Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Niger

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Cattle
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Gold
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Salt
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Trona (Minerals)
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Niger
2018 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2018, Niger made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Supreme Court set a legal precedent banning the practice of wahaya, a form of slavery in Niger in which men buy girls born into slavery, typically between ages 9 and 11, as “fifth wives.” The government also adopted a law to provide protection and assistance to internally displaced persons, including children, to prevent their exploitation in the worst forms of child labor. More than 300 judges, magistrates, and law enforcement officials received training on investigating and prosecuting trafficking in persons cases, and government officials participated in a regional workshop to reinforce counter-trafficking coordination among member countries of the Economic Community of West African States. In addition, the government continued to educate religious leaders on how to combat the worst forms of child labor and implemented several other programs to address the worst forms of child labor, including a program that aims to combat human trafficking and migrant smuggling. However, children in Niger engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in hereditary slavery and mining. Children also perform dangerous tasks in agriculture. Although the government made meaningful efforts in all relevant areas during the reporting period, existing child labor laws and regulations do not apply to children in unpaid or non-contractual work. Gaps in labor law enforcement, such as funding to conduct labor inspections, have also left children unprotected from the worst forms of child labor. In addition, social programs to combat child labor are insufficient to adequately address the extent of the problem.

Children in Niger engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in hereditary slavery and mining. (1-4) Children also perform dangerous tasks in agriculture. (5-7) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Niger.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

42.9 (2,516,191)

Attending School (%)

7 to 14

48.0

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

22.1

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

73.2

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2017, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2019. (8)

Source for all other data: International Labor Organization's analysis of statistics from Demographic and Health Survey, 2012. (9)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of rice, fruits, nuts, and vegetables (3,5,6)

Herding and caring for livestock, including cattle (3,6,7)

Fishing (6)

Industry

Quarrying† and mining† for trona, salt, gypsum, natron, and gold (1,2,10-14)

Mechanical repair,† welding,† and metal work† (15)

Working in construction,† tanneries,† and slaughterhouses† (6,7,16)

Services

Street work, including as market vendors, begging,† and scavenging garbage (2,7,16)

Domestic work (2,3,7,10)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (3,4,17-19)

Forced recruitment of children by non-state armed groups for use in armed conflict (4,7,19,20)

Hereditary and caste-based slavery, including for cattle herding, agricultural work, domestic work, and sexual exploitation (3,4,17,19,21,22)

Forced begging for Koranic teachers (2-4,17,22)

Forced labor in domestic work and mining, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (4,10,24,25)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Children in Niger, especially boys and girls from the Arab, Djerma, Peulh, Tuareg, and Toubou ethnic minorities, continue to be exploited as slaves and endure slave-like practices, particularly in distant western and northern regions and along the border with Nigeria. Some children are born into slavery; others are born free but remain in a dependent status and are forced to work with their parents for their former masters in exchange for food, money, and lodging. (3,4,26) A civil society organization specializing in assisting victims of traditional slavery reported that most victims do not self-identify or file complaints against their former masters due to lack of reintegration services and dependency on their former masters. (27) A particular form of slavery in Niger is the wahaya practice, in which men buy girls born into slavery, typically between ages 9 and 11, as “fifth wives.” Child slaves, including those involved in the practice of wahaya, are forced to work long hours as cattle herders, agricultural workers, or domestic workers, and are often sexually exploited. (10,17,21,22,26-29) As with those involved in hereditary slavery, the children of wahaya wives are considered slaves and are passed from one owner to another as gifts or as part of dowries. (7,17,26,29,30)

In 2019, Niger's Supreme Court set legal precedent by ruling wahaya to be illegal. However, the process for enforcing the ruling is unclear. (27,31,32) Anti-slavery organizations have indicated that they will conduct awareness-raising campaigns for the ruling so that more affected women will bring cases to court. (33)

In Niger, it is also a traditional practice to send boys (talibés) to Koranic teachers (marabouts) to receive religious education. However, there are limited reports that some of these boys are forced by their teachers to perform manual labor or to beg on the streets and surrender the money they earn. (2-4,17,19,34)

