Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Argentina

Blueberries
Blueberries
Child Labor Icon
Bricks
Bricks
Child Labor Icon
Cotton
Cotton
Child Labor Icon
Garlic
Garlic
Child Labor Icon
Garments
Garments
Child Labor Icon
Forced Child Labor Icon
Forced Labor Icon
Grapes
Grapes
Child Labor Icon
Olives
Olives
Child Labor Icon
Strawberries
Strawberries
Child Labor Icon
Tobacco
Tobacco
Child Labor Icon
Tomatoes
Tomatoes
Child Labor Icon
Yerba Mate (Stimulant Plant)
Yerba Mate (Stimulant Plant)
Child Labor Icon
Argentina
2018 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Significant Advancement

In 2018, Argentina made a significant advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The new Secretariat of Labor worked with Argentina's National Institute of Statistics and Census to publish the country's first national child labor survey, with representation from every region in the country. Provincial courts also rendered the first ever criminal conviction for child labor in Argentina. In July 2018, the government approved the 2018–2020 Action Plan against Human Trafficking and Exploitation. In addition, the Secretariat of Labor and Special Prosecutor for Human Trafficking published guides for investigators and justice sector officials in understanding and applying Argentina's human trafficking and child labor legislation. However, children in Argentina engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking, and in illicit activities such as the sale and distribution of drugs. Children also perform dangerous tasks in agriculture. The government does not publish federal and provincial labor and criminal law enforcement data on child labor, and social programs that address child labor in agriculture do not appear to address the full scope of the problem.

Children in Argentina engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking, and in illicit activities such as the sale and distribution of drugs. (1,2) Children also perform dangerous tasks in agriculture. (3-5) In November 2016, the government, in collaboration with the ILO, began conducting the National Survey on Children and Youth Activities (EANNA) to assess child labor in urban areas, and in 2017 extended the survey into rural areas. (6) The report was published in November 2018 and is Argentina's first nationally representative child labor survey. (7,8) It concluded that there are 291,335 working children between the ages of 5 and 15. (8) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Argentina. Raw data from the government's EANNA survey have not been made publicly available for analysis.


Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

4.2 (258,286)

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

98.5

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

4.8

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

102.4

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2016, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2019. (9)

Source for all other data: International Labor Organization's analysis of statistics from Módulo de Actividades de Niños, Niñas y Adolescentes (SIMPOC), 2012. (10)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.


Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Harvesting, blueberries,† carrots,† cotton,† garlic,† grapes,† olives,† onions,† potatoes,† strawberries,† and tomatoes† (11-22)

Harvesting yerba mate (stimulant plant)† and tobacco†(3,4,12,23-28)  

Industry

Production of garments (1,29,30)  

Production of bricks† and wooden crates (1,6,12,31-34) 

Construction,† activities unknown (12,32)

Services

Street begging and performing,† windshield-washing†, handing out flyers or promotional materials, and guarding parked cars (12,35,36)  

Refuse collection, recycling, and garbage scavenging† (8,12,19,37,38) 

Caregiving, including caring for other children, the elderly, or infirmed people (12) 

 Working and cooking in food service (12) 

Domestic work, including cleaning, laundry, and ironing (8,12) 

Yard work, including cutting lawns and pruning trees (12) 

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking, including use in the production of pornography (6,7,12,39,40)  

Forced labor in the production of garments (1,12,39) 

Use in illicit activities, including selling and distributing drugs (2,12,41,42) 

Forced labor in domestic work (1,12) 

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.

‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Misiones—the producer of 90 percent of Argentina’s and 60 percent of the world’s yerba mate—is one of the provinces most affected by child labor. (43) Children as young as the age of 5 help their parents harvest yerba mate, sometimes carrying heavy loads. (43) In Salta and Jujuy, children between the ages of 5 and 17 harvest tobacco. (27,44)

Although the extent of the problem is unknown, reports indicate that girls from Argentina’s Northern provinces are victims of human trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation. (1,45) Bolivian children and children of Bolivian immigrants in Argentina engage in child labor in agriculture, production of bricks, and domestic service, and in forced child labor in the production of garments. (1,12,17,34,39,46) Reports also indicate that Paraguayan children are victims of human trafficking for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation in Argentina. (1,40,47) 

In Argentina, education is compulsory until age 18. However, reports indicate that many children, including those ages 16 and 17, drop out of school. (48,49) Those children are not eligible for youth employment programs, including most apprenticeships, as the minimum age to qualify for those programs is 18. (50-49) Thus, they are likely to engage in jobs in the informal sector and, without formal training, may remain in informal work as adults. (49)

Argentina has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).


Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Argentina's legal framework to adequately protect children from the worst forms of child labor, including a gap between the minimum age of work and the compulsory education age.


Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

16

Articles 2, 7, and 17 of the Prohibition of Child Labor and Protection of Adolescent Work Law; Article 9 of the Special Code on Contracting Domestic Workers; Article 25 of the Child and Adolescent Rights Protection Law; Articles 54–55 of the Law on Agrarian Work (52-55)  

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 10 of the Prohibition of Child Labor and Protection of Adolescent Work Law; Articles 176 and 191 of the Law on Labor Contracts; Article 62 of the Law on Agrarian Work (54-56) 

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Article 1 of Executive Decree 1117/2016 on Dangerous Work  (57)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 15 of the Constitution; Articles 1 and 24–26 of the Modifications to the Prevention of and Sanction Against Trafficking in Persons and Assistance to Victims Law; Article 9 of the Child and Adolescent Rights Protection Law (52,58,59)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 1 and 25–26 of the Modifications to the Prevention of and Sanction Against Trafficking in Persons and Assistance to Victims Law; Article 9 of the Child and Adolescent Rights Protection Law (52,59) 

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 1 and 21–23 of the Modifications to the Prevention of and Sanction Against Trafficking in Persons and Assistance to Victims Law; Article 6 of the Crimes Against Sexual Integrity Law; Article 128 of the Penal Code (59-61) 

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 11 of the Possession and Trafficking of Drugs Law (62) 

Minimum Age for Voluntary State Military Recruitment

Yes

18

Article 8 of the Voluntary Military Service Law (63)

Prohibition of Compulsory Recruitment of Children by (State) Military

Yes*

 

Article 19 of the Voluntary Military Service Law (63)

Prohibition of Military Recruitment by Non-state Armed Groups

Yes

 

Article 10 of Law No. 26.200 (64)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

18‡

Articles 16 and 29 of the National Education Law; Article 2 of the Law on Early Education (65-67)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Articles 15–16 of the Child and Adolescent Rights Protection Law (52)

* No conscription (68) 
‡ Age calculated based on available information (65) 

In September 2018, the Argentine government reformed its cabinet, reducing the number of ministries from 20 to 10 and transforming the prior Ministry of Labor, Employment, and Social Security into the Secretariat of Labor, Employment, and Social Security, which now falls under the Ministry of Production and Labor. (7,69) The newly formed Secretariat of Labor continues to conduct enforcement efforts in coordination with provincial-level labor authorities in each of Argentina's 23 provinces and the City of Buenos Aires, known as CABA. All inspectors are tasked with enforcing laws related to child labor as part of the Secretariat of Labor's broader enforcement strategy, the National Plan for the Regularization of Labor (Plan Nacional de Regularización del Trabajo). (7) In 2018, the Secretariat of Labor also worked with the ILO to update its list of hazardous work. (7) As the minimum age for work is lower than the compulsory education age, children may be encouraged to leave school before the completion of compulsory education. (52-55,65-67)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the operations of the Secretariat of Labor that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws, including human resource allocation.


Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

The Secretariat of Labor, Employment, and Social Security

Enforces child labor laws, in part through its Coordinating Body for the Prevention of Child Labor and the Regulation of Adolescent Work (COODITIA). Oversees the National Commission for the Eradication of Child Labor (CONAETI). (70,71) Collaborates with the National Registry of Rural Workers and Employers (RENATRE) in enforcing child labor laws in the agricultural sector. (71,72) Maintains a national hotline through which labor violations can be reported. (7,71)  

Ministry of Justice and Human Rights

Maintains a tribunal for adjudicating disputes involving domestic work, and hotlines for reporting cases of child labor and forced labor. (73) 

Office for the Rescue and Care of Trafficking Victims

Provides emergency legal and other assistance to victims of labor and sex trafficking, including child victims. Under the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights. (74) Maintains regional offices that coordinate the provision of legal and social services to human trafficking victims in the Provinces of Chaco, Chubut, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza, Rio Negro, and Santa Fe. (47,75-77) Maintains a hotline through which alleged crimes of trafficking in persons can be reported. (74) 

Special Prosecutor's Office for Human Trafficking and Exploitation (PROTEX)

Prosecutes crimes of trafficking in persons for labor and commercial sexual exploitation, instructs federal personnel in the investigation of human trafficking, and designs criminal policy related to human trafficking. (78-80) Manages Line 145, the anonymous national hotline that allows the public to report suspected human trafficking cases and assists in responding to these calls with the Rescue Program Office (Oficina de Programa de Rescate), which is part of the Ministry of Justice. (74,81) 

National Directorate of Criminal Intelligence, Human Trafficking Unit

Improves the ability of the Ministry of Security and federal police forces to collect information and investigate trafficking in persons. (81) 

National Immigration Directorate

Directs the National Immigration Police, oversees the rights of migrants, and assists in investigating cases of transnational human trafficking. (82) 

Federal Police

Conduct human trafficking investigations through the Trafficking in Persons Division. (83) 

Federal Administration of Public Revenue (AFIP)

Ensures employer compliance with national laws, assists in workplace and labor-related inspections, and initiates prosecutions of labor violations through the Penal Section of its Social Security Directorate. (84) 

Labor Law Enforcement
In 2018, labor law enforcement agencies in Argentina took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the operations of the Secretariat of Labor, and between the national Secretariat and the provincial authorities, that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including human resource allocation.


Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2017

2018

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown (12)

Unknown (7) 

Number of Labor Inspectors

355 (12)

395 (71)  

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (12) 

Yes (7) 

Initial Training for New Labor Inspectors

Yes (12) 

Yes (7) 

 

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Yes (12)

Yes (7) 

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (12) 

Yes (7) 

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

184,440 (12) 

177,734 (7) 

 

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown (12) 

177,734 (7) 

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

38 (85) 

21 (7) 

 

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

32 (12) 

Unknown (7) 

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that Were Collected

Unknown (12) 

Unknown (7) 

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (12) 

Yes (7) 

 

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (12) 

Yes (7) 

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (12) 

Yes (7) 

 

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (12) 

Yes (7) 

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (12) 

Yes (7) 

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (12) 

Yes (7) 

From August to November of the reporting period, the Secretariat of Labor carried out several training sessions for labor inspectors, both in person and virtually. (7) The Special Prosecutor's Office for Human Trafficking and Exploitation (PROTEX) provided training to judicial officials, law enforcement agents, students, and NGOs. Representatives from PROTEX also spoke at training sessions for officials at the National Registry for Rural Workers and Employers (RENATRE), and in August provided training to judicial officials on the differences between labor trafficking and other related crimes. (1,7) However, the number of labor inspectors is likely insufficient for the size of Argentina’s workforce, which includes approximately 17.7 million workers. According to the ILO’s technical advice of a ratio approaching 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in industrializing economies, Argentina should employ roughly 1,200 labor inspectors. (86) The government does not report on the number of provincial inspectors, so the totals reflect only the number of federal inspectors; NGOs continue to report the number is insufficient. (7,70) The Secretariat of Labor is also unable to provide information regarding the number of penalties because it does not have an integrated national/provincial-level system for collecting such data from the provinces or CABA, which report child labor violations. (7) 

The Secretariat of Labor's inspection protocol requires that federal labor inspectors notify the relevant provincial child protection authorities after detecting a child labor violation. (7) Labor inspectors are also required to file a criminal complaint with the provincial courts of the relevant jurisdiction for any child labor violation detected. (7,12) The government reports that, in 2018, in every child labor case detected, children were referred to the relevant Provincial Commission for the Eradication of Child Labor (COPRETI), the local interagency authorities responsible for coordination of social services for children rescued from child labor. (7) During the reporting period, Argentine authorities removed 25 children from child labor stemming from 21 complaints. (7) 

Criminal Law Enforcement
In 2018, criminal law enforcement agencies in Argentina took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including insufficient human resource allocation.


Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2017

2018

Initial Training for New Criminal Investigators

Yes (12) 

Yes (7)

 

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Yes (12) 

Yes (7)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (12) 

Yes (7)

Number of Investigations

869‡ (12) 

Unknown (7)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown

Unknown (7)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown

8 (7)

Number of Convictions

2 (12) 

10 (7)

Imposed Penalties for Violations Related to The Worst Forms of Child Labor

Yes (12)  

Yes (7) 

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (12) 

Yes (7)

‡ Data are from January 1, 2017 to August 31, 2017. 

Santa Fe Province courts rendered the first ever criminal conviction for child labor in Argentina during the reporting period. The case began in 2016 following a provincial labor inspection that discovered child labor involving at least six minors at a blueberry farm. (7) The provincial court rendered a 1 year conditional sentence for the couple operating the farm, providing the defendants would serve prison time if they failed to comply with 2 years of probationary oversight by the Provincial Office of Post-Prison Control and Assistance. (7) PROTEX reported three labor trafficking cases involving nine minors in 2018, seven of whom were Bolivian. Defendants in all three cases were indicted. (7,71)

rosecutors' offices from around the country also informed PROTEX of three criminal cases involving sex trafficking of minors that resulted in indictments. (7) However, the total number of federal and provincial investigations and prosecutions involving the worst forms of child labor is unknown. (7)

The Secretariat of Labor issued new guidance and standardized electronic forms for national labor inspections, which are designed to assist labor inspectors and ensure the inspection lays a documentary foundation for administrative sanctions, criminal investigation, and social services for victims. (7) As part of the Argentine government's ongoing efforts to implement the National Labor Regularization Plan (Plan Nacional de Regularización del Trabajo), both PROTEX and the Secretariat of Labor published guides that serve as resources for investigators and justice sector officials for understanding and applying legislation that criminalizes human trafficking and child labor. (7,87,88)

National authorities were unable to provide information about the budget for labor investigations. Argentine law enforcement authorities report a lack of funding and resources. (7) UNHCR identified the need for the government to build the capacity of its judiciary and police to investigate cases of human trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation, including those involving children, and recommended that the government increase funding for shelters and assist girl victims of human trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation. (89)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including coordination among agencies to provide services to child victims of commercial sexual exploitation.


Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Commission for the Eradication of Child Labor (CONAETI)

Coordinates national efforts to monitor and eliminate child labor and implement the National Plan for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor. (90-93) Led by the Secretariat of Labor and re-established in 2016 to comprise 16 government agencies, representatives from UNICEF, the ILO, industry associations, and labor unions. (85,94-96) In November 2018, hosted officials from the 24 provincial COPRETIs for training and exchanges of best practices. (7) Also held a conference in November 2018 to host officials from the 24 provincial COPRETIs for training and exchanges of best practices, increasing coordination activities between national and provincial authorities. (7)

Provincial Commissions for the Eradication of Child Labor (COPRETI)

Coordinates efforts to prevent and eliminate child labor at the provincial level, including through Local Roundtables on Child Labor at the municipal level. (95,97,98) Comprises representatives from government agencies, NGOs, labor unions, and religious institutions. (95,97) Held various trainings and outreach activities throughout the reporting period and established additional offices in the Provinces of Santa Cruz and Chubut, creating a total of 24 commissions throughout the country. (7,99-100)

National Secretariat for Childhood, Adolescence, and Family (SENAF)

Establishes public policies through its Childhood and Adolescence Protectorate to secure the rights of children and adolescents, coordinate child protection efforts with other government ministries and NGOs, and assist human trafficking victims. Overseen by the restructured Ministry of Health and Social Development. (101) Operates an assistance hotline to field anonymous complaints regarding any violations of children's rights, including child labor. Provided comprehensive assistance to 47 victims, both adults and children, during the reporting period, five of whom were labor trafficking victims. (1) 

