Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Niger

Cattle
Cattle
Forced Labor Icon
Gold
Gold
Child Labor Icon
Gypsum (Mineral)
Gypsum (Mineral)
Child Labor Icon
Salt
Salt
Child Labor Icon
Trona (Minerals)
Trona (Minerals)
Child Labor Icon
Niger
2017 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2017, Niger made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government of Niger adopted a decree that increased the minimum age for hazardous work to 18 and expanded the number of hazardous occupations prohibited for children. The government also adopted the Plan for Social and Economic Development that includes activities to improve access to education for vulnerable populations, especially migrant children, and combat child street work and forced child begging. In addition, the government continued to participate in a number of programs targeting the worst forms of child labor, including a new program that aims to combat human trafficking and migrant smuggling. However, children in Niger engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in hereditary slavery and mining. Children also perform dangerous tasks in agriculture. Existing child labor laws and regulations do not apply to children in unpaid or non-contractual work, and gaps in enforcement have left children unprotected from the worst forms of child labor. In addition, social programs to combat child labor in Niger are insufficient to adequately address the extent of the problem.

Children in Niger engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in hereditary slavery and mining. (1; 2; 3; 4). Children also perform dangerous tasks in agriculture. (5; 6; 7) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Niger.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

42.9 (2,516,191)

Attending School (%)

7 to 14

48.0

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

22.1

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

71.6

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2016, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2018. (8)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), 2012. (9)

 

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of rice, fruits, nuts, and vegetables (5; 6; 3)

Herding and caring for livestock, including cattle (6; 3; 7)

Fishing (6)

Industry

Quarrying† and mining† for trona, salt, gypsum, natron, and gold (1; 2; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14)

Mechanical repair,† welding,† and metal work† (15)

Working in construction,† tanneries,† and slaughterhouses† (13; 16; 7)

Services

Street work, including as market vendors, beggars,† and scavenging garbage (2; 16; 7)

Domestic work (2; 3; 10; 7)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (3; 4; 17; 18)

Forced recruitment by non-state armed groups for use in armed conflict (4; 19; 7)

Hereditary and caste-based slavery, including for cattle herding, agricultural work, domestic work, and sexual exploitation (3; 4; 17; 20; 21)

Forced begging for Koranic teachers (2; 3; 4; 17; 21)

Forced labor in domestic work and mining, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (10; 22; 4)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

 

Children in Niger, especially boys and girls from the Arab, Djerma, Peulh, Tuareg, and Toubou ethnic minorities, continue to be exploited as slaves and endure slave-like practices, particularly in distant western and northern regions and along the border with Nigeria. Some children are born into slavery, while others are born free, but remain in a dependent status and are forced to work with their parents for their former masters in exchange for food, money, and lodging. (23; 4; 3) A particular form of slavery in Niger is the wahaya practice, in which men buy girls born into slavery, typically between ages 9 and 11, as “fifth wives.” Child slaves, including those involved in the practice of wahaya, are forced to work long hours as cattle herders, agricultural workers, or domestic workers, and are often sexually exploited. (3; 10; 24; 20; 7; 4; 17; 18) As with those involved in hereditary slavery, the children of wahaya wives are considered slaves as well and are passed from one owner to another as gifts or as part of dowries. (13; 25; 4; 17)

In Niger, it is also a traditional practice to send boys (talibés) to Koranic teachers (marabouts) to receive religious education. Some of these boys, however, are forced by their teachers to perform manual labor or to beg on the streets and surrender the money they earn. (2; 3; 4; 17; 21)

During the year, Boko Haram attacked numerous villages in the Diffa region along Niger’s border with Nigeria, which caused an influx of Nigerian refugees and Nigerien internally displaced persons and strained the government’s resources for addressing child labor. Evidence suggests that Boko Haram forcibly recruited Nigerien children for use in armed conflict in the Diffa region. (26; 19; 7) In addition, refugee and internally displaced children may have difficulty accessing education, which makes them particularly vulnerable to engaging in the worst forms of child labor, including recruitment by non-state armed groups. (23; 10; 25; 19)

