Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Bangladesh

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Bangladesh

2017 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2017, Bangladesh made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The government extended its Child Labor National Plan of Action through 2021. The Department of Inspection for Factories and Establishments also provided comprehensive training to a majority of labor inspectors, and institutionalized the use of a factory inspection checklist that includes child labor components. However, children in Bangladesh engage in the worst forms of child labor, including forced child labor in the production of dried fish and bricks. Children also perform dangerous tasks in the production of garments and leather goods. In addition, the labor law does not prohibit children from working in informal economic sectors, and does not specify the activities and number of hours per week of light work that are permitted for children ages 12 and 13. Moreover, the number of labor inspectors is insufficient for the size of Bangladesh’s workforce, and fines are inadequate to deter child labor law violations.

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Children in Bangladesh engage in the worst forms of child labor, including forced child labor in the production of dried fish and bricks. (1; 2) Children also perform dangerous tasks in production of garments and leather goods. (3; 4; 5; 6; 7) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Bangladesh.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

4.3 (1,326,411)

Working children by sector

5 to 14

 

Agriculture

 

39.7

Industry

 

29.4

Services

 

30.9

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

89.4

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

1.9

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

98.1

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2015, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2018. (8)

Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Labour Force Survey, 2013. (9)

 

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Farming, including harvesting and processing crops, including tobacco, raising poultry, grazing cattle, gathering honey, and harvesting tea leaves (10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15)

Drying and processing fish, fishing (16; 13; 10; 14; 15; 1)

Harvesting and processing shrimp (17; 18; 15)

Industry

Quarrying and mining, including salt (10; 19)

Producing garments, textiles, jute textiles, leather,† leather goods, footwear,† and imitation jewelry† (7; 20; 21; 22; 23; 24; 25; 26; 5; 6) (27; 28; 29; 30; 31; 13; 4; 32; 15; 33)

Manufacturing bricks,† glass,† hand-rolled cigarettes (bidis),† matches,† soap,† furniture (steel),† aluminum products,† metal products, plastic products,† and melamine products (2; 34; 28; 10; 35; 13; 36; 37; 38)

Ship breaking (39; 40; 41; 37)

Welding,† construction,† and breaking bricks† and stones† (18; 10; 16; 42; 14)

Services

Domestic work (43; 44; 45; 3; 46; 14; 15)

Working in transportation, pulling rickshaws, and street work, including garbage picking, recycling,† vending, begging, and shoe repairing (10; 47; 16; 48; 14; 15; 37)

Working in hotels, restaurants, bakeries,† and retail and grocery shops (16; 13; 28; 10; 14; 37)

Repairing automobiles† (47; 30; 49)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Forced labor in the drying of fish and the production of bricks (50; 1; 51; 42; 13; 52; 15)

Forced begging (51; 16)

Use in illicit activities, including smuggling and selling drugs (13; 16; 53)

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (54; 51; 55; 15)

Forced domestic work (13; 56; 51; 14; 15)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

 

Many children in Bangladesh engage in dangerous work in the informal manufacturing sector. (3; 4; 5; 6) Children working in informal garment production work as many as 16 hours a day and often carry heavy loads, use hazardous machinery, and handle chemicals without protective equipment. (7; 33) Children employed in tanneries similarly lack protective equipment and experience continuous exposure to heavy metals, formaldehyde, and other hazardous chemicals. (4; 5) In addition, some children in Bangladesh work under forced labor conditions in the dried fish sector and in the production of bricks to help pay off family debts to local moneylenders. (1; 2)

Since August 2017, the Burmese military has engaged in continued violence and acts of ethnic cleansing, resulting in more than 700,000 members of the Rohingya ethnic minority fleeing from Burma to Bangladesh. (57; 58) Nearly 400,000 of those displaced are children, some of whom are subjected to trafficking and labor exploitation in Bangladesh. (14; 57; 59; 60) There are reports that Rohingya children are exploited in bonded labor in the fish drying industry, predominantly found in the city of Cox’s Bazar, while some Rohingya boys work on farms, in construction, or on fishing boats. (52; 14; 60; 58) Girls typically work in domestic service, in the homes of Bangladeshi families living up to 150 kilometers from the Rohingya refugee camps. (52; 61; 62; 63; 64; 65; 60; 58; 66) Research found that some young girls who were promised jobs in domestic service were instead forced into commercial sexual exploitation. (60; 58; 66)

According to the National Education Policy, education is free and compulsory in Bangladesh through eighth grade (age 14). However, several factors contribute to children not attending school, such as inadequate access to water and sanitation facilities and the costs associated with education, including books and uniforms. (10; 67) In addition, due to their lack of documentation, Rohingya refugee children are not permitted to attend school in Bangladesh. The government has permitted UNHCR to provide some limited, basic education services to Rohingya. (15; 63)

