Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Zimbabwe

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Zimbabwe

2017 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2017, Zimbabwe made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The government established anti-human trafficking task forces in 7 out of 10 provinces, and the Stop Child Labor Program developed a bridge school that provided education and social services to former child laborers. The government also continued funding its cash transfer program, arrested perpetrators engaged in commercial sexual exploitation of children, and withdrew children from the worst forms of child labor. However, children engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation and mining. Children also engage in child labor in agriculture. Zimbabwe continues to lack specific social programs targeting sectors in which child labor is most prevalent. In addition, gaps remain in the country’s legal framework against child labor, such as lack of free basic education, which increases children’s vulnerability.

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Children in Zimbabwe engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation and mining. Children also engage in child labor in agriculture. (1; 2; 3; 4; 5) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Zimbabwe. Data on some of these indicators are not available from the sources used in this report.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

Unavailable

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

Unavailable

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

Unavailable

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

88.9

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2013, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2018. (6)
Data were unavailable from Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis, 2018. (7)

 

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Farming, including the production of tea, cotton, tobacco, corn, and sugarcane (8; 9; 10; 11; 12; 13; 14; 4; 15)

Fishing, including casting nets, hauling fish loads, and sorting fish (8; 9; 10; 12; 15)

Forestry, such as dragging logs from felling sites and loading logs for transport (8; 11; 12)

Cattle herding (8; 12)

Industry

Mining gold and chrome, using dangerous chemicals such as cyanide and mercury, and extracting material from underground passages and quarries† (8; 9; 16; 17)

Services

Street work, including vending and begging (8; 10; 11; 18; 19; 20; 15)

Domestic work (8; 11; 12; 21; 22; 5; 15)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Use in illicit activities, including drug trafficking and gambling (9)

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (8; 9; 11; 12; 23; 24; 1; 25; 2; 3)

Working in agriculture, mining for the production of gold and chrome, and domestic work, each as a result of human trafficking (9; 23; 5)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

 

Zimbabwean children are trafficked to South Africa, Mozambique, and Zambia, where they become victims of commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor in domestic work. Zimbabwean children, especially orphans, are sometimes lured by relatives with the promise of education or adoption, but instead are recruited to work within the country as domestic workers or forced to work in mining, drug smuggling, or other illegal activities. (5) The deterioration of Zimbabwe’s economy also contributes to an increase in child labor. (26; 27; 28) An NGO conducted research that revealed that girls under age 18 engaged in commercial sex due to push factors such as the breakdown of the family unit, poverty, and gender-based violence. (2; 29) In 2017, UNICEF reported that Zimbabwe experienced flooding that damaged schools in Tsholotsho, Hwange, Bubi, Masvingo, and Gokwe North, resulting in the displacement of hundreds of people, including children, from their homes. (30; 31) These push factors increase children’s vulnerability to child labor, including its worst forms. (9)

Citizenship is derived from birth, but many children, especially orphans and children living in rural areas, are not registered due to poverty and lack of awareness of the requirements. (9; 24) Beginning in grade seven, children are unable to sit for exams without a birth registration, leading some to enter the workforce at a young age. (9; 15) School fees are often prohibitively expensive and limit access to education. (10; 32) According to the UN, children with disabilities, especially in rural areas, experience greater abuse, violence, stigma, and exclusion, and, therefore, have limited access to education. (24)

Zimbabwe has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Zimbabwe’s legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor, including access to free public education.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

16

Section 3 of the Labor Amendment Act (33)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Section 11(4) of the Labor Act (33)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Section 11(4) of the Labor Act; Section 10A of the Children’s Act (33; 34)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Sections 54–55 of the Constitution; Section 4A of the Labor Act (33; 35)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Section 3 of the Trafficking in Persons Act (36)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Section 87 of the Criminal Law Act; Section 3 of the Sexual Offenses Act; Section 8(2) of the Children’s Protection and Adoption Act; Section 3 of the Trafficking in Persons Act (36; 37; 38; 39)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Section 156 of the Criminal Law Act; Section 10 of the Children’s Protection and Adoption Act (9; 38; 39)