Although the Constitution of Niger provides for free education, in practice, this provision is not enforced effectively because many children, especially girls, do not attend school. (23; 27; 7; 25) The lack of school infrastructure, school materials, and limited availability of teachers, especially in rural areas, impeded access to education, which may increase the vulnerability of children to the worst forms of child labor. (3; 28; 29; 25; 18)

Niger has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Niger’s legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor, including with the minimum age for work.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

No

14

Article 106 of the Labor Code (30)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 159 of Decree No. 2017–682 (31)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Articles 159–161 and 164–171 of Decree No. 2017–682; Article 181 of the Penal Code (32; 31)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 14 of the Constitution; Article 4 of the Labor Code; Article 158 of Decree No. 2017–682; Article 2 of the Law on Combating Trafficking in Persons; Article 270 of the Penal Code (27; 30; 32; 33; 31)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 107 of the Labor Code; Article 158 of Decree No. 2017–682; Article 10 of the Law on Combating Trafficking in Persons; Article 16 of the Law 2015–36 on Illicit Traffic of Migrants (30; 33; 31; 34)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 107 of the Labor Code; Article 158 of Decree No. 2017–682; Articles 291–292 of the Penal Code; Article 10 of the Law on Combating Trafficking in Persons (30; 32; 33; 31)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 107 of the Labor Code; Article 158 of Decree No. 2017–682; Article 10 of the Law on Combating Trafficking in Persons; Article 181 of the Penal Code (30; 32; 33; 31)

Prohibition of Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

N/A*

 

 

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Article 107 of the Labor Code (30)

Non-state

Yes

18

Article 107 of the Labor Code (28; 30)

Compulsory Education Age

No

 

 

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 23 of the Constitution (27)

* No conscription (35)

 

In August 2017, the government adopted a decree regulating certain provisions of the Labor Code, including those related to child labor. (36; 31) The Decree increases the minimum age for hazardous work to 18 as required by international standards and it also expands the number of hazardous occupations or activities prohibited for children, including work with dangerous machinery equipment and tools and work in unhealthy environments that may expose children to hazardous substances or temperatures. (31)

The Labor Code does not apply to self-employed workers, which does not conform with international standards that require all children to be protected under the law establishing a minimum age for work. (23; 28)

Although Article 2 of the Law on the Orientation of the Educational System in Niger guarantees education for all children ages 4 to 18, there is no law that establishes a compulsory education age. (37)

Article 178 of the Penal Code provides penalties for vagrancy, which is defined by Article 177 as a person without a home, an occupation, or means of subsistence. This Article may compel children who live on the streets to engage in the worst forms of child labor. (32; 38)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the authority of the Ministry of Employment, Labor and, Social Security (MELSS) that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Employment, Labor and, Social Security (MELSS)

Enforce labor laws and investigate Labor Code infractions, including those on child labor. In addition, conduct awareness-raising programs to combat child labor. (3; 39; 23; 15)

National Agency to Fight Against Trafficking in Persons and Illegal Migrant Transport (ANLTP/TIM)

Implement policies and programs developed by the National Commission to Coordinate Efforts to Combat Trafficking in Persons (CNCLTP); conduct awareness campaigns about human trafficking; provide training and education to reduce the risk of human trafficking; and maintain a hotline to receive complaints of human trafficking. (40; 41; 42; 4)

Ministry for the Promotion of Women and Child Protection

Work with law enforcement officials to provide vulnerable children with social and reintegration services, including education and counseling, in 34 centers across the country. (3; 14)

National Civil Police Force Morals and Minors Brigade

Investigate criminal cases involving minors, including issues pertaining to human trafficking, commercial sexual exploitation, and hereditary slavery. Housed under the Ministry of Interior and Public Security. (14; 17; 43)

Ministry of Justice’s District and Magistrate Courts

Enforce criminal laws related to child labor through 10 district courts and 30 magistrate courts. (23; 15; 14)

Regional and Vigilance Committees

Prevent child trafficking by alerting law enforcement of activities linked to human trafficking, directing victims of human trafficking to law enforcement, and working closely with the Minister of Interior to raise awareness of child labor. Vigilance committees, which exist in 30 localities, report suspected cases of illegal transport of minors to the police. (44; 45)

National Human Rights Commission (CNDH)

Receive complaints and conduct investigations of human rights violations, including hereditary slavery. (23; 3)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2017, labor law enforcement agencies in Niger took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the authority of the MELSS that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including penalty assessment authorization.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown

$20,000 (7)

Number of Labor Inspectors

73 (46)

47 (7)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (15)

No (7)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (15)

N/A (7)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Yes (15)

Yes (7)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (15)

Yes (7)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

Unknown (15)

163 (7)

Number Conducted at Worksites

Unknown (15)

163 (7)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown (15)

Unknown (7)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties were Imposed

Unknown (15)

Unknown (7)

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that were Collected

Unknown (15)

Unknown (7)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (15)

Yes (7)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (15)

Yes (7)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (15)

Yes (7)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (15)

Yes (7)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (15)

Yes (7)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (15)

Yes (7)

 

During the reporting period, the number of labor inspectors decreased from 73 in 2016 to 47 in 2017, mainly due to better wages offered in the private sector. MELSS was unable to replace the inspectors that departed because the government instituted a hiring freeze during the reporting period. (47) The number of labor inspectors is likely insufficient for the size of Niger’s workforce, which includes approximately 6.5 million workers. According to the ILO’s technical advice of a ratio approaching 1 inspector for every 40,000 workers in less developed countries, Niger should employ about 163 labor inspectors. (48; 49; 50) Reports indicate the government lacks equipment, transportation, and funding to conduct child labor inspections and legal proceedings, especially in remote locations and in the informal sector, which employs over 40 percent of the workforce. (23; 7; 51)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2017, criminal law enforcement agencies in Niger took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including prosecution planning and allocating financial resources.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (15)

N/A (7)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Yes (15)

Yes (7)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (15)

Yes (7)

Number of Investigations

Unknown (15)

Unknown (7)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown (15)

Unknown (7)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

0 (15)

Unknown (7)

Number of Convictions

0 (15)

Unknown (7)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (15)

Yes (7)

 

During 2017, the National Agency to Fight Against Trafficking in Persons and Illegal Migrant Transport (ANLTP/TIM) provided training to 60 judges and police investigators, including from the Morals and Minors Brigade, on laws and the enforcement of laws relating to the worst forms of child labor, including on child trafficking. (15; 41; 4; 21) In addition, the ANLTP/TIM partnered with an international organization to open the first shelter for human trafficking victims, including children, in Zinder, along the border with Nigeria. (41; 21)

During the reporting period, the government investigated 22 cases related to trafficking in persons; however, it is unclear how many of these cases involved children. In November 2017, the Nigerien Civil Police Force, in collaboration with Interpol, conducted a regional operation that rescued eight child victims of human trafficking; however, the number of prosecutions or convictions, if any, that resulted from this operation is unknown. (52; 21) In addition, the number of calls received by the ANLTP/TIM’s hotline that involve child trafficking is unknown. (21) Evidence does not show that criminal law enforcement authorities made meaningful efforts to address the use of children for forced mining, forced begging, or traditional forms of caste-based servitude and hereditary slavery. (2; 41; 53; 25; 4) Reports indicate that inadequate resources, including insufficient personnel, funding, and training, hamper enforcement authorities’ capacity to coordinate and enforce laws related to child labor. (4; 7; 53; 21)

An informal referral mechanism between NGOs, the police, and government social services is in place, but the resources and facilities available to social services agencies remain inadequate. (15; 4; 21) While the exact number of children removed from the worst forms of child labor is unavailable, removal of children from child labor occurs only in extreme exploitative cases, such as child trafficking or forced labor, according to the MELSS. (54)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including with funding.

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role and Description

National Steering Committee on Child Labor

Coordinate programs, advise on child labor legislation and regulations, and review proposals for action plans for the ILO-IPEC country program. Chaired by the MELSS. (55; 39; 14; 18)

National Commission to Coordinate Efforts to Combat Trafficking in Persons and Illegal Migrant Transport (CNCLTP/TIM)

Coordinate efforts to combat human trafficking, and develop and implement policies and programs related to human trafficking. (33; 42; 4; 18) Includes representatives from the MELSS and civil society organizations. (55; 40) During 2017, the CNCLTP/TIM supported the ANLTP/TIM to conduct training for law enforcement agencies and raise awareness on laws related to combatting trafficking in persons and illicit migrant smuggling and developed a procedures manual for government social services providers and civil society to identify and assist victims of trafficking. (41; 18)

