Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Argentina

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Argentina

2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Significant Advancement

In 2015, Argentina made a significant advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government passed the Third National Plan for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor and the Regulation of Adolescent Work for 2016–2020. The Government also passed the Law on Early Education, which establishes compulsory education beginning at age 4. In addition, the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights created five Regional Offices for the Rescue and Care of Trafficking Victims in the Provinces of Chaco, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza, and Santa Fe. The National Commission for the Eradication of Child Labor organized two national meetings which convened provincial and local government officials to discuss advances and challenges in addressing child labor issues. The National Registry of Agricultural Workers and Employers continued to run multiple programs to prevent and eliminate child labor, including a program to strengthen schools in rural areas where children whose parents work in agriculture may be at risk of child labor. However, children in Argentina are engaged in child labor, including in agriculture, and in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Argentina has not determined the types of hazardous occupations that are prohibited for children under 18. In addition, the Government does not appear to publish key labor and criminal law enforcement data on child labor, including its worst forms.

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Children in Argentina are engaged in child labor, including in agriculture. Children are also engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation sometimes as a result of human trafficking.(1-11) In 2012, the Government of Argentina began incorporating a child labor module into the Permanent Survey of Households. Although the full results of the 2012 survey have not been made publicly available, the Government reports that child labor decreased from 2004 to 2012.(12-14) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Argentina.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

4.2 (258,286)

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

98.5

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

4.8

Primary completion rate (%):

100.9

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2013, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(15)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Módulo de Actividades de Niños, Niñas y Adolescentes, 2012.(16) Data on working children, school attendance, and children combining work and school are for urban areas only. According to UN data, 91.6 percent of the population of Argentina lives in urban areas (see http://data.un.org/CountryProfile.aspx?crName=ARGENTINA). Data reported in this table are not comparable with data published in the previous version of this report because of differences between surveys used to collect the data.

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Harvesting bell peppers,* blueberries, carrots,* corn,* cotton, garlic, grapes, olives, onions,* potatoes,* strawberries, and tomatoes (8, 9, 17-33)

Harvesting yerba mate (stimulant plant) (2, 4, 27, 34-36)

Harvesting tobacco (1, 5, 26)

Industry

Production of garments (37, 38)

Production of bricks (19, 39, 40)

Manufacturing aluminum pots* (41)

Construction,* activities unknown (19, 42)

Services

Street begging and performing, windshield-washing, automobile caretaking (9, 11, 13, 19, 43, 44)

Refuse collection, recycling, and garbage scavenging (19, 32, 43-46)

Domestic work (9, 43, 44, 47)

Transporting goods* (23)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation sometimes as a result of human trafficking (10, 43, 48)

Forced labor in the production of garments (49-51)

Use in the production of pornography* (6)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a) – (c) of ILO C. 182.

Although the extent of the problem is unknown, reports indicate that girls from Argentina’s northern provinces are often victims of commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking.(52)

Children of Bolivian immigrants in Argentina are engaged in child labor in agriculture and domestic service, and are engaged in forced child labor in the production of garments.(20, 31, 47, 51) Although the extent of the problem is unknown, reports indicate that there has been an increase in the trafficking of Bolivian children to Argentina for labor and commercial sexual exploitation.(53, 54) Reports also indicate that Paraguayan children are trafficked to Argentina for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation.(48, 52, 55, 56)

Argentina has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

16

Articles 2, 7, and 17 of the Prohibition of Child Labor and Protection of Adolescent Work Law; Article 9 of the Special Code on Contracting Domestic Workers; Article 1 of the Child Labor Law; Article 25 of the Child and Adolescent Rights Protection Law; Articles 54–55 of the Law on Agrarian Work (57-61)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 10 of the Prohibition of Child Labor and Protection of Adolescent Work Law; Articles 176 and 191 of the Law on Labor Contracts; Article 62 of the Law on Agrarian Work (57, 61, 62)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

No

 

 

Prohibition of Forced Labor

 

Yes

 

Article 15 of the Constitution; Articles 1 and 24–26 of the Modifications to the Prevention of and Sanction Against Trafficking in Persons and Assistance to Victims Law; Article 9 of the Child and Adolescent Rights Protection Law (59, 63, 64)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Articles 1 and 25–26 of the Modifications to the Prevention of and Sanction Against Trafficking in Persons and Assistance to Victims Law; Article 9 of the Child and Adolescent Rights Protection Law (59, 64)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 1 and 21–23 of the Modifications to the Prevention of and Sanction Against Trafficking in Persons and Assistance to Victims Law; Article 6 of the Crimes Against Sexual Integrity Law; Article 128 of the Penal Code (64-66)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 11 of the Possession and Trafficking of Drugs Law (67)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

Yes*

18

Article 19 of the Voluntary Military Service Law (68)

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

18

Article 8 of the Voluntary Military Service Law (68)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

18‡

Articles 16 and 29 of the National Education Law; Article 2 of the Law on Early Education (69-71)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Articles 15–16 of the Child and Adolescent Rights Protection Law (59)

* No conscription in practice (72)
‡ Age calculated based on available information (69)

In 2015, the Government of Argentina promulgated the Law on Early Education. This law establishes compulsory education from the age of four years.(71) The Government also promulgated the Law on the Prevention of Trafficking in Persons. This law requires that a standard public announcement on the crime of trafficking in persons, including information on how to report it, be placed in airports, bus stations, and border crossings.(73, 74)

Argentina has not adopted into law or regulation the types of hazardous occupations prohibited for children under 18.(48, 75) Article 128 of the Penal Code prohibits the use of children in pornographic shows and the production, publication, and distribution of child pornography. In addition, Article 128 of the Penal Code prohibits the commercialization of child pornography; however, the Penal Code does not prohibit the possession of child pornography for personal consumption.(42, 66)

The National Education Law states that initial, primary, and secondary education are compulsory. Article 134 of this law states that the duration of primary and secondary education must be 12 years in total, and Article 26 of this law states that primary education begins at age 6; this makes the calculated age of compulsory education 18 years.(69)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor, Employment, and Social Security (MTESS)