During the year, Boko Haram attacked numerous villages in the Diffa region along Niger’s border with Nigeria, which caused an influx of Nigerian refugees and Nigerien IDPs and strained the government’s resources for addressing child labor. Evidence suggests that Boko Haram forcibly recruited Nigerien children in the Diffa region. (7,20,35-38) In addition, refugee and internally displaced children may have difficulty accessing education, which makes them particularly vulnerable to engaging in the worst forms of child labor, including recruitment by non-state armed groups. (10,20,30,34)

There are reports of Nigerien children migrating seasonally or being trafficked to Algeria and other neighboring countries where they are forced to engage in begging or commercial sexual exploitation. (38-43) In 2015, this reportedly prompted a non-public agreement between the Nigerien and Algerian authorities for the repatriation of Nigerien migrants from Algeria. In 2018, West African migrant convoys, some of which included unaccompanied or non-Nigerien children, traveled from Algeria to Niger. (41,43-48) These children are highly vulnerable to being re-trafficked or experiencing further exploitation in forced labor, begging, or commercial sexual exploitation in Niger. (4,18,19,39,49,50) International organizations and the Government of Niger's Directorate of Child Protection provided social services, shelter, and access to education to these unaccompanied migrant children, and they are working to resettle or repatriate the foreign unaccompanied children. (19,38,39,49,50)

Although the Constitution of Niger provides for free education, in practice, this provision is not enforced adequately because many children, especially girls, do not attend school. (7,30,34,51) The lack of school infrastructure, school materials, and limited availability of teachers, especially in rural areas, impeded access to education, which may increase the vulnerability of children to the worst forms of child labor. (3,18,30,52,53)

Niger has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Niger’s legal framework to adequately protect children from the worst forms of child labor, including the minimum age for work.

Table 4.Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

No

14

Article 106 of the Labor Code (54)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 159 of Decree No. 2017–682 (55)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Articles 159–161 and 164–171 of Decree No. 2017–682; Article 181 of the Penal Code (55,56)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 14 of the Constitution; Article 4 of the Labor Code; Article 158 of Decree No. 2017–682; Article 2 of the Law on Combating Trafficking in Persons; Article 270 of the Penal Code (51,54-56)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 107 of the Labor Code; Article 158 of Decree No. 2017–682; Article 10 of the Law on Combating Trafficking in Persons; Article 16 of the Law 2015–36 on Illicit Traffic of Migrants (54,55,57,58)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 107 of the Labor Code; Article 158 of Decree No. 2017–682; Articles 291–292 of the Penal Code; Article 10 of the Law on Combating Trafficking in Persons (54-57)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 107 of the Labor Code; Article 158 of Decree No. 2017–682; Articles 10 and 16 of the Law on Combating Trafficking in Persons; Article 181 of the Penal Code (54-57)

Minimum Age for Voluntary State Military Recruitment

Yes

18

Article 107 of the Labor Code (54)

Prohibition of Compulsory Recruitment of Children by (State) Military

N/A*

   

Prohibition of Military Recruitment by Non-state Armed Groups

Yes

 

Article 107 of the Labor Code (52,54)

Compulsory Education Age

No

   

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 23 of the Constitution (51)

* No conscription (59)

In 2018, Niger was the first African country to pass a law to protect and assist IDPs. The Law for the Protection and Assistance to Internally Displaced Persons establishes special protections for internally displaced children and penalties of 15 to 30 years in prison and a monetary fine of $3,400 to $8,600 for anyone who recruits internally displaced children to partake in hostilities, or for the purpose of sexual exploitation. (60-62)

Although the Labor Code establishes age 14 as the minimum age for work, it does not apply to workers in the informal economy, which does not conform to international standards that require all children to be protected under the law by establishing a minimum age for work. (63)

