Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Argentina

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Argentina

2017 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Significant Advancement

In 2017, Argentina made a significant advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The government hosted the IV Global Conference on the Sustained Eradication of Child Labor, published the results of its National Child Labor Survey, and released its third National Plan for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor and Protection of Adolescent Labor. The government also distributed a new child labor inspection protocol, created a national registry of child labor complaints, and launched a national campaign against child labor in brickmaking. However, children in Argentina engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking, and in illicit activities such as the transportation and sale of drugs. Children also perform dangerous tasks in agriculture. The government does not appear to publish federal and provincial labor and criminal law enforcement data on child labor, and social programs that address child labor in agriculture do not appear to address the full scope of the problem.

Expand All

Children in Argentina engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking, and illicit activities such as the transportation and sale of drugs. (1; 2; 3; 4; 5) Children also perform dangerous tasks in agriculture. In November 2016, the government, in collaboration with the ILO, began conducting the National Survey on Children and Youth Activities (EANNA) to assess child labor in urban areas. In 2017, the government extended that survey into rural areas. (4; 6; 7) The government’s 2017 Child Labor Survey Report, released in 2018, concluded that there are 291,335 working children between the ages of 5 and 15. Raw data used in the government’s 2017 Child Labor Survey report were not available for analysis in time for inclusion in this report. Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Argentina.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

4.2 (258,286)

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

98.5

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

4.8

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

101.5

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2014, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2018. (8)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Módulo de Actividades de Niños, Niñas y Adolescentes, 2012. (9)

 

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Harvesting blueberries,† carrots,† cotton,† garlic,† grapes,† olives,† onions,† potatoes,† strawberries,† and tomatoes† (3; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 15; 16; 17; 18) (19; 20; 21; 22; 23)

Harvesting yerba mate (stimulant plant)† and tobacco† (1; 2; 24; 23) (25; 26; 27; 28; 29)

Industry

Production of garments (30; 31)

Production of bricks† and wooden crates (4; 32; 33; 34; 35; 36; 23; 37)

Construction,† activities unknown (35; 23)

Services

Street begging and performing,† windshield-washing, handing out flyers or promotional materials, and guarding parked cars (38; 39; 40; 23)

Refuse collection, recycling, and garbage scavenging† (18; 38; 41; 42; 43; 35; 23)

Caregiving, including caring for other children, or elderly, or infirmed people (23)

Working and cooking in food service (23)

Domestic work, including cleaning, laundry, and ironing (38; 44; 35; 23)

Yard work, including cutting lawns and pruning trees (23)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking, including use in the production of pornography (4; 38; 5; 23; 45)

Forced labor in the production of garments (46; 23; 45)

Use in illicit activities, including distribution of drugs (23; 47; 48)

Forced labor in domestic work (23)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

 

Misiones—the producer of 90 percent of Argentina’s and 60 percent of the world’s yerba mate—is one of the provinces most affected by child labor. (49) Children as young as five years old help their parents harvest yerba mate, sometimes carrying heavy loads. (49) In Salta and Jujuy, children between 5 and 17 years old harvest tobacco. (50)

Although the extent of the problem is unknown, reports indicate that girls from Argentina’s Northern provinces are victims of human trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation. (51; 52) Bolivian children and children of Bolivian immigrants in Argentina engage in child labor in agriculture, production of bricks, and domestic service, and in forced child labor in the production of garments. (16; 44; 53; 37) Reports also indicate that Paraguayan children are victims of trafficking for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation in Argentina. (54; 51)

In 2017, adults used girls as young as 13 years old to distribute drugs in nightclubs. (47) In the Northern and Western provinces, indigenous children were used to move drugs across the border. (55; 56; 57)

In Argentina, education is compulsory until age 18. However, reports indicate that many children, including 16 and 17 year olds, drop out of school. (58) Those children are not eligible for many youth employment programs, including most apprenticeships, as the minimum age to quality for those programs is 18. (59; 60; 61) Thus, they are likely to engage in jobs in the informal sector and, without formal training, may remain in informal work as adults.

Argentina has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The government’s laws and regulations are in line with relevant international standards (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

16

Articles 2, 7, and 17 of the Prohibition of Child Labor and Protection of Adolescent Work Law; Article 9 of the Special Code on Contracting Domestic Workers; Article 1 of the Child Labor Law; Article 25 of the Child and Adolescent Rights Protection Law; Articles 54–55 of the Law on Agrarian Work (62; 63; 64; 65; 66)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 10 of the Prohibition of Child Labor and Protection of Adolescent Work Law; Articles 176 and 191 of the Law on Labor Contracts; Article 62 of the Law on Agrarian Work (62; 66; 67)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Article 1 of Executive Decree 1117/2016 on Dangerous Work (68)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 15 of the Constitution; Articles 1 and 24–26 of the Modifications to the Prevention of and Sanction Against Trafficking in Persons and Assistance to Victims Law; Article 9 of the Child and Adolescent Rights Protection Law (64; 69; 70)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 1 and 25–26 of the Modifications to the Prevention of and Sanction Against Trafficking in Persons and Assistance to Victims Law; Article 9 of the Child and Adolescent Rights Protection Law (64; 70)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 1 and 21–23 of the Modifications to the Prevention of and Sanction Against Trafficking in Persons and Assistance to Victims Law; Article 6 of the Crimes Against Sexual Integrity Law; Article 128 of the Penal Code (70; 71; 72)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 11 of the Possession and Trafficking of Drugs Law (73)

Prohibition of Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

Yes*

18

Article 19 of the Voluntary Military Service Law (74)

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Article 8 of the Voluntary Military Service Law (74)

Non-state

Yes

 

Article 10 of Law No. 26.200 (75)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

18‡

Articles 16 and 29 of the National Education Law; Article 2 of the Law on Early Education (76; 77; 78)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Articles 15–16 of the Child and Adolescent Rights Protection Law (64)

* No conscription in practice (79)
‡ Age calculated based on available information (76)

 

In 2017, the Argentinean Congress passed a law on the Protection of Victims of Crimes, which enhances and clarifies guidelines for victims’ assistance, including human trafficking victims. (80) The government also drafted a labor reform bill introducing workplace-based education and training opportunities for high school, technical school, and university students. (23)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the operations of the Ministry of Labor, Employment, and Social Security (MTESS) that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor, Employment, and Social Security (MTESS)

Enforce child labor laws, in part through its Coordinating Body for the Prevention of Child Labor and the Regulation of Adolescent Work (COODITIA). Oversee the National Commission for the Eradication of Child Labor (CONAETI). (38; 81; 82) Collaborate with the National Registry of Agricultural Workers and Employers (RENATRE) in enforcing child labor laws in the agricultural sector. (4; 39; 83) Maintain a national hotline through which labor violations can be reported. (40)

Ministry of Justice and Human Rights

Maintain a tribunal for adjudicating disputes involving domestic work and hotlines for reporting cases of child labor and forced labor. (84)

Office for the Rescue and Care of Trafficking Victims

Provide emergency legal and other assistance to victims of labor and sex trafficking, including child victims. Under the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights. (85) Maintain Regional Offices that coordinate the provision of legal and social services to trafficking victims in the Provinces of Chaco, Chubut, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza, Rio Negro, and Santa Fe. (51; 86; 87; 88) Maintain a hotline through which alleged crimes of trafficking in persons can be reported. (85)

