cash transfers.(91, 92)

Child Help Line 1098†

MSW-implemented and UNICEF-supported 24-hour emergency telephone line. Connects children vulnerable to violence, abuse, and exploitation with social protection services.(93) In 2016, was expanded nationwide.(94)

† Program is funded by the Government of Bangladesh.
‡ The Government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms.(7, 65)

Although the Government has implemented child protection and non-formal education programs, research found no evidence that it has carried out programs specifically designed to assist children working in the informal garment sector.(23)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Bangladesh (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ratify the Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons.

2013 – 2016

Ensure that the law’s minimum age protections apply to children working in the informal sector, including in domestic work, on the streets, and in small-scale agriculture.

2009 – 2016

Ensure that the types of hazardous work prohibited for children are comprehensive, in particular by including garment production and fish drying.

2016

Ensure that the law specifies the activities and the number of hours per week that children between ages 12 and 13 are permitted to perform light work.

2015 – 2016

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits all offenses related to the sexual exploitation of children for pornographic performances.

2015 – 2016

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the use of children in illicit activities, particularly in the production of drugs.

2015 – 2016

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under 18 by non-state armed groups

2016

Ensure that the legal framework reflects the policy that education is compulsory through eighth grade and is consistent with the minimum age for work.

2012 – 2016

Publish the military regulations that set the minimum age for voluntary military recruitment.

2016

Enforcement

Ensure effective enforcement of citations and penalties for labor law violations, including authorizing the inspectorate to assess penalties for child labor law violations and increasing penalties for child labor law violations to ensure an effective deterrent.

2014 – 2016

Create referral mechanisms among relevant agencies to facilitate the provision of legal and social services to child laborers, including those engaged in the worst forms of child labor.

2013 – 2016

Hire a sufficient number of labor inspectors for the size of the Bangladesh workforce.

2009 – 2016

Ensure that labor inspections are conducted with sufficient frequency at unregistered factories and small businesses.

2013 – 2016

Publish information relating to labor law enforcement, including the number of penalties that were issued and collected for child labor law violations.

2012 – 2016

Publish information on the enforcement of laws on the worst forms of child labor, including the number of investigators, the number of investigations, the number of prosecutions, and the number of convictions.

2012 – 2016

Provide police with sufficient resources to enforce violations involving human trafficking, forced labor, and the commercial sexual exploitation of children.

2014 – 2016

Ensure that Child Protection Networks are adequately funded to provide a functional referral mechanism between law enforcement and social services.

2016

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the National Education Policy.

2014 – 2016

Social Programs

Implement programs that seek to address inadequate access to water and sanitation facilities and prohibitive fees associated with education.

2013 – 2016

Develop and implement programs to address child labor in the informal garment industry.

2016

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2.         Cara McGoogan, Muktadir Rashid. "Satellites reveal 'child slave camps' in Unesco-protected park in Bangladesh." The Telegraph, Dhaka, October 23, 2016. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/2016/10/23/satellites-reveal-child-slave-camps-in-unesco-protected-park-in/.

3.         U.S. Department of State. "Bangladesh," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016. Washington, DC; June 30, 2016; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/258878.pdf.

4.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed December 16, 2016; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary education. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education education. The calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age). Therefore, the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

5.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Labour Fource Survey, 2013 Analysis received December 15, 2016. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

6.         U.S. Embassy- Dhaka. reporting, January 23, 2014.

7.         U.S. Embassy- Dhaka. reporting, February 23, 2016.

8.         Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. Child Labor Survey Bangladesh 2013. Dhaka, Government of Bangladesh; October 2015. http://203.112.218.65/WebTestApplication/userfiles/Image/LatestReports/ChildLabourSurvey2013.pdf.

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10.       U.S. Department of State. "Bangladesh," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2015. Washington, DC; April 13, 2016; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/253171.pdf.

11.       Environmental Justice Foundation. Impossibly Cheap: Abuse and Injustice in Bangladesh's Shrimp Industry. London; 2014. https://ejfoundation.org/reports/impossibly-cheap-abuse-and-injustice-in-bangladeshs-shrimp-industry-1.

12.       Solidarity Center. The Plight of Shrimp-Processing Workers of Southwestern Bangladesh. Washington, DC; January 2012. https://www.solidaritycenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/pubs_bangladesh_shrimpreport2012.pdf.