Bangladesh has ratified most key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

 

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

 

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Bangladesh’s legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor, including the minimum age for work.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

No

14

Section 34 of the Bangladesh Labor Act (68)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Sections 39–42 of the Bangladesh Labor Act (68)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Sections 39–42 of the Bangladesh Labor Act; Statutory Regulatory Order Number 65 (68; 69)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Sections 370 and 374 of the Penal Code; Sections 3, 6, and 9 of the Prevention and Suppression of Human Trafficking Act (70; 71)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Sections 3 and 6 of the Prevention and Suppression of Human Trafficking Act; Section 6 of the Suppression of Violence Against Women and Children Act (71; 72)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

No

 

Sections 372 and 373 of the Penal Code; Sections 78 and 80 of the Children’s Act; Sections 3 and 6 of the Prevention and Suppression of Human Trafficking Act; Section 8 of the Pornography Control Act (70; 73; 71; 74)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

No

 

Section 79 of the Children’s Act (73)

Prohibition of Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

N/A*

 

 

State Voluntary

No

 

 

Non-state

No

 

 

Compulsory Education Age

No

10

Section 2 of the Primary Education (Compulsory) Act (75)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 17 of the Constitution (76)

* No conscription (77)

 

In January 2017, the government publicly acknowledged that trafficking in persons is a problem in the country and published the implementing rules for the Prevention and Suppression of Human Trafficking Act. (78)

There continue to be several gaps in child labor laws and regulations. The Bangladesh Labor Act does not cover the informal economic sectors in which child labor is most prevalent, including domestic work, street work, and work on small agricultural farms with fewer than five employees. (68; 79) Also, the types of hazardous work prohibited for children do not cover garment production and fish drying; both are areas of work in which there is evidence that children work in unsafe and unhealthy environments for long periods of time. (69) While the labor law stipulates that children older than 12 may engage in light work that does not endanger their health or interfere with their education, the law does not specify the activities or the number of hours per week that light work is permitted. (68)

In addition, the use of children in pornographic performances and in the production of drugs is not criminally prohibited. (71; 80; 73) There are no published laws setting the minimum age of recruitment at 16 and setting safeguards to ensure that children under 18 who join the state armed forces do so voluntarily. The legal framework also does not prohibit the recruitment of children by non-state armed groups. (81)

Although the 2010 National Education Policy raised the age of compulsory education from fifth grade (age 10) through eighth grade (age 14), the new compulsory education age is not enforceable until the legal framework is amended to reflect the revised policy. (82; 18) The Education Act, which was drafted in 2016, will make education compulsory through eighth grade (age 14) and bring Bangladesh into compliance with international standards. (67) However, research did not find evidence that the Education Act was passed during the reporting period.

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the operations of the Department of Inspection for Factories and Establishments that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Department of Inspection for Factories and Establishments

Enforce labor laws, including those relating to child labor and hazardous child labor. (83)

Bangladesh Police

Enforce Penal Code provisions protecting children from forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation. (84) In the case of the Trafficking in Persons Monitoring Cell, investigate cases of human trafficking and enforce anti-trafficking provisions of the Prevention and Suppression of Human Trafficking Act. (85)

Bangladesh Labor Court

Prosecute labor law violations, including those related to child labor, and impose fines or sanctions against employers. (86)

Child Protection Networks

Respond to violations against children, including child labor. Comprises officials from various agencies with mandates to protect children, prosecute violations, monitor interventions, and develop referral mechanisms at the district and sub-district levels between law enforcement and social welfare services. (16)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2017, labor law enforcement agencies in Bangladesh took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the operations of the Department of Inspection for Factories and Establishments (DIFE) that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including human resource allocation.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$3.9 million (83)

Unknown (15)

Number of Labor Inspectors

267 (83)

317 (15)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (86)

No (86)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (87)

Yes (15)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (87)

Yes (15)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

30,421 (83)

32,924† (15)

Number Conducted at Worksites

30,421 (83)

Unknown (15)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

45 (83)

100 (15)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties were Imposed

0 (83)

Unknown (15)

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed That were Collected

0 (83)

Unknown (15)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (83)

Yes (15)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (83)

Yes (15)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (83)

Yes (15)

        Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (87)

Yes (15)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (83)

Yes (15)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

No (83)

No (83)

† Data are from June 2016 to July 2017.