Public Prosecutor’s Anti-Trafficking Division (PROTEX)

Prosecute crimes of trafficking in persons for labor and commercial sexual exploitation, instruct federal personnel in the investigation of human trafficking, and design criminal policy related to human trafficking. (89; 90; 91) Manages Line 145, the anonymous national hotline that allows the public to report suspected trafficking cases. (92)

National Directorate of Criminal Intelligence, Human Trafficking Unit

Improve the ability of the Ministry of Security and federal police forces to collect information and investigate trafficking in persons. (92)

National Immigration Directorate

Direct the National Immigration Police, oversee the rights of migrants, and assist in investigating cases of transnational human trafficking. (93)

Federal Police

Conduct human trafficking investigations through its Trafficking in Persons Division. (31)

Federal Administration of Public Revenue (AFIP)

Ensure employer compliance with national laws, assist in workplace and labor-related inspections, and initiate prosecutions of labor violations through the Penal Section of its Social Security Directorate. (31; 94; 95)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2017, labor law enforcement agencies in Argentina took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the operations of the MTESS that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including human resource allocation.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown

Unknown* (23)

Number of Labor Inspectors

421 (96)

355 (23)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (4)

Yes (23)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (97)

Yes (23)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Yes (4)

Yes (23)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (4)

Yes (23)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

156,956 (98)

184,440 (23)

Number Conducted at Worksites

Unknown

Unknown* (23)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

458 (98)

38 (99)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties were Imposed

21 (4)

32 (23)

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that were Collected

Unknown* (4; 100)

Unknown* (23)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (4)

Yes (23)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (4; 100)

Yes (23)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (4)

Yes (23)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (100)

Yes (23)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (4)

Yes (23)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Unknown

Yes (23)

* The government does not publish this information.

 

In 2017, the MTESS released a new inspection protocol for child and adolescent labor and began updating the list of hazardous occupations prohibited for children. (101; 23) The government also created a national registry of child labor complaints that allows for monitoring of child labor cases and referral of these cases to social services at national, provincial, and municipal levels. (101) In coordination with the Argentine National Institute of Census and Statistics, ILO, and UNICEF, the MTESS also completed the EANNA to better understand child labor, including in rural areas. (23; 35) In November, in connection with hosting the IV Global Conference on the Sustained Eradication of Child Labor, the MTESS published preliminary findings from the EANNA. (23; 35) The MTESS also conducted a raid on tobacco farms in Jujuy and found 800 unregistered workers, including child laborers; the number of child laborers found is unknown. (102)

Within the reporting period, the MTESS provided federal and provincial inspectors with child labor training, including training on improving child labor inspections and interagency coordination to address child labor. (23) However, the number of labor inspectors is likely insufficient for the size of Argentina’s workforce, which includes approximately 17.7 million workers. According to the ILO’s technical advice of a ratio approaching 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in industrializing economies, Argentina should employ roughly 1,200 labor inspectors. (103) The government does not report on the number of provincial inspectors, so the totals reflect only the number of federal inspectors. Additionally, labor inspections in rural areas have decreased, and coordination between the MTESS and provincial inspectors have become less adequate. (92)

Federal labor inspectors are obligated to file a citation with the provincial labor authority of the relevant jurisdiction documenting any labor violation—including child labor—found during a site inspection, triggering an administrative process that may result in fines imposed. (23) Labor inspectors are also required to file a criminal complaint in the provincial courts of the relevant jurisdiction for any child labor violation detected. (23) The government reports that, in 2017, in every child labor case detected, children were referred to the relevant Provincial Commission for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor (COPRETI)—local interagency authorities responsible for coordinating social services for children rescued from child labor. Within the reporting period, the MTESS rescued 38 children resulting from 32 child labor violations. (23) In 2016, the MTESS reported 21 cases of child labor involving 458 victims. The MTESS reports the number of penalties imposed based on the number of cases, rather than on the number of victims, so in 2016 the number of penalties imposed appeared to be much lower than the number of violations. (99) In 2017, as was the case in 2016, the government imposed penalties on all child labor violations.

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2017, criminal law enforcement agencies in Argentina took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including human resource allocation.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Yes (23)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

Yes (23)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (4; 59)

Yes (23)

Number of Investigations

Unknown

869‡ (23)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Convictions

Unknown

2 (23)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Unknown

Yes (23)

‡ Data are from January 1, 2017, to August 31, 2017.

 

In 2017, the government assisted 207 child victims of sex and labor trafficking. (23; 92) Between January and August, the PROTEX prosecuted three cases and secured two convictions for commercial sexual exploitation of children as a result of human trafficking. (23) However, the total number of federal and provincial prosecutions involving the worst forms of child labor is unknown. Research could not determine whether agencies responsible for enforcing criminal laws related to the worst forms of child labor had sufficient resources to carry out their mandates. (23)

The government conducted 64 human trafficking detection and prevention seminars, training 8,136 individuals including members of the security forces, Ministries of Labor and Social Development staff, teachers and students, members of the judiciary, hospital staff, and municipal and provincial officers. (92) Additionally, the government began implementing a new database system to track human trafficking cases, and trained prosecutors and investigators in identifying and addressing cases of human trafficking. (23) La Quiaca, a border town in the northeast Jujuy Province, inaugurated a monitoring center that provides tools for detection and prosecution of human trafficking crimes. (92) However, UNHCR identified the need for the government to build the capacity of its judiciary and police to investigate cases of trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation, including those involving children, and recommended that the government increase funding for shelters and assist girl victims of trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation. (104)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including coordination among agencies to provide services to child victims of commercial sexual exploitation.

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role and Description

National Commission for the Eradication of Child Labor (CONAETI)

Coordinate national efforts to monitor and eliminate child labor and implement the National Plan for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor. (38; 105; 106; 107; 108) Led by the MTESS and re-established in 2016 to comprise 16 government agencies, representatives from UNICEF, the ILO, industry associations, and labor unions. (38; 98; 109; 110; 99) In 2017, implemented the Awareness Campaign on Child Labor in Mar del Plata. (111)

Provincial Commissions for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor (COPRETI)

Coordinate efforts to prevent and eliminate child labor at the provincial level, including through Local Roundtables on Child Labor at the municipal level. (38; 110; 112; 113) Comprises representatives from government agencies, NGOs, labor unions, and religious institutions; there are 23 COPRETI. (110; 112) In 2017, organized awareness-raising activities for children and their parents, met with representatives of the Pilar municipality to discuss child labor eradication in the region, led a workshop on access to rights for children and adolescents at risk for child labor in garbage scavenging and recycling, and trained inspectors to detect child labor and human trafficking. (114; 115; 116; 117; 118) Also met in Parana to discuss building consensus and operative agreements between the COPRETI and the MTESS and review the Strategic National Plan for Prevention and Eradication of Adolescent Work. (119)

National Secretariat for Childhood, Adolescence, and Family (SENNAF)

Establish public policies through its Childhood and Adolescence Protectorate to secure the rights of children and adolescents, coordinate child protection efforts with other government ministries and NGOs, and assist trafficking victims. Overseen by the Ministry of Social Development. (120) In 2017, assisted 37 children rescued from transnational human trafficking and for the first time compiled national statistics on trafficking victim assistance by province. (23; 92; 99)

Coordinating Body for the Prevention of Child Labor and the Regulation of Adolescent Work (COODITIA)

Implement audits to detect child labor and irregular adolescent labor; train inspectors on auditing and monitoring child and adolescent work; promote the creation of special inspection units; and provide technical assistance and advice to inspectors. (101) In 2017, released a new inspection protocol to detect child labor and created the National Registry of Criminal Child Labor Complaints, which allows for monitoring the criminal procedure and intervention of social services at national, provincial, and municipal levels. (101)

Child and Adolescent Labor Monitoring Office (OTIA)

Conduct qualitative and quantitative research on child and adolescent labor to provide policy analysis and inform programming to eradicate child labor and regulate adolescent labor. Created through the Undersecretariat of Technical Programming and Labor Studies of the MTESS. (106; 110; 121) Research could not determine any actions taken by this coordinating body in 2017.