Enforce child labor laws, in part through its Coordinating Body for the Prevention of Child Labor and the Regulation of Adolescent Work (COODITIA), which trains inspectors in child labor and adolescent work issues. Oversee the Commission for the Eradication of Child Labor (CONAETI).(43, 76, 77) Oversee the National Registry of Agricultural Workers and Employers (RENATEA) which, through its own team of inspectors, assists in the enforcement of child labor laws in the agricultural sector.(13, 78) Maintains a national hotline where labor violations can be reported.(11)

Ministry of Justice and Human Rights

Maintain a Tribunal for adjudicating disputes in domestic service work and telephone lines for reporting cases of child labor and forced labor.(79)

Office for the Rescue and Care of Trafficking Victims

Provide emergency legal and other assistance to victims of labor and sex trafficking, including child victims. Part of the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights.(44, 73) Maintains Regional Offices that coordinate the provision of legal and social services to trafficking victims in the Provinces of Chaco, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza, and Santa Fe.(52, 80, 81)

Public Prosecutor’s Anti-Trafficking Division (PROTEX)

Prosecute crimes of trafficking in persons for labor and commercial sexual exploitation, instruct federal personnel in the investigation of human trafficking, and design criminal policy in human trafficking.(82-84)

National Immigration Directorate

Direct the National Immigration Police, oversee the rights of migrants, and assist in investigating cases of international human trafficking.(20, 85)

Federal Police

Conduct human trafficking investigations through its Trafficking in Persons Division.(38)

Federal Administration of Public Revenue (AFIP)

Ensure employer compliance with national laws, assist in workplace and labor-related inspections, and initiate prosecutions of labor violations through the Penal Section of its Social Security Directorate.(38, 86, 87)

 

In 2015, the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights created five Regional Offices for the Rescue and Care of Trafficking Victims in the Provinces of Chaco, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza, and Santa Fe. These Regional Offices coordinate the provision of legal and social services for trafficking victims according to priorities set by the national Office for the Rescue and Care of Trafficking Victims.(52, 80, 81)

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2015, labor law enforcement agencies in Argentina took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

 Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Labor Inspectors

566 (13, 88)

584 (89)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Unknown

Yes (11)

Training for Labor Inspectors

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Yes (77)

Yes (90)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (13, 77)

Yes (11)

Number of Labor Inspections

187,492 (91)

144,613 (91)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown

Unknown

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

50 (92)

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown

Unknown* (11)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

Unknown

Unknown* (11)

 

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (92)

Yes (11)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (92)

Yes (11)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Unknown

Yes (11)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Unknown

Yes (11)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (13)

Yes (11)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Unknown

Unknown

* The Government does not make this information publicly available.

In 2015, the Ministry of Labor, Employment, and Social Security (MTESS) employed 584 labor inspectors.(89) However, research could not determine the number of inspectors employed by the National Registry of Agricultural Workers and Employers (RENATEA), which assists the MTESS in the enforcement of labor laws in the agricultural sector. According to the ILO’s recommendation of one inspector for every 15,000 workers in industrializing economies, Argentina should employ roughly 1,164 labor inspectors to adequately enforce labor laws throughout the country.(93-95)

Although research could not determine whether all 584 MTESS inspectors received training in child labor issues in 2015, the MTESS’s Coordinating Body for the Prevention of Child Labor and the Regulation of Adolescent Work (COODITIA) conducted numerous trainings on child labor and adolescent work for labor inspectors and government officials located around the country.(90) Reports confirm that RENATEA inspectors received training on child labor issues in 2015 and also conducted 42 seminars on eliminating child labor around the country.(11)

Partial information on specific MTESS inspection efforts was published for 2015.(96) However, research could not find comprehensive information on the number of violations found, penalties assessed, and fines collected as a result of inspections. Research could also not find comprehensive information on the specific sectors and geographic localities in which MTESS inspections were carried out, or on the total number of children removed from child labor.(11)

Reports indicate that in Argentina, children removed from child labor through inspections are referred to the COODITIA, which coordinates the provision of social services through social protection agencies.(13) However, research could not determine whether social protection agencies have procedures to reciprocally refer children rescued from child labor to the MTESS for labor law enforcement. RENATEA reported that 18 minors were found working in violation of the law and that they received assistance.(97) Research could not find comprehensive information on how many children were referred between social services and the MTESS in 2015.

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2015, criminal law enforcement agencies in Argentina took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown

Unknown

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Investigations

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Violations Found

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

33 (98)

Unknown

Number of Convictions

Unknown

Unknown

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Unknown

Unknown

 

In 2015, the number of investigators from the Public Prosecutor’s Anti-Trafficking Division (PROTEX), the Federal Police, or other criminal law enforcement agencies dedicated to investigating the worst forms of child labor was not known. Research could also not determine whether agencies engaged in enforcing criminal laws related to child labor had sufficient resources to carry out their mandates.

PROTEX reported that it initiated 429 investigations for crimes of human trafficking in 2015. It pursued 226 cases related to commercial sexual exploitation, 132 cases related to labor exploitation, and 71 cases of related crimes.(99) Information on these cases was not disaggregated to differentiate between adult and child victims; however, PROTEX reported that 9.4 percent of the victims were children. PROTEX also reported that, in 2015, there were 92 prosecutions for sex and labor trafficking; however, research could not determine how many of these prosecutions were for crimes that involved child victims.(99) In 2015, PROTEX reported that there were 27 sentences issued for crimes of human trafficking, with 35 individuals convicted of sex or labor trafficking. Sentences for sex trafficking ranged from 1 to 14 years of imprisonment, and sentences for labor trafficking ranged from 2 to 6 years of imprisonment.(99) Although research could not identify how many of these sentences were issued for trafficking crimes involving children, PROTEX reported that, of the total number of victims, 22 of them were children; 14 of these children were victims of labor exploitation and 7 of these children were victims of sex trafficking.(99)