National Committee to Combat Child Labor in Agriculture

Coordinate policies and programs to combat child labor in agriculture. (56) Chaired by the Ministry of Agriculture, includes representatives from the MELSS and the Ministry for the Promotion of Women and Child Protection, as well as non-governmental stakeholders. (57) In 2017, worked to implement a $247,000 project to reduce child labor in agriculture and worked with local producers to combat hazardous child labor in agriculture. (58; 59)

 

Reports indicate that budget constraints hampered the effectiveness of the National Commission to Coordinate Efforts to Combat Trafficking in Persons (CNCLTP). (4; 41; 21) In addition, evidence did not find whether the National Steering Committee on Child Labor was active or received any funding during the reporting period. (15)

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including with implementation of these policies.

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor‡

Policy

Description

National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons (2014–2018)

Includes goals of enhancing the legal framework to prevent human trafficking, adequately implementing the laws, and providing effective protection and care for victims, including children. Led by the ANLTP/TIM. (45; 60; 42; 18) In 2017, implemented awareness-raising campaigns in Agadez as part of National Day for Mobilization Against Trafficking in Persons and organized training in Niamey for law enforcement agencies and civil society on human trafficking. (61; 45; 21) In addition, the ANLTP/TIM released a survey on societal perceptions and attitudes toward human trafficking in Niger to inform enforcement and policy efforts. (18; 62; 21)

Plan for Social and Economic Development (2017–2021)†

Aims to promote sustainable development and social equality. Overseen by the Ministry of Planning. (18; 63) Includes activities to improve access to education for vulnerable populations, especially migrant children, and to combat street work and forced begging by children. (63)

National Social Protection Strategy

Aims to improve the quality of, and access to, basic education and health services; includes strategies to combat child labor. Overseen by the Ministry for the Promotion of Women and Child Protection. (64; 17)

UNDAF (2014–2018)

Promotes improved access to education for vulnerable children and aims to build government capacity to address child labor. Falls under the direction of the Ministry of Planning and receives support from international donors. (65; 66)

Education and Training Sectorial Program (PSEF) (2014–2024)

Sets out a comprehensive map to improve the quality of, and access to, basic and higher education. Led by the Ministry of Education. (67; 28; 18) In 2017, the government indicated that the PSEF has increased the primary completion rate in Niger from 49.1 percent in 2012 to 78.4 percent. (68)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.
‡ The government has other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor. (18)

 

In 2017, the First Lady of Niger, along with other leading figures, made a declaration in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire on child protection, including child trafficking, exploitation, child labor, and all other forms of violence against children. (69; 70) Despite this, the Government of Niger has not adopted the draft National Action Plan to Combat Child Labor, which was drafted in 2015 and aims to eliminate the worst forms of child labor in Niger by 2025. (71; 18) In addition, research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement the UNDAF during the reporting period.

In 2017, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However gaps exist in these social programs, including with the adequacy of efforts to address the problem in all sectors.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

From Protocol to Practice: A Bridge to Global Action on Forced Labor (2015–2019)*

USDOL-funded global project implemented by the ILO to support global and national efforts aimed at combating forced labor of adults and children under the 2014 ILO Protocol and supporting Recommendation to C.29 on Forced Labor. (71; 72) In 2017, named Niger to the project to help implement the Protocol, particularly as it relates to hereditary forms of slavery. Additional information is available on the USDOL website.

Global Action Against Trafficking in Persons and the Smuggling of Migrants (GLO ACT)*

$11 million EU-funded global project implemented by UNODC, UNICEF, and the IOM to combat human trafficking and migrant smuggling. In 2017, conducted training for justice enforcement officials on child trafficking. (73; 74)

Centers for Education, Legal, and Preventive Services (SEJUP)†

Government program, in collaboration with UNICEF, aims to provide food, shelter, education, and vocational training to street children, many of whom are victims of child labor. In 2017, operated 34 centers nationwide. (2; 3; 75)

Project to Reduce Child Labor in Agriculture (2016–2018)

$247,000 FAO-funded program, implemented by the Ministry of Agriculture, that aims to combat child labor in the agriculture sector, with a focus in the regions of Niamey, Tillabery, Dosso, and Tahoua. In 2017, worked with local producers to combat hazardous child labor in agriculture. (58; 76; 59)