Coordinating Unit for Children and Adolescents in Danger of Commercial Sexual Exploitation

Provide guidance to relevant institutions; run workshops and research programs on commercial sexual exploitation; and assist children, adolescents, and their families. Formed within the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights. (122) Research could not determine any actions taken by this coordinating body in 2017.

Federal Council to Fight Human Trafficking and to Protect and Assist Victims

Coordinate government-wide efforts to combat human trafficking. Comprising representatives from the three branches of government and NGOs. Presided by the Under Secretary for Access to Justice of the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights. (4; 99) Led by the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights and oversees five thematic working groups. (23) In 2017, established five working groups and conducted four high-level meetings in the Provinces of Buenos Aires, Cordoba, La Rioja, and San Juan. (92)

Executive Council to Fight Human Trafficking and to Protect and Assist Victims

Coordinate executive branch efforts to combat human trafficking. Comprising representatives of the Ministries of Justice and Human Rights, Security, and Social Development, and the MTESS. (123) In 2017, it produced two bimonthly newsletters on government-led anti-human trafficking activities. (99)

Network of Businesses Against Child Labor

Develop initiatives to raise awareness of child labor and programs to prevent and eradicate child labor. Formed through a partnership among the MTESS, the CONAETI, and the businesses that comprise it. (105; 124; 125) Research could not determine any actions taken by this coordinating body in 2017.

 

In 2017, the MTESS and Ministry of Social Development met with UNESCO to discuss research and strategies for prevention and eradication of child labor. (126) The MTESS and Attorney General of Salta signed an agreement to establish a more efficient referral policy for child labor cases. (23) The provincial government of Neuquén and the Argentine Union of Rural Workers and Stevedores signed a cooperative agreement to strengthen collaboration, coordination, and training on the detection and eradication of unregistered labor, including child labor. (127) In addition, the government signed cooperative agreements with two other countries, Colombia and Bolivia, to prevent and investigate trafficking in persons and assist and protect its victims. (92) The government also participated in seminars and roundtables with the Government of Peru to establish mechanisms for institutional cooperation and with the Government of Australia to share strategies to address trafficking. (92) The government granted access to provincial law enforcement agencies to the Integrated System of Trafficking in Persons Criminal Information, the database that allows federal law enforcement agencies to report on raids, victims rescued, and other data on trafficking cases. (92) Civil society reports, however, that coordination to provide services to child victims of commercial sexual exploitation is ineffective, causing program proposals to remain in the implementation stage, and their objectives and target groups to overlap. (128)

The government has established policies that are consistent with relevant international standards on child labor (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor‡

Policy

Description

Third National Plan for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor and the Regulation of Adolescent Work (2018–2022)†

Aims to prevent and eliminate child labor, including its worst forms, and to regulate adolescent work. Promotes the dissemination of information on child labor, strengthens the COPRETI and creates Local Roundtables on Child Labor, promotes families’ livelihoods, strengthens the Labor Inspectorate, fosters civil society engagement on child labor issues, provides for a more inclusive educational system, raises awareness of the safety and health implications of child labor, and promotes institutional and legislative strengthening for child labor issues. (129; 130; 23; 131; 132)

Strategic Framework for Cooperation Between Argentina and the UN System for Development (2016–2020)

Establishes development priorities for Argentina as agreed upon by the government and the agencies comprising the UN System for Development in Argentina. Comprises five areas for cooperation, including the expansion of social protection support and the promotion of inclusive and sustainable economic growth, which prioritizes the prevention and elimination of child labor and forced labor, and the protection of adolescent workers. (133) In 2017, the government held an event to launch its National Report on Sustainable Development. (134; 135)

Interagency Agreement for Prevention of Child Labor and Protection of the Adolescent Worker†

Signed between the Ministries of Labor and Education to integrate child labor prevention and protection of adolescent workers in curricula and teacher training courses. (23)

National Plan of Action on Human Rights†

Contains over 200 actions to apply government policies in the following areas: (1) inclusion, non-discrimination, and equality; (2) public safety and non-violence; (3) memory, truth, justice, and reparations; (4) universal access to rights; and (5) civic culture and commitment to protecting human rights. (136) Includes actions focused on prevention and restitution of rights for children and adolescents exposed to violence and exploitation, including commercial sexual exploitation and human trafficking, and child labor. (136; 137)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.
‡ The government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor. (138)

 

In November 2017, Argentina hosted the IV Global Conference on the Sustained Eradication of Child Labor, concluding with the adoption of the Buenos Aires Declaration. (139) This Declaration expresses a commitment to the eradication of child labor and forced labor through the adoption of a set of principles and actions, and urges other stakeholders to adopt the same. (140)

In 2017, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including adequacy of programs in the agricultural sector to address the full scope of the problem.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor‡

Program

Description

Universal Child Allowance Program (Asignación Universal)†

Government program funded in part by the World Bank that provides a cash transfer to unemployed parents and workers in the informal economy, contingent upon parents’ fulfillment of health and education requirements for their children. (42; 110; 141) In 2017, expanded coverage from 3.7 million to 3.9 million children. (23)

RENATRE Awareness-Raising Campaigns†

RENATRE campaigns raise awareness of child labor in agriculture and inform families and children of the right to education. (142; 143) In 2017, the RENATRE conducted a campaign to raise awareness of child labor in San Luis. (144)

Ministry of Labor CONAETI Awareness-Raising Campaigns†

CONAETI/Network of Businesses Against Child Labor campaigns that make businesses and the general public aware of child labor in sourcing and supply chains. (4; 124) In 2017, implemented the Awareness Campaign on Child Labor in Mar del Plata. (111)

National Campaign Against Child Labor in Brickmaking*†

Developed by the MTESS and the Argentinean Brickworkers Union (UOLRA) in 2017. (145) Aims to develop policies that improve labor inspections in this sector and better support brickworkers so their children do not have to work. (145; 146)

USDOL-funded Projects to Support Youth Apprenticeship

USDOL-funded, $3 million Project to Promote Workplace-Based Training for Vulnerable Youth in Argentina (2016–2019) and $2.9 million Promoting Apprenticeship as a Path for Youth Employment in Argentina, Costa Rica, and Kenya through Global Apprenticeships Network (GAN) National Networks (2016–2019). Additional information is available on the USDOL website.