Coordinating Body for the Prevention of Child Labor and the Regulation of Adolescent Work (COODITIA)

Implements audits to detect child labor and irregular adolescent labor; trains inspectors on auditing and monitoring child and adolescent work; promotes the creation of special inspection units; and provides technical assistance and advice to inspectors. (7) Held training in October 2018 for Mendoza labor inspectors on how to detect signs of labor exploitation. (1)

Child and Adolescent Labor Monitoring Office (OTIA)

Conducts qualitative and quantitative research on child and adolescent labor to provide policy analysis and inform programming to eradicate child labor and regulate adolescent labor. Created through the Undersecretariat of Technical Programming and Labor Studies of the Secretariat of Labor. (91,95,102) The Secretariat of Labor reported that the OTIA now falls under the Ministry of Production and Labor. Its principal activity in 2018 was to publish the final report of the National Survey on Children and Youth Activities (EANNA). (103) 

Programa Andares (Coordinating Unit for Children and Adolescents in Danger of Commercial Sexual Exploitation)

Provides guidance to relevant institutions; runs workshops and research programs on commercial sexual exploitation; and assists children, adolescents, and their families. Formed within the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights. (104,105) Program was active during the reporting period. (103,106)

Federal Council to Fight Human Trafficking and to Protect and Assist Victims

Coordinates government-wide efforts to combat human trafficking. Comprising representatives from the three branches of government and NGOs. (106) Presided over by the Undersecretary for Access to Justice of the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights. (6,85) Led by the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights and oversees five thematic working groups. (12) Held four meetings during the reporting period and approved the Biennial National Plan against Human Trafficking and Exploitation, and for Protection and Assistance of Victims (TIP Action Plan 2018–2020) (1)

Executive Council to Fight Human Trafficking and to Protect and Assist Victims

Coordinates executive branch efforts to combat human trafficking. Comprising representatives of the Ministries of Justice and Human Rights, Security, and Social Development, and the Secretariat of Labor. (107) Conducted awareness campaign on social media and held several video conference trainings on human trafficking during the reporting period. (1) 

Network of Businesses Against Child Labor

Formed through a partnership of the Ministry of Production and Labor, the Secretariat of Labor, CONAETI, and the businesses that comprise it, the network develops initiatives to raise awareness of child labor and programs to prevent and eradicate child labor. (7,90,108) The network held awareness raising campaigns in 2018 to increase business membership and strengthen cooperation between provincial businesses and their local COPRETIs. (7)

The Federal Council to Fight Human Trafficking and Assist Victims held four meetings in Neuquén, Misiones, Mendoza, and Chubut Provinces and drafted its first-ever annual report in 2018, which includes information on victim assistance services. (1) The Secretary of Tourism developed training in the prevention of sexual exploitation, child labor, and human trafficking to promote the implementation of a Code of Conduct for the tourism sector. (1,106) Civil society groups report, however, that coordination to provide services to child victims of commercial sexual exploitation is ineffective, causing program proposals to remain in the implementation state, and some programs' objectives and target groups to overlap. (109)

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including a lack of information on activities taken under each policy during the reporting period.


Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

Third National Plan for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor and the Regulation of Adolescent Work (2018–2022)†

Aims to prevent and eliminate child labor, including its worst forms, and to regulate adolescent work. Promotes the dissemination of information on child labor, strengthens the COPRETIs and creates local roundtables on child labor, promotes families’ livelihoods, strengthens the labor inspectorate, fosters civil society engagement on child labor issues, provides for a more inclusive educational system, raises awareness of the safety and health implications of child labor, and promotes institutional and legislative strengthening for child labor issues. (12,110-113) 

Strategic Framework for Cooperation Between Argentina and the UN System for Development (2016–2020)

Establishes development priorities for Argentina as agreed upon by the government and the agencies comprising the UN System for Development in Argentina. Comprises five areas for cooperation, including the expansion of social protection support and the promotion of inclusive and sustainable economic growth, which prioritizes the prevention and elimination of child labor and forced labor, and the protection of adolescent workers. (114) The government did not provide information on activities taken under this policy in 2018 for inclusion in this report.