13.       U.S. Embassy- Dhaka. reporting, February 13, 2013.

14.       International Trade Union Confederation. Internationally Recognised Core Labour Standards in Bangladesh. Geneva; September 24 and 26, 2012. http://www.ituc-csi.org/IMG/pdf/bangladesh-final.pdf.

15.       Hunter, I. "Crammed into squalid factories to produce clothes for the West on just 20p a day, the children forced to work in horrific unregulated workshops of Bangladesh." DailyMail.com [online] November 30, 2015 [cited December 4, 2015]; http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3339578/Crammed-squalid-factories-produce-clothes-West-just-20p-day-children-forced-work-horrific-unregulated-workshops-Bangladesh.html.

16.       Human Rights Watch. Toxic Tanneries: The Health Repercussions of Bangladesh's Hazaribagh Leather. New York; October 2012. http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/bangladesh1012webwcover.pdf.

17.       UCANEWS. "The extremely unhealthy life of the Bangladesh tannery worker." ucanews.com [online] March 5, 2014 [cited March 7, 2014]; http://www.ucanews.com/news/the-extremely-unhealthy-life-of-the-bangladesh-tannery-worker/70421.

18.       U.S. Embassy- Dhaka. reporting, December 10, 2015.

19.       Sarah Labowitz, Dorothee Baumann-Pauly. Beyond the Tip of the Iceberg: Bangladesh’s Forgotten Apparel Workers. New York; December 2015. https://www.dropbox.com/sh/1dgl5tfeouvk0va/AADXiOywX4qW3AXpVEkbLhJWa?dl=0.

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21.       Agence France-Presse. "Bangladeshi child labourer 'tortured to death' at textile mill." The Guardian, Dhaka, July 25, 2016. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/jul/25/bangladeshi-child-labourer-tortured-to-death-at-textile-mill.

22.       Martje Theuws, Virginia Sandjojo, Emma Vogt. Branded Childhood: How garment brands contribute to low wages, long working hours, school dropout and child labour in Bangladesh. Amsterdam; January 2017. http://www.stopkinderarbeid.nl/assets/Branded-Childhood.pdf.

23.       Bangladesh Labor Welfare Foundation. Report: Baseline Study on Child Labor in the Keraniganj Apparel Hub. Dhaka; October 2016. http://www.blf-bd.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/Child_Labour_Keraniganj_Dhaka.pdf.

24.       ILO-IPEC. Health hazards of child Labour in brick kilns of Bangladesh. Geneva; 2014. http://www.ilo.org/ipec/Informationresources/WCMS_IPEC_PUB_25296/lang--en/index.htm.

25.       Gayle, D. "Inside the Perilous Brick-Making Factories in Bangladesh: Millions of Workers Face Harsh Conditions as They Toil to Keep Pace with the Country's Breakneck Construction Boom." The Daily Mail, London, August 17, 2013. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2396250/Bangladesh-brick-factories--Millions-workers-face-harsh-conditions.html.

26.       The Financial Express. "Child Labour in Bidi Factories." Dhaka, December 14, 2012. http://www.thefinancialexpress-bd.com/old/index.php?ref=MjBfMTJfMTRfMTJfMV85MV8xNTMxMTg%3D.

27.       Anupom Roy, Debra Efroymson, Lori Jones, Saifuddin Ahmed, Islam Arafat, Rashmi Sarker, et al. "Gainfully Employed? An Inquiry into Bidi-dependent Livelihoods in Bangladesh." Tobacco Control, no. 21:313-317 (2012); http://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/content/21/3/313.full.pdf+html.

28.       Manik, M. "Child Labour at Brick Crushing Factory in Bangladesh." January 7, 2014. http://www.demotix.com/news/3625453/child-labour-brick-crushing-factory-bangladesh/all-media.

29.       Jess Butler. "World Day Against Child Labor exposes utensil factories." AOL News [online ] June 13, 2016 [cited June 20, 2017]; http://www.aol.com/article/2016/06/13/world-day-against-child-labor-exposes-utensil-factories/21394323/.

30.       International Federation for Human Rights. "Bangladesh Shipbreaking Still Dirty and Dangerous with at Least 20 Deaths in 2013." fidh.org [online] December 13, 2013 [cited March 7, 2014]; http://www.fidh.org/en/asia/bangladesh/14395-bangladesh-shipbreaking-still-dirty-and-dangerous-with-at-least-20-deaths.