In 2018, the Ministry of Primary Education, Literacy, the Promotion of National Languages and Civic Education indicated that the President of Niger had committed to guaranteeing free and compulsory education for children until age 16. However, the Government of Niger has not provided a copy of the legislative or regulatory text that makes education compulsory and free until age 16. (64,65) Article 2 of the Law on the Orientation of the Educational System in Niger guarantees education for all children ages 4 to 18 but does not establish a compulsory education age. (66) In addition, in December 2017, the government passed a decree to promote girls' access to education and to prevent girls from leaving school before completing basic education. (65,67)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the authority of the Ministry of Employment, Labor and Social Security (MELSS) that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Employment, Labor and Social Security (MELSS)

Enforces labor laws and investigates Labor Code infractions, including those on child labor. In addition, conducts awareness-raising programs to combat child labor. (3,15,68,69)

National Agency to Fight Against Trafficking in Persons and Illegal Migrant Transport (ANLTP/TIM)

Implements policies and programs developed by the National Commission to Coordinate Efforts to Combat Trafficking in Persons (CNCLTP), conducts awareness campaigns about human trafficking, provides training and education to reduce the risk of human trafficking, and maintains a hotline to receive complaints on human trafficking. (4,70-72)

Ministry for the Promotion of Women and Child Protection

Works with law enforcement officials to provide vulnerable children with social and reintegration services, including education and counseling, in 54 Centers for Prevention, Promotion, and Protection (CEPPP) across the country. (3,13,73)

National Civil Police Force Morals and Minors Brigade

Investigates criminal cases involving minors, including issues pertaining to human trafficking, commercial sexual exploitation, and hereditary slavery. Housed under the Ministry of Interior and Public Security. (13,17,74)

Ministry of Justice’s District and Magistrate Courts

Enforces criminal laws related to child labor through 10 district courts and 30 magistrate courts. (13,15,68)

Regional and Vigilance Committees

Prevent child trafficking by alerting law enforcement of activities linked to human trafficking, directing victims of human trafficking to law enforcement, and working closely with the Minister of Interior to raise awareness of child labor. Vigilance committees, which exist in 30 localities, report suspected cases of illegal transport of minors to the police. (75,76)

National Human Rights Commission

Receives complaints and conducts investigations of human rights violations, including hereditary slavery. (3,68)

Labor Law Enforcement
In 2018, labor law enforcement agencies in Niger took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the authority of the MELSS that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including lack of financial and human resources.

Table 6.Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2017

2018

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$20,000 (7)

$20,000 (19)

Number of Labor Inspectors

47 (7)

47 (19)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (7)

Yes (19)

Initial Training for New Labor Inspectors

N/A (7)

N/A (19)

 

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Yes (7)

Yes (19)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (7)

Yes (19)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

163 (7)

Unknown (19)

 

Number Conducted at Worksite

163 (7)

Unknown (19)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown (7)

Unknown (19)

 

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown (7)

Unknown (19)

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that Were Collected

Unknown (7)

Unknown (19)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (7)

Yes (19)

 

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (7)

Yes (19)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (7)

Yes (19)

 

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (7)

Unknown (19)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (7)

Yes (19)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (7)

Yes (19)

During the reporting period, the MELSS employed 47 labor inspectors, which is likely insufficient for the size of Niger’s workforce, which includes approximately 6.5 million workers. According to the ILO’s technical advice of a ratio approaching 1 inspector for every 40,000 workers in less developed countries, Niger would employ about 163 labor inspectors. (77-79) Reports indicate the government lacks equipment, transportation, and funding to conduct labor inspections and legal proceedings, especially in remote locations and in the informal sector, which employs more than 40 percent of the workforce. (7,31,68,80)

Criminal Law Enforcement
In 2018, criminal law enforcement agencies in Niger took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including prosecution planning and allocating financial resources.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2017

2018

Initial Training for New Criminal Investigators

N/A (7)

N/A (19)

 

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Yes (7)

N/A (19)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (7)

Yes (39)

Number of Investigations

Unknown (7)

Unknown (19,39)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown (7)

Unknown (19,39)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown (7)

Unknown (19,39)

Number of Convictions

Unknown (7)

Unknown (19,39)

Imposed Penalties for Violations Related to The Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown (7)

Yes (19,39)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (7)

Yes (39)