Project to Prevent and Protect Children from Commercial Sexual Exploitation (2015–2017)

$470,000 Government of Luxembourg-funded, 2 year project to combat commercial sexual exploitation of children in the regions of Niamey, Tillabery, and Dosso. Over 3 years, provided reintegration services to 2,000 children and raised awareness of 18,000 people on commercial sexual exploitation of children. (77; 78)

UNICEF Country Program (2014–2017)

UNICEF-funded program that supports the government’s efforts to improve children’s education, birth registration rates, and social inclusion, and to strengthen child protection programs, including for children of refugees in the Diffa region. In 2017, provided protection and reintegration services to 10,561 at-risk children. (79; 18; 80)

World Bank Country Program

Aims to increase access to quality basic and secondary education, improve school infrastructure, and strengthen safety nets for vulnerable populations. In 2017, completed construction of 440 classrooms in primary schools, provided education grants to 700 girls in secondary schools, and delivered cash transfers to 40,542 project participant households. (81; 82)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Niger.

 

Although Niger has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the problem, especially in agriculture, herding, mining, and caste-based servitude. Niger also lacks a specific program to assist children exploited by religious instructors. (15; 83; 53; 4; 71; 21)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Niger (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Establish a compulsory education age equal to or higher than the minimum age of employment.

2016 – 2017

Ensure that the law’s minimum age provisions and protections apply to self-employed children and those in unpaid or non-contractual work.

2015 – 2017

Ensure that street children are not compelled to engage in child labor by means of penalizing vagrancy.

2009 – 2017

Enforcement

Ensure the Labor Inspectorate has authority to determine and assess penalties.

2016 – 2017

Increase the resources and number of labor inspectors and criminal investigators responsible for enforcing laws related to child labor to provide adequate coverage of the workforce.

2009 – 2017

Ensure inspections and enforcement efforts take place in the informal sector and remote locations, in which most child labor occurs.

2014 – 2017

Increase efforts to ensure that perpetrators of the traditional forms of caste-based servitude, hereditary slavery, and forced mining and begging are prosecuted according to the law.

2010 – 2017

Publish complete information on violations, and penalties related to child labor, as well as the number of criminal law investigations, violations, prosecutions, and convictions.

2012 – 2017

Ensure government social services providers have sufficient resources and facilities to provide the necessary care to all children withdrawn from hazardous labor.

2015 – 2017

Disaggregate complaints made to the ANLTP/TIM’s hotline by number of children trafficked.

2013 – 2017

Coordination

Ensure that key coordinating mechanisms, such as the CNCLTP and the National Steering Committee on Child Labor, are active and receive adequate funding to fulfill their missions.

2011 – 2017

Government Policies

Adopt and implement the National Action Plan to Combat Child Labor.

2009 – 2017

Ensure that the UNDAF is implemented.

2016 – 2017

Social Programs

Enhance efforts to eliminate barriers and make education accessible for all children, including girls, refugees, internally displaced children, and children in rural communities by increasing school infrastructure, teacher availability, and school supplies.

2013 – 2017

Expand the scope of programs to address the worst forms of child labor, including in agriculture, herding, mining, and caste-based servitude.

2009 – 2017

Implement a program to target children exploited by religious instructors.

2011 – 2017

1. L'Institut Danois des Droits de l’Homme (IDDH). Étude de référence sur les Entreprises et les Droits de l’Homme: Cas des industries extractives au Niger. December 2014. http://www.publishwhatyoupay.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/Rapport-Niger-basse-def.pdf.

2. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Niger (ratification: 2000) Published: 2016. Accessed October 24, 2016. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3250644.

3. UN Human Rights Council. Report of the Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of slavery, including its causes and consequences, Urmila Bhoola - Mission to the Niger. July 30, 2015: Report No. A/HRC/30/35/Add.1. http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/HRC/RegularSessions/Session30/Documents/A_HRC_30_35_Add_1_ENG.docx.

4. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2017: Niger. Washington, DC. June 27, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2017/271254.htm.

5. Government of Niger. Etude sur le travail des enfants dans les zones rizicoles au Niger. October 2014. [Source on file].

