Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Zimbabwe

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Zimbabwe

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2016, Zimbabwe made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government developed a Trafficking in Persons National Plan of Action, launched Phase III of the National Action Plan for Orphans and Vulnerable Children, and withdrew 178 children from child labor on plantations and sent them back to school. In addition, the Government operated a national case management system throughout 65 districts for child care workers to identify, report, and address child abuse cases, including child labor. However, children are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation and mining. Zimbabwe continues to lack specific social programs targeting sectors in which child labor is most prevalent. Gaps remain in the country’s legal framework against child labor, such as lack of free basic education, which increases children’s vulnerability.

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Children in Zimbabwe engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation and mining.(1-4) Data on key indicators on children’s work and education are not available from the sources used in this report.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

Unavailable

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

Unavailable

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

Unavailable

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

90.2

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2013, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(5)
Data were unavailable from Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis, 2015.(6)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of tea, cotton, tobacco, corn, and sugarcane (2, 3, 7-11)

Fishing, including casting nets, hauling fish loads, and sorting fish (2, 3, 7, 8, 11)

Forestry, such as dragging logs from felling sites and loading logs for transport (2, 3, 10, 11)

Cattle herding (2, 7, 11)

Industry

Mining gold and chrome, and extracting material from underground passages and quarries† (2-4, 7, 12)

Services

Street work, including vending and begging (2, 3, 8-10)

Domestic work (2, 3, 8, 10, 11, 13, 14)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Use in illicit activities, including drug trafficking and gambling (3, 7)

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2, 4, 7, 10, 11, 15, 16)

Working in agriculture, mining for the production of gold and chrome, and domestic work, each as a result of human trafficking (4, 7, 15)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Zimbabwean children are trafficked to South Africa, Mozambique, and Zambia, where they become victims of commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor in domestic work. Zimbabwean children, especially orphans, are sometimes lured by relatives with the promise of education or adoption, but instead are recruited to work within the country as domestic workers or forced to work in mining, drug smuggling, or other illegal activities.(4) The deterioration of Zimbabwe’s economy and manufacturing sector has also led to a recent increase in child labor.(8) A source indicates that local women in the suburb of Epworth organize child prostitution syndicates.(11)

According to UNICEF, approximately 100,000 of Zimbabwe’s 1.3 million orphans survive on their own in child-headed households.(17) The breakdown of the family unit and poverty are major factors in children’s vulnerability to child labor.(7, 17, 18) Citizenship is derived from birth, but many children, especially orphans and children living in rural areas, are not registered due to poverty and lack of awareness of the requirements.(7, 16) Beginning in grade seven, children are unable to sit for exams without a birth registration, leading some to enter the workforce at a young age.(7, 19) School fees are often prohibitively expensive and limit access to education.(8, 18) According to the UN, children with disabilities, especially in rural areas, experience greater abuse, violence, stigma, and exclusion, and, therefore, have limited access to education.(16)

Zimbabwe has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Zimbabwe’s legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

16

Section 3 of the Labor Amendment Act (20)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Section 11(4) of the Labor Act (20)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Section 11(4) of the Labor Act; Section 10A of the Children’s Act (20, 21)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Sections 54 and 55 of the Constitution; Section 4A of the Labor Act (20, 22)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Section 3 of the Trafficking in Persons Act (23)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Section 87 of the Criminal Law Act; Section 3 of the Sexual Offenses Act; Section 8(2) of the Children’s Protection and Adoption Act; Section 3 of the Trafficking in Persons Act (7, 10, 21, 23, 24)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Section 156 of the Criminal Law Act; Section 10 of the Children’s Protection and Adoption Act (7)

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

Yes

18

Section 9 of the National Service Act (25)

State Voluntary

Yes

16

Sections 5 and 10 of the National Service Act (25)

Non-state Compulsory

No

 

 

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

12‡

Section 5 of the Education Act (26)

Free Public Education

No

 

 

‡ Age calculated based on available information (27)

Zimbabwean law does not mandate free basic education for children.(28) Lack of access to basic education may increase the risk of children’s involvement in child labor.(7) In addition, children in Zimbabwe are required to attend school only up to age 12. This standard makes children ages 12 through 15 vulnerable to child labor because they are not required to attend school and not legally permitted to work.(27)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor law and criminal law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Public Service, Labor, and Social Welfare (MPSLSW)

Enforce labor laws and investigate labor-related complaints, including complaints involving child labor. Established a Department for Child Welfare and Probation Services responsible for child protection services, including investigating, intervening in, and reporting on child abuse cases.(7, 10)

Zimbabwe Republic Police (ZRP)