In 2018, the Government of Niger reported it trained more than 300 judges, police investigators, and staff from the National Agency to Fight Against Trafficking in Persons and Illegal Migrant Transport (ANLTP/TIM). These trainings covered human trafficking investigation procedures, laws, and chain of custody for trafficking victims. (39) In addition, the government held a regional meeting in Niamey, with the governments of Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, and Mauritania, and international organizations, during which the countries pledged to increase coordination in combating trafficking in persons in the region. (81,82) In 2017, the ANLTP/TIM partnered with an international organization to build the first shelter for human trafficking victims, including children, in Zinder; however, the shelter had not opened by the end of 2018 because a ministerial decree is needed to authorize operations. (22,39,71)

During the reporting period, the government investigated 28 cases related to trafficking in persons and rescued 70 victims; however, it is unclear how many of these cases involved children. Although the ANLTP/TIM maintains and publicizes a hotline to report trafficking in persons crimes, the number of calls received by the hotline that involve child trafficking is unknown. (22,39) Evidence does not show that criminal law enforcement authorities made meaningful efforts to address the use of children for forced mining, forced begging, or traditional forms of caste-based servitude and hereditary slavery. (2,23,30,71,83) Reports indicate that inadequate resources, including insufficient personnel, funding, and training, hamper the capacity of enforcement authorities to coordinate and enforce laws related to child labor. (7,22,23,83)

An informal referral mechanism between NGOs, the police, and government social services is in place, but the resources and facilities available to social services agencies remain inadequate. (4,15,22) Although the exact number of children removed from the worst forms of child labor is unavailable, removal of children from child labor occurs only in extreme exploitative cases, such as child trafficking or forced labor, according to the MELSS. (84)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including funding.

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Steering Committee on Child Labor

Coordinates programs, advises on child labor legislation and regulations, and reviews proposals for action plans for the ILO-IPEC country program. Chaired by MELSS. (13,18,69,85)

National Commission to Coordinate Efforts to Combat Trafficking in Persons and Illegal Migrant Transport (CNCLTP/TIM)

Coordinates efforts to combat human trafficking, and develops and implements policies and programs related to human trafficking.(18,23,57,72) Includes representatives from the MELSS and civil society organizations. (70,85) In 2018, the CNCLTP/TIM supported the ANLTP/TIM to conduct training for law enforcement agencies and raise awareness on laws related to combating trafficking in persons and illicit migrant smuggling. (39)

National Committee to Combat Child Labor in Agriculture

Coordinates policies and programs to combat child labor in agriculture. (86) Chaired by the Ministry of Agriculture, includes representatives from the MELSS and the Ministry for the Promotion of Women and Child Protection, as well as non-governmental stakeholders. (87)

In 2018, the Government of Niger participated in a workshop to reinforce counter-trafficking coordination between member countries of ECOWAS. During the reporting period, the government also dedicated $127,000 to the National Commission to Coordinate Efforts to Combat Trafficking in Persons and Illegal Migrant Transport (CNCLTP/TIM) and ANLTP/TIM, an increase of $7,000 from 2017. (39) However, reports indicate that budget constraints hampered the effectiveness of the CNCLTP. (22,23,71) In addition, research was unable to determine whether the National Steering Committee on Child Labor was active or received any funding during the reporting period. (15)

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including implementation of these policies.

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons (2014–2018)

Aimed to enhance the legal framework to prevent human trafficking, adequately implement the laws, and provide effective protection and care for victims, including children. Led by the ANLTP/TIM. (18,72,76,88) In 2018, the ANLTP conducted a publicity program to help Nigeriens understand and identify trafficking in persons. The campaign included broadcasting anti-trafficking in persons messages via radio and television. In addition, the ANLTP/TIM conducted an education program for religious leaders on combating the forms of child trafficking most closely linked to cultural and religious traditions, such as forced begging, forced labor, and domestic work. (39)

Plan for Social and Economic Development (PDES) (2017–2021)

Aims to promote sustainable development and social equality. Overseen by the Ministry of Planning. (18,89) Includes activities to improve access to education for vulnerable populations, especially migrant children, and to combat street work and forced begging by children. (89) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement PDES during the reporting period.