6. Understanding Children's Work. The twin challenges of child labour and educational marginalisation in the ECOWAS region - An overview. July 2014. http://www.ucw-project.org/attachment/ECOWAS_child_labour_educational_marginalisation20140709_130339.pdf.

7. U.S. Embassy- Niamey. Reporting, January 17, 2018.

8. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed January 4, 2018. http://data.uis.unesco.org/. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

9. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), 2012. Analysis received January 12, 2018. please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

10. UN Comité pour la protection des droits de tous les travailleurs migrants et des membres de leur famille. Observations finales concernant le rapport initial du Niger. October 11, 2016: Report No. CMW/C/NER/CO/R.1. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CMW%2fC%2fNER%2fCO%2f1&Lang=en.

11. UN International Human Rights Instruments. Core document forming part of the reports of States parties: Niger. Prepared by the Government of Niger. January 2, 2014. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=HRI%2fCORE%2fNER%2f2013&Lang=en.

12. Daily Motion. Les Mines d'or au Niger l'Enfer des Enfants. July 25, 2015. http://www.dailymotion.com/video/x2z8vdr.

13. UN Office of the High Commissioner on Human Rights. End of Mission Statement by Ms. Urmila Bhoola, Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of slavery, including its causes and consequences to the Country visit to Niger (11-21 November 2014). November 21, 2014. http://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=15329&LangID=E.

14. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Rapport soumis par le Niger en application du paragraphe 1 de l’article 12 du Protocole facultatif à la Convention relative aux droits de l’enfant, concernant la vente d’enfants, la prostitution des enfants et la pornographie mettant en scène des enfants. November 3, 2017: CRC/C/OPSC/NER/1. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fOPSC%2fNER%2f1&Lang=en.

15. U.S. Embassy- Niamey. Reporting, February 1, 2017.

16. ILO. Rapport de l'Enquete Nationale sur le Travail des Enfants au Niger de 2009. Niamey, National Institute of Statistics of Niger. September 2011. [Source on file].

17. Association Nigérienne pour le Traitement de la Délinquance et la Prévention du Crime (ANTD) and ECPAT. L’Exploitation Sexuelle des Enfants au Niger. November 1, 2017. [Source on file].

18. ECPAT. Niger: Global Report on Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children. 2017. http://www.ecpat.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/CMR_NIGER.pdf .

19. UNICEF. Niger Humanitarian Situation Report- July-August 2017. August 31, 2017. https://www.unicef.org/appeals/files/UNICEF_Niger_Humanitarian_Situation_Report__July_August_2017.pdf.

20. Kane Abou, Oumarau. Pratiques esclavagistes et situation de travail forcé au Niger, ILO Pactrad II. July 28, 2015. [Source on file].

21. U.S. Embassy- Niamey. Reporting, February 16, 2018.

22. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29) Niger (ratification: 1961) Published: 2013. Accessed April 23, 2014. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3078821.

23. U.S Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2016: Niger. Washington, DC. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265498.pdf.

24. UN Population Fund. Niger: In one girl's stand against child marriage, a path forward for development. September 29, 2014. http://www.unfpa.org/public/home/news/pid/18338.

25. UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women. Concluding observations on the combined third and fourth periodic reports of the Niger. July 24, 2017: CEDAW/C/NER/CO/3-4. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CEDAW%2fC%2fNER%2fCO%2f3-4&Lang=en.

26. Murphy, Tom. UNICEF: Boko Haram's use of children for bomb attacks triples. Humanosphere. April 13, 2017. http://www.humanosphere.org/human-rights/2017/04/unicef-boko-harams-use-of-children-for-bomb-attacks-triples/.

27. Government of Niger. Constitution de la VIIe République. Enacted: November 25, 2010. http://mjp.univ-perp.fr/constit/ne2010.htm.

28. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Niger (ratification: 1978) Published: 2016. Accessed October 24, 2016. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3250630.

29. UNESCO. Global Education Monitoring Report- Education for People and Planet: Creating Sustainable Futures for All. 2016. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002457/245752e.pdf.

30. Government of Niger. Labor Code. Enacted: September 25, 2012. [Source on file].

31. —. Decree 2017-682 Regulating the Labor Code. August 10, 2017. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/MONOGRAPH/105523/129048/F1791736746/NER-105523.pdf.