Good Harvest Day Care and Future Programs†

COPRETI/Network of Businesses Against Child Labor programs that aim to reduce child labor in the production of crops, in which work is often performed by entire families. Provides child care and recreational activities to children up to 9 years old. (10; 147; 148; 149; 23) Expanded coverage in 2017 by creating 11 new cultural and educational centers for children of rural workers that provided services to more than 1,200 children in San Juan Province. (23)

Program to Strengthen Schools in Agricultural Areas†

RENATRE program that provides infrastructural developments, operating costs, and pedagogical development to rural schools located in agricultural areas where children may be at risk of child labor. (40; 150; 151; 152)

More Care = Less Child Labor (Mas Cuidado = Menos Trabajo Infantil)*†

Promotes the formulation and execution of local projects that articulate access to care, decent work, and good practices in critical sectors of child labor in the Buenos Aires Province. (153) Involves participation of unions, business leaders, government officials, and civil society. (153) Launched in June 2017.

Campaign to Report Human Trafficking (La trata no se ve a simple vista)†

Government campaign to raise public awareness of human trafficking and to encourage use of the national human trafficking hotline. (88; 154)

Work is Not for Children†

A child care service funded by the provincial government of Santa Fe since 2010. In 2017, 35 centers provided services to 1,850 children. (23)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Argentina.
‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. (4; 18; 88; 155; 156; 109; 23; 37; 157)

 

Reports indicate that the Universal Child Allowance Program has had a positive impact on the reduction of child labor since it began in 2009. (158; 159; 160)  Programs that address child labor in the agricultural sector do not appear to address the full scope of the problem. Additionally, research found no evidence of programs that specifically target children engaged in street begging and performing, windshield washing, and guarding parked cars.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Argentina (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Enforcement

Publish federal and provincial information on the level of funding allocated to the Labor Inspectorate, the number of labor inspections conducted at worksites, the number of child labor penalties imposed that were collected, the number of criminal violations found, and the number of prosecutions initiated.

2015 – 2017

Increase the number of labor inspectors responsible for enforcing laws on child labor to meet the ILO’s technical advice, and ensure that inspections are conducted in rural areas.

2015 – 2017

Publish information on the total number of federal and provincial inspectors responsible for enforcing labor laws nationwide.

2017

Publish federal and provincial information on the total number of children removed from child labor nationwide, including whether they received appropriate protective services, and clarify the mechanisms by which labor law enforcement and social services agencies reciprocally refer cases.

2014 – 2017

Publish federal and provincial information regarding the adequacy of the budget and resources available to agencies responsible for enforcing criminal laws on the worst forms of child labor.

2014 – 2017

Coordination

Improve coordination of program implementation to provide services to child victims of commercial sexual exploitation.

2017

Improve coordination between the MTESS and provincial labor inspectors to adequately carry out inspections in rural areas.

2017

Social Programs

Expand the coverage and scope of programs that target child labor in the agricultural sector.

2012 – 2017

Develop specific programs that target child labor in sectors where child labor is prevalent, including street begging and performing, windshield washing, and guarding of parked cars.

2009 – 2017

Extend youth employment and vocational training programs to children ages 16 and 17, while ensuring these programs allow children to complete their compulsory schooling.

2015 – 2017

1. Página 12. Explotación infantil en Salta: Nueve chicos en condiciones infrahumanas en una tabacalera. March 10, 2014. http://www.pagina12.com.ar/imprimir/diario/sociedad/3-241443-2014-03-10.html.

2. —. Chicos explotados. February 28, 2014. http://www.pagina12.com.ar/diario/sociedad/3-240788-2014-02-28.html.

3. Premici, Sebastiàn. Esclavos para la papa: Niños, niñas y adolescentes trabajando en la cosecha. Pàgina 12. February 12, 2014. http://www.pagina12.com.ar/imprimir/diario/economia/2-239656-2014-02-12.html.

4. U.S. Embassy- Buenos Aires. Reporting, January 17, 2017.

5. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2017: Argentina. Washington, DC. June 29, 2017. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/271341.pdf.

6. Télam. Advierten que el trabajo infantil disminuye en el campo, pero estaría creciendo en las ciudades. August 6, 2016. http://www.telam.com.ar/notas/201606/150648-advierten-que-el-trabajo-infantil-disminuye-en-el-campo-pero-estaria-creciendo-en-las-ciudades.html.

7. U.S. Embassy - Buenos Aires official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. January 5, 2018.

8. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed March 3, 2018. http://data.uis.unesco.org/. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

9. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Módulo de Actividades de Niños, Niñas y Adolescentes, 2012. Analysis received January 12, 2018. Please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

10. Ministerio de Trabajo de la Provincia de Entre Rios. Se abrirán centros de Cuidado Infantil o Jardines de Cosecha para evitar el trabajo infantil. Government of Entre Rios. September 7, 2013. http://noticias.entrerios.gov.ar/notas/se-abrirn-centros-de-cuidado-infantil-o-jardines-de-cosecha-para-evitar-el-trabajo-infantil-36033.htm.

11. Cuestión Entrerriana. Bajas temperaturas complicaron producción de arándano. August 17, 2013. http://cuestionentrerriana.com.ar/bajas-temperaturas-complicaron-produccion-de-arandano/.

12. Télam. El Renatea detectó casos de trabajo infantil en Chaco y Misiones. April 26, 2014. http://www.telam.com.ar/notas/201404/60857-el-renatea-detecto-casos-de-trabajo-infantil-en-chaco-y-misiones.html.

13. La Nueva. Trabajo infantil: denunciarán penalmente a los productores. February 21, 2014. http://www.lanueva.com/La-region-/748031/trabajo-infantil--denunciaran-penalmente-a-los-productores.html.

14. Diario 21. Chaco: detectan trabajo infantil y trabajadores en negro en Villa Ángela y San Bernardo. April 25, 2014. http://www.diario21.tv/notix2/noticia/27373_chaco-detectan-trabajo-infantil-y-trabajadores-en-negro-en-villa-aacutengela-y-san-bernardo.htm.

15. Hoy Corrientes. Virasoro: detectan trabajo no registrado en campos. October 23, 2014. [Source on file].

16. Rioja Virtual. Detectan indocumentados y menores trabajando en la cosecha. March 10, 2014. [Source on file].

17. La Capital. La provincia denunció por trabajo infantil a una empresa productora de arándanos. January 20, 2017. https://www.lacapital.com.ar/la-provincia-denuncio-trabajo-infantil-una-empresa-productora-arandanos-n1324729.html.

18. Sitio Andino. Contra el trabajo infantil: el desafío de Mendoza y el mundo. June 12, 2015. http://www.sitioandino.com.ar/n/160660-contra-el-trabajo-infantil-el-desafio-de-mendoza-y-el-mundo/.

19. Ahora Mendoza. Renatea detectó trabajo infantil en la cosecha de cebolla. February 21, 2014. http://www.ahoramendoza.com.ar/nota/1978/agenda.php?dia=1&nuevo_mes=9&nuevo_ano=2015.

20. Capital, La. La provincia denunció por trabajo infantil. País 24. January 20, 2017. http://www.pais24.com/index.php?go=n&id=306893&x=La-provincia-denuncio-por-trabajo-infantil-.