 

In 2017, DIFE hired 45 additional labor inspectors. In addition, DIFE directed labor inspectors to utilize a factory inspection checklist and standard operating procedures, which include child labor-specific components. (88) In May 2017, 239 labor inspectors completed a 40-day, comprehensive labor inspection training program. (15)

However, the number of labor inspectors is likely insufficient for the size of Bangladesh’s workforce, which includes over 83 million workers. According to the ILO’s technical advice of a ratio approaching 1 inspector for every 40,000 workers in less developed economies, Bangladesh would employ roughly 2,090 labor inspectors. (89; 90; 91) Reports indicate that inspections rarely occur at unregistered factories and establishments, where children are more likely to be employed. (17; 67; 92) In addition, the current penalty for a child labor law violation, a $63 fine, is an ineffective deterrent. (92; 16)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2017, criminal law enforcement agencies in Bangladesh took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including financial resources.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown (15)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (93)

Yes (78)

Number of Investigations

Unknown

Unknown (15)

Number of Violations Found

5 (93)

Unknown (15)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown

Unknown (15)

Number of Convictions

Unknown

Unknown (15)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (85)

Yes (15)

 

During the reporting period, law enforcement officials received training from the Ministry of Home Affairs, in coordination with IOM, UNICEF, UNODC, and USAID. (78) The government reported that in 2017 it initiated 717 investigations related to forced labor or sex trafficking. The government identified 702 victims of human trafficking, of which 115 were children. (78) However, the Trafficking in Persons Monitoring Cell reportedly lacked the necessary funds and staff to sufficiently address cases of child trafficking. (94) In addition, reporting indicates that, 3 years after their launch, the Child Protection Networks, intended to be a referral mechanism between law enforcement and social services, are not operating due to a lack of funds. (95)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body Role and Description

National Child Labor Welfare Council

Coordinate efforts undertaken by the government to guide, coordinate, and monitor the implementation of the National Plan of Action on the Elimination of Child Labor. (96) Chaired by the Ministry of Labor and Employment, comprises officials representing relevant government ministries, international organizations, child advocacy groups, and employer and worker organizations. (97)

Counter-Trafficking National Coordination Committee, Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) Coordinate the work of government agencies and international and local NGOs on international and domestic human trafficking, including child trafficking, through bimonthly meetings. (85) Oversee district counter-trafficking committees, which manage counter-trafficking committees for sub-districts and smaller administrative units. (85; 98; 99)
Rescue, Recovery, Repatriation, and Integration Task Force, MHA Coordinate Bangladesh and India efforts to rescue, recover, repatriate, and reintegrate victims of human trafficking, particularly children. Liaise with various ministries, government departments, NGOs, and international organizations that assist trafficked children. (98; 100)

 

Research was unable to determine whether the coordinating bodies were active during the reporting period.

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including mainstreaming child labor issues into relevant policies.

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor‡

Policy

Description

Child Labor National Plan of Action (2012–2021)

Identifies strategies for developing institutional capacity, increasing access to education and health services, raising social awareness, strengthening law enforcement, and creating prevention and reintegration programs. (101) In 2017, the plan was extended through 2021. (15)

Domestic Workers Protection and Welfare Policy

Sets the minimum age for domestic work at 14 years; however, children between ages 12 and 13 can work as domestic workers with parental permission. (102) However, the policy is not legally enforceable. (103)

National Plan of Action to Combat Human Trafficking (2015–2017)

Establishes goals to meet international standards and best practices for anti-human-trafficking initiatives, including prevention of human trafficking; protection and legal justice for victims of human trafficking; development of advocacy networks; and establishment of an effective monitoring, evaluation, and reporting mechanism. (85)

National Education Policy

Specifies the government’s education policy, including pre-primary, primary, secondary, vocational and technical, higher, and non-formal education policies. Sets the compulsory age for free education through eighth grade (age 14). (82)

Seventh Five Year Plan (2016–2020)

Includes the elimination of the worst forms of child labor, with a focus on child domestic workers and other vulnerable groups. Sets out actions to be taken by the government, including forming a policy for children working in the formal sector, providing assistance to street children to protect them from exploitation, coordinating the government and other stakeholders for effective rehabilitation, increased working children’s access to formal and non-formal learning, and provision of livelihood support to poor households with children. (104) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement the Seventh Five Year Plan during the reporting period.

‡ The government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor. (105)

 

In November 2017, the government made a pledge at the Argentina Global Conference on the Sustained Eradication of Child Labor to eliminate hazardous child labor by 2021, and all forms of child labor by 2025. The government stated its intention to achieve this goal by strengthening the legal framework, implementing targeted social programs, and jointly conducting awareness raising activities with employers, workers, and civil society stakeholders. (106) However, the government has yet to include child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the National Education Policy. (82)

In 2017, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including addressing the scope of the problem.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor‡

Program

Description

Country Level Engagement and Assistance to Reduce (CLEAR) Child Labor Project

USDOL-funded, capacity-building project implemented by the ILO in 11 countries to build the capacity of local and national governments to address child labor. In 2017, the ILO, with implementing partner Eco Social Development, launched the child labor monitoring system pilot program in five upazilas in Lalmonirhat and Kurigram districts. (88; 107) Additional information is available on the USDOL website.