31.       Daily Sun. "17 lakh children engaged in hazardous work." Dhaka, June 11, 2016. http://www.daily-sun.com/printversion/details/143455/17-lakh-children-aged-517-engaged-in-hazardous-work.

32.       Hossain, MA. "Socio-Economic Problems of Child Labor in Rajshahi City Corporation of Bangladesh: A Reality and Challenges." Research on Humanities and Social Sciences, 2(no. 4)(2012); http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/RHSS/article/download/1796/1749.

33.       U.S. Department of State. "Bangladesh," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2017. Washington, DC; March 3, 2017; https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265744.pdf.

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35.       Emadul Islam, Khaled Mahmud, Naziza Rahman. "Situation of Child Domestic Workers in Bangladesh." Global Journal of Management and Business Research, 13(7)(2013); https://globaljournals.org/GJMBR_Volume13/4-Situation-of-Child-Domestic-Workers-in-Bangladesh.pdf.

36.       The Financial Express. "BD fares well on cut in child labour." October 20, 2016. http://www.thefinancialexpress-bd.com/2016/10/20/50039/BD-fares-well-on-cut-in-child-labour.

37.       Khan, TZ. "Battery recycling ruining children's lives." Dhaka Tribune, January 18 2014. http://www.dhakatribune.com/bangladesh/2014/jan/18/battery-recycling-ruining-childrens-lives.

38.       Jensen, KB. "Child Slavery and the Fish Processing Industry in Bangladesh." Focus on Georgraphy, 56(no. 2)(2013); http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/foge.12012/pdf.

39.       Atkinson-Sheppard, S. "The gangs of Bangladesh: Exploring organized crime, street gangs and ‘illicit child labourers’ in Dhaka." Criminology and Criminal Justice, 16(no. 2)(2016); [source on file].

40.       Integrated Regional Information Networks. "More Data Needed on Abandoned Children, Trafficking." IRINnews.org [online] September 6, 2012 [cited December 13, 2013]; www.irinnews.org/printreport.aspx?reportid=96250.

41.       Sharfuddin Khan, Md. Azad. Snatched Childhood: A Study Report on the Situation of Child Prostitutes in Bangladesh. Dhaka; February 2013. http://www.mensenhandelweb.nl/document/snatched-childhood-study-report-situation-child-prostitutes-bangladesh.

42.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation Concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, adopted 2014 (No. 182) Bangladesh (ratification: 2001) Published: 2015; accessed November 5, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3184768.

43.       U.S. Embassy- Dhaka. reporting, March 7, 2017.

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45.       Ministry of Labor and Employment-Child Labor Unit, Government of Bangladesh. List of Worst Forms of Works for Children. Dhaka; 2013.

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49.       Government of Bangladesh. Children's Act, No. 24, enacted June 20, 2013. http://bdlaws.minlaw.gov.bd/print_sections_all.php?id=470.

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61.       Ministry of Labor and Employment. U.S. Department of Labor Request for Information on Child Labor and Forced Labor,Government of Bangladesh; March 7, 2017.

62.       U.S. Embassy Dhaka official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 23, 2014.

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66.       ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a “sufficient number” of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a “sufficient” number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

67.       UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex. New York; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies; “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies, and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

68.       CIA. The World Factbook, [online] [cited 2017]; https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors based on the country’s level of development as determined by the UN.

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85.       Ministry of Labor and Employment, Government of Bangladesh. National Labor Policy. Dhaka; 2012.

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90.       Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies, Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, UNICEF Bangladesh. Ending Child Labour in Bangladesh. Dhaka; December 2014. http://www.unicef.org/bangladesh/Child_Labour.pdf.

91.       UNICEF. Underprivileged Children to Receive Cash Assistance through Mobile. Dhaka: May 6, 2015. http://www.unicef.org/bangladesh/media_9298.htm.

92.       U.S. Embassy Dhaka official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 13, 2015.

93.       UNICEF. ‘Child Help Line-1098’ extended to support more vulnerable children. Dhaka: October 12, 2015. http://www.unicef.org/bangladesh/media_9607.htm.

94.       "PM launches nationwide coverage of child help line 1098." Prothom Alo, Dhaka, October 27, 2016. http://en.prothom-alo.com/bangladesh/news/126671/PM-launches-nationwide-coverage-of-child-help-line.

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