The Office for the Rescue and Care of Trafficking Victims and the National Secretariat for Childhood, Adolescence, and Family (SENNAF) provide legal and other assistance to survivors of human trafficking. However, research could not determine the number of child trafficking victims who received these services during the reporting period.(53)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Commission for the Eradication of Child Labor (CONAETI)

Coordinate efforts to monitor and eradicate child labor at the national level and implement Argentina’s National Plan for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor.(43, 100-103) Composed of the MTESS, the Ministry of Social Development, the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights, the Ministry of Security, the Ministry of the Interior, and the Ministry of Health. Includes representatives from the Argentine Industrial Union, the General Confederation of Labor, and the National Secretariat of the Argentine Episcopal Conference.(43, 104) UNICEF and IPEC also provide advisers. Overseen by the MTESS.(43, 104) In 2015, CONAETI organized the Second Convening of Civil Society Organizations to train NGOs on public policy initiatives on the elimination of child labor and the regulation of adolescent work, including public-private partnerships.(105) In addition, CONAETI and the Provincial Commissions for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor organized two National Meetings of Local Roundtables for the Prevention and Elimination of Child Labor. These meetings brought together provincial and local government officials to discuss advances and challenges in addressing child labor issues across the country.(106, 107)

Provincial Commissions for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor (COPRETI)

Coordinate efforts, with oversight by CONAETI, to prevent and eradicate child labor at the provincial level, including through Local Roundtables on Child Labor at the municipal level.(43, 101, 104, 108, 109). Composed of representatives of governmental and nongovernmental institutions, labor unions, and religious institutions. There are 23 COPRETI.(43, 101, 104, 108)

National Secretariat for Childhood, Adolescence, and Family (SENNAF)

Establish public policies through its Childhood and Adolescence Protectorate to secure the rights of children and adolescents; coordinate child protection efforts with other government ministries and entities of civil society; and provide assistance to trafficking victims. Overseen by the Ministry of Social Development.(110)

Federal Council for Childhood, Adolescence, and Family

Uphold the rights of children and adolescents; deliberate on, assess, and plan public policies on child and adolescent rights; and secure the transfer of federal monies to fund provincial programs. Composed of representatives from national and provincial agencies that coordinate with the SENNAF and formed through the Ministry of Social Development.(111)

Child and Adolescent Labor Monitoring Office (OTIA)

Conduct qualitative and quantitative research on child and adolescent labor to provide policy analysis and inform programming to eradicate child labor and regulate adolescent labor. Created through the Undersecretariat of Technical Programming and Labor Studies of the MTESS.(101, 104, 112)

Coordinating Unit for Children and Adolescents in Danger of Commercial Sexual Exploitation

Provide guidance to relevant institutions; run workshops and research programs regarding commercial sexual exploitation; and assist children, adolescents, and their families. Formed within the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights.(113)

Network of Businesses Against Child Labor

Develop initiatives to sensitize stakeholders to issues of child labor and programs to prevent and eradicate child labor. Formed through a partnership between the MTESS, CONAETI, and the businesses that comprise it.(100, 114, 115)

Council for the Rights of Children and Adolescents

(CDNNyA)

Promote and protect children’s rights in the City of Buenos Aires in accordance with the UN CRC. Develop programs and policies on the worst forms of child labor, including on the sexual exploitation and trafficking of children.(43, 116)

Executive Council to Fight Human Trafficking and Exploitation and to Protect and Assist Victims

Coordinate executive branch efforts to combat human trafficking. Composed of representatives of the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights, the Ministry of Security, and the MTESS.(53)

The Government of Argentina has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

Third National Plan for the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor and the Regulation of Adolescent Work (2016–2020)†

Aims to prevent and eliminate child labor, including its worst forms, and to protect adolescent work. Specific objectives include promoting the dissemination of information and data on child labor, strengthening the COPRETI and creating Local Roundtables on Child Labor, promoting the livelihoods of families, strengthening the labor inspectorate, fostering civil society engagement on child labor issues, providing for a more inclusive educational system, raising awareness of the safety and health implications of child labor, and promoting institutional and legislative strengthening on child labor issues, in accordance with ILO C. 182.(14, 117) Launched by the MTESS and CONAETI in December 2015 following a presentation of a draft of the plan to the COPRETI at their national meeting in October 2015.(117, 118)

National Action Plan for the Rights of Children and Adolescents (2012–2015)

Promotes the dignity and rights of children and adolescents in Argentina. Objectives include preventing and eliminating child labor, including its worst forms.(119)

Third Program for Decent Work for Argentina (2012–2015)

Pursues a decent work and social well-being agenda in the context of Argentina’s Millennium Development Goals (2003–2015) and in consultation with the ILO. Social and economic objectives include the prevention and eradication of child labor.(46, 120)

National Plan on Compulsory Education and Teacher Training

(2012–2016)*

Aims to strengthen the Argentine educational system by increasing the number of primary schools, increasing children’s access to education, and improving the quality of curricula and instruction.(121)

MERCOSUR Social Labor Declaration of 2015†

Aims to promote decent work and sustainable development in the five member states of MERCOSUR, in part through commitments to uphold core labor standards, including the elimination of forced labor, the prevention and elimination of child labor, and the protection of adolescent work. Signed in Brasilia, Brazil in July 2015.(122, 123)

MERCOSUR United Against Child Labor Campaign

Develops public awareness about the need to combat child labor in MERCOSUR. Addresses child labor in agriculture, domestic work, and sexual exploitation, with particular emphasis on communities along country borders.(124)

Second Presidential Declaration on the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor in MERCOSUR (2012)

Promotes greater coordination between governmental agencies, levels of government, and with civil society among MERCOSUR members.(120)

MERCOSUR Southern Child Initiative

Aims to defend the rights of children and adolescents in the region by raising awareness and seeking coordination among member states regarding the commercial sexual exploitation of children, child trafficking and pornography, child labor, and migrant labor; by improving country legal frameworks to harmonize them with international conventions affecting children; and by exchanging best practices.(125)

Regional Plan for Adolescent Work (2011)

Promotes decent work for adolescent workers. Articulated within MERCOSUR’s Strategy for Employment Growth.(120)

