Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports
In 2022, Argentina made significant advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The government reported completing an additional 25 actions from the "100 Actions Against Trafficking" list outlined in its National Action Plan Against Human Trafficking. It also published the National Plan for the Regularization of Labor, which includes an allocation of funding for the labor inspectorate, and greatly increased the number of worksite inspections compared to pandemic years. Furthermore, the government published operating rules under the Mica Ortega Law that created an Observatory, an Interministerial Administrative Coordination Unit, and a Committee of Advisors to address sexual grooming and cybersafety of children. However, children in Argentina are subjected to the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking, and in illicit activities, such as the transport, sale, and distribution of drugs. Children also engage in dangerous tasks in agriculture. The government does not publish complete information about its labor law enforcement efforts and the labor inspectorate remains understaffed to adequately address child labor issues in the country.
Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Argentina.
|Working (% and population)||5 to 14||5.3 (371,771)|
|Attending School (%)||5 to 14||98.9|
|Combining Work and School (%)||7 to 14||6.2|
|Primary Completion Rate (%)||102.9|
Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2021, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2023. (1)
Source for all other data: International Labor Organization's Analysis of Statistics from Encuesta de actividades de niñas, niños y adolescentes (EANNA), 2016–2017. (2)
Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.
|Agriculture||Harvesting† blueberries, cotton, garlic, grapes, olives, onions, strawberries, and tomatoes (3-7)|
|Harvesting† yerba mate (stimulant plant) and tobacco (3,5,8,9)|
|Garlic shelling and potato slicing (10)|
|Fishing and sale of bait (10)|
|Industry||Production of textiles (10,11)|
|Production of bricks (3,12,13)|
|Construction,† activities unknown (3,14)|
|Services||Street begging† and handing out flyers or promotional materials (3,5)|
|Refuse collection, recycling, and garbage scavenging† (3,15)|
|Caregiving,† including caring for other children, the elderly, or infirm people (3)|
|Working and cooking in food service (3)|
|Domestic work, including cleaning, doing laundry, and ironing (3,16)|
|Yard work, including cutting lawns and pruning trees (3)|
|Selling produce in grocery stores (5)|
|Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡||Commercial sexual exploitation, including use in the production of pornography, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (10,17,18)|
|Forced labor in agriculture and in the production of garments, charcoal, and bricks (5,11,13,17,19,20)|
|Use in illicit activities, including transporting, selling, and distributing drugs (10,18,21,22)|
|Forced labor in domestic work and street vending (17,19)|
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.
Argentinian children perform dangerous tasks in agriculture, including harvesting, caring for animals, fishing, and selling bait. (10) Misiones—producer of 87 percent of Argentina’s yerba mate—is one of the provinces most affected by child labor. Children as young as age 5 help their parents harvest yerba mate, sometimes carrying heavy loads. (23,24) In Salta and Jujuy provinces, children harvest tobacco. (8,25) Children from primarily the northern provinces, Bolivia, Paraguay, Peru, and other countries are also used in forced labor in numerous sectors, including garment production, agriculture, street vending, charcoal and brick production, domestic work, and in small businesses. (20,26,27) In addition, research found that children are used in illicit activities, including drug trafficking in the outskirts of Buenos Aires and Rosario where they serve as vigilantes, distributors, and producers. (10,22,28-30) Although the extent of the problem is unknown, reports indicate that girls from Argentina’s northern provinces are victimized by sex trafficking. (12,26) Furthermore, Paraguayan children are victims of sex trafficking in Argentina and reports indicate that traffickers exploit children participating in domestic youth sports clubs. (20,27)
Argentina has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).
|ILO C. 138, Minimum Age||✓|
|ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor||✓|
|UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict||✓|
|UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography||✓|
|Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons||✓|
The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Argentina's legal framework to adequately protect children from the worst forms of child labor, including a gap between the minimum age for work and the compulsory education age.