Inter-agency Agreement for Prevention of Child Labor and Protection of the Adolescent Worker

Collaborative agreement between the Secretariat of Labor and the Ministry of Education to integrate child labor prevention and protection of adolescent workers in curricula and teacher training courses. (12,115) The government did not provide information on activities taken under this policy in 2018 for inclusion in this report.

Biennial National Plan against Human Trafficking and Exploitation, and for Protection and Assistance of Victims (TIP Action Plan 2018–2020)†

Approved unanimously August 10, 2018 by the Federal Council to Fight Human Trafficking and to Protect and Assist Victims, focuses on prevention, prosecution, and protection of human trafficking victims and fortifying inter-agency coordination. (1,116) The Executive Committee will serve as its implementer and the Federal Council will monitor compliance every 6 months. (1) The plan focuses on prevention, prosecution, and protection of human trafficking victims and incorporates an institutional goal of fortifying inter-agency coordination, including by establishing a unified database on human trafficking victims. (1) The government did not allocate a special budget for the TIP Action Plan, but encouraged relevant agencies to make itemized provisions in their budgets to meet the plan's goals, which NGOs and civil society see as a major obstacle to the plan's implementation. (1)

National Plan of Action on Human Rights (2017–2020)

Contains over 200 actions to apply government policies in various areas, including the prevention and restitution of rights for children and adolescents exposed to violence, commercial sexual exploitation, human trafficking, and child labor. (117,118) Under the Human Rights Plan in 2018, the government created a national plan to protect the human rights of people of African descent, the First National Committee for the Prevention of Torture, the First Cultural Center for Migrants and Refugees, and approved the National Action Plan for the Prevention, Assistance, and Eradication of Violence Against Women. (119)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.
‡ The government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor. (120)

In 2018, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including the adequacy of programs in the agricultural sector to address the full scope of the problem.


Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Universal Child Allowance Program (Asignación Universal)†

Government program funded in part by the World Bank that provides a cash transfer to unemployed parents and workers in the informal economy, contingent upon parents’ fulfillment of health and education requirements for their children. (95,121) In 2018, the Argentine government increased the program's allowance to keep pace with inflation. (7,122) 

RENATRE Awareness-Raising Campaigns†

RENATRE campaigns raise awareness of child labor in agriculture and inform families and children of the right to education. (103,123) Activities in 2018 included signing agreements with regional governments to improve education in rural areas, training both adolescents and adults on labor rights, and participating in working groups to address child labor and human trafficking. (124-127) 

Secretary of Labor, Employment, and Social Security - Ministry of Production and Labor - CONAETI Awareness-Raising Campaigns†

CONAETI/Network of Businesses Against Child Labor campaigns that make businesses and the general public aware of child labor in sourcing and supply chains. (6,108) During the reporting period, the Secretariat of Labor requested that "public officials" be included among the participants of awareness raising campaigns, along with businesses and the public. (7)

National Campaign Against Child Labor in Brickmaking†

Developed by the Secretariat of Labor and the Argentine Brickworkers Union (UOLRA) in 2017. (128) Aims to develop policies that improve labor inspections in this sector and better support brickworkers so their children do not have to work. (128,129) The government continued to implement this program during the reporting period, including by hosting a gathering of more than 200 people in the Municipality of Florencio Varela to raise awareness among brickworkers and their families. (7,130) 

USDOL-funded Projects

$3 million Project to Promote Workplace-Based Training for Vulnerable Youth in Argentina (2016–2020), implemented by Centro de Desarrollo y Autogestión (DyA); $2.9 million Promoting Apprenticeship as a Path for Youth Employment in Argentina, Costa Rica, and Kenya through Global Apprenticeships Network (GAN) National Networks (2016–2019); SafeYouth@Work Project: Building a Generation of Safe and Healthy Workers (2014–2019), an $11 million global project implemented by the ILO; also awarded in 2018, $2.5 million Multi-Stakeholder Strategy for Child Labor Elimination in Agriculture in Argentina (2019–2021), implemented by Centro de Desarrollo y Autogestión (DyA); and $2.5 million "Offside Project": Improving the Capacity of Labor and Agriculture Stakeholders to Address Child Labor in Agricultural Areas of Argentina Project, implemented by the ILO. Additional information is available on the USDOL website.