21. La Izquierda Diario. Denuncian trabajo infantil en Mendoza. March 12, 2017. https://www.laizquierdadiario.com/Denuncian-trabajo-infantil-en-Mendoza.

22. Página 12. Los chicos que recogen arándanos. January 20, 2017. https://www.pagina12.com.ar/15318-los-chicos-que-recogen-arandanos.

23. U.S. Embassy- Buenos Aires. Reporting, January 12, 2018.

24. Ayuso, María. ¿Sabías que el mate esconde trabajo infantil? La Nacion. May 12, 2017. http://www.lanacion.com.ar/2022827-sabias-que-el-mate-esconde-trabajo-infantil.

25. Mundo Gremial. Trabajo Infantil: el oscuro y multimillonario negocio de la Yerba Mate. November 16, 2013. https://mundogremial.com/trabajo-infantil-el-oscuro-y-multimillonario-negocio-de-la-yerba-mate/.

26. Misiones Online. Impulsan campaña por una "yerba mate sin trabajo infantil". October 28, 2013. http://misionesonline.net/2013/10/28/impulsan-campa-a-por-una-yerba-mate-sin-trabajo-infantil/.

27. Diario 33. RENATEA detectó en San Pedro a tareferos en condiciones de esclavitud y trabajo infantil. January 2015. [Source on file].

28. Vera, Valeria. El documental sobre la industria del mate que entristece a Misiones y conmueve al mundo. La Nación. July 21, 2016. http://www.lanacion.com.ar/1920222-documental-me-gusta-el-mate-sin-trabajo-infantil-misiones-exterior.

29. Datachaco.com. Trabajo infantil: encuentran a menores trabajando en un campo. February 18, 2017. http://www.datachaco.com/noticias/view/83970.

30. Página 12. Grandes marcas bajo investigación. May 28, 2013. http://www.pagina12.com.ar/diario/sociedad/3-220993-2013-05-28.html.

31. Terra. Detectan trabajo infantil y trata de personas en talleres textiles. October 3, 2013. [Source on file].

32. Brondo, Héctor. Trabajo infantil: no cede en Córdoba el cepo a la niñez. La Voz. May 28, 2013. http://www.lavoz.com.ar/ciudadanos/trabajo-infantil-no-cede-cordoba-cepo-ninez.

33. —. Un detenido por explotación infantil en cortadero de ladrillos. La Voz. August 8, 2013. http://www.lavoz.com.ar/ciudadanos/detenido-explotacion-infantil-cortadero-ladrillos.

34. La Nación. Hornos ladrilleros de Allen: empleo informal, viviendas precarias y trabajo infantil detrás del sueño de progresar. December 19, 2016. http://www.lanacion.com.ar/1968428-hornos-ladrilleros-de-allen-empleo-informal-viviendas-precarias-y-trabajo-infantil-detras-del-sueno-de-progresar.

35. Government of Argentina. Encuesta de Actividades de Ninas, Ninos y Adolescentes (EANNA). November 16, 2017. [Source on file].

36. Brondo, Héctor. Cruzada de ladrilleros contra el trabajo infantil. La Voz. February 17, 2017. [Source on file].

37. Loja, Matias. El trabajo que no educa y refuerza la pobreza. La Capital. June 10, 2017. https://www.lacapital.com.ar/educacion/el-trabajo-que-no-educa-y-refuerza-la-pobreza-n1413374.html.

38. U.S. Embassy- Buenos Aires. Reporting, February 8, 2013.

39. —. Reporting, January 23, 2015.

40. —. Reporting, February 17, 2016.

41. IOM. Lucha Contra el Trabajo Infantil Cartonero en la Villa 31 y 31 Bis de Retiro - Buenos Aires. Accessed April 2, 2014. [Source on file].

42. U.S. Embassy- Buenos Aires. Reporting, February 18, 2014.

43. Los Andes. El trabajo infantil disminuyó en el campo pero creció en las ciudades argentinas. June 8, 2016. http://losandes.com.ar/article/advierten-que-el-trabajo-infantil-disminuyo-en-el-campo-pero-crecio-en-las-ciudades.

44. Pacecca, María Inés. El trabajo adolescente y la migración desde Bolivia a Argentina: entre la adultez y la explotación. October 2013. http://www.migrantropologia.com.ar/images/stories/PDF/pacecca_trabajo_adolescente_y_migracion_desde_bolivia_a_argentina_2013.pdf.

45. Fayad, Federico. Trabajo forzoso: el 80% está a cargo de niños. Los Andes. September 7, 2017. http://www.losandes.com.ar/article/trabajo-forzoso-el-80-esta-a-cargo-de-ninos.

46. Niñez Indígena en América Latina: Situación y Perspectivas. Compilación de documentos de trabajo para el Encuentro Latinoamericano, Cartagena de Indias. March 2010: ILO-IPEC white paper. [Source on file].

47. Diario Popular. Narcos reclutan a "niñas" para vender droga en boliches. February 18, 2017. https://www.diariopopular.com.ar/policiales/narcos-reclutan-ninas-vender-droga-boliches-n301421.

48. —. Estiman que unos 250 mil chicos "trabajan" para narcos. August 20, 2017. https://www.diariopopular.com.ar/policiales/estiman-que-unos-250-mil-chicos-trabajan-narcos-n317723.

49. Lotti, Fiorella. Trabajo infantil en Argentina: sin cifras oficiales desde 2004. Noticias. June 19, 2017. http://noticias.perfil.com/2017/06/19/trabajo-infantil-en-argentina-sin-cifras-oficiales-desde-2004/.

50. Parera, Anibal. Las cuentas pendientes en la lucha contra el trabajo infantil. El Cronista. July 14, 2017. https://www.cronista.com/especiales/Las-cuentas-pendientes-en-la-lucha-contra-el-trabajo-infantil-20170714-0009.html.

51. U.S. Embassy- Buenos Aires. Reporting, February 17, 2016.

52. Higgs, Joanna. Argentina Has a Problem: Sex Trafficking of Women and Girls. PassBlue. January 24, 2016. http://www.passblue.com/2016/01/24/no-longer-hidden-sex-trafficking-of-women-gets-more-attention-in-argentina/.

53. Gonzalez, Juan Manuel. La sacrificada labor de los bolivianos que fabrican ladrillo en Argentina. CDR Productora. September 7, 2017. [Source on file].

54. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016: Argentina. Washington, DC. June 2016. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/258878.pdf.

55. Diario Popular. Estiman que unos 250 mil chicos "trabajan" para narcos. August 20, 2017. https://www.diariopopular.com.ar/policiales/estiman-que-unos-250-mil-chicos-trabajan-narcos-n317723.

56. Cuarto Poder Diario. Aborigenes ya son adictos a las drogas y al alcohol en el oeste formoseno. April 22, 2017. https://cuartopoderdiario.com.ar/noticia/1686/ninos-y-adolescentes-aborigenes-ya-son-adictos-a-las-drogas-y-al-alcohol-en-el-o.