Reaching Out-of-School Children II (2012–2017)

$130 million World Bank-funded, 6-year program that provides out-of-school children with non-formal education, school stipends, free books, and school uniforms. Helps students attend learning centers called Ananda Schools until the students are ready to join mainstream secondary schools. (108) Over the course of the project, provided education to 690,000 poor children in 20,400 learning centers. (109)

Enabling Environment for Child Rights†

Ministry of Women and Children’s Affairs program, supported by UNICEF, rehabilitates street children engaged in risky work by withdrawing them from child labor and enrolling them in school. Supports 16,000 children in 20 districts through cash transfers. (110; 111) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement this program during the reporting period.

Child Help Line 1098†

Ministry of Social Work-implemented and UNICEF-supported 24-hour emergency telephone line. Connects children vulnerable to violence, abuse, and exploitation with social protection services. (112) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement this program during the reporting period.

† Program is funded by the Government of Bangladesh.
‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. (87; 13)

 

Although the government has implemented child protection and non-formal education programs, research found that the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the child labor problem. In addition, research found no evidence that the government has carried out programs specifically designed to assist children working in tanneries or the informal garment sector. (33)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Bangladesh (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ratify the Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons.

2013 – 2017

Extend the law’s minimum age protections to children working in the informal sector, including in domestic work, on the streets, and in small-scale agriculture.

2009 – 2017

Ensure that the types of hazardous work prohibited for children are comprehensive, in particular by including garment production and fish drying.

2016 – 2017

Ensure that the law specifies the activities and the number of hours per week that children ages 12 and 13 are permitted to perform light work.

2015 – 2017

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits all offenses related to the sexual exploitation of children for pornographic performances.

2015 – 2017

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the use of children in illicit activities, particularly in the production of drugs.

2015 – 2017

Ensure that the law establishes 16 as the minimum age for voluntary recruitment by the state military with safeguards for voluntariness.

2016 – 2017

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under 18 by non-state armed groups

2016 – 2017

Ensure that the legal framework reflects the policy that education is compulsory through eighth grade and is consistent with the minimum age for work.

2012 – 2017

Enforcement

Ensure enforcement of citations and penalties for labor law violations, including authorizing the inspectorate to assess penalties for child labor law violations and increasing penalties for child labor law violations to be an effective deterrent.

2014 – 2017

Create mechanisms for labor law enforcement to refer children involved in child labor to appropriate legal and social services.

2013 – 2017

Significantly increase the number of labor inspectors to meet the ILO’s technical advice.

2009 – 2017

Ensure that labor inspections are conducted with sufficient frequency at unregistered factories and small businesses.

2013 – 2017

Publish information relating to labor law enforcement, including the amount of labor inspectorate funding, number of labor inspections conducted at a worksite, number of violations for which penalties were imposed and the number of penalties imposed that were collected.

2012 – 2017

Publish information on the enforcement of laws on the worst forms of child labor, including the number of investigations, the number of prosecutions, and the number of convictions.

2012 – 2017

Provide police with sufficient resources and training to enforce violations involving human trafficking, forced labor, and the commercial sexual exploitation of children.

2014 – 2017

Ensure that Child Protection Networks are adequately funded to provide a functional referral mechanism between law enforcement and social services.

2016 – 2017

Coordination

Publish information on activities undertaken by coordinating bodies.

2017

Government Policies

Publish information on activities undertaken to implement the Seventh Five Year Plan.

2017

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the National Education Policy.

2014 – 2017

Social Programs

Implement programs that seek to address inadequate access to water and sanitation facilities and prohibitive fees associated with education.

 2013 – 2017

Provide sufficient education services for Rohingya refugee children and ensure lack of documentation is not a barrier to their school attendance.

2017

Publish information on activities undertaken to implement social programs, including Enabling Environment for Child Rights and Child Help Line 1098.

2017

Expand programs to address the scope of the child labor problem, including developing and implementing programs to address child labor in tanneries and the informal garment industry.

2016 – 2017

1. McGoogan, Cara, and Muktadir Rashid. Satellites reveal 'child slave camps' in Unesco-protected park in Bangladesh. The Telegraph. October 23, 2016. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/2016/10/23/satellites-reveal-child-slave-camps-in-unesco-protected-park-in/.