Prohibition of Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

Yes

18

Section 9 of the National Service Act (40)

State Voluntary

Yes

16

Sections 5 and 10 of the National Service Act (40)

Non-state

No

 

 

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

12‡

Section 5 of the Education Act (41)

Free Public Education

No

 

 

‡ Age calculated based on available information (42)

 

Zimbabwean law does not mandate free basic education for children. (43) Lack of access to basic education may increase the risk of children’s involvement in child labor. (9) In addition, children in Zimbabwe are required to attend school only up to age 12. This standard makes children ages 12–15 vulnerable to child labor because they are not required to attend school and not legally permitted to work. (42)

In 2017, the Mines and Minerals Amendment Bill was under legislative review and awaited final approval. The newly proposed amendments would allow for the revocation of a mining license if miners engaged in the use of child labor. (32)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the operations of the Ministry of Public Service, Labor, and Social Welfare (MPSLSW) that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Public Service, Labor, and Social Welfare (MPSLSW)

Enforce labor laws and investigate labor-related complaints, including complaints involving child labor. Established a Department for Child Welfare and Probation Services responsible for child protection services, including investigating, intervening in, and reporting on child abuse cases. (9; 11)

Zimbabwe Republic Police (ZRP)

Enforce laws related to the worst forms of child labor in conjunction with the MPSLSW and the Ministry of Justice and Home Affairs. (9) Address issues related to child labor through victim-friendly units in every district. Conduct transnational trafficking investigations through an anti-trafficking desk at Zimbabwe’s INTERPOL office. (9)

Ministry of Justice and Legal Affairs

Oversee all courts, including labor courts. Address trafficking and child victim cases through victim-friendly courts. (9)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2017, labor law enforcement agencies in Zimbabwe took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the operations of the MPSLSW that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including penalty assessment authorization.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown* (12)

Unknown* (32)

Number of Labor Inspectors

120 (12)

120 (32)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (12)

No (32)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

N/A (12)

N/A (32)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A (12)

N/A (32)

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown* (12)

Unknown* (32)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

 

 

Number Conducted at Worksites

866 (12)

Unknown* (32)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

436 (12)

Unknown* (32)

Number of Child Labor Violations for which Penalties were Imposed

Unknown* (12)

Unknown* (32)

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that were Collected

Unknown* (12)

Unknown* (32)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (12)

Yes (32)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (12)

Yes (32)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (12)

Yes (32)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (12)

Yes (32)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (12)

Yes (32)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (12)

Yes (32)

* The government does not publish this information.

 

The MPSLSW’s inspectorate has assigned designated agents who conduct inspections in specific regions and labor inspectors who conduct inspections in all regions. (44) It is unclear whether designated agents conduct child labor investigations in the informal sector. Labor inspectors also oversee arbitration and conciliation, which strains their capacity to conduct onsite investigations to combat child labor. (44)

In 2017, the MPSLSW conducted investigations and removed 73 children from commercial sexual exploitation. (25) The MPSLSW transported 53 girls subjected to commercial sexual exploitation to a safe location to receive assistance. (32) The number of labor inspectors is likely insufficient for the size of Zimbabwe’s workforce, which includes approximately 7.9 million workers. According to the ILO’s technical advice of a ratio approaching 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in developing economies, Zimbabwe would employ about 527 labor inspectors. (45; 46) Research indicates that the government continues to lack sufficient resources, mainly financial, to investigate child labor law violations. (8; 47)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2017, criminal law enforcement agencies in Zimbabwe took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the MPSLSW that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including the publication of enforcement data.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown* (12)

Unknown (32)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown* (12)

Unknown (32)

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown* (12)

Unknown (32)

Number of Investigations

Unknown* (12)

Unknown (32)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown* (12)

4 (48)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown* (12)

Unknown (32)

Number of Convictions

Unknown* (12)

Unknown (32)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (12)

Yes (32)

* The government does not publish this information.