Fight against Human Trafficking Agreement between the Governments of Colombia and Argentina

Establishes a work plan to prevent, identify, and collaborate in the fight against human trafficking between the Government of Colombia and the Government of Argentina. Aims to strengthen efforts to assist Colombian victims of human trafficking found in forced labor in Argentina; signed in 2014.(126)

XIX Inter-American Conference of Ministers of Labor†

Promotes decent work with social inclusion throughout the Americas. Held in Cancun, Mexico, participating countries adopted the Declaration of Cancun 2015 which aims in part to foster policies to eliminate labor exploitation, including child labor, and to promote education and vocational training for youth.(127, 128) Participating countries also adopted a Plan of Action that prioritizes the elimination of child labor, including through data collection, enforcement of labor laws, and the development of social protection policies for children and families.(127, 129)

Declaration of the Regional Initiative: Latin America and the Caribbean Free of Child Labor (2014–2020)

Aims to increase regional cooperation on eradicating child labor by 2020 through signatories’ efforts to strengthen monitoring and coordination mechanisms, government programs, and South-South exchanges. Reaffirms commitments made in the Brasilia Declaration from the Third Global Conference on Child Labor (October 2013), and signed by Argentina at the ILO’s 18th Regional Meeting of the Americas in Lima, Peru (October 2014).(130-132)

* Child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy.
† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

In 2015, the Government of Argentina funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Universal Child Allowance Program (Asignación Universal)†

Government of Argentina program funded in part by the World Bank that provides a monthly cash transfer to unemployed parents and workers in the informal economy, contingent upon parents’ fulfillment of health and education requirements for their children.(46, 104, 133, 134) Includes pregnant women and currently covers 3.5 million children under age 18.(46, 104)

RENATEA Awareness-Raising Campaigns†

RENATEA campaigns that raise awareness of child labor in agriculture and inform families and children of the right to education.(92, 135)

CONAETI Awareness-Raising Campaigns

CONAETI/Network of Businesses Against Child Labor campaigns that make businesses and the general public aware of child labor in sourcing and supply chains.(114)

Harvest Day Care and Future Programs (Jardines de Cosecha y Porvenir)

COPRETI/Network of Businesses Against Child Labor programs that aim to reduce child labor in the production of crops, such as tobacco in the Provinces of Salta and Jujuy, where work has often been performed by entire families. Children are placed in day care centers that have educational and recreational programs.(17, 136-140)

Program to Strengthen Schools in Agricultural Areas†

RENATEA program that provides infrastructural developments, operating costs, and pedagogical development to rural schools located in agricultural areas where children may be at risk of child labor. Launched in 2014. In 2015, RENATEA provided support to more than 2,200 students and 294 teachers in 42 elementary and high schools.(11, 97, 141, 142)

Care Program’s Extended School Day/ Child Care Centers (Programa Cuidar)†

RENATEA program to lengthen the school day and create child care centers in agricultural regions to reduce children’s vulnerability to child labor in the agricultural sector.(13, 143) In 2015, received a budget of $620,000, enabling the program to assist more than 1,800 children ages 1.5 months to 16 years in 25 child care centers in the Provinces of Buenos Aires, Córdoba, Jujuy, La Rioja, Misiones, Mendoza, and Salta. Program was launched in 2014.(11, 97)

Good Harvest Program (Programa Buena Cosecha)†

MTESS and CONAETI program in the Province of Mendoza that creates and runs Rural Social and Educational Centers (CSER) to provide care and educational services to children whose parents work in agricultural harvests, and to reduce children’s vulnerability to child labor. Since 2010, program has run 88 CSER that have assisted 4,500 children.(32, 144)

Heads of Household Program (Programa Jefes de Hogar)†

MTESS program that seeks to improve the employability of families who have experienced economic hardship.(145)

Trafficking in Persons Hotline (Linea 145)

Office for the Rescue and Care of Trafficking Victims Hotline that receives reports of possible crimes of trafficking in persons. Cases are referred to law enforcement agencies for investigation, and victims and survivors are referred to social service providers.(73)

UNICEF Argentina’s Program for the Protection of Children’s Rights

Fosters the development of protection systems and dialogue between civil society and local, provincial, and federal government agencies. Priority areas for 2010-2015 include increasing access to social and legal services for victims of violence, abuse, and exploitation; juvenile justice reform; and strengthening local institutional capacity to prevent and eliminate child labor.(146)

Regional Action Group for the Americas (Grupo de Acción Regional para las Américas)

Conducts prevention and awareness-raising campaigns to combat the commercial sexual exploitation of children in Latin America. Members include Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela.(147-149)

Elimination of Child Labor in Latin America (Phase 4) (2011 – 2015)

$4.5 million Government of Spain-funded, 4-year project implemented by ILO-IPEC to combat child labor in 19 countries, including Argentina.(150)

Education and Monitoring Program for the Eradication of Child Labor (2012 – 2015)

$1.3 million Government of Spain-funded, 2-year project implemented by ILO-IPEC that aims to strengthen public policies and government capacity to combat child labor in 19 countries in Latin America, including Argentina. Includes the objective of developing information systems on the worst forms of child labor.(150)

† Program is funded by the Government of Argentina.

In 2015, Argentina continued to implement social programs designed to combat child labor.(11) Reports indicate that the Universal Child Allowance Program has had a positive impact on the reduction of child labor since its implementation began in 2009.(12, 106, 151) However, programs that address child labor in the agricultural sector do not appear to address the full scope of the problem.  Research also did not find programs that specifically targeted children working in urban activities, such as refuse collection or street begging and performing.

In Argentina, education is compulsory until age 18, which is the qualifying age for participation in many youth employment programs, including apprenticeships. However, reports indicate that many children do not finish secondary education.(152) Children ages 16 and 17 who have not finished secondary school, and who are legally allowed to work, are often unable to find jobs in the formal sector.(152) Without eligibility to participate in youth employment programs until age 18, these children are at an increased risk of engaging in dangerous work. In addition, without formal training, these children are more likely to remain in informal work as adults.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Argentina (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

 

Determine the types of hazardous occupations prohibited for children, in consultation with employers’ and workers’ organizations.

