List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor
The Bureau of International Labor Affairs (ILAB) maintains a list of goods and their source countries which it has reason to believe are produced by child labor or forced labor in violation of international standards, as required under the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act (TVPRA) of 2005 and subsequent reauthorizations. The List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor comprises 159 goods from 78 countries and areas, as of September 28, 2022.
ILAB maintains the List primarily to raise public awareness about forced labor and child labor around the world and to promote efforts to combat them; it is not intended to be punitive, but rather to serve as a catalyst for more strategic and focused coordination and collaboration among those working to address these problems.
Publication of the List has resulted in new opportunities for ILAB to engage with foreign governments to combat forced labor and child labor. It is also a valuable resource for researchers, advocacy organizations and companies wishing to carry out risk assessments and engage in due diligence on labor rights in their supply chains.
The countries on the List span every region of the world. The most common agricultural goods listed are sugarcane, cotton, coffee, tobacco, cattle, rice, and fish. In the manufacturing sector, bricks, garments, textiles, footwear, carpets, and fireworks appear most frequently. In mined or quarried goods, gold, coal and diamonds are most common.
ILAB published the initial TVPRA List in 2009 and updated it annually through 2014, following a set of procedural guidelines that were the product of an intensive public consultation process. ILAB now updates and publishes the List every other year, pursuant to changes in the law.
On May 15, 2020, ILAB's Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking published Procedural Guidelines for the development and maintenance of the List of Goods from countries produced by child labor or forced labor in violation of international standards.
There is evidence that children ages 5 to 17 grow tobacco in Vietnam. The results of the Government of Vietnam’s National Child Labor Survey 2012, published in 2014, show that an estimated 2,555 child laborers are involved in growing tobacco. Approximately 26.4 percent, or 675, of the total number of child laborers who grow tobacco are 5-11 years old, while 73.6 percent, or 1,880, are 15-17 years old. The survey considers a child to be engaged in child labor if the child is working an excessive number of hours per week for his or her age, or if the child is engaged in work that is prohibited for underage employees according to national legislation.
There are reports that children produce tobacco in Zimbabwe. According to Human Rights Watch and local media reports, there are numerous cases of children working on tobacco farms in Zimbabwe’s northeastern provinces, including Mashonaland West, Mashonaland Central, Mashonaland East, and Manicaland. There are reports of increasing numbers of children working on small, non-commercial farms. In many cases, children drop out of school to work on tobacco farms. Children perform hazardous forms of work, including mixing, handling, and spraying pesticides. Children also experience adverse health effects related to exposure to nicotine, which enters their bodies through the skin during the handling of tobacco.
There are reports that adults are forced to produce tomato products in China. Xinjiang is a major producer of tomato products, especially tomato paste. Victim testimonies, news media, and think tanks report that factories, including for tomato products, frequently engage in coercive recruitment; limit workers’ freedom of movement and communication; and subject workers to constant surveillance, retribution for religious beliefs, exclusion from community and social life, and isolation. More broadly, according to varied estimates, at least 100,000 to hundreds of thousands of Uyghurs, ethnic Kazakhs, and other Muslim minorities are being subjected to forced labor in China following detention in re-education camps. In addition to this, poor workers in rural areas may also experience coercion without detention.
|Dominican Republic||Child Labor|
There are reports that men and women are forced to work in the production of tomatoes in Mexico. According to media reports, NGOs, and the U.S. Department of State, there are hundreds of forced labor victims working to produce tomatoes. Many of these victims report being recruited by middlemen, called enganchadores, that lie to workers about the nature and conditions of the work, wages, hours, and quality of living conditions. Sources report that cases of forced labor occur on both commercial tomato plantations and smallholder farms, and have been found in states such as Baja California, Coahuila, Jalisco, San Luis Potosi, and Sinaloa. According to available reports, indigenous farmworkers from impoverished regions of central and southern Mexico are particularly vulnerable to forced labor in the agricultural sector due to low education levels, linguistic barriers, and discrimination. Once on the farms, some men and women work up to 15 hours per day under the threat of dismissal and receive subminimum wage payments. There are reports of some workers being threatened with physical violence or physically abused for leaving their jobs. Workers also report finding themselves in overcrowded and unsanitary housing facilities with no access to potable water, latrines, electricity, and medical care. Some workers face growing indebtedness to company stores that often inflate the prices of their goods, forcing workers to purchase provisions on credit and limiting their ability to leave the farms.
|Child Labor, Forced Labor|
There is evidence that children ages 5 to 17 grow tomatoes in Paraguay. In 2016, the Government of Paraguay published representative results from the Survey of Activities of Rural Area Children and Adolescents 2015. The survey considers a working child to be engaged in child labor if the child is below the minimum age for employment of 14 or the child is performing work that is hazardous according to national legislation. The survey estimates that 301,827 children ages 5 to 17 perform hazardous work in rural areas of Paraguay and indicates that children working in agriculture experience accidents and illnesses, including from using dangerous tools and handling chemicals. According to the survey, almost 13 percent of Paraguayan children engaged in child labor in agriculture do not attend school. The survey estimates that 13,095 child laborers grow tomatoes throughout rural areas in Paraguay. Approximately 6,363 child laborers growing tomatoes are below the minimum age for employment in Paraguay. The survey indicates that more boys than girls are engaged in child labor producing tomatoes. The release of this survey demonstrates the Government of Paraguay’s commitment to addressing child labor and its acknowledgement that data collection is vital to the design and implementation of sound policies and programs.
There are reports that children, mostly ages 13-16, are forced to produce toys in China. The most recently available data from an NGO study indicates that hundreds of children are exploited in this manner. Reports indicate children from Sichuan, Guangxi, and other provinces are sent to work primarily in Guangdong to make toys. Some of these children are trafficked after being recruited through deceptive promises, and others are forced to work by teachers through work-study programs. Children of the Yi ethnic minority in Liangshan prefecture of Sichuan are particularly vulnerable. The children report being forced to work long hours under threat of financial penalty and being fined for any mistakes in their work. Some children state that teachers withhold wages for “tuition” and management fees. In addition, employers withhold wages for months to prevent children from leaving.
|Child Labor, Forced Labor|