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including the efficacy of coordination activities.

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role and Description

National Steering Committee to Address the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Address the worst forms of child labor. Chaired by the MPSLSW and includes the Ministries of Health and Child Care; Primary and Secondary Education; and Youth Development, Indigenization, and Empowerment. (49) Also includes international organizations and civil society groups, such as workers’ and employers’ organizations. (49; 50) It is unclear whether the committee met to address child labor. (32)

Ministry-Level Committee on Children’s Issues

Coordinate government ministries’ efforts related to children’s issues, including child labor. Includes the MPSLSW and the Ministries of Education; Women’s Affairs; and Youth Development, Indigenization, and Empowerment. (9; 11; 49) Research could not find information about the activities and achievements of this coordinating body.

Child Protection Committees

Operate at the village, ward, district, provincial, and national levels to discuss issues affecting children, including child labor. Representatives include ministries, civil society, local volunteers, and teachers. Report to the ministry-level Committee on Children’s Issues. (32) Research could not find information about the activities and achievements of this coordinating body.

National Task Force on Street Children

Outline strategies to combat child labor, including feeding street children at drop-in centers, reuniting children with their families, and offering counseling sessions. Chaired by the MPSLSW and includes NGOs that work on street children’s issues. (9; 49) Also includes the Ministry of Home Affairs, represented by the ZRP. (32) Research could not find information about the activities and achievements of this coordinating body.

Anti-Trafficking Inter-Ministerial Committee

Create a national action plan to combat human trafficking and promote the reintegration and rehabilitation of trafficking victims, including children. (8; 51) The committee met twice during the year. In addition, 7 of 10 provinces established anti-trafficking in persons provincial taskforces led by local community leaders. (32)

 

The National Steering Committee on Victim Friendly Courts met during the year to discuss child protection issues in court proceedings. In addition, the government collaborated with the Zimbabwe National Council for the Welfare of Children (ZNCWC) to develop a child labor handbook that explains the child labor laws to labor inspectors, child protection services staff, and representatives from labor unions. (32) The ZNCWC also signed a Memorandum of Understanding with state broadcaster Zimbabwe Broadcasting Corporation to allow ZNCWC to publish content on child labor issues. (32)

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including mainstreaming child labor issues into relevant policies.

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Action Plan to Combat Child Labor

Strengthens understanding of child labor issues and creates an entity to coordinate responses to the findings of this analysis. Consists of three focus areas: education assistance, poverty assistance through a cash transfer scheme, and health assistance. (9) Research could not determine whether actions were taken during the year.

Trafficking in Persons National Plan of Action (2016–2018)

Aims to implement the UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons through the development of strategies to combat human trafficking, with emphasis on prevention, protection, prosecution, and partnership. The plan was developed with technical support from IOM, UNODC, and the Southern African Development Community, and officially launched in July 2016. (52) During the implementation of the plan, victims received medical assistance, and there were awareness-raising campaigns. (53)

Zimbabwe UN Assistance Development Framework (2016–2020)

Integrates child labor prevention strategies in the Education for All campaign headed by the UN. Promotes gender equality, reduction of HIV/AIDs prevalence, and allocates social resources to address child labor. (54) Research could not determine whether actions were taken during the year.