|Standard||Meets International Standards||Age||Legislation|
|Minimum Age for Work||Yes||16||Articles 2, 7, and 17 of the Prohibition of Child Labor and Protection of Adolescent Work Law; Article 9 of the Special Code on Contracting Domestic Workers; Article 25 of the Child and Adolescent Rights Protection Law; Articles 54 and 55 of the Law on Agrarian Work; Article 189 of the Employment Contract Law (31-35)|
|Minimum Age for Hazardous Work||Yes||18||Article 10 of the Prohibition of Child Labor and Protection of Adolescent Work Law; Articles 176, 189, and 191 of the Law on Labor Contracts; Article 62 of the Law on Agrarian Work (33-35)|
|Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children||Yes||Article 1 of Executive Decree 1117/2016 on Dangerous Work (36)|
|Prohibition of Forced Labor||Yes||Article 15 of the Constitution; Articles 1 and 24–26 of the Modifications to the Prevention of and Sanction Against Trafficking in Persons and Assistance to Victims Law; Article 9 of the Child and Adolescent Rights Protection Law (31,37,38)|
|Prohibition of Child Trafficking||Yes||Articles 1, 25, and 26 of the Modifications to the Prevention of and Sanction Against Trafficking in Persons and Assistance to Victims Law; Article 9 of the Child and Adolescent Rights Protection Law (31,38)|
|Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children||Yes||Articles 1 and 21–23 of the Modifications to the Prevention of and Sanction Against Trafficking in Persons and Assistance to Victims Law; Article 6 of the Crimes Against Sexual Integrity Law; Article 128 of the Penal Code (38-40)|
|Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities||Yes||Article 11 of the Possession and Trafficking of Drugs Law (41)|
|Minimum Age for Voluntary State Military Recruitment||Yes||18||Article 8 of the Voluntary Military Service Law (42)|
|Prohibition of Compulsory Recruitment of Children by (State) Military||Yes*||Article 19 of the Voluntary Military Service Law (42)|
|Prohibition of Military Recruitment by Non-state Armed Groups||Yes||Article 10 of Law No. 26.200 (43)|
|Compulsory Education Age||Yes||18||Articles 16 and 29 of the National Education Law; Article 2 of the Law on Early Education (44,45)|
|Free Public Education||Yes||Articles 15 and 16 of the Child and Adolescent Rights Protection Law (31)|
* Country has no conscription (46,47)
To further advance the National Program for the Prevention and Awareness of Grooming and Cyber-harassment Against Children, the government published operating rules under the Mica Ortega Law in July 2022 that created an Observatory, an Interministerial Administrative Coordination Unit, and a Committee of Advisors on the use of Information and Communications Technology. (48,49) However, as Argentina's minimum age for work of 16 years is lower than the compulsory education age of 18 years, children may be encouraged to leave school before the completion of compulsory education. (31-35)
The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the operations of the enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.
|Organization/Agency||Role & Activities|
|Ministry of Labor, Employment, and Social Security (MTEySS)||Conducts labor law enforcement efforts in cooperation with labor officials and authorities at the provincial level in each province and the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires. (10,50) In part through its Inspection Directorate of Child Labor, the Protection of Adolescent Work, and Indicators of Labor Exploitation (DITIAEIEL), it enforces child labor laws and collaborates with the National Registry of Rural Workers and Employers (RENATRE) to enforce child labor laws in the agricultural sector. (10) Further, it operates a national hotline to receive reports of labor violations and leads the Network of Businesses Against Child Labor (Red de Empresas contra el Trabajo Infantil), which includes companies promoting best practices in the private sector to address child labor. Labor inspectors play a key role in enforcing laws related to child labor as part of MTEySS' broader enforcement strategy, the National Plan for the Regularization of Labor (Plan Nacional de Regularización del Trabajo [PNRT]). (10) As part of the plan's standard operating procedure for inspections, PNRT aims to detect and eradicate child labor and irregular adolescent work. (10)|
|Ministry of Justice and Human Rights||Delivers emergency legal and other assistance to survivors of labor and sex trafficking, including children. (10,51) Its regional offices provide legal and social services to human trafficking survivors in the provinces of Chaco, Chubut, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza, Rio Negro, and Santa Fe. (10) In collaboration with the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights and the Institute of Public Policies for the Prevention of Grooming, the NGO Mom Online (Mama en Linea) and Twitter launched the initiative #HayAyuda meant to facilitate access to the hotline, Line 137, to anyone experiencing (or having knowledge of a situation of) child sexual exploitation, grooming, and/or domestic and sexual violence. (52)|
|Public Prosecutor's Office||Detects, investigates, and prosecutes cases of human trafficking and labor exploitation through its Special Prosecutor's Office for Human Trafficking and Exploitation (PROTEX). (10,53) Receives public reports of suspected human trafficking cases through an anonymous national hotline, Line 145. (10,53) During the reporting year, it identified 61 child trafficking victims and referred them to government services. (18) In 2022, PROTEX strengthened the capacities of criminal investigators through numerous trainings, including one on reparations and compensation to survivors of child labor, forced labor, and human trafficking under the Paraguayan legislation. (10)|
Labor Law Enforcement
In 2022, labor law enforcement agencies in Argentina took actions to address child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the operations of the Ministry of Labor, Employment, and Social Security (MTEySS) that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including insufficient human resource allocation.