57. Mannino, Pablo. Mendoza: detienen a las madres de dos niños "mulas" que acarreaban seis kilos de cocaína. La Nacion. July 31, 2017. http://www.lanacion.com.ar/2048888-mendoza-detienen-a-las-madres-de-dos-ninos-mulas-que-acarreaban-seis-kilos-de-cocaina.

58. U.S. Embassy - Buenos Aires official. E-mail to USDOL official. June 25, 2018.

59. Bertranou, Fabio, and Luis Casanova. Trayectoria hacia el trabajo decente de los jóvenes en Argentina. Contribuciones de las políticas públicas de educación, formación para el trabajo y protección social. ILO. September 2015. [Source on file].

60. World Bank. Children and Youth Protection Project - Project Appraisal Document. Accessed October 22, 2016. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/233791467813473643/pdf/PAD1853-PAD-P158791-Box396267B-OUO-9-R2016-0114-1.pdf.

61. Urien, Paula. Según la OIT, el 59% de los jóvenes en la Argentina son asalariados no registrados. La Nación. May 26, 2016. http://www.lanacion.com.ar/1902675-segun-la-oit-el-59-de-los-jovenes-en-la-argentina-son-asalariados-no-registrados.

62. Government of Argentina. Prohibición del Trabajo Infantíl y Protección del Trabajo Adolescente, Ley 26.390. Enacted: June 4, 2008. http://www.infoleg.gov.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/140000-144999/141792/norma.htm.

63. —. Código Penal. Incorpórase artículo N° 148 bis., Trabajo Infantil, 26.847. Enacted: March 20, 2013. http://www.infoleg.gov.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/210000-214999/210491/norma.htm.

64. —. Ley de Protección Integral de Derechos de las Niñas, Niños y Adolescentes, Ley 26.061. Enacted: September 28, 2005. http://www.infoleg.gob.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/110000-114999/110778/norma.htm.

65. —. Régimen Especial de Contrato de Trabajo para el Personal de Casas Particulares, Ley 26.844. Enacted: March 13, 2013. http://www.infoleg.gob.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/210000-214999/210489/norma.htm.

66. —. Regimen de Trabajo Agrario, Ley 26.727. Enacted: December 27, 2011. [Source on file].

67. —. Ley de Contrato de Trabajo, Ley 20.744. Enacted: May 13, 1976 (updated). http://www.infoleg.gov.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/25000-29999/25552/texact.htm.

68. —. Decreto 1117/2016 - Determínanse los tipos de trabajo que constituyen trabajo peligroso para menores. Enacted: October 20, 2016. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/102906/124616/F678984966/decreto%201117%20de%202016%20ARGENTINA.pdf.

69. —. Constitución de 1994. Enacted: 1994. http://pdba.georgetown.edu/constitutions/argentina/argen94.html.

70. —. Prevención y Sanción de la Trata de Personas y Asistencia a Sus Víctimas (Modificaciones), Ley 26.842. Enacted: December 26, 2012. http://www.infoleg.gov.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/205000-209999/206554/norma.htm.

71. —. Delitos contra la integridad sexual. Modificación, Ley 25.087. Enacted: April 14, 1999. http://www.infoleg.gob.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/55000-59999/57556/norma.htm.

72. —. Código Penal de la Nación Argentina, Ley 11.179. Enacted 1984 (actualizado). http://servicios.infoleg.gob.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/15000-19999/16546/texact.htm.

73. —. Tenencia y Tráfico de Estupefacientes, Ley 23.737. Enacted: October 11, 1989. http://www.cicad.oas.org/Lavado_Activos/ESP/LeyesLavado/Argentina/Ley23.737AR.doc.

74. —. Ley del Servicio Militar Voluntario, Ley 24.429. Enacted: January 5, 1995. [Source on file].

75. —. Ley 26.200 de Implementacion del Estatuto de Roma. Enacted: January 5, 2007. http://servicios.infoleg.gob.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/120000-124999/123921/norma.htm.

76. —. Ley de Educación Nacional, Ley 26.206. Enacted: December 14, 2006. http://www.infoleg.gob.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/120000-124999/123542/norma.htm.

77. Ministerio de Educación. El sistema educativo. Accessed July 31, 2015. Source on file.

78. Government of Argentina. Ley de Educación Inicial, Ley 27.045. Enacted: December 23, 2014. http://www.infoleg.gob.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/240000-244999/240450/norma.htm.

79. Child Soldiers International. Louder than Words: An agenda for action to end state use of child soldiers: Appendix II: Data Summary on Recruitment Ages of National Armies. London. 2012. [Source on file].

80. Government of Argentina. Ley 27372 de Derechos y Garantias de las Personas Victimas de Delitos. Enacted: July 12, 2017. http://servicios.infoleg.gob.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/275000-279999/276819/norma.htm .

81. Ministerio de Trabajo Empleo y Seguridad Social. Coordinación de Prevención del Trabajo Infantil y Protección del Trabajo Adolescente. Accessed December 9, 2015. [Source on file].

82. —. Capacitaciones realizadas, Año 2014. Government of Argentina. Accessed April 4, 2015. http://www.trabajo.gov.ar/cooditia/capacitaciones.asp.

83. Registro Nacional de Trabajadores y Empleadores Agrarios (RENATEA). Qué es RENATEA? Accessed April 5, 2015. [Source on file].

84. Ministerio de Justicia y Derechos Humanos. Guia de Derivaciones - Trabajo. Accessed January 13, 2014. http://www.jus.gob.ar/atencion-al-ciudadano/guia-de-derivaciones/trabajo.aspx.

85. —. Oficina de Rescate y Acompañamiento a Personas Damnificadas por el Delito de Trata de Personas. Accessed December 10, 2015. http://www.jus.gob.ar/areas-tematicas/trata-de-personas/oficina-de-rescate-y-acompanamiento.aspx.

86. —. El Gobierno nacional profundiza la lucha contra la trata de personas con la apertura de oficinas regionales. October 19, 2015. http://www.jus.gob.ar/prensa/noticia.aspx?id=2072.

87. —. El Ministerio inauguró una nueva oficina regional de Trata en Mendoza. September 8, 2015. http://www.jus.gob.ar/prensa/noticia.aspx?id=2021.

88. U.S. Embassy- Buenos Aires. Reporting, February 22, 2017.

89. Government of Argentina. Resolución PGN No. 805/13. Enacted: April 30, 2013. http://www.mpf.gov.ar/resoluciones/pgn/2013/PGN-0805-2013-001.pdf.

90. Ministerio Público Fiscal. Procuraduría de Trata y Explotación de Personas (PROTEX) Institucional, Government of Argentina. [Source on file].

91. Ministerio Público Fiscal - Procuraduría de Trata y Explotación de Personas (PROTEX). Trata Laboral en Argentina: El tratamiento judicial de los casos en el fuero federal. 2014. http://fiscales.gob.ar/trata/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2014/02/Informe_Trata_laboral_en_Arg_Genero.pdf.

92. U.S. Embassy - Buenos Aires. Reporting February 28, 2018.

93. Ministerio del Interior y Transporte. Dirección Nacional de Migraciones. Accessed January 12, 2014. [Source on file].

94. Administración Federal de Ingresos Públicos. Fiscalizaciones, Inspecciones y Verificaciones. Accessed January 14, 2014. http://www.afip.gov.ar/inspecciones/.