32. —. Code Pénal, Loi N° 2003-025. Enacted: June 13, 2003. http://www.droit-afrique.com/upload/doc/niger/Niger-Code-2003-penal.pdf.

33. —. Law on Combating Trafficking in Persons. Enacted: December 16, 2010. [Source on file].

34. —. Law 2015-36 on illicit trafficking of migrants. May 26, 2015. [Source on file].

35. Child Soldiers International. Louder than words - An agenda for action to end state use of child soldiers. 2012. https://www.child-soldiers.org/shop/louder-than-words-1.

36. Garba, Kane Assamaou. Communiqué du Conseil des Ministres du jeudi 10 août 2017. Niger Inter. August 10, 2017. http://www.nigerinter.com/2017/08/communique-du-conseil-des-ministres-du-jeudi-10-aout-2017/.

37. Government of Niger. Loi N° 98-12 du 1er juin 1998, portant orientation du système éducatif nigérien. Enacted: June 1, 1998. http://www.men.ne/titre1.html.

38. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29) Niger (ratification: 1961) Published: 2014. Accessed April 21, 2014. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3287334 .

39. Government of Niger, Ministry of Employment, Labour, and Social Security. Niger. Business and Human Rights Resource Centre. http://business-humanrights.org/en/niger-3#.

40. Government of Niger, Ministry of Justice. Determinant l'organisation, la composition, et les modalites de fonctionnement de l'Agence Nationale de la Lutte contre la Traite des Personnes. March 21, 2012. [Source on file].

41. U.S. Embassy- Niamey. Reporting, October 30, 2017.

42. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29) Niger (ratification: 1961) Published: 2017. Accessed November 14, 2017. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3287334.

43. Government of Niger. Portant Création, Attributions et organisation du Service Central de Protection des Mineurs et des Femmes au Niger. January 28, 2011. [Source on file].

44. U.S. Embassy- Niamey. Reporting, January 14, 2015.

45. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Niger (ratification: 2000) Published: 2016. Accessed October 24, 2016. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3250648.

46. U.S. Embassy- Niamey. Reporting, March 1, 2017.

47. —. Reporting, February 23, 2018.

48. CIA. The World Factbook. Accessed January 19, 2018. https://www.cia.gov/Library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2095rank.html. Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

49. ILO Committee on Employment and Social Policy. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. November 2006: GB.297/ESP/3. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf.

50. UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2017 Statistical Annex. New York. 2017. http://www.un.org/en/develhttps://www.un.org/development/desa/dpad/wp-content/uploads/sites/45/publication/2017wesp_full_en.pdf. Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

51. Medina, Leandro et al. The Informal Economy in Sub-Saharan Africa: Size and Determinants. IMF. July 10, 2017: Working Paper. https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/WP/Issues/2017/07/10/The-Informal-Economy-in-Sub-Saharan-Africa-Size-and-Determinants-45017.

52. INTERPOL. INTERPOL-led operation rescues 500 victims of human trafficking, leads to 40 arrests. November 23, 2017. https://www.interpol.int/News-and-media/News/2017/N2017-162.

53. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29) Niger (ratification: 1961) Published: 2017. Accessed November 14, 2017. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3287330.

54. U.S. Embassy- Niamey. Reporting, January 25, 2016.

55. —. Reporting, January 17, 2014.

56. UN Food and Agriculture Organization Rome official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 23, 2015.

57. Government of Niger. Decree portant l'creation du Comite de pilotage du projet Travail des Enfants dans l'Agriculture. Enacted: October 28, 2014. [Source on file].

58. UN Food and Agriculture Organization Rome official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 11, 2017.

59. UN Food and Agriculture Organization. New guide to prevent child labour in conflicts and disasters. June 12, 2017. http://www.fao.org/news/story/en/item/895603/icode/.

60. Government of Niger. Plan d’Actions National de Lutte contre la Traite des Personnes. 2014. [Source on file].

61. U.S. Embassy- Niamey. Reporting, February 13, 2017.

62. Government of Niger. Enquete sur les comportements, attitudes et pratiques des populations en matiere de traite des personnes au Niger. November 2016. http://www.stat-niger.org/statistique/file/Annuaires_Statistiques/Justice/Rapport_Enquete_CAP_2016.pdf.