 

Although the MPSLSW, in collaboration with the ILO, previously conducted a child labor rapid assessment that prompted the development of the National Action Plan to Combat Child Labor, the government took no actions to operationalize the plan and did not use the results of the assessment to inform policies or programs. (8) In 2017, all ministries approved the National Social Protection Policy Framework that includes social protection strategies to address poverty, social insurance, and labor market interventions. Despite this, the policy does not explicitly include child labor prevention and elimination measures. (32)

In 2017, the government funded and participated in programs that may contribute to the prevention or elimination of child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including the adequacy of programs to address the full scope of the problem.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Phase III of the National Action Plan for Orphans and Vulnerable Children (2016–2020)

UNICEF Child Protection Fund program that includes a focus on equity and access to quality education for children and provides child protection services. Provides a cash transfer program that encourages families to keep children in school. (55) During the year, cash transfers reached at least 63,095 poor households in 23 districts, and provided child protection and welfare services to 57,596 children. (53)

Stop Child Labor Program

Hivos-funded program that establishes child labor-free zones throughout the country. The program includes the Ministry of Labor, Coalition Against Child Labor in Zimbabwe, African Network for the Prevention and Protection Against Child Abuse and Neglect, Progressive Teachers Union of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe Teachers’ Association, and the General Agriculture and Plantation Workers Union. (12) Teachers, labor inspectors, police officers, and other stakeholders support this initiative by sending child laborers back to school. (56) In 2017, the Progressive Teachers Union of Zimbabwe and the Coalition Against Child Labor in Zimbabwe developed a bridging school for dropout students. To date, the school has served 92 ex-child laborers. (57) The program funding expired in April 2017. (32)

Basic Education Assistance Module (BEAM)†

Government program, supported by the UK Department for International Development, that provides basic financial assistance to families for education costs, such as tuition and examination fees. Aims to keep children in school and to enroll children who lack access to school as a result of economic hardship. (58) The Government continued support throughout the year, but it is unclear how many students benefitted. (32) BEAM’s primary school beneficiaries totaled 298,186 children, and secondary school beneficiaries totaled 90,284 children. (53)

† Program is funded by the Government of Zimbabwe.

 

In 2017, the Registrar General’s office implemented a mobile birth registration program across the country to ensure that citizens receive identity documents, including birth certificates. (53) Although Zimbabwe has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem, especially the commercial sexual exploitation of children.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Zimbabwe (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under 18 by non-state armed groups.

2016 – 2017

Ensure that the age up to which education is compulsory is the same as the minimum age for work.

2016 – 2017

Ensure that the law establishes free basic education for children through age 15.

2009 – 2017

Enforcement

Ensure that inspectors have sufficient time and resources to conduct core inspection duties such as child labor inspections.

2017

Authorize the labor inspectorate to assess penalties for labor law violations.

2017

Increase the number of labor law inspectors to provide sufficient coverage of the workforce to meet the ILO’s technical advice.

2016 – 2017

Ensure adequate funding, human resources, and training for the labor inspectorate to conduct child labor inspections.

2009 – 2017

Publish information about the Labor Inspectorate’s funding and training, and the penalties collected.

2016 – 2017

Publish information about the training system for criminal investigators, the number of criminal investigations, the number of prosecutions initiated, and the number of convictions achieved.

2015 – 2017

Coordination

Ensure that child labor committees meet regularly to address the worst forms of child labor.

 2016 – 2017

Government Policies

Implement the National Action Plan to Combat Child Labor.

2010 – 2017

Integrate child labor prevention and elimination measures in relevant policies, such as the National Social Protection Policy Framework.

2017

Social Programs

Collect and publish data on the extent and nature of child labor to inform policies and programs.

2017

Ensure that children are registered at birth to facilitate their entrance into secondary school.

2014 – 2017

Ensure that children with disabilities have equal access to education.

2016 – 2017

Expand existing programs to address the scope of the child labor problem, especially to address commercial sexual exploitation of children.

2010 – 2017

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2. Murungweni, Maxim. Organisation steps up fight against sexual exploitation of children. The Herald. September 30, 2017. http://www.herald.co.zw/organisation-steps-up-fight-against-sexual-exploitation-of-children/.

3. NewsDay. Sex exploitation of teenage girls rife. March 4, 2017. https://www.newsday.co.zw/2017/03/sex-exploitation-teenage-girls-rife/.

4. —. The sad story of Arda Transau villagers. January 16, 2017. https://www.newsday.co.zw/2017/01/sad-story-arda-transau-villagers/.

5. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2017: Zimbabwe. Washington, DC. June 27, 2017. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/271345.pdf.

6. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed January 4, 2018. http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Please see “Children’s Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

7. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Analysis received January 12, 2018. Please see “Children’s Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

8. U.S. Embassy- Harare. Reporting, January 11, 2016.

9. —. Reporting, January 10, 2014.

10. Integrated Regional Information Networks. Zimbabwe's ailing economy fuelling child labour. January 9, 2014. http://www.irinnews.org/report/99443/zimbabwe-s-ailing-economy-fuelling-child-labour.

11. U.S. Embassy- Harare. Reporting, January 15 2015.

12. —. Reporting, January 17, 2017.

13. African Independent. Zimbabwe fails to deal with child labour scourge. August 11, 2017. https://www.africanindy.com/news/zimbabwe-fails-to-deal-with-child-labour-scourge-10723133.

14. Chikwanha, Happiness. Child labour thrives in farms? The Sunday Mail. January 15, 2017. http://www.sundaymail.co.zw/child-labour-thrives-in-farms/.

15. World Atlas. Worst Countries for Child Labor. April 25, 2017. http://www.worldatlas.com/articles/worst-countries-for-child-labor.html.

16. Makoshori, Shame. No gold glitters in artisanal mining...as women, children are exploited. Financial Gazette. June 25, 2015. http://www.financialgazette.co.zw/no-gold-glitters-in-artisanal-mining-as-women-children-are-exploited/.

17. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Form of Child Labor Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Zimbabwe (ratification: 2000) Published: 2017. Accessed November 26, 2017. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3289915:YES.

18. Mananavire, Bridget. Nearly 5 000 children live on streets. March 20, 2017. https://www.dailynews.co.zw/articles/2017/03/20/nearly-5-000-children-live-on-streets.

19. Muradzikwa, Sam. Child poverty fuelling child labor worldwide. The Chronicle. June 14, 2017. http://www.chronicle.co.zw/child-poverty-fuelling-child-labour-worldwide/.

20. The Herald. Zimbabwe: A Child Rescued Is a Child Saved. March 22, 2017. http://allafrica.com/stories/201703220664.html.

21. Mandizha, R. Poverty breeds child workers. September 11, 2015. http://www.thezimbabwean.co/2015/09/poverty-breeds-child-workers/.

22. UNICEF. Zimbabwe Humanitarian Situation Report 6. June 30, 2016. http://www.unicef.org/appeals/files/UNICEF_Zimbabwe_Humanitarian_SitRep_30_June_2016.pdf.

23. U.S. Embassy- Harare. Reporting, February 13, 2015.

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25. Government of Zimbabwe. Ministerial Statement, Recorded Commercial Child Sexual Exploitation in Harare. October 4, 2017. http://veritaszim.net/node/2220.

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29. Saunyama, Jairos. Living conditions fuel child sexual exploitation in Hopley. NewsDay. August 19, 2017. https://www.newsday.co.zw/2017/08/living-conditions-fuel-child-sexual-exploitation-hopley/.

30. UNICEF. Zimbabwe Humanitarian Situtation Report (June- July 2017). September 2017. https://www.unicef.org/appeals/files/UNICEF_Zimbabwe_Humanitarian_Situation_Report_Sept_2017.pdf.

31. —. Zimbabwe Humanitarian Mid-Year Situation Report (January-June 2017). June 2017. https://www.unicef.org/appeals/files/UNICEF_Zimbabwe_MidYear_Humanitarian_Situation_Report_June_2017.pdf.

32. U.S. Embassy- Harare. Reporting, March 8, 2018.

33. Government of Zimbabwe. Labour Relations Amendment Act, Chapter 28:01 Part IV:11. Enacted: 2002. [Source on file].

34. ILO NATLEX National Labor Law Database. Children's Protection and Adoption Amendment Act. Accessed December 15, 2014. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex_browse.home.