Good Harvest Day Care and Future Programs†

COPRETI/Network of Businesses Against Child Labor programs that aim to reduce child labor in the production of crops, in which work is often performed by entire families. Provides child care and recreational activities to children up to the age of 9. (7,12,131) The government expanded the program into new regions during the reporting period, including the Province of Salta, and increased the number of participants. In 2018, more than 1200 children of tobacco families in Salta and Jujuy Provinces participated in activities to end child labor. (71,131-134) 

Program to Strengthen Schools in Agricultural Areas†

RENATRE program which includes the Centers for Rural Care and Education (CRECER) and provides infrastructural developments, operating costs, and pedagogical development to rural schools located in agricultural areas where children may be at risk of child labor. (36,135) In February 2018, CRECER was implemented in San Juan, Jujuy, and Salta where children of rural tobacco workers received services. (103) 

More Care = Less Child Labor (Mas Cuidado = Menos Trabajo Infantil)†

Promotes the formulation and execution of local projects that articulate access to care, decent work, and good practices in critical sectors of child labor in the Buenos Aires Province. Involves participation of unions, business leaders, government officials, and civil society. (136) In June 2018, as part of the activities for World Day Against Child Labor, the program organized child care and recreation activities in collaboration with the Cooperative Union of Trash Collectors (Cooperativa Unión de Cartoneros) in the Salta region to discourage child labor in that sector. (137) 

Campaign to Report Human Trafficking (La trata no se ve a simple vista)†

Government campaign to raise public awareness of human trafficking and to encourage use of the national human trafficking hotline. (77,138) In 2018, the campaign included a commemorative video for the International Day Against Human Trafficking. (103) 

Work is Not for Children†

A child care service funded by the provincial government of Santa Fe since 2010. (12) In June 2018, the program held an awareness-raising event on National Day Against Child Labor for over 150 children, and in August 2018, opened a new center in Santa Rosa de Lima to serve the children of informal trash collectors. (139,140) 

† Program is funded by the Government of Argentina.
‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. (6,7,12,19,34,77,141,142)

Reports indicate that the Universal Child Allowance Program has had a positive impact on the reduction of child labor since it began in 2009. (7,143-145) Programs that address child labor in the agricultural sector do not appear to address the full scope of the problem. Additionally, research found no evidence of social programs that specifically target children engaged in street begging and performing, windshield washing, and guarding parked cars.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Argentina (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Raise the minimum age for work to the age up to which education is compulsory.

2018

Enforcement

Publish federal and provincial information on the level of funding allocated to the labor inspectorate, the number of child labor penalties imposed that were collected, and the number of criminal investigations and violations found.

2015 – 2018

Increase the number of labor inspectors responsible for enforcing laws on child labor to meet the ILO’s technical advice, and ensure that inspections are conducted in rural areas.

2015 – 2018

Publish information on the total number of federal and provincial inspectors responsible for enforcing labor laws nationwide.

2017 – 2018

Publish federal and provincial information on the total number of children removed from child labor nationwide, including whether they received appropriate protective services.

2014 – 2018

Publish federal and provincial information regarding the adequacy of the budget and resources available to agencies responsible for enforcing criminal laws on the worst forms of child labor.

2014 – 2018

Coordination

Improve government coordination in the provision of services to child victims of commercial sexual exploitation.

2017 – 2018

Government Policies

Publish information on activities taken under key policies to address child labor, forced labor, and human trafficking.

2018

Allocate a special budget for the Biennial National Plan against Human Trafficking and Exploitation, and for Protection and Assistance of Victims to ensure its implementation.

2018

Social Programs

Expand the coverage and scope of programs that target child labor in the agricultural sector.