2009 – 2015

Criminalize the possession of child pornography for personal use.

2009 – 2015

Enforcement

Publicly report on the level of funding allocated to the labor inspectorate.

2015

Ensure there is a sufficient number of labor inspectors to adequately enforce labor laws throughout the country.

2015

Publicly report on the training provided to all labor inspectors and criminal investigators on child labor, including its worst forms.

2015

Make information publicly available on child labor enforcement efforts, including the sectors and geographic localities in which inspections are carried out, the number of violations found, and the penalties issued and collected as a result.

2009 – 2015

Publicly report on the total number of children removed from child labor, including its worst forms, as well as on the number of children who received services and the mechanisms by which law enforcement and social service agencies reciprocally refer cases.

2014 – 2015

Publicly report on the number of criminal investigators who investigate child labor-related crimes and ensure they have adequate resources to enforce laws on the worst forms of child labor.

2014 – 2015

Publicly report on the number of criminal investigations, violations, prosecutions, and convictions for the worst forms of child labor.

2015

Ensure there is a reciprocal referral mechanism between criminal law enforcement agencies and social services for cases of the worst forms of child labor.

2015

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the National Plan on Compulsory Education and Teacher Training.

2015

Social Programs

Make all results on child labor from the Permanent Survey of Households publicly available.

2013 – 2015

Expand the coverage and scope of programs that target child labor in agricultural activities.

2012 – 2015

Develop specific programs that target child labor in informal urban activities, such as refuse collection or street begging and performing.

2009 – 2015

Extend youth employment and vocational training programs to children ages 16 and 17 that also allow children to complete their compulsory schooling.

2015

1.         Página 12. "Explotación infantil en Salta: Nueve chicos en condiciones infrahumanas en una tabacalera." March 10, 2014. http://www.pagina12.com.ar/imprimir/diario/sociedad/3-241443-2014-03-10.html.

2.         Claudia Sapa, and Ana Victoria Espinoza. "Tareferos, marginalidad y exclusión detrás de la yerba mate." Argentina Investiga: Divulgación y Noticias Universitarias, Misiones, October 1, 2012; Noticia. http://infouniversidades.siu.edu.ar/noticia.php?titulo=tareferos,_marginalidad_y_exclusion_detras_de_la_yerba_mate&id=1711.

3.         CONAETI. Trabajo Infantil Rural, [previously online] November 28, 2011 [cited Jan 17, 2012]; http://www.trabajo.gov.ar/conaeti/que_es/rural.htm.

4.         Roffredo, R. "Trabajo infantil rural en la zafra de la yerba mate," in Décimo Congreso Nacional de Estudios de Trabajo; August 4, 2011; Buenos Aires; http://www.aset.org.ar/congresos/10/ponencias/p13_Roffredo.pdf.

5.         Página 12. "Chicos explotados." Buenos Aires, February 28, 2014; Sociedad. http://www.pagina12.com.ar/diario/sociedad/3-240788-2014-02-28.html.

6.         CONAETI. Trabajo Infantil Urbano, [previously online] November 28, 2011 [cited Jan 17, 2012]; http://www.trabajo.gov.ar/conaeti/que_es/urbano.htm.

7.         IDB. La Trata y el Tráfico de Niños y Adolescentes para fines Explotación Sexual, IDB, [online] December 31, 2011 [cited February 7, 2013]; http://www.iadb.org/es/proyectos/project-information-page,1303.html?id=RG-T1266.

8.         Página 12. "Esclavos para la papa: Niños, niñas y adolescentes trabajando en la cosecha." pagina12.com [online] February 12, 2014 [cited April 4, 2015]; http://www.pagina12.com.ar/imprimir/diario/economia/2-239656-2014-02-12.html.

9.         La Nación. "Una infancia perdida." [online] August 6, 2011 [cited December 10, 2015]; http://www.lanacion.com.ar/1395305-una-infancia-perdida.

10.       U.S. Department of State. "Argentina," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015. Washington, DC; July 27, 2015; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/243558.pdf.

11.       U.S. Embassy- Buenos Aires. reporting, February 17, 2016.

12.       UNESCO, Instituto Internacional de Planeamiento de la Educacion, ILO. Trayectorias Escolares Protegidas en Argentina. Buenos Aires; 2015. http://www.buenosaires.iipe.unesco.org/sites/default/files/trayectorias%20escolares%20protgidas.pdf.

13.       U.S. Embassy- Buenos Aires. reporting, January 23, 2015.

14.       Ministerio de Trabajo, CONAETI. Plan Nacional para la Prevención y Erradicación del Trabajo Infantil y la Protección del Trabajo Adolescente, 2016-2020; November 2015. http://www.trabajo.gov.ar/downloads/difusion/151202_Plan_Nac_Err_TI_2016-2020.pdf.

15.       UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed December 16, 2015]; http://www.uis.unesco.org/ Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. Because the calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age), the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

16.       UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Módulo de Actividades de Niños NyA, 2012 Analysis received December 18, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

17.       Ministerio de Trabajo de la Provincia de Entre Rios. Se abrirán centros de Cuidado Infantil o Jardines de Cosecha para evitar el trabajo infantil, Gobierno de Entre Rios, [online] [cited January 10, 2014]; http://www.entrerios.gov.ar/mintrabajo/index.php?cod=1199&noticia=ver_noticia&modulo=noticia#.

18.       "Bajas temperaturas complicaron producción de arándano." Cuestión Entrerriana, August 17, 2013; Economía. http://cuestionentrerriana.com.ar/bajas-temperaturas-complicaron-produccion-de-arandano/.

19.       Ministerio de Trabajo Justicia y Gobierno. El Gobierno conmemora el Día Mundial contra el Trabajo Infantil, Prensa - Gobierno de Mendoza, [online] June 11, 2012 [cited November 21, 2012]; http://prensa.mendoza.gov.ar/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=7955:el-gobierno-conmemora-el-dia-mundial-contra-el-trabajo-infantil&catid=40:trabajo&Itemid=61.