National Social Protection Strategy

Aims to improve the quality of, and access to, basic education and health services; includes strategies to combat child labor. Overseen by the Ministry for the Promotion of Women and Child Protection. (17,90) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement National Social Protection Strategy during the reporting period.

UNDAF (2014–2018)

Promoted improved access to education for vulnerable children and aimed to build government capacity to address child labor. Fell under the direction of the Ministry of Planning and received support from international donors. (91,92) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement UNDAF during the reporting period.

Education and Training Sectorial Program (2014–2024)

Sets out a comprehensive map to improve the quality of, and access to, basic and higher education. Led by the Ministry of Education. (18,52,93) In 2018, the Government of Niger allocated 15 percent of its budget to education and adopted a decree for establishing protections for girls in school. (64,65,94)

‡ The government has other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor. (18)

The Government of Niger has not adopted the draft National Action Plan to Combat Child Labor, which was drafted in 2015 and aims to eliminate the worst forms of child labor in Niger by 2025. (18,19,95)

In 2018, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However gaps exist in these social programs, including adequacy of efforts to address the problem in all sectors.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

From Protocol to Practice: A Bridge to Global Action on Forced Labor (2015–2019)

USDOL-funded global project implemented by ILO to support global and national efforts aimed at combating forced labor of adults and children under the 2014 ILO Protocol and supporting Recommendation to C.29 on Forced Labor. (95,96) In 2018, a pre-situational analysis was carried out to be used as a basis for developing a national plan of action against slavery in Niger. (97) Additional information is available on the USDOL website.

Global Action Against Trafficking in Persons and the Smuggling of Migrants

$11 million EU-funded global project implemented by UNODC, UNICEF, and the International Organization for Migration (IOM) to combat human trafficking and migrant smuggling. (98,99) In 2018, conducted trainings in combating and identifying trafficking in persons and treatment of children associated with non-state armed groups for law enforcement officials, and formed regional child protection committees. (100-104)

CEPPP†*

Government program replacing the Judicial and Preventive Education Services, in collaboration with UNICEF, to provide food, shelter, education, and vocational training to street children, many of whom are victims of child labor. (2,3,105) In 2018, operated 54 centers nationwide. (73)

Project to Reduce Child Labor in Agriculture (2016–2018)

$247,000 Food and Agriculture Organization-funded program, implemented by the Ministry of Agriculture, that aimed to combat child labor in the agriculture sector, with a focus in the regions of Niamey, Tillabery, Dosso, and Tahoua. (106-108) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement the Project to Reduce Child Labor in Agriculture in 2018.

UNICEF Country Program (2014–2018)

UNICEF-funded program that supported the government’s efforts to improve children’s education, birth registration rates, and social inclusion, and to strengthen child protection programs, including for children of refugees in the Diffa region. (18,111,112) In 2018, in collaboration with IOM, UNHCR, and the Government of Niger's Directorate of Child Protection, provided services, including shelter, access to education and training, and reunification and repatriation for unaccompanied migrant children. (38,113)

World Bank Country Program

Aims to increase access to quality basic and secondary education, improve school infrastructure, and strengthen safety nets for vulnerable populations. (114) In 2018, constructed 195 primary school classrooms and 168 secondary school classrooms. In addition, 99,577 children have benefited from school canteens since the beginning of the project. (115)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Niger.

Although Niger has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the problem, especially in agriculture, herding, mining, and caste-based servitude. Niger also lacks a specific program to assist children exploited by religious instructors. (15,22-24,83,95)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Niger (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Establish a compulsory education age equal to the minimum age of employment.

2016 – 2018

Ensure that the law’s minimum age provisions and protections apply to self-employed children and those in unpaid or non-contractual work.

2015 – 2018

Establish implementing regulation to ensure enforcement of the Nigerien Supreme Court ruling that bans of the practice of wahaya.