|Overview of Labor Law Enforcement||2021||2022|
|Labor Inspectorate Funding||Unknown (54)||Unknown (10,55)|
|Number of Labor Inspectors||357 (54)||385 (10)|
|Mechanism to Assess Civil Penalties||Yes (56)||Yes (56)|
|Training for Labor Inspectors Provided||Yes (54)||Yes (10)|
|Number of Labor Inspections Conducted at Worksite||8,731 (54)||122,313 (10)|
|Number of Child Labor Violations Found||11 (54)||18 (10)|
|Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed||11 (54)||Unknown (10)|
|Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that Were Collected||Unknown (54)||Unknown (10)|
|Routine Inspections Conducted||Yes (54)||Yes (10)|
|Routine Inspections Targeted||Yes (54)||Yes (10)|
|Unannounced Inspections Permitted||Yes (56)||Yes (56)|
|Unannounced Inspections Conducted||Yes (54)||Yes (10)|
|Complaint Mechanism Exists||Yes (54)||Yes (10)|
|Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services||Yes (54)||Yes (10)|
MTEySS employed 385 labor inspectors and 312 labor inspection assistants while provincial governments also employ their own local labor inspectors, though the total number for the latter is unknown. (10) Nonetheless, research indicates that Argentina does not have an adequate number of labor inspectors. (57) Additionally, NGOs continue to report that the number of provincial inspectors is not adequate. (10) In 2022, MTEySS trained national and provincial inspectors from Santa Cruz, Tucuman, and Salta, including 67 inspectors on procedures to follow after a case of child labor has been identified. An additional 85 inspectors received training on verifying administrative records for child labor and forced labor cases. (10) MTEySS also provided new tablets to its labor inspectors to use in conducting inspections. (10) MTEySS requires inspectors to refer victims of child labor to the Provincial Commission for the Eradication of Child Labor for social services assistance and its inspection protocol mandates that federal labor inspectors notify the relevant provincial child protection authorities after detecting a child labor violation. (26,58) Labor inspectors are also required to file a criminal complaint with the provincial courts of the relevant jurisdiction for any child labor violation detected. (3,26,58) MTEySS reported that its labor inspectors cooperated with law enforcement authorities in criminal matters resulting from the criminal complaints that inspectors filed after identifying child labor violations. (10,26) However, the government did not publish labor enforcement data on the total number of child labor penalties imposed or collected. (10) In addition to resources for labor inspections, the National Plan for the Regularization of Labor (Plan Nacional de Regularización del Trabajo [PNRT]) funding of approximately $342,000 included a nationwide awareness raising campaign during the reporting period. (55)
Criminal Law Enforcement
In 2022, criminal law enforcement agencies in Argentina took actions to address child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including allocating insufficient financial resources.
|Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement||2021||2022|
|Training for Criminal Investigators Provided||Yes (54)||Yes (10)|
|Number of Investigations||16 (54)||9 (10)|
|Number of Prosecutions Initiated||11 (54)||13 (10,55)|
|Number of Convictions||6 (54)||12 (10)|
|Imposed Penalties for Violations Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor||Yes (54)||Yes (10)|
|Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services||Yes (54)||Yes (10)|
During the reporting period, 16 defendants were prosecuted for child labor crimes in 5 cases involving 5 children. Argentine courts also convicted 12 individuals of using children for prostitution, pornography, and labor trafficking in the textile industry, imposing sentences ranging from 6 to 25 years' imprisonment; one individual received a 3-year conditional sentence and did not serve time in prison. (10) In addition, as part of international operation "Protected Childhood 9 and 10," enforcement officials detained and indicted 33 individuals for the production and distribution of child pornography. (59) Furthermore, in November 2022, a Federal Network Alert Operation in Buenos Aires and 14 provinces led to the detention of 21 individuals for suspected child pornography-related crimes. (60) In the past, Argentine law enforcement authorities have reported receiving insufficient funding and other resources to carry out their mandates. (20)
The government has established a key mechanism to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including a lack of interagency cooperation.