20.       Página 12. "Cuatro detenidos por trabajo esclavo." Página 12, Buenos Aires, February 19, 2011; Sociedad. http://www.pagina12.com.ar/diario/sociedad/3-162656-2011-02-19.html.

21.       Página 12. "Trabajo esclavo cerca de la playa " Página 12, Buenos Aires, November 28, 2011; Ultimas Noticias. http://www.pagina12.com.ar/diario/ultimas/20-165549-2011-04-04.html.

22.       Verbitsky, H. "Una vida nueva." Página 12, Buenos Aires, January 2, 2011; El Pais. http://www.pagina12.com.ar/diario/elpais/1-159715-2011-01-02.html.

23.       Página 12. "Un flagelo que cruza fronteras." Buenos Aires, March 25, 2011. http://www.pagina12.com.ar/diario/ultimas/20-164908-2011-03-25.html.

24.       Página 12. "Estar en el ajo." pagina12.com.ar [online] January 16, 2011 [cited April 4, 2015]; http://www.pagina12.com.ar/diario/elpais/subnotas/1-51487-2011-01-16.html.

25.       El Litoral.com. "El trabajo infantil es más frecuente en los sectores menos regulados." ellitoral.com [online] June 12, 2011 [cited April 4, 2015]; http://www.ellitoral.com/index.php/diarios/2011/06/12/metropolitanas/AREA-01.html.

26.       Susana Aparicio, Martín Campos, Graciela Cardarelli, Magdalena Chiara, Gabriela Dorrego, Elena Duro, et al. El trabajo infantil en la Argentina: Análisis y desafíos para la política pública. Buenos Aires; July 2007. http://www.trabajo.gov.ar/left/estadisticas/otia/centroDoc/verDocumento.asp?id=146.

27.       Télam. "El Renatea detectó casos de trabajo infantil en Chaco y Misiones." telam.com.ar [online] April 26, 2014 [cited April 5, 2015]; http://www.telam.com.ar/notas/201404/60857-el-renatea-detecto-casos-de-trabajo-infantil-en-chaco-y-misiones.html.

28.       La Nueva. "Trabajo infantil: denunciarán penalmente a los productores." lanueva.com [online ] February 21, 2014 [cited April 6, 2015]; http://www.lanueva.com/La-region-/748031/trabajo-infantil--denunciaran-penalmente-a-los-productores.html.

29.       Diario 21. "Chaco: detectan trabajo infantil y trabajadores en negro en Villa Ángela y San Bernardo." diario21.tv [online] April 25, 2014 [cited April 6, 2015]; http://www.diario21.tv/notix2/noticia/27373_chaco-detectan-trabajo-infantil-y-trabajadores-en-negro-en-villa-aacutengela-y-san-bernardo.htm.

30.       Hoy Corrientes. "Virasoro: detectan trabajo no registrado en campos." hoycorrientes.com [online] October 23, 2014 [cited April 6, 2015]; http://hoycorrientes.com/vernota.asp?id_noticia=131938.

31.       Rioja Virtual. "Detectan indocumentados y menores trabajando en la cosecha." riojavirtual.com.ar [online] March 10, 2014 [cited April 6, 2015]; http://riojavirtual.com.ar/noticias/locales/detectan_indocumentados_y_menores_trabajando_en_la_cosecha.

32.       Sitio Andino. "Contra el trabajo infantil: el desafío de Mendoza y el mundo." [online] June 12, 2015 [cited December 10, 2015]; http://www.sitioandino.com/nota/160660/.

33.       Ahora Mendoza. "Renatea detectó trabajo infantil en la cosecha de cebolla." [online] February 21, 2014 [cited December 10, 2015]; http://www.ahoramendoza.com.ar/nota/1978/agenda.php?dia=1&nuevo_mes=9&nuevo_ano=2015.

34.       Mundo Gremial. "Trabajo Infantil: el oscuro y multimillonario negocio de la Yerba Mate." November 16, 2013. http://mundogremial.com/analisis-y-opinion/trabajo-infantil-el-oscuro-y-multimillonario-negocio-de-la-yerba-mate-4234.

35.       Misiones Online. "Impulsan campaña por una "yerba mate sin trabajo infantil"." October 13, 2013; Sociedad. http://img.misionesonline.net/noticias/index?dia=28&mes=10&anio=2013&permalink=impulsan-campa-a-por-una-yerba-mate-sin-trabajo-infantil.

36.       Diario 33. "RENATEA detectó en San Pedro a tareferos en condiciones de esclavitud y trabajo infantil." [online] January, 2015 [cited April 6, 2015]; http://diario33.com/25370-renatea-detect-en-san-pedro-a-tareferos-en-condiciones-de-esclavitud-y-trabajoinfantil.html.

37.       Página 12. "Grandes marcas bajo investigación." Buenos Aires, May 28, 2013; Sociedad. http://www.pagina12.com.ar/diario/sociedad/3-220993-2013-05-28.html.

38.       Terra. "Detectan trabajo infantil y trata de personas en talleres textiles." Terra, October 03, 2013. http://noticias.terra.com.ar/detectan-trabajo-infantil-y-trata-de-personas-en-talleres-textiles,6d685a8c76e71410VgnCLD2000000dc6eb0aRCRD.html.

39.       Brondo, H. "Un detenido por explotación infantil en cortadero de ladrillos." La Voz, August 8, 2013. http://www.lavoz.com.ar/ciudadanos/detenido-explotacion-infantil-cortadero-ladrillos.

40.       Brondo, H. "Trabajo infantil: no cede en Córdoba el cepo a la niñez." La Voz, May 28, 2013. http://www.lavoz.com.ar/ciudadanos/trabajo-infantil-no-cede-cordoba-cepo-ninez.

41.       Página 12. "El taller de los chicos esclavos." Buenos Aires, September 1, 2013. http://www.pagina12.com.ar/diario/elpais/1-228038-2013-09-01.html.