2012 – 2018

Develop specific programs that target child labor in sectors in which child labor is prevalent, including street begging and performing, windshield washing, and guarding of parked cars.

2009 – 2018

Extend youth employment and vocational training programs to children ages 16 and 17, while ensuring these programs allow children to complete their compulsory schooling.

2015 – 2018

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  3. Página 12. Explotación infantil en Salta: Nueve chicos en condiciones infrahumanas en una tabacalera. March 10, 2014.
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  4. Página 12. Chicos explotados. February 28, 2014.
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  5. Premici, Sebastián. Esclavos para la papa: Niños, niñas y adolescentes trabajando en la cosecha. Página 12. February 12, 2014.
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  6. U.S. Embassy- Buenos Aires. Reporting, January 17, 2017.

  7. U.S. Embassy- Buenos Aires. Reporting. January 8, 2019.

  8. Government of Argentina. Encuesta de Actividades de Niños, Niñas y Adolescentes 2016–2017. November 2018.
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  9. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed March 3, 2018. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.
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  10. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Módulo de Actividades de Niños, Niñas y Adolescentes, 2012. Analysis received January 12, 2018. Please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

  11. Télam. El Renatea detectó casos de trabajo infantil en Chaco y Misiones. April 26, 2014.
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  12. U.S. Embassy- Buenos Aires. Reporting. January 12, 2018.

  13. El Litoral. Condena inedita en un caso de trabajo infantil en la provincia. December 14, 2018.
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  14. La Nueva. Trabajo infantil: denunciarán penalmente a los productores. February 21, 2014.
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  15. Diario 21. Chaco: detectan trabajo infantil y trabajadores en negro en Villa Ángela y San Bernardo. April 25, 2014.
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  16. Hoy Corrientes. Virasoro: detectan trabajo no registrado en campos. October 23, 2014. Source on file.

  17. Rioja Virtual. Detectan indocumentados y menores trabajando en la cosecha. March 10, 2014. Source on file.

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  20. Ahora Mendoza. Renatea detectó trabajo infantil en la cosecha de cebolla. February 21, 2014.
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  21. La Izquierda Diario. Denuncian trabajo infantil en Mendoza. March 12, 2017.
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  22. Página 12. Los chicos que recogen arándanos. January 20, 2017.
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  23. Ayuso, María. ¿Sabías que el mate esconde trabajo infantil? May 12, 2017. La Nacion.
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  24. Diario 33. RENATEA detectó en San Pedro a tareferos en condiciones de esclavitud y trabajo infantil. January 2015. Source on file.

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  27. El Ancasti. La AFIP detectó trabajo infantil y no registrados en Salta y Jujuy. March 10, 2018
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  29. Telam. Rescataron a un niño de 13 años de un taller textil clandestino. April 9, 2015.
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  31. La Nación. Hornos ladrilleros de Allen: empleo informal, viviendas precarias y trabajo infantil detrás del sueño de progresar. December 19, 2016.
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  33. Brondo, Héctor. Cruzada de ladrilleros contra el trabajo infantil. La Voz. February 17, 2017. Source on file.

  34. Loja, Matias. El trabajo que no educa y refuerza la pobreza. June 10, 2017. La Capital.
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  35. U.S. Embassy- Buenos Aires. Reporting. January 23, 2015.

  36. U.S. Embassy- Buenos Aires. Reporting. February 17, 2016.

  37. IOM. Lucha Contra el Trabajo Infantil Cartonero en la Villa 31 y 31 Bis de Retiro - Buenos Aires. Accessed April 2, 2014. Source on file.

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  39. Fayad, Federico. Trabajo forzoso: el 80% está a cargo de niños. September 7, 2017. Los Andes.
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  41. Diario Popular. Narcos reclutan a "niñas" para vender droga en boliches. February 18, 2017.
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  45. Higgs, Joanna. Argentina Has a Problem: Sex Trafficking of Women and Girls. January 24, 2016. PassBlue.
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  46. Gonzalez, Juan Manuel. La sacrificada labor de los bolivianos que fabrican ladrillo en Argentina. CDR Productora. September 7, 2017. Source on file.

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