Enforce laws related to the worst forms of child labor in conjunction with the MPSLSW and the Ministry of Justice and Home Affairs.(7) Address issues related to child labor through victim-friendly units in every district. Conduct transnational trafficking investigations through an anti-trafficking desk at Zimbabwe’s INTERPOL office.(7)

Ministry of Justice and Legal Affairs

Oversee all courts, including labor courts. Address trafficking and child victim cases through victim-friendly courts.(7)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, labor law enforcement agencies in Zimbabwe took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown* (2)

Unknown* (11)

Number of Labor Inspectors

Unknown* (2)

120 (11)

Number of Child Labor Dedicated Inspectors

Unknown* (2)

3 (11)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Unknown* (2)

No (11)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown* (2)

N/A (11)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Unknown* (2)

N/A (11)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (2)

Unknown* (11)

Number of Labor Inspections

 

 

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown* (2)

866 (11)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown* (2)

Unknown (11)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown* (2)

436 (11)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown* (2)

Unknown* (11)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

Unknown* (2)

Unknown* (11)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Unknown* (2)

Yes (11)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Unknown* (2)

Yes (11)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (2)

Yes (11)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Unknown* (2)

Yes (11)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

No (2)

Yes (11)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (2)

Yes (11)

* The Government does not publish this information.

During the year, the Government disaggregated the number of child labor cases, including its worst forms. The Ministry of Public Service, Labor, and Social Welfare (MPSLSW) reported cases involving Zimbabwean children: 304 of child labor, 66 of child prostitution, and 6 of child trafficking.(11) According to the MPSLSW, 132 children were withdrawn from the worst forms of child labor and referred to social services.(11)

According to the ILO’s recommendation of 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in developing economies, Zimbabwe should employ roughly 540 labor inspectors.(29, 30) Research indicates that the Government continues to lack sufficient resources, mainly financial, to investigate child labor law violations.(2, 31)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in Zimbabwe did not take actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown* (2)

Unknown* (11)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown* (2)

Unknown* (11)

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown* (2)

Unknown* (11)

Number of Investigations

Unknown* (2)

Unknown* (11)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown* (2)

Unknown* (11)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown* (2)

Unknown* (11)

Number of Convictions

Unknown* (2)

Unknown* (11)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Unknown* (2)

Yes (11)

* The Government does not publish this information.

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Steering Committee to Address the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Address the worst forms of child labor. Chaired by the MPSLSW and includes several government ministries, including the ministries of Health and Child Care; Primary and Secondary Education; and Youth Development, Indigenization, and Empowerment.(32) Also includes international organizations and civil society groups, such as workers’ and employers’ organizations.(32, 33) The committee did not meet during the year.(11)

Ministry-Level Committee on Children’s Issues

Coordinate government ministries’ efforts related to children’s issues, including child labor. Includes the MPSLSW and the ministries of Education; Women’s Affairs; and Youth Development, Indigenization, and Empowerment.(7, 10, 32) The committee met during the year.

Child Protection Committees

Operate at the village, ward, district, provincial, and national levels to discuss issues affecting children, including child labor. Representatives include ministries, civil society, local volunteers, and teachers. Report to the Ministry-Level Committee on Children’s Issues. The committees met regularly during the year.(11)

National Task Force on Street Children

Outline strategies to combat child labor, including feeding street children at drop-in centers, reuniting children with their families, and offering counseling sessions. Chaired by the MPSLSW and includes NGOs that work on street children’s issues.(7, 32) Also includes the Ministry of Home Affairs, represented by the ZRP. The taskforce met twice during the year.(11)

Anti-Trafficking Inter-Ministerial Committee

Create a national action plan to combat human trafficking and promote the reintegration and rehabilitation of trafficking victims, including children.(2, 34) The Committee met during the year to discuss and develop strategies to address trafficking in persons. In 2016, developed and launched the Trafficking in Persons National Plan of Action.(11)

During the year, the MPSLSW oversaw a national case management system that is operational in all 65 districts for child care workers to identify, report, and address child abuse cases, including child labor.(11)

The Government has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Action Plan to Combat Child Labor

Strengthens understanding about child labor issues and creates an entity to coordinate responses to the findings of this analysis. Consists of three focus areas: education assistance, poverty assistance through a cash transfer scheme, and health assistance.(7)

Trafficking in Persons National Plan of Action (2016–2018)

Aims to implement the UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons through the development of strategies to combat human trafficking, with emphasis on prevention, protection, prosecution, and partnership. The plan was developed with technical support from IOM, UNODC, and the Southern African Development Community, and officially launched in July 2016.(35)

 

Although the MPSLSW, in collaboration with the ILO, previously conducted a child labor rapid assessment that prompted the development of the National Action Plan to Combat Child Labor, the Government took no actions to operationalize the plan and did not use the results of the assessment to inform policies or programs.(2)

In 2016, the Government funded and participated in programs that may contribute to the prevention or elimination of child labor (Table 10).