|Coordinating Body||Role & Activities|
|National Commission for the Eradication of Child Labor (CONAETI)||Coordinates federal efforts to prevent and eradicate child labor and implements the Third National Action Plan for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor and the Protection of Adolescent Work (2018-2022). Led by MTEySS and includes representatives from the Executive Power, industry associations, and labor unions, in addition to benefitting from the advice of the ILO and UNICEF. (61,62) During the reporting year, it began the second phase of the Federal Program for the Eradication of Child Labor and launched the 2022 Action Plan of the Network of Companies Against Child Labor. It also developed the "Childhoods Free of Child Labor" program. (10) CONAETI held four plenary meetings throughout 2022. (10) At the December 2022 meeting, it presented the 2023 National Plan for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor and Protection of Adolescent Labor. (63) There are also 24 Provincial Committees for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor (Comisiones Provinciales para la Prevencion y Erradicacion del Trabajo Infantil [COPRETIs]), which coordinate activities at the provincial level between government, business, unions, and civil society stakeholders. (54,64)|
There continues to be a need to strengthen cooperation between national- and provincial-level governments to address child labor. (65,66)
The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including a lack of publicly available information on activities taken under each policy during the reporting period.
|Policy||Description & Activities|
|Third National Plan for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor and the Regulation of Adolescent Work (2018–2022)†||Aims to prevent and eliminate child labor, including its worst forms, and to regulate adolescent work. (61) Promotes the dissemination of information on child labor, efforts to strengthen the labor inspectorate, civil society engagement on child labor issues, inclusive education, and institutional and legislative reform. (3,10,61,67) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement the program during the reporting period.|
|Federal Strengthening Program for the Eradication of Child Labor||Supports leaders at the sub‐national level to improve strategies to prevent and detect child labor and irregular adolescent work. (54,68,69) Aims to coordinate efforts among COPRETIs, civil society organizations, labor unions, and companies in common geographic areas and sectors that show high risks of child labor. (54) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement the program during the reporting period.|
|National Plan Against Human Trafficking and Exploitation, and for Protection and Assistance of Victims (TIP Action Plan 2020–2022)||Managed by the Federal Council to Fight Human Trafficking and to Protect and Assist Victims, focuses on the prevention and prosecution of human trafficking crimes and the creation of a database to track cases and the provision of services to human trafficking survivors. (70-72) In 2022, the government implemented 25 actions out of the "100 Actions Against Trafficking" listed in the plan, including by supporting the survivors' compensation assistance fund, establishing a hotline for survivors, and creating new partnerships with prosecutors' offices from nine South American countries. (10,17,48,54)|
† The government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor. (73)
In 2022, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including the inadequacy to address the problem in all sectors.
|Program||Description & Activities|
|Universal Child Allowance Program (Asignación Universal)†||Government program funded in part by the World Bank that provides a conditional cash transfer to unemployed parents and workers in the informal economy, contingent upon parents’ fulfillment of health and education requirements for their children. (3,74) During the reporting period, the government increased the payment to beneficiaries by 8 percent in comparison to the prior year. (10,18,75,76)|
|National Registry of Rural Workers and Employers (RENATRE) Awareness-Raising Campaigns†||Campaigns that raise awareness of child labor in agriculture. (77) During the reporting period, RENATRE identified 36 children subjected to conditions of child labor. It also accompanied approximately 540 children through its RENATRE Center for Childcare and Rural Education (Centro RENATRE de Cuidado y Educación Rural) within the provinces of Tucuman, Salta, Misiones, and Jujuy. (55,78)|
|Good Harvest Program||Provides childcare facilities and services for migrant and rural families involved in seasonal harvests. (79,80) In 2022, the program created 104 childcare facilities to serve more than 6,600 children of rural workers. (10,81)|
For information about USDOL’s projects to address child labor around the world, visit https://www.dol.gov/agencies/ilab/ilab-project-page-search
† Program is funded by the Government of Argentina.
‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. (83,84)
As a result of the coordination between the National Ministry of Public Works and the National Ministry of Social Development, 30 child development centers operated in the provinces of Chaco, Buenos Aires, San Luis, Entre Rios, Formosa, and Jujuy. (10) In May 2022, the first child development center in the country for children of yerba mate pickers opened its doors in Comandante Andresito, Misiones on land donated by the municipal government. With an initial capacity for 60 children, the center is funded by the national government and supported by relevant unions. (85,86) Under the National Campaign Against Child Labor in Brickmaking, the government also ensured that 98 percent of children from brickmaking families attended school during the reporting period. (10) However, funding for shelters and assistance to girl survivors of sex trafficking remains lacking. (58) Research also found no evidence of social programs that specifically target children engaged in street begging and performing, windshield washing, and guarding parked cars, despite the prevalence of these activities that are designated as hazardous for children.
Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Argentina (Table 11).
|Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor|
|Area||Suggested Action||Year(s) Suggested|
|Legal Framework||Raise the minimum age for work from 16 to 18 years to align with the compulsory education age.||2018 – 2022|
|Enforcement||Increase the number of labor inspectors from 385 to about 1,406 to ensure adequate coverage of the labor force of approximately 21.1 million people.||2015 – 2022|
|Publish information on the labor inspectorate budget.||2015 – 2022|
|Enhance coordination and information-sharing with provincial governments in order to publish information on the number of child labor penalties imposed that were collected.||2015 – 2022|
|Ensure law enforcement bodies have adequate funding and resources to carry out their operations.||2021 – 2022|
|Strengthen the capacity of Argentina's police and judiciary to investigate and prosecute cases of child trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation.||2019 – 2022|
|Coordination||Improve government coordination, particularly between national and local government entities, in the reporting of data and the provision of services to survivors of child labor.||2017 – 2022|
|Government Policies||Publish information on the activities undertaken to implement the Third National Plan for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor and the Regulation of Adolescent Work (2018-2022) and the Federal Strengthening Program for the Eradication of Child Labor.||2018 – 2022|
|Social Programs||Develop programs to address sectors in which child labor is prevalent, including street begging.||2018 – 2022|
|Increase funding for shelters and assistance to girl survivors of sex trafficking.||2020 – 2022|
- UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed March 15, 2023. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.
- ILO. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Encuesta de actividades de niñas, niños y adolescentes (EANNA 2016-17), 2016–17. Analysis received March 2023. Please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.
- U.S. Embassy- Buenos Aires. Reporting. January 12, 2018.
- El Litoral. Condena inedita en un caso de trabajo infantil en la provincia. December 14, 2018.
- U.S. Embassy- Buenos Aires. Reporting. January 19, 2021.
- Rodriguez, Leonel. Explotación infantil en Santiago del Estero. Santiago del Estero, La Nacion. September 25, 2020.
- U.S. Embassy- Buenos Aires. Reporting. January 14, 2022.
- El Ancasti. La AFIP detectó trabajo infantil y no registrados en Salta y Jujuy. March 10, 2018.
- MisionesOnline. Detectaron trabajo infantil en un yerbal en Capiovi. June 29, 2018.
- U.S. Embassy- Buenos Aires. Reporting. January 13, 2023. Source on file.
- Telam. La AFIP detectó 920 casos de explotación laboral en dos años. Buenos Aires: Telam. August 10, 2022. Source on file.
- U.S. Embassy- Buenos Aires. Reporting. February 13, 2019.
- Government of Argentina. AFIP detecto trabajadores con irregularidades laborales en fabricas de ladrillo de Mendoza. Buenos Aires: Administracion Federal de Ingresos Publicos (AFIP). October 18, 2022. Source on file.
- Government of Argentina. Encuesta de Actividades de Niñas, Niños y Adolescentes (EANNA). November 16, 2017. Source on file.
- Latourrette, Agustina. Families rely on landfill site for food in Argentina slums (video material). Buenos Aires: BBC News. July 30, 2022.
- Government of Argentina. Encuesta de Actividades de Niños, Niñas y Adolescentes 2016–2017. November 2018.
- U.S. Embassy- Buenos Aires. Reporting. February 11, 2022.
- U.S. Embassy- Buenos Aires. Reporting. January 30, 2023. Source on file.
- U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2020: Argentina. Washington, D.C., June 2020.
- U.S. Embassy- Buenos Aires. Reporting. February 13, 2021.
- Clarin. Narcos, soldaditos rehenes y muerte en uno de los barrios más peligrosos del GBA. September 30, 2018.