95. Página 12. El “amo” detrás de los talleres clandestinos. May 28, 2013. http://www.pagina12.com.ar/diario/sociedad/3-220992-2013-05-28.html.

96. Ministerio de Trabajo Empleo y Seguridad Social. Inspectores, Ministerio de Trabajo Empleo y Seguridad Social de la Nación. Accessed February 27, 2017. [Source on file].

97. Ministerio de Trabajo Empleo y Seguridad Social, Coordinación de Prevención del Trabajo Infantil y Protección del Trabajo Adolescente,. Capacitaciones realizadas, Año 2016. Government of Argentina. Accessed January 27, 2017. [Source on file].

98. U.S. Embassy official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 4, 2017.

99. U.S. Embassy-Buenos Aires official. E-mail communication to USDOL official . June 19, 2018.

100. Ministerio de Trabajo Empleo y Seguridad Social. Inspecciones y Operativos Realizados, Año 2016. Government of Argentina. Accessed January 30, 2017. [Source on file].

101. Government of Argentina. Material para la inspeccion del trabajo infantil y adolescente. February 2017. [Source on file].

102. Jujuy Al Momento. Tabacaleros en la mira por trabajo en negro, infantil y adolescente. March 17, 2017. http://www.jujuyalmomento.com/post/65450/tabacaleros-en-la-mira-por-trabajo-en-negro-infantil-y-adolescente.

103. CIA. The World Factbook. Accessed January 19, 2018. https://www.cia.gov/Library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2095rank.html. Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

104. UN Human Rights Council. Compilation on Argentina: Report of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. August 28, 2017: A/HRC/WG.6/28/ARG/2. [Source on file].

105. UNICEF Argentina- Protección de Niños Niñas y Adolescentes. Trabajo Infantil, UNICEF. Accessed January 14, 2014. http://www.unicef.org/argentina/spanish/protection_25973.htm.

106. Ministerio de Trabajo y Seguridad Social, Observatorio de Trabajo Infantil y Adolescente. Manual para la constitución del observatorio regional sobre trabajo infantil y adolescente. Accessed February 2, 2014. [Source on file].

107. Ministerio de Trabajo Empleo y Seguridad Social. Comisión Nacional para la Erradicación del Trabajo Infantil (CONAETI), Government of Argentina. Accessed January 14, 2014. http://www.trabajo.gov.ar/conaeti/.

108. —. Relanzamiento de la Comisión Nacional para la Erradicación del Trabajo Infantil. Accessed December 27, 2016. [Source on file].

109. —. Relanzamiento de la COPRETI y el programa Buena Cosecha en Mendoza. Accessed December 27, 2016. http://www.trabajo.gov.ar/descargar.asp?id_nvd=5127&id_lang=1.

110. Bertranou, Fabio, et al. Instituciones laborales y políticas de protección social para la erradicación del trabajo infantil en Argentina. Buenos Aires. ILO. February 2015: Serie Documentos de Trabajo 9. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_norm/---ipec/documents/publication/wcms_355082.pdf.

111. Government of Argentina. Campaña de Concientización contra el Trabajo Infantil. January 31, 2017. http://www.trabajo.gov.ar/noticia.asp?id_seccion=327&id_nvd=4146.

112. Ministerio de Trabajo Empleo y Seguridad Social. Comisiones Provinciales (COPRETI). Accessed January 14, 2014. http://www.trabajo.gov.ar/conaeti/copreti.asp.

113. Ministerio de Trabajo. Mesas Locales para la Erradicación del Trabajo Infantil. [Source on file].

114. —. Ninos y adolescentes toman la palabra contra el trabajo infantil. September 28, 2017. https://www.argentina.gob.ar/noticias/ninos-y-adolescentes-toman-la-palabra-contra-el-trabajo-infantil.

115. Instituto Nacional contra la Discriminación, la Xenofobia y el Racismo (INADI). Juntos contra el trabajo infantil. June 22, 2017. http://www.inadi.gob.ar/2017/06/22/juntos-contra-el-trabajo-infantil/.

116. Government of Argentina. El ministerio y el municipio de Pilar firmaran un convenio de cooperacion para erradicar el trabajo infantil. December 5, 2017. http://www.trabajo.gba.gov.ar/index.php/noticias-de-copreti/653-el-ministerio-y-el-municipio-de-pilar-firmaran-un-convenio-de-cooperacion-para-erradicar-el-trabajo-infantil.

117. Ministerio de Trabajo. La COPRETI junto a organizaciones de recicladores inicia un proyecto de erradicacion de trabajo infantil en el partido de La Plata. November 4, 2017. http://www.trabajo.gba.gov.ar/index.php/noticias-de-copreti/646-la-copreti-junto-a-organizaciones-de-recicladores-inicia-un-proyecto-de-erradicacion-de-trabajo-infantil-en-el-partido-de-la-plata.

118. Canal 13. Capacitaron a inspectores en trabajo infantil, domestico y contra trata laboral. August 1, 2017. https://www.canal13sanjuan.com/san-juan/2017/8/1/capacitaron-inspectores-trabajo-infantil-domestico-contra-trata-laboral-44260.html.

119. Government of Argentina. Encuentro de COPRETIS Region Centro. July 10, 2017. [Source on file].

120. Ministerio de Desarrollo Social. Secretaría Nacional de Niñez, Adolescencia y Familia. Government of Argentina. Accessed January 15, 2014. [Source on file].

121. Ministerio de Trabajo Empleo y Seguridad Social. ¿Qué es el Observatorio de Trabajo Infantil y Adolescente? Accessed February 2, 2014. [Source on file].

122. Ministerio de Justicia y Derechos Humanos. Guía de Derivaciones - Niñez y Adolescencia. Government of Argentina. Accessed January 13, 2014. http://www.jus.gob.ar/atencion-al-ciudadano/guia-de-derivaciones/ninez-y-adolescencia.aspx.

123. U.S. Embassy- Buenos Aires. Reporting, March 3, 2015.

124. CONAETI. Red de Empresas contra el Trabajo Infantil, Ministerio de Trabajo. Ministry of Labor, Employment and Social Security. Accessed January 16, 2014. [Source on file].

125. Ministerio de Trabajo, CONAETI. Red de Empresas contra el Trabajo Infantil. Accessed March 9, 2016. http://www.trabajo.gob.ar/conaeti/red.asp?id_seccion=487.

126. UNESCO. Investigación y Estrategias para la Prevención y Erradicación del Trabajo infantil en Argentina. September 15, 2017. http://www.unesco.org/new/es/office-in-montevideo/about-this-office/single-view/news/research_and_strategies_for_prevention_and_eradication_of_ch/.

127. lmneuquen.com. Acuerdan mejorar controles de las actividades rurales. October 8, 2017. https://www.lmneuquen.com/acuerdan-mejorar-controles-las-actividades-rurales-n566881.

128. Comité Argentino de Seguimiento y Aplicación de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño. FOURTH PERIODIC REPORT ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD BY VIRTUE OF ARTICLE 44. 2017. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=INT%2fCRC%2fNGO%2fARG%2f28150&Lang=en.