2. ILO-IPEC. Health Hazards of Child Labour in Brick Kiln of Bangladesh. Geneva. 2014. http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/download.do?type=document&id=25296.

3. Quattri, Maria, and Kevin Watkins. Child labour and Education: A survey of slum settlements in Dhaka. Overseas Development Institute. December 2016. https://www.odi.org/publications/10654-child-labour-and-education-survey-slum-settlements-dhaka.

4. Boseley, Sarah. Plight of child workers facing cocktail of toxic chemicals exposed by report. The Guardian. March 21, 2017. [Source on file].

5. Kenny, Justin. Bangladesh’s billion dollar leather industry has a problem with child labor and toxic chemicals. PBS NewsHour. March 29, 2017. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/rundown/bangladesh-leather-factories-child-labor-pollution/.

6. PBS NewsHour. Bangladesh’s leather industry exposes workers and children to toxic hazards. March 29, 2017. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/bangladeshs-leather-industry-exposes-workers-children-toxic-hazards/.

7. Hunter, Isabel. Crammed into squalid factories to produce clothes for the West on just 20p a day. Daily Mail. November 30, 2015. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3339578/Crammed-squalid-factories-produce-clothes-West-just-20p-day-children-forced-work-horrific-unregulated-workshops-Bangladesh.html.

8. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed March 3, 2018. http://data.uis.unesco.org/. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

9. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Labour Fource Survey. Analysis received January 12, 2018. Please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

10. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. Child Labor Survey Bangladesh 2013. October 2015. http://203.112.218.65/WebTestApplication/userfiles/Image/LatestReports/ChildLabourSurvey2013.pdf.

11. Bhalla, Nita. British American Tobacco vows to investigate child workers in Bangladeshi farms. Reuters. June 30, 2016. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-bangladesh-tobacco-child-labour-idUSKCN0ZG1QF.

12. U.S. Embassy- Dhaka. Reporting, January 23, 2014.

13. —. Reporting, February 23, 2016.

14. Allard, Tom, and Tommy Wilkes. Exclusive: $6 for 38 days work: Child exploitation rife in Rohingya camps. Reuters. November 12, 2017. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-myanmar-rohingya-exploitation/exclusive-6-for-38-days-work-child-exploitation-rife-in-rohingya-camps-idUSKBN1DD05A.

15. U.S. Embassy- Dhaka. Reporting, February 13, 2018.

16. U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2017: Bangladesh. Washington, DC. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265744.pdf.

17. Environmental Justice Foundation. Impossibly Cheap: Abuse and Injustice in Bangladesh's Shrimp Industry. January 16, 2014. https://ejfoundation.org/reports/impossibly-cheap-abuse-and-injustice-in-bangladeshs-shrimp-industry-1.

18. U.S. Embassy- Dhaka. Reporting, February 13, 2013.

19. International Trade Union Confederation. Internationally Recognised Core Labour Standards in Bangladesh. September 24 and 26, 2012. http://www.ituc-csi.org/IMG/pdf/bangladesh-final.pdf.

20. Labowitz, Sarah, and Dorothee Baumann-Pauly. Beyond the Tip of the Iceberg: Bangladesh’s Forgotten Apparel Workers. Stern School of Business and Human Rights. December 2015. http://people.stern.nyu.edu/twadhwa/bangladesh/downloads/beyond_the_tip_of_the_iceberg_report.pdf.

21. Kaye, Leon. Early Warning Systems Reveal Child Labor in Bangladesh's Garment Industry. Triple Pundit. October 14, 2016. http://www.triplepundit.com/2016/10/early-warning-systems-reveals-child-labor-bangladeshs-garment-industry/.

22. Theuws, Martje, et al. Branded Childhood: How garment brands contribute to low wages, long working hours, school dropout and child labour in Bangladesh. Centre for Research on Multinational Corporations . January 2017. http://www.stopkinderarbeid.nl/assets/Branded-Childhood.pdf.

23. Asadullah, M. Niaz, and Zaki Wahhaj. Bangladesh’s garment industry: Child labour and options. The Himalayan Times. May 11, 2017. https://thehimalayantimes.com/opinion/bangladeshs-garment-industry-child-labour-options/.

24. Agence France-Presse. Bangladeshi child labourer 'tortured to death' at textile mill. The Guardian. July 25, 2016. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/jul/25/bangladeshi-child-labourer-tortured-to-death-at-textile-mill.

25. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. Baseline Survey for Determining Hazardous Child Labour Sectors in Bangladesh 2005. 2006. [Source on file].

26. Rashid, Tania. Tanneries in Bangladesh Are Spewing Toxic Waste and Making. Vice News. January 21, 2015. https://news.vice.com/article/tanneries-in-bangladesh-are-spewing-toxic-waste-and-making-workers-sick.