63. —. Plan de Développement Economique et Social 2017-2021. 2017. http://www.ne.undp.org/content/dam/niger/docs/UNDP-NE-PDES%202017-2021.pdf.

64. —. Politique Nationale de Protection Sociale. August 2011. http://faolex.fao.org/docs/pdf/Ner146468.pdf.

65. UNDAF. Plan Cadre des Nations Unies pour l’Assistance au Développement (UNDAF) NIGER 2014 – 2018. 2014. http://www.uncclearn.org/sites/default/files/niger_undaf.pdf.

66. Government of Niger and United Nations Country Team. Rapport de la revue annuelle 2014 du Plan Cadre d’Assistance au Développement (UNDAF). December 23, 2015. [Source on file].

67. Government of Niger. Education and Training Sectorial Program (2014-2024). 2013. http://www.karanta.org/IMG/pdf/psef_niger.pdf.

68. —. Declaration liminaire de La Ministre de la Promotion de la Femme et de la Protection de l’Enfant. July 13, 2017. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/Treaties/CEDAW/Shared%20Documents/NER/INT_CEDAW_STA_NER_28103_F.pdf.

69. First Ladies of the Countries of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and the Sahel. Decleration of the First Ladies of West Africa and the Sahel. October 18, 2017. [Source on file].

70. Conference of the First Ladies of West Africa and the Sahel on the Fight Against Child Trafficking, Exploitation, Child Labor, and All Forms of Violence Against Children. Final Communique. October 18, 2017. [Source on file].

71. ILO. The Bridge Project. October 2017: Technical Progress Report. [Source on file].

72. —. From Protocol to Practice: A Bridge to Global Action on Forced Labor. 2015: Statement of Work. [Source on file].

73. Global Action against Trafficking in Persons and the Smuggling of Migrants. Newsletter 2017: Special Edition. June 2017. http://www.unodc.org/documents/human-trafficking/2017/GLO.ACT_Newsletter_Special_Edition_June_2017.pdf.

74. IOM. UN Migration Agency Signs Agreement with Niger to Combat Human Trafficking. September 29, 2017: Press Release. https://www.iom.int/news/un-migration-agency-signs-agreement-niger-combat-human-trafficking.

75. Abdoulaye, Mamane. La ministre de la Population, de la Promotion de la Femme et de la Protection de l'Enfant aux Services Educatifs, Judiciaires et Préventifs (SEJUP): Donner un souffle d'espoir à ces centres. Le Sahel. February 21, 2014. https://nigerdiaspora.net/index.php/politique-archives/item/66458-la-ministre-de-la-population-de-la-promotion-de-la-femme-et-de-la-protection-de-l-enfant-aux-services-educatifs-judiciaires-et-preventifs-sejup-donner-un-souffle-d-espoir-a-ces-centres.

76. UN Food and Agriculture Organization. Niger: Country Profile. 2016. http://www.fao.org/countryprofiles/index/en/?iso3=NER.

77. ECPAT. Prévention, Protection et Plaidoyer contre l’exploitation sexuelle des enfants au Niger. 2016. http://ecpat.lu/nos-actions/niger.

78. —. Prévention, Protection et Plaidoyer contre l’exploitation sexuelle des enfants au Niger. 2017. http://www.ecpat.lu/sites/default/files/resources/Fiche_NIGER_RGB.pdf .

79. UNICEF. UNICEF Annual Report 2015: The Niger. May 6, 2016. https://www.unicef.org/about/annualreport/files/Niger_2015_COAR.pdf.

80. —. Niger: Humanitarian Action for Children. 2018. https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/2018-HAC-Niger.pdf .

81. World Bank. Niger Safety Net Project (P123399). May 3, 2017: Implementation Status & Results Report - Sequence 11. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/685011493827853580/pdf/ISR-Disclosable-P123399-05-03-2017-1493827842234.pdf.

82. —. Niger - GPE - Support to Quality Education Project (P132405). May 30, 2017: Implementation Status & Results Report - Sequence 6. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/905481496166374129/pdf/ISR-Disclosable-P132405-05-30-2017-1496166361737.pdf.

83. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Niger (ratification: 2000) Published: 2014. Accessed April 21, 2014. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3114307.