Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Zambia

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Zambia

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2016, Zambia made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government hired additional labor inspectors and approved a new development assistance framework that aims to prevent the worst forms of child labor. The Government also supported the development of programming to empower adolescent girls and reduce child labor in rural areas. However, children in Zambia continue to engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in the production of tobacco, and in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Gaps remain in the legal framework related to children; for example, the Education Act does not include the specific age to which education is compulsory, which may leave children under the legal working age vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor. In addition, law enforcement agencies lack the necessary human and financial resources to adequately enforce laws against child labor.

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Children in Zambia engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in the production of tobacco and commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking.(1-3) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Zambia.

Table 1. Statistics on Children's Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

28.1 (992,722)

Working children by sector

 

 

Agriculture

 

91.8

Industry

 

1.2

Services

 

7.0

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

65.2

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

27.6

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

81

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2013, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(4)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s Analysis of Statistics from the Labour Force Survey, 2008.(5)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children's Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of corn, coffee, tea, and sunflowers (1, 3)

Production of cotton† and production of tobacco,† including transplanting, watering, weeding, ridging, grading, stringing, reaping, and applying fertilizers (1, 3, 6, 7)

Raising and herding† cattle (2, 8-11)

Fishing,† working on boats, cutting and smoking fish (1, 12)

Producing charcoal† (1)

Industry

Mining gems, including amethysts and emeralds (1)

Mining lead, zinc, iron ore, and copper (1)

Quarrying rock, conducting rudimentary mine drilling,† and scavenging mine dump sites (1-3, 11)

Crushing stones† (2, 10, 11, 13)

Construction, including transporting construction materials (1, 3, 14, 15)

Services

Domestic work (2, 3, 11, 16, 17)

Street work, including begging and vending (1, 2, 11, 15, 16)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1, 15)

Agriculture activities, mining, and domestic work, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1, 3, 14, 15, 18)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Children trafficked inside Zambia are primarily trafficked from rural to urban areas for domestic work and agriculture.(1, 15, 18) Some children in Zambia are forced to load trucks with stolen copper ore by Jerabo gangs, which are illegal mining syndicates in the Copperbelt province.(3, 15, 18) Along Zambia’s borders, the commercial sexual exploitation of children is common.(15) The Government has yet to release information on child labor from its 2008, 2012, or 2014 Labour Force Surveys, although the general Labour Force Survey results, which did not include data on child labor, were released in 2011, 2014, and 2016, respectively.(2, 19, 20)

Long distances to schools create a barrier to education.(6) Families also face costs for basic education, including fees for school supplies, which prevent some children from attending school.(3, 6, 17)

Zambia has ratified most key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

 

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

 

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

Zambia has not ratified the UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, although commercial sexual exploitation of children continues to be a problem in the country.(15)

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Zambia’s legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Article 24 of the Constitution; Article 12 of the Employment Act (21-23)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 17 of the Employment of Young Persons and Children Act; Article 3 of the Prohibition of Employment of Young Persons and Children (Hazardous Labour) Order (24, 25)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Prohibition of Employment of Young Persons and Children (Hazardous Labour) Order (25)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 14 and 24 of the Constitution; Articles 143 and 263 of the Penal Code; Article 3 of the Anti-Human Trafficking Act of 2008 (21, 23, 26, 27)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 24 of the Constitution; Article 143 of the Penal Code; Article 3 of the Anti-Human Trafficking Act of 2008 (21, 23, 26, 27)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 144 of the Penal Code; Article 2 of the Employment of Young Persons and Children Act (24, 27)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 2 of the Employment of Young Persons and Children Act (24)

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

N/A*

 

 

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Article 14 of the Defence Act (28)

Non-state Compulsory

Yes

18

Article 3 of the Anti-Human Trafficking Act of 2008 (26)

Compulsory Education Age

No

 

Article 16 of the Education Act, 2011 (29)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 15 of the Education Act, 2011 (29)

* No conscription (28)

Gaps remain in the legal framework. Penalties for child prostitution violations in the Employment of Young Persons and Children Act are different from those in the Penal Code.(30) Although the Penal Code treats child prostitution as a felony, with a minimum 20-year jail sentence, the Employment of Young Persons and Children Act treats it as a civil penalty and imposes a fine of $35 to $165 and possible discretionary prison time. In practice, the heavier statute of the Penal Code would be applied; however, research did not uncover any such prosecutions in recent years.(31, 32)

The Education Act requires the Government to provide free education up to the seventh grade and stipulates that education is compulsory for children of “school-going age.”(1, 29, 33) The Act, however, does not set a specific age or define “school-going age,” which may allow children to leave school before they are legally able to work.(29) The lack of standards in this area may increase the risk of children's involvement in the worst forms of child labor.

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor law and criminal law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor and Social Security (MLSS) Child Labor Unit (CLU)

Implement and enforce child labor laws.(1, 14) Play advisory role for different Government agencies. Also responsible for the regulation of child labor laws.(20)

Zambia Police Service Child Protection Unit

Work with the MLSS and the Ministry of Youths, Sports, and Child Development to identify and remove vulnerable children from the streets. Work with 72 District Street Children Committees to rescue street children from child labor, including the worst forms, and place them with families, in foster care, or in children's homes.(2, 19) Work with immigration officials to combat child trafficking, with local officials, regarding crimes against children and with schools to educate and sensitize children about abuse. Collaborate with the Ministry of Justice to investigate and prosecute child labor cases.(19, 34)

Zambia Police Service Victim Support Unit

Handle the enforcement of laws against human trafficking, commercial sexual exploitation, and use of children in illicit activities.(1, 14, 19)

Ministry of Justice

Investigate and prosecute child labor cases.(19, 34)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, labor law enforcement agencies in Zambia took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown

$350,049 (11)

Number of Labor Inspectors

81 (35)

110 (11)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (2)

Yes (11)

Training for Labor Inspectors

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Yes (11)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Unknown

Yes (11)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (2)

Yes (2)

Number of Labor Inspections

Unknown

980 (11)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown

980 (11)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Penalties Imposed that Were Collected

Unknown

Unknown

Routine Inspections Conducted

No (2)

Yes (11)

Routine Inspections Targeted

No (2)

Yes (11)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (2)

Yes (11)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Unknown

Yes (11)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (2)

Yes (11)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (14)

Yes (11)

In 2016, the Ministry of Labor and Social Security (MLSS) employed 110 labor inspectors, which is an increase from the 81 employed in 2015.(11, 35) The number of labor inspectors is insufficient for the size of Zambia's workforce, which includes more than 7 million workers. According to the ILO's recommendation of 1 inspector for every 40,000 workers in less developed economies, Zambia should employ roughly 178 inspectors.(2, 14, 36-38) In 2016, only three inspectors received refresher training.(11) The MLSS stated that an insufficient budget, inadequate training, and lack of transportation prevented it from effectively conducting inspections.(2, 11) The MLSS conducts labor inspections in registered private institutions only; it does not conduct investigations in unregistered institutions, as allowed by law and where child labor is more likely to be found.(1, 39) A referral mechanism