27. Mendoza, Martha, and Julhas Alam. Report examines grim Bangladesh leather trade, links to West. Associated Press. March 25, 2017. https://www.apnews.com/57003bedd3ae4e3e9d1633cf50effc31.

28. U.S. Embassy- Dhaka. Reporting, December 10, 2015.

29. Garnett, Christopher. Child Labour in Bhairab's Shoe Factories. Garnett Consulting. September 19, 2015. https://www.garnettconsulting.co.uk/en/2015/09/19/child-labour-in-bhairabs-shoe-factories/.

30. Ullah, Ahamed. Hazardous Child Labour Rampant in City, Outskirts. Daily Sun. February 23, 2017. http://www.daily-sun.com/post/207700/Hazardous-child-labour-rampant-in-city-outskirts.

31. bdnews24.com. Four Children Burnt in Bangladesh Wallet Factory Fire. December 2, 2016. https://bdnews24.com/bangladesh/2016/12/01/four-children-burnt-in-bangladesh-wallet-factory-fire.

32. Union of Catholic Asian News. The extremely unhealthy life of the Bangladesh tannery worker. March 5, 2014. http://www.ucanews.com/news/the-extremely-unhealthy-life-of-the-bangladesh-tannery-worker/70421.

33. Bangladesh Labor Welfare Foundation. Report: Baseline Study on Child Labor in the Keraniganj Apparel Hub. October 2016. http://www.blf-bd.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/Child_Labour_Keraniganj_Dhaka.pdf.

34. Gayle, Damien. Inside the Perilous Brick-Making Factories in Bangladesh: Millions of Workers Face Harsh Conditions as They Toil to Keep Pace with the Country's Breakneck Construction Boom. Daily Mail. August 17, 2013. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2396250/Bangladesh-brick-factories--Millions-workers-face-harsh-conditions.html.

35. Progga. Tobacco or Sustainable Development. June 2016. http://progga.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/Tobacco-or-Sustainable-Development.pdf.

36. Ahad, A.M. Poor Bangladesh Kids Work to Eat, Help Families. Associated Press. June 13, 2016. https://apnews.com/4d171c27724244d1ae4f4d8f4cb13c82/ap-photos-poor-bangladesh-kids-work-eat-help-families.

37. Naim-Ul-Karim. Child Laborers in Bangladesh: Victims of Poverty. Xinhua General News Service. June 12, 2016. http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2016-06/12/c_135430898.htm.

38. Butler, Jess. World Day Against Child Labor exposes utensil factories. June 13, 2016. http://www.aol.com/article/2016/06/13/world-day-against-child-labor-exposes-utensil-factories/21394323/.

39. International Federation for Human Rights (FIDH). Bangladesh Shipbreaking Still Dirty and Dangerous with at Least 20 Deaths in 2013. December 13, 2013. http://www.fidh.org/en/asia/bangladesh/14395-bangladesh-shipbreaking-still-dirty-and-dangerous-with-at-least-20-deaths.

40. Daily Sun. 17 lakh children engaged in hazardous work. June 11, 2016. http://www.daily-sun.com/printversion/details/143455/17-lakh-children-aged-517-engaged-in-hazardous-work.

41. Bengali, Shashank. Adult and underage workers risk their lives in Bangladesh's rising ship-breaking industry. Los Angelos Times. March 9, 2016. http://www.latimes.com/world/asia/la-fg-bangladesh-ships-20160309-story.html.

42. Manik, MD. Child Labour at Brick Crushing Factory in Bangladesh. January 7, 2014. http://www.demotix.com/news/3625453/child-labour-brick-crushing-factory-bangladesh/all-media.

43. Chodhuary, Shuburna, et al. Exploring the Causes and Process of Becoming Child Domestic Worker. January 2013. http://research.brac.net/workingpapers/Working_Paper_35.pdf.

44. Islam, Emadul, et al. Situation of Child Domestic Workers in Bangladesh. Global Journal of Management and Business Research 13, no. 7 (2013). https://globaljournals.org/GJMBR_Volume13/4-Situation-of-Child-Domestic-Workers-in-Bangladesh.pdf.

45. The Financial Express. BD fares well on cut in child labour. October 20, 2016. http://www.thefinancialexpress-bd.com/2016/10/20/50039/BD-fares-well-on-cut-in-child-labour.

46. Bangladesh Shishu Adhikar Forum (BSAF). Hidden Slavery: Child Domestic Workers. March 2016. http://www.idwfed.org/en/resources/hidden-slavery-child-domestic-workers/@@display-file/attachment_1.