42.       U.S. Department of State. "Argentina," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2013. Washington, DC; February 27, 2014; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/220626.pdf.

43.       U.S. Embassy- Buenos Aires. reporting, February 8, 2013.

44.       U.S. Embassy- Buenos Aires. reporting, March 15, 2011.

45.       Organización Internacional para las Migraciones. Lucha Contra el Trabajo Infantil Cartonero en la Villa 31 y 31 Bis de Retiro - Buenos Aires, Organización Internacional para las Migraciones, [online] [cited April 2, 2014]; http://www.argentina.iom.int/no/index.php/actividades/programas-y-proyectos/cooperacion-tecnica-sobre-migracion/lucha-contra-el-trabajo-infantil-cartonero-en-la-villa-31-y-31-bis-de-retiro.

46.       U.S. Embassy- Buenos Aires. reporting, February 18, 2014.

47.       María Inés Pacecca. El trabajo adolescente y la migración desde Bolivia a Argentina: entre la adultez y la explotación CLACSO; 2013. http://www.migrantropologia.com.ar/images/stories/PDF/pacecca_trabajo_adolescente_y_migracion_desde_bolivia_a_argentina_2013.pdf.

48.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Argentina (ratification: 2001) Published: 2011; accessed February 7, 2013; http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/english/iloquery.htm.

49.       Arana Araya, I. "Prolifera la exportación de trabajo esclavo boliviano." Sindicato Mercosul, August 27, 2006. http://www.sindicatomercosul.com.br/noticia02.asp?noticia=33144.

50.       Arrieta, G. "Talleres clandestinos: el negocio de la explotación." La Nación, Buenos Aires, May 11, 2008. http://www.lanacion.com.ar/1011299-talleres-clandestinos-el-negocio-de-la-explotacion.

51.       Niñez Indígena en América Latina: Situación y Perspectivas. Compilación de documentos de trabajo para el Encuentro Latinoamericano, Cartagena de Indias, del 8 al 10 de marzo de 2010. ILO-IPEC white paper. http://white.oit.org.pe/ipec/documentos/publi_encuentro_final.pdf.

52.       U.S. Embassy- Buenos Aires. reporting, February 17, 2016 (Trafficking in Persons).

53.       U.S. Embassy- Buenos Aires. reporting, March 3, 2015.

54.       María Inés Pacecca. La explotación sexual y laboral de la niñez y adolescencia en Argentina. UNICEF - IOM; 2013. http://www.migrantropologia.com.ar/images/stories/PDF/unicef_33historias_explotacion_sexual_y_laboral_de_la_ninez_y_adolescencia_en_argentina.pdf.

55.       U.S. Department of State. "Argentina," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2012. Washington, DC; April 9, 2013; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/186697.pdf.

56.       U.S. Department of State. "Argentina," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2014. Washington, DC; June 20, 2014; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/226845.pdf.

57.       Government of Argentina. Prohibición del Trabajo Infantíl y Protección del Trabajo Adolescente, 26.390, enacted June 4, 2008. http://www.infoleg.gov.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/140000-144999/141792/norma.htm.

58.       Government of Argentina. Código Penal. Incorpórase artículo N° 148 bis., Trabajo Infantil, 26.847, enacted March 20, 2013. http://www.infoleg.gov.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/210000-214999/210491/norma.htm.

59.       Government of Argentina. Ley Integral de Protección de Derechos de las Niñas, Niños y Adolescentes, 26.061, enacted September 28, 2005. http://www.infoleg.gob.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/110000-114999/110778/norma.htm.

60.       Government of Argentina. Régimen Especial de Contrato de Trabajo para el Personal de Casas Particulares, 26.844, enacted March 13, 2013. http://www.infoleg.gob.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/210000-214999/210489/norma.htm.

61.       Government of Argentina. Regimen de Trabajo Agrario, 26.727, enacted December 27, 2011. http://infoleg.mecon.gov.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/190000-194999/192152/norma.htm.

62.       Government of Argentina. Ley de Contrato de Trabajo, 20.744, enacted May 13, 1976 (actualizado). http://www.infoleg.gov.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/25000-29999/25552/texact.htm.

63.       Government of Argentina. Constitución de 1994, enacted 1994. http://pdba.georgetown.edu/constitutions/argentina/argen94.html.

64.       Government of Argentina. Prevención y Sanción de la Trata de Personas y Asistencia a Sus Víctimas (Modificaciones), 26.842, enacted December 26, 2012. http://www.infoleg.gov.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/205000-209999/206554/norma.htm.

65.       Government of Argentina. Delitos contra la integridad sexual. Modificación, 25.087, enacted April 14, 1999. http://www.infoleg.gob.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/55000-59999/57556/norma.htm.

66.       Government of Argentina. Código Penal de la Nación Argentina, Ley 11.179, enacted 1984 (actualizado). http://servicios.infoleg.gob.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/15000-19999/16546/texact.htm.

67.       Government of Argentina. Tenencia y Tráfico de Estupefacientes, 23.737, enacted October 11, 1989. http://www.cicad.oas.org/Lavado_Activos/ESP/LeyesLavado/Argentina/Ley23.737AR.doc.

68.       Government of Argentina. Ley del Servicio Militar Voluntario, 24.429, enacted January 5, 1995. http://infoleg.mecon.gov.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/0-4999/802/norma.htm.

69.       Government of Argentina. Ley de Educación Nacional, 26.206, enacted December 14, 2006. http://www.infoleg.gob.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/120000-124999/123542/norma.htm.

70.       Ministerio de Educación. "El sistema educativo." [online] [cited July 31, 2015]; http://portal.educacion.gov.ar/sistema/la-estructura-del-sistema-educativo/.

71.       Government of Argentina. Ley de Educación Inicial, 27.045, enacted December 23, 2014 - published in Boletín Oficial January 7, 2015. http://www.infoleg.gob.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/240000-244999/240450/norma.htm.

72.       Child Soldiers International. "Appendix II: Data Summary on Recruitment Ages of National Armies," in Louder than Words: An Agenda for Action to End State Use of Child Soldiers. London; 2012; http://www.child-soldiers.org/global_report_reader.php?id=562.