129. Ministerio de Trabajo. Tercer Plan Nacional Contra el Trabajo Infantil. December 2, 2015. [Source on file].

130. Ministerio de Trabajo, CONAETI. Plan Nacional para la Prevención y Erradicación del Trabajo Infantil y la Protección del Trabajo Adolescente, 2016-2020. November 2015. http://www.trabajo.gov.ar/downloads/difusion/151202_Plan_Nac_Err_TI_2016-2020.pdf.

131. Azuaje, Miguel. Argentina: Misiones lidera la lucha contra el trabajo infantil. Segundo Enfoque. Accessed January 26, 2018. http://segundoenfoque.com/argentina-misiones-lidera-la-lucha-trabajo-infantil-2017-11-21.

132. Government of Argentina. Plan Nacional para la Prevencion y Erradicacion del Trabajo Infantil y Proteccion del Trabajo Adolescente (2018-2022). November 2017. [Source on file].

133. UN-Argentina. Marco Estratégico de Cooperación del Sistema de Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo, República Argentina, 2016–2020. 2015. http://www.onu.org.ar/wp-content/uploads/MECNUD-ARGENTINA-2010-2016.pdf.

134. Government of Argentina. Agenda 2030: Gobierno de Misiones adhirio al compromiso por el Desarrollo Sostenible. December 6, 2017. http://www.ar.undp.org/content/argentina/es/home/presscenter/pressreleases/2017/12/06/agenda-2030-gobierno-de-misiones-adhiri-al-compromiso-por-el-desarrollo-sostenible.html.

135. —. National Report on Sustainable Development. May 5, 2017. http://www.ar.undp.org/content/dam/argentina/Publications/Desarrollo%20Humano/PNUDArgent-PNU_2017_baja.pdf?download.

136. —. Plan Nacional de Derechos Humanos 2017-2020. December 2017. https://www.argentina.gob.ar/sites/default/files/plan_nacional_de_derechos_humanos_2018.pdf.

137. —. Los derechos humanos son compromiso de todos los argentinos. December 12, 2017. https://www.casarosada.gob.ar/slider-principal/41464-macri-los-derechos-humanos-son-un-compromiso-de-todos-los-argentinos.

138. Ministerio del Interior de Colombia. Colombia y Argentina comprometidos en la lucha contra la trata de personas. mininterior.gov.co. July 8, 2014: Press Release. http://www.mininterior.gov.co/sala-de-prensa/noticias/colombia-y-argentina-comprometidos-en-la-lucha-contra-la-trata-de-personas.

139. ILO. The international community agrees to redouble efforts to fight against child labour and forced labour. November 16, 2017. http://www.ilo.org/global/about-the-ilo/newsroom/news/WCMS_597670/lang--en/index.htm.

140. IV Global Conference on the Sustained Eradication of Child Labour. Buenos Aires Declaration on Child Labour, Forced Labour and Youth. November 16, 2017. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---dcomm/documents/meetingdocument/wcms_597667.pdf.

141. La Nación. Para la Presidenta, "con la Asignación Universal se evita la explotación de los empleados". Buenos Aires. March 1, 2013. http://www.lanacion.com.ar/1559134-para-la-presidenta-con-la-asignacion-universal-se-evita-la-explotacion-de-los-empleados.

142. Registro Nacional de Trabajadores y Empleadores Agrarios (RENATEA). Trabajar en el campo no es un juego. renatea.gob.ar. 2014. [Source on file].

143. U.S. Embassy-Buenos Aires official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 13, 2015.

144. RENATRE. RENATRE San Luis participó de capacitación sobre prevención del trabajo infantil. August 18, 2017. http://www.renatre.org.ar/renatre-san-luis-participo-de-capacitacion-sobre-prevencion-del-trabajo-infantil/.

145. Balza, Nancy. Campaña para erradicar el trabajo infantil en ladrillerias. El Litoral. May 17, 2017. [Source on file].

146. Notife. Campaña nacional contra el trabajo infantil. May 15, 2017. http://notife.com/549340-campana-nacional-contra-el-trabajo-infantil/.

147. ILO. Argentina - Jardines de cosecha. August 2, 2013. http://www.ilo.org/buenosaires/recursos-de-informacion/videos/WCMS_218605/lang--es/index.htm.

148. Jujuy al Día. Avanza programa de prevención del Trabajo Infantil. February 5, 2013. http://www.jujuyaldia.com.ar/2013/02/05/avanza-programa-de-prevencion-del-trabajo-infantil/.

149. Melgarejo, Patricia. Formas de prevenir el trabajo infantil en las escuelas de Porvenir NOA y Jardines de Cosecha. Noticias Positivas. 2016. http://noticiaspositivas.org/21824/.

150. Unión de Educadores de la Provincia de Córdoba. UEPC firmó un convenio con el RENATEA para fortalecer escuelas rurales. May 20, 2015. http://www.uepc.org.ar/noticia/783-uepc-firmo-un-convenio-con-el-renatea-para-fortalecer-escuelas-rurales#.VuMTD6RVhBc.

151. El Regional. Renatea brindó detalles sobre el Programa de Fortalecimiento para Escuelas Rurales. September 2, 2015. http://elregionaldigital.com.ar/renatea-brindo-detalles-sobre-el-programa-de-fortalecimiento-para-escuelas-rurales/.

152. Government of Argentina, and RENATEA. Acciones del RENATEA para la Erradicación del Trabajo Infantil en el sector Agrario. 2015. [Source on file].

153. ILO. Más cuidado = menos trabajo infantil. June 15, 2017. http://www.ilo.org/buenosaires/noticias/WCMS_559124/lang--es/index.htm.

154. Government of Argentina. La trata no se ve a simple vista. Accessed April 13, 2018. https://www.argentina.gob.ar/denuncialatrata.

155. Ministerio de Trabajo Empleo y Seguridad Social. Programa Buena Cosecha. Accessed December 10, 2015. http://www.trabajo.gob.ar/promoempleo/buenacosecha.asp.

156. UNICEF Argentina- Protección de Niños Niñas y Adolescentes. Programa de Protección de Derechos. UNICEF. Accessed March 11, 2016. http://www.unicef.org/argentina/spanish/protection.html.

157. Expres Diario. La Delegación Formosa del Ministerio de Trabajo realiza campaña para erradicar el trabajo infantil. June 11, 2017. http://www.expresdiario.com.ar/index.php/locales/item/59024-la-delegacion-formosa-del-ministerio-de-trabajo-realiza-campana-para-erradicar-el-trabajo-infantil.

158. Rebossio, Alejandro. Argentina reduce el trabajo infantil a la mitad. El País. September 6, 2015. http://internacional.elpais.com/internacional/2015/09/07/actualidad/1441577525_210139.html.

159. Ministerio de Trabajo. Encuentro nacional contra el trabajo infantil con intendentes y funcionarios provinciales. August 19, 2015. https://www.argentina.gob.ar/noticias/encuentro-nacional-contra-el-trabajo-infantil-con-intendentes-y-funcionarios-provinciales.

160. UNESCO, International Institute for Educational Planning, and ILO. Trayectorias Escolares Protegidas en Argentina. Buenos Aires. 2015. http://www.buenosaires.iipe.unesco.org/sites/default/files/trayectorias%20escolares%20protgidas.pdf.

App

Want this report plus over a thousand pages of research in the palm of your hand? Download ILAB's Sweat & Toil App Today!