47. La Croix International. The hard reality of Bangladesh's child laborers. February 23, 2016. [Source on file].

48. Khan, Tazlina Zamila. Battery recycling ruining children's lives. Dhaka Tribune. January 18, 2014. http://www.dhakatribune.com/bangladesh/2014/jan/18/battery-recycling-ruining-childrens-lives.

49. The Asian Age. Sylhet child workers doing hazardous jobs. February 24, 2017. http://dailyasianage.com/news/49461/sylhet-child-workers--doing-hazardous-jobs.

50. Jensen, Kari B. Child Slavery and the Fish Processing Industry in Bangladesh. Focus on Georgraphy 56, no. 2 (2013). http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/foge.12012/pdf.

51. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2017: Bangladesh. Washington, DC. June 27, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2017/index.htm.

52. Arnold, Katie. Traffickers prey on lost Rohingya children in Bangladesh camps. Reuters. November 7, 2017. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-bangladesh-rohingya-children-traffick/traffickers-prey-on-lost-rohingya-children-in-bangladesh-camps-idUSKBN1D8015.

53. Atkinson-Sheppard, Sally. The gangs of Bangladesh: Exploring organized crime, street gangs and ‘illicit child labourers’ in Dhaka. Criminology and Criminal Justice 16, no. 2 (2016). http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1748895815616445.

54. Khan, Sharfuddin and Md. Azad. Snatched Childhood: A Study Report on the Situation of Child Prostitutes in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Shishu Adhikar Forum and Terre des Hommes. February 2013. http://www.mensenhandelweb.nl/document/snatched-childhood-study-report-situation-child-prostitutes-bangladesh.

55. Rashid, Tania, and Soraya Auer. They have no chance of getting out of Bangladesh's biggest brothel. Vice News. February 9, 2015. https://news.vice.com/fr/article/bangladesh-bordel-reportage.

56. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, adopted 2014 (No. 182) Bangladesh (ratification: 2001) Published: 2015. Accessed November 5, 2015. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3184768.

57. U.S. Embassy- Rangoon. Reporting. February 13, 2018.

58. Doherty, Ben. Displaced Rohingya Children Left In Limbo By Refugee Crisis. The Guardian. January 31, 2018. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/feb/01/devoid-of-hope-displaced-rohingya-children-are-vulnerable-to-trafficking-and-radicalisation.

59. IOM. UN Migration Agency Warns of Trafficking, Labour Exploitation, Sexual Abuse of Rohingya Refugees. November 14, 2017. Press Release. https://www.iom.int/news/un-migration-agency-warns-trafficking-labour-exploitation-sexual-abuse-rohingya-refugees.

60. Beech, Hannah. Rohingya Children Facing 'Massive Mental Health Crisis'. New York Times. December 31, 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/12/31/world/asia/rohingya-children-myanmar.html.

61. IOM. UN Migration Agency Helps Bangladesh Police Tackler Trafficking Threat to Rohingya Refugees. January 16, 2018. Press Release. https://www.iom.int/news/un-migration-agency-helps-bangladesh-police-tackle-trafficking-threat-rohingya-refugees.

62. Yu, Sylvia. Trafficking Crisis Looms For Rohingya Refugees In Bangladesh. National Observer. December 1, 2017. https://www.nationalobserver.com/2017/12/01/news/trafficking-crisis-looms-rohingya-refugees-bangladesh.

63. World Vision, Save the Children, and Plan International,. Childhood Interrupted: Children's Voices From the Rohingya Refugee Crisis. February 24, 2018. https://reliefweb.int/report/bangladesh/childhood-interrupted-children-s-voices-rohingya-refugee-crisisF.

64. Stratford, Charles. Bangladesh: Trafficking Of Girls Rife In Rohingya Camps. Al Jazeera. January 28, 2018. https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2018/01/bangladesh-women-children-trafficking-rife-rohingya-camps-180129061417161.html.

65. UNICEF. Lives in Limbo: No End in Sight to the Threats Facing Rohingya Children. February 2018. https://www.unicef.org/publications/files/UNICEF_Rohingya_Lives_in_Limbo_Feb_2018.pdf.

66. IOM. Rohingya Refugee Crisis Response: Sixth Month Progress Report. February 25, 2018. https://www.iom.int/sitreps/rohingya-refugee-crisis-response-six-month-progress-report-25-aug-2017-25-feb-2018.

67. U.S. Embassy- Dhaka. Reporting, March 7, 2017.

68. Government of Bangladesh. Labour Law. Enacted: June 2, 2006.

69. Ministry of Labor and Employment-Child Labor Unit. List of Worst Forms of Works for Children. 2013. [Source on file].

70. Government of Bangladesh. Penal Code, Act No. XLV. Enacted: 1860. http://bdlaws.minlaw.gov.bd/pdf_part.php?act_name=&vol=&id=11.