73.       Ministerio de Justicia y Derechos Humanos. Oficina de Rescate y Acompañamiento a Personas Damnificadas por el Delito de Trata de Personas, Ministerio de Justicia y Derechos Humanos, [cited December 10, 2015]; http://www.jus.gob.ar/areas-tematicas/trata-de-personas/oficina-de-rescate-y-acompanamiento.aspx.

74.       Government of Argentina. Prevención de la Trata de Personas - Leyenda Obligatoria, Ley 27.046, enacted December 23, 2014 published in Boletín Oficial January 7, 2015. http://infoleg.mecon.gov.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/240000-244999/240451/norma.htm.

75.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Argentina (ratification: 2001) Adopted 2014, Published: 2015; accessed November 5, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3186207.

76.       Ministerio de Trabajo. Coordinación de Prevención del Trabajo Infantil y Protección del Trabajo Adolescente, Ministerio de Trabajo, Empleo y Seguridad Social, [online] [cited December 9, 2015]; http://www.trabajo.gob.ar/cooditia/.

77.       Ministerio de Trabajo Empleo y Seguridad Social. Capacitaciones realizadas, Año 2014, Government of Argentina, [online] [cited April 4, 2015]; http://www.trabajo.gov.ar/cooditia/capacitaciones.asp.

78.       Registro Nacional de Trabajadores y Empleadores Agrarios (RENATEA). "Qué es RENATEA?" renatea.gob.ar [online] [cited April 5, 2015]; http://www.renatea.gob.ar/renatea.php.

79.       Ministerio de Justicia y Derechos Humanos. Guia de Derivaciones - Trabajo, Government of Argentina, [online] [cited January 13, 2014]; http://www.jus.gob.ar/atencion-al-ciudadano/guia-de-derivaciones/trabajo.aspx.

80.       Ministerio de Justicia y Derechos Humanos. "El Gobierno nacional profundiza la lucha contra la trata de personas con la apertura de oficinas regionales." [online] October 19, 2015 [cited March 9, 2016]; http://www.jus.gob.ar/prensa/noticia.aspx?id=2072.

81.       Ministerio de Justicia y Derechos Humanos. "El Ministerio inauguró una nueva oficina regional de Trata en Mendoza." [online] September 8, 2015 [cited March 9, 2016]; http://www.jus.gob.ar/prensa/noticia.aspx?id=2021.

82.       Government of Argentina. Resolución PGN No. 805/13, enacted April 30, 2013. http://www.mpf.gov.ar/resoluciones/pgn/2013/PGN-0805-2013-001.pdf.

83.       Ministerio Público Fiscal. Procuraduría de Trata y Explotación de Personas (PROTEX) Institucional, Government of Argentina, [online ] [cited June 3, 2014]; http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:7VLQ2X16S_sJ:www.mpf.gob.ar/protex/+&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us.

84.       Ministerio Público Fiscal - Procuraduría de Trata y Explotación de Personas (PROTEX). Trata Laboral en Argentina: El tratamiento judicial de los casos en el fuero federal; 2014. http://fiscales.gob.ar/trata/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2014/02/Informe_Trata_laboral_en_Arg_Genero.pdf.

85.       Dirección Nacional de Migraciones. Ministerio del Interior y Transporte, [online] [cited January 12, 2014]; http://www.migraciones.gov.ar/accesible/?institucional.

86.       Administración Federal de Ingresos Públicos. Fiscalizaciones, Inspecciones y Verificaciones, AFIP, [online] [cited January 14, 2014]; http://www.afip.gov.ar/inspecciones/.

87.       Página 12. "El “amo” detrás de los talleres clandestinos." Buenos Aires, May 28, 2013; Sociedad. http://www.pagina12.com.ar/diario/sociedad/3-220992-2013-05-28.html.

88.       Ministerio de Trabajo Empleo y Seguridad Social de la Nación. Inspectores, Ministerio de Trabajo Empleo y Seguridad Social de la Nación, [online] [cited April 4, 2015]; http://www.trabajo.gov.ar/inspeccion/inspectores/.

89.       Ministerio de Trabajo Empleo y Seguridad Social de la Nación (MTEySS). Inspectores, Ministerio de Trabajo Empleo y Seguridad Social de la Nación, [online] [cited March 8, 2016]; http://www.trabajo.gov.ar/inspeccion/inspectores/?id_seccion=85.

90.       Ministerio de Trabajo Empleo y Seguridad Social, Coordinación de Prevención del Trabajo Infantil y Protección del Trabajo Adolescente. Capacitaciones realizadas, Año 2015, Government of Argentina, [online] [cited March 8, 2016]; http://www.trabajo.gov.ar/cooditia/capacitaciones.asp?id_seccion=329.

91.       Secretaría del Trabajo y Previsión Social Banco de Buenas Practicas Sobre Inspección Laboral en Iberoamérica. Argentina - Ficha de país; accessed July 14, 2016; http://bancoinspeccioniberoamerica.stps.gob.mx/Publico/Index.aspx.

92.       U.S. Embassy official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 13, 2015.

93.       CIA. The World Factbook, [online] [cited March 18, 2016]; https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors based on the country’s level of development as determined by the UN.

94.       ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a “sufficient number” of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a “sufficient” number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

95.       UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex. New York; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies; “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies, and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

96.       Ministerio de Trabajo Empleo y Seguridad Social. Inspecciones y Operativos Realizados, Año 2015, Government of Argentina, [online] [cited March 9, 2016]; http://www.trabajo.gov.ar/actividades.asp?id_seccion=80&anio=2015.

97.       Government of Argentina, RENATEA. Acciones del RENATEA para la Erradicación del Trabajo Infantil en el sector Agrario. source on file; 2015.

98.       Ministerio Público Fiscal - Procuraduría de Trata y Explotación de Personas (PROTEX). Informe Anual 2014. http://www.mpf.gob.ar/protex/files/2015/02/INFORME-ANUAL-2014.pdf.

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