- Klipphan, Andrés. Radiografía de Puerta 8: cómo es el barrio del conurbano en el que los vecinos viven con temor por la violencia narco. Infobae, February 3, 2022. Source on file
- Ayuso, Maria. Tiene 12 años y desde los 9 trabaja en la cosecha de la yerba mate: "Me levanto a las cinco de la mañana" Buenos Aires: La Nacion. June 12, 2020. Source on file.
- Instituto Nacional de la Yerba Mate (INYM). Superficie cultivada por departamentos. Misiones: INYM. March 14, 2022. Source on file.
- Government of Argentina. Detectan explotacion laboral en una finca tabacalera en la localidad de Monterrico, Jujuy. Buenos Aires: GOA. February 4, 2022. Source on file.
- U.S. Embassy- Buenos Aires. Reporting. January 14, 2020.
- U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2021: Argentina. Washington, D.C., July 1, 2021.
- Aguirre, Osvaldo. Niños que mueren y matan: el reclutamiento de menores en las organizaciones narco de Rosario. La Politica Online, August 7, 2022. Source on file.
- Retamal, Carlos. Rosario: secuestran droga y detienen a parte de una banda que respondía al 'Viejo' Cantero. Mirada Provincial, December 7, 2022. Source on file.
- La Brujula 24. Usaban a sus hijos como "soldaditos": los hacian salir antes de la escuela para vender droga. Buenos Aires: La Brujula 24. September 16, 2022. Source on file.
- Government of Argentina. Ley de Protección Integral de Derechos de las Niñas, Niños y Adolescentes, Ley 26.061. Enacted: September 28, 2005.
- Government of Argentina. Régimen Especial de Contrato de Trabajo para el Personal de Casas Particulares, Ley 26.844. Enacted: March 13, 2013.
- Government of Argentina. Prohibición del Trabajo Infantil y Protección del Trabajo Adolescente, Ley 26.390. Enacted: June 4, 2008.
- Government of Argentina. Régimen de Trabajo Agrario, Ley 26.727. Enacted: December 27, 2011. Source on file.
- Government of Argentina. Ley de Contrato de Trabajo, Ley 20.744. Enacted: May 13, 1976 (updated).
- Government of Argentina. Decreto 1117/2016 - Determínanse los tipos de trabajo que constituyen trabajo peligroso para menores. Enacted: October 20, 2016.
http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/102906/124616/F678984966/decreto 1117 de 2016 ARGENTINA.pdf
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- Government of Argentina. Delitos contra la integridad sexual. Modificación, Ley 25.087. Enacted: April 14, 1999.
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- Government of Argentina. Decreto 407/2022 - Ley "Mica Ortega" - Programa Nacional de Prevención y Concientización del Grooming o Ciberacoso contra Niñas, Niños y Adolescentes. July 14, 2022. Source on file.
- Government of Argentina. Objectivos y funciones. Ministerio de Trabajo, Empleo y Seguridad Special, Accessed February 9, 2021.
- Government of Argentina. Subsecretaria de Politica Criminal. Buenos Aires: Ministerio de Justicia y Derechos Humanos. NA. Source on file.
- Politica Argentina. Grooming: llega a la Argentina una herramienta de Twitter contra la explotación sexual infantil. Buenos Aires: Politica Argentina. October 18, 2022. Source on file.
- Government of Argentina. PROTEX: Special Prosecutor's Office on Human Trafficking and Exploitation.
- U.S. Embassy- Buenos Aires. Reporting. January 20, 2022.
- USDOS. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 30, 2023. Source on file.
- Government of Argentina. Ley 25.877, Titulo Preliminar del Ordenamiento del Regimen Laboral. Enacted: March 18, 2004.
- ILOSTAT. ILO modelled estimates and projections (ILOEST) – Population and labour force. Accessed (January 31, 2023). Labor force data is modelled on a combination of demographic and economic explanatory variables by the ILO. Please see "Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.
- U.S. Embassy- Buenos Aires. Reporting. January 8, 2019.
- Pagina 12. Explotación sexual infantil: 33 detenidos en Argentina durante 2022. Buenos Aires: Pagina 12. December 26, 2022. Source on file.
- Ambito. Desbaratan red de producción de material de abuso infantil. Buenos Aires: Ambito. November 15, 2022. Source on file.
- Government of Argentina. Plan Nacional para la Prevencion y Erradicacion del Trabajo Infantil y Proteccion del Trabajo Adolescente (2018-2022). NA. Source on file.
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