2018

Enforcement

Increase the resources and number of labor inspectors and criminal investigators responsible for enforcing labor laws to provide adequate coverage of the workforce and meet the ILO's technical advice.

2009 – 2018

Ensure that inspections and enforcement efforts take place in the informal sector and remote locations, in which most child labor occurs.

2014 – 2018

Increase efforts to ensure that perpetrators of the traditional forms of caste-based servitude, hereditary slavery, and forced mining and begging are prosecuted according to the law.

2010 – 2018

Publish complete information on inspections, violations, and penalties related to child labor.

2012 – 2018

Ensure that government social services providers have sufficient resources and facilities to provide the necessary care to all children withdrawn from hazardous labor.

2015 – 2018

Disaggregate complaints made to the National Agency to Fight Against Trafficking in Persons and Illegal Migrant Transport's hotline by number of children trafficked.

2013 – 2018

Coordination

Ensure that key coordinating mechanisms, such as the National Commission to Coordinate Efforts to Combat Trafficking in Persons and Illegal Migrant Transport and the National Steering Committee on Child Labor, are active and receive adequate funding to fulfill their missions.

2011 – 2018

Government Policies

Adopt and implement the National Action Plan to Combat Child Labor.

2009 – 2018

Ensure that the policies to combat the worst forms of child labor are implemented.

2016 – 2018

Social Programs

Enhance efforts to eliminate barriers and make education accessible for all children, including girls, refugees, internally displaced children, and children in rural communities, by increasing school infrastructure, teacher availability, and school supplies.

2013 – 2018

Expand the scope of programs to address the worst forms of child labor, including in agriculture, herding, mining, and caste-based servitude.

2009 – 2018

Implement a program to target and assist children exploited by religious instructors.

2011 – 2018

Implement the Project to Reduce Child Labor in Agriculture.

2018

  1. L'Institut Danois des Droits de l’Homme (IDDH). Étude de référence sur les Entreprises et les Droits de l’Homme: Cas des industries extractives au Niger. December 2014.
    http://www.publishwhatyoupay.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/Rapport-Niger-basse-def.pdf.

  2. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Niger (ratification: 2000). Published: 2016.
    http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3250644.

  3. UN Human Rights Council. Report of the Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of slavery, including its causes and consequences, Urmila Bhoola - Mission to the Niger. Report No. A/HRC/30/35/Add.1. July 30, 2015.
    http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/HRC/RegularSessions/Session30/Documents/A_HRC_30_35_Add_1_ENG.docx.

  4. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2018: Niger. Washington, DC, June 28, 2018.
    https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-trafficking-in-persons-report/niger/.

  5. Government of Niger. Etude sur le travail des enfants dans les zones rizicoles au Niger. October 2014. Source on file.

  6. Understanding Children's Work. The twin challenges of child labour and educational marginalisation in the ECOWAS region - An overview. July 2014. Source on file.

  7. U.S. Embassy- Niamey. Reporting. January 17, 2018.

  8. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed January 4, 2018. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.
    http://data.uis.unesco.org/.

  9. ILO. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), 2012. Analysis received January 12, 2018. Please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

  10. UN Comité pour la protection des droits de tous les travailleurs migrants et des membres de leur famille. Observations finales concernant le rapport initial du Niger. Report No. CMW/C/NER/CO/R.1. October 11, 2016.
    http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CMW/C/NER/CO/1&Lang=en.

  11. UN International Human Rights Instruments. Core document forming part of the reports of States parties: Niger. Prepared by the Government of Niger. January 2, 2014. Source on file.

  12. UN Office of the High Commissioner on Human Rights. End of Mission Statement by Ms. Urmila Bhoola, Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of slavery, including its causes and consequences to the Country visit to Niger (11-21 November 2014). November 21, 2014.
    http://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=15329&LangID=E.

  13. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Rapport soumis par le Niger en application du paragraphe 1 de l’article 12 du Protocole facultatif à la Convention relative aux droits de l’enfant, concernant la vente d’enfants, la prostitution des enfants et la pornographie mettant en scène des enfants. CRC/C/OPSC/NER/1. November 3, 2017.
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