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72. —. The Suppression of Violence Against Women and Children. Enacted: 2000. [Source on file].

73. —. Children's Act, No. 24. Enacted: June 20, 2013. http://bdlaws.minlaw.gov.bd/print_sections_all.php?id=470.

74. —. Pornography Control Act. Enacted: 2012. http://bdlaws.minlaw.gov.bd/bangla_all_sections.php?id=1091.

75. —. Primary Education (Compulsory) Act, 1990. Enacted: 1990. http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/sites/planipolis/files/ressources/bangladesh_primary_education_compulsory_act_1990.pdf.

76. —. Constitution. Enacted: March 26, 1971. http://bdlaws.minlaw.gov.bd/pdf_part.php?id=367.

77. —. The Army Act, 1952. Enacted: 1952. http://bdlaws.minlaw.gov.bd/print_sections_all.php?id=248.

78. U.S. Embassy- Dhaka. Reporting. February 27, 2018.

79. Government of Bangladesh. Bangladesh Labour (Amendment) Act, 2013. Enacted: July 22, 2013. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_protect/---protrav/---ilo_aids/documents/legaldocument/wcms_229274.pdf.

80. U.S. Embassy-Dhaka official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 25, 2016.

81. —. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 16, 2017.

82. Government of Bangladesh. National Education Policy. 2010. http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/02.National-Education-Policy-2010-English.pdf.

83. Ministry of Labor and Employment. U.S. Department of Labor Request for Information on Child Labor and Forced Labor. March 7, 2017. [Source on file].

84. U.S. Embassy-Dhaka official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 23, 2014.

85. Ministry of Home Affairs. National Plan of Action for Combating Human Trafficking 2015-2017. January 2015. [Source on file].

86. Department of Inspection for Factories and Establishments, Government of Bangladesh. Questions from U.S. Government. February 24, 2015. [Source on file].

87. Ministry of Labor and Employment. U.S. Department of Labor Request for Information on Child Labor and Forced Labor. April 30, 2015. [Source on file].

88. ILO. Country Level Engagement and Assistance to Reduce (CLEAR) Child Labor Project. October 2017. Technical Progress Report. [Source on file].

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90. UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2017 Statistical Annex. New York. 2017. https://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_classdpad/wp-content/uploads/sites/45/publication/2017wesp_full_en.pdf. Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this repo.

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92. USAID. Bangladesh Labor Assessment. April 2014. [Source on file].

93. U.S. Embassy- Dhaka. Reporting, March 8, 2017.

94. —. Reporting, February 17, 2015.

95. Mazumder, Srabonty. Child Protection Network falls flat. The Financial Express. July 1, 2016. http://www.thefinancialexpress-bd.com/2016/07/01/36564/Child-Protection-Network-falls-flat.

96. ILO. ILO supports first meeting of national child labour council. May 26, 2015. http://www.ilo.org/dhaka/Whatwedo/Eventsandmeetings/WCMS_372579/lang--en/index.htm.

97. Ministry of Labor and Employment. Circular: National Child Labor Welfare Committee. February 12, 2014. [Source on file].

98. U.S. Embassy- Dhaka. Reporting, March 3, 2014.

99. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2013: Bangladesh. Washington, DC. June 19, 2013. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/210738.pdf.

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102. —. Domestic Workers Protection and Welfare Policy. Ministry of Labor and Employment. December 28, 2015. [Source on file].

103. U.S. Embassy-Dhaka official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 26, 2016.

104. Government of Bangladesh. Seventh Five Year Plan (2016-2020). November 11, 2015. http://www.plancomm.gov.bd/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/7FYP_after-NEC_11_11_2015.pdf.

105. —. National Labor Policy. 2012. [Source on file].

106. IV Global Conference on the Sustained Eradication of Child Labour. Pledges. Novermber 10, 2017. http://childlabour2017.org/en/resources/updates/pledges.

107. ILO. Country Level Engagement and Assistance to Reduce (CLEAR) Child Labor Project. April 2017. Technical Progress Report. [Source on file].

108. World Bank. Second Chance Education for Children in Bangladesh. January 27, 2014: Press Release. http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2014/01/27/second-chance-education-for-children-in-bangladesh.

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110. UNICEF. Underprivileged Children to Receive Cash Assistance through Mobile. May 6, 2015: Press Release. http://www.unicef.org/bangladesh/media_9298.htm.

111. U.S. Embassy-Dhaka official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 13, 2015.

112. UNICEF. ‘Child Help Line-1098’ extended to support more vulnerable children. October 12, 2015: Press Release. http://www.unicef.org/bangladesh/media_9607.htm.

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