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36. —. Trafficking in Persons Act. Enacted: 2014. http://www.justice.gov.il/Units/Trafficking/MainDocs/Zimbabwe_Trafficking_in_Persons_Act_2014.pdf.

37. —. Sexual Offences Act, Law 8. Enacted: 2001. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/64993/122047/F-1750780524/ZWE64993.pdf.

38. —. Criminal Law Act of 2004. https://www.zimlii.org/zw/legislation/num-act/2004/23/Criminal%20Law%20%28Codification%20and%20Reform%29%20Act%20%5BChapter%209-23%5D.pdf.

39. —. Children's Protection and Adoption Act (Act No. 22 of 1971 as amended through Act No. 9 of 1997). Enacted: 1971. https://cyber.harvard.edu/population/zimbabwe/child.protect.htm.

40. International Humanitarian Law: National Implementation. National Service Act: Acts 19/1979, 22/2001. Accessed April 11, 2014. http://www.cicr.org/ihl-nat.nsf/WebALL?openview.

41. Government of Zimbabwe. Education Act, Chapter 25:04. Enacted: 2001. http://www.unesco.org/education/edurights/media/docs/d0945389cdf8992e8cb5f3a4b05ef3b3aa0e6512.pdf.

42. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Zimbabwe (ratification: 2000) Published: 2017. Accessed March 14, 2017. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3289911:NO.

43. —. Individual Observation concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Zimbabwe (ratification: 2000) Published: 2014. Accessed April 11, 2014. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3139004.

44. —. Individual Direct Request concerning Labor Inspection Convention, 1947 (No. 81) Zimbabwe (ratification: 1993) and Labor Inspection (Agriculture) Convention, 1969 (No. 129) Zimbabwe (ratification: 1993) Published: 2017. Accessed November 26, 2017. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3298230.

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46. ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy. November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

47. UN Human Rights Council. Compilation prepared by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights in accordance with paragraph 15 (b) of the annex to Human Rights Council resolution 5/1 and paragraph 5 of the annex to Council resolution 16/21: Zimbabwe. Geneva. August 25, 2016: Report No. A/HRC/WG.6/26/ZWE/2. https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G16/188/94/PDF/G1618894.pdf?OpenElement.

48. The Zimbabwe Mail. Katswe Sistahood calls for arrest of paedophiles ...as 54 girls rescued from sexual exploitation. September 20, 2017. http://www.thezimbabwemail.com/zimbabwe/katswe-sistahood-calls-arrest-paedophiles-54-girls-rescued-child-sexual-exploitation/.

49. U.S. Embassy- Harare official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 14, 2015.

50. U.S. Embassy- Harare. Reporting, February 12, 2013.

51. —. Reporting, February 21, 2014.

52. International Organization for Migration. Zimbabwe Launches Trafficking in Persons National Plan of Action. Press Release. August 5, 2016. http://www.iom.int/news/zimbabwe-launches-trafficking-persons-national-plan-action.

53. U.S. Embassy- Harare. Reporting, May 18, 2018.

54. UNDAF. Supporting Inclusive Growth & Sustainable Development. Zimbabwe United Nations Development Assistance Framework - ZUNDAF 2016-2020. Accessed November 27, 2017. http://www.zw.one.un.org/sites/default/files/Publications/UNZimbabwe/ZUNDAF%202016%20-%202020.pdf.

55. Makwanya, Musekiwa. Child protection agenda: Agenda for the future. The Herald. December 7, 2016. http://www.herald.co.zw/child-protection-agenda-agenda-for-the-future/.

56. U.S. Embassy- Harare official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 9, 2016.

57. Plus Media Solutions. The unions of Zimbabwe unite against child labor. June 13, 2017. [Source on file].

58. The Herald. DFID Pledges US$10m to Beam. March 5, 2014. http://www.herald.co.zw/dfid-pledges-us10m-to-beam/.

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