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Phase III of the National Action Plan for Orphans and Vulnerable Children (NAP OVC III) (2016–2020)

UNICEF Child Protection Fund program that includes a focus on equity and access to quality education for children and provides child protection services. Provides a cash transfer program that encourages families to keep children in school.(36) During the year, cash transfers reached at least 52,000 poor households in 19 districts, and provided child protection and welfare services to 35,460 children in 37 districts.(11)

Stop Child Labor Program

Hivos-funded program that establishes child labor-free zones throughout the country. The program includes the Ministry of Labor, Coalition Against Child Labor in Zimbabwe, African Network for the Prevention and Protection Against Child Abuse and Neglect, Progressive Teachers Union of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe Teachers’ Association, and the General Agriculture and Plantation Workers Union.(11) Teachers, labor inspectors, police officers, and other stakeholders support this initiative by sending child laborers back to school.(37) During the year, the program developed a social responsibility project to address child labor in plantations, resulting in 178 children being withdrawn from child labor and sent back to school.(11)

Basic Education Assistance Module†

Government program, supported by the UK Department for International Development, that provides basic financial assistance to families for education costs, such as tuition and examination fees. Aims to keep children in school and to enroll children who lack access to school as a result of economic hardship.(38)

† Program is funded by the Government of Zimbabwe.

The Zimbabwe Youth Council, in collaboration with UNICEF, developed an online platform for sharing and educating the public about harmful social practices that affect children.(39) Although Zimbabwe has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Zimbabwe (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under 18 by non-state armed groups.

2016

Ensure that the age up to which education is compulsory is the same as the minimum age for work.

2016

Ensure that the law establishes free basic education for children through age 15.

2009 – 2016

Enforcement

Increase the number of labor law inspectors to provide sufficient coverage of the workforce to meet the ILO recommendation.

2016

Ensure adequate funding, human resources, and training for the labor inspectorate to conduct child labor inspections.

2009 – 2016

Publish information about the labor inspectorate’s funding, training, and the penalties collected.

2016

Publish information about the training system for criminal investigators, the number of criminal investigations, the number of prosecutions initiated, and the number of convictions achieved.

2015 – 2016

Coordination

Ensure that the National Steering Committee meets regularly to address the worst forms of child labor.

 2016

Government Policies

Implement the National Action Plan to Combat Child Labor.

2010 – 2016

Social Programs

Ensure that children are registered at birth to facilitate their entrance into secondary school.

2014 – 2016

Ensure that children with disabilities have equal access to education.

2016

Expand existing programs to address the scope of the child labor problem.

2010 – 2016

1.         Integrated Regional Information Networks. "Zimbabwe: Child Labour on the Rise." IRINnews.org [online] February 24, 2012 [cited May 6, 2015]; http://www.irinnews.org/report/94939/ZIMBABWE-Child-labour-on-the-rise.

2.         U.S. Embassy- Harare. reporting, January 11, 2016.

3.         U.S. Department of State. "Zimbabwe," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2015. Washington, DC; April 13, 2016; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2015&dlid=252745.

4.         U.S. Department of State. "Zimbabwe," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016. Washington, DC; June 30, 2016; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2016/258895.htm.

5.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed December 16, 2016; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary education. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. The calculation includes all new entrants to the last grade (regardless of age). Therefore, the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

6.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Analysis received December 15, 2016. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

7.         U.S. Embassy- Harare. reporting, Janurary 10, 2014.

8.         Integrated Regional Information Networks. "Zimbabwe's ailing economy fuelling child labour." IRINnews.org [online] January 9, 2014 [cited May 6, 2015]; http://www.irinnews.org/report/99443/zimbabwe-s-ailing-economy-fuelling-child-labour.

9.         "Zimbabwe NGO Tackles Rising Child Labor in Farming Communities." voazimbabwe.com [online] April 19, 2012 [cited May 6, 2015]; http://www.voazimbabwe.com/content/local-project-rises-larger-question-of-rising-child-labor-in-zimbabwe--148149295/1469068.html.

10.       U.S. Embassy- Harare. reporting, January 15, 2015.

11.       U.S. Embassy- Harare. reporting, January 17, 2017.

12.       Makoshori, S. "No Gold Glitters in Artisanal Mining...As Women, Children Are Exploited." Financial Gazette (Harare), June 25, 2015. http://www.financialgazette.co.zw/no-gold-glitters-in-artisanal-mining-as-women-children-are-exploited/.

13.       Mandizha, R. "Poverty breeds child workers " September 11, 2015 [cited Novemeber 6, 2015]; http://www.thezimbabwean.co/2015/09/poverty-breeds-child-workers/.

14.       UNICEF. Zimbabwe Humanitarian Situation Report 6; June 30, 2016. http://www.unicef.org/appeals/files/UNICEF_Zimbabwe_Humanitarian_SitRep_30_June_2016.pdf.

15.       U.S. Embassy- Harare. reporting, February 13, 2015.

16.       UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Concluding observations on the second periodic report of Zimbabwe. Geneva; March 7, 2016. Report No. CRC/C/ZWE/CO/2. https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G16/044/47/PDF/G1604447.pdf?OpenElement.

17.       Eastern and Southern Africa Feature Story for Zimbabwe: " A Partnership That Brings Massive and Reliable Support for Orphans and Other Vulnerable Children in Zimbabwe" UNICEF, [online] April 11, 2014 [cited May 23, 2012]; http://www.unicef.org/har2010/index_zimbabwe_feature.html.

18.       Government of Zimbabwe. 2011 Child Labour Survey Report. Harare; 2012. http://www.zimstat.co.zw/.

19.       U.S. Department of State. "Zimbabwe," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2013. Washington, DC; February 27, 2014; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2012&dlid=204183#wrapper.

20.       Government of Zimbabwe. Labour Relations Amendment Act, Chapter 28:01 Part IV:11, enacted 2002. [source on file].

21.       ILO NATLEX National Labor Law Database. Children's Protection and Adoption Amendment Act; accessed December 15, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex_browse.home.

22.       Government of Zimbabwe. Constitution of Zimbabwe, enacted May 6, 2015. http://www.parlzim.gov.zw/images/documents/Constitution-of-Zimbabwe-Amendment_No_20_-_14-05-2013.pdf.

23.       Government of Zimbabwe. Trafficking in Persons Act, enacted 2014. http://www.justice.gov.il/Units/Trafficking/MainDocs/Zimbabwe_Trafficking_in_Persons_Act_2014.pdf.

24.       Government of Zimbabwe. Sexual Offences Act, Law 8, enacted 2001. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/64993/122047/F-1750780524/ZWE64993.pdf.

25.       International Humanitarian Law: National Implementation. National Service Act: Acts 19/1979, 22/2001; accessed April 11, 2014; http://www.cicr.org/ihl-nat.nsf/WebALL?openview.

26.       Government of Zimbabwe. Education Act, Chapter 25:04, enacted 2001. http://www.unesco.org/education/edurights/media/docs/d0945389cdf8992e8cb5f3a4b05ef3b3aa0e6512.pdf.

27.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Zimbabwe (ratification: 2000) Published: 2017; accessed March 14, 2017; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3289911:NO.

28.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Zimbabwe (ratification: 2000) Published: 2014; accessed April 11, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3139004.

29.       CIA. The World Factbook, [online] [cited March 18, 2017]; https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors based on the country’s level of development as determined by the UN.

30.       ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a “sufficient number” of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a “sufficient” number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

31.       UN Human Rights Council. Compilation prepared by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights in accordance with paragraph 15 (b) of the annex to Human Rights Council resolution 5/1 and paragraph 5 of the annex to Council resolution 16/21: Zimbabwe. Geneva; August 25, 2016. Report No. A/HRC/WG.6/26/ZWE/2. https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G16/188/94/PDF/G1618894.pdf?OpenElement.

32.       U.S. Embassy- Harare official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 14, 2015.

33.       U.S. Embassy- Harare. reporting, February 12, 2013.

34.       U.S. Embassy- Harare. reporting, February 21, 2014.

35.       International Organization for Migration. Zimbabwe Launches Trafficking in Persons National Plan of Action. Press Release; August 5, 2016. http://www.iom.int/news/zimbabwe-launches-trafficking-persons-national-plan-action.

36.       Musekiwa, M. "Child protection agenda: Agenda for the future " [online] December 7, 2016 [cited January 10, 2017]; http://www.herald.co.zw/child-protection-agenda-agenda-for-the-future/.

37.       U.S. Embassy- Harare official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 9, 2016.

38.       "DFID Pledges US$10m to BEAM." Herald.co.zw [online] March 5, 2014 [cited May 6, 2015]; http://www.herald.co.zw/dfid-pledges-us10m-to-beam/.

39.       Guranungo, T. "Empowering the Boy, Girl Child Via SMS." The Herald, Harare, May 11, 2016; Southern Africa. http://allafrica.com/stories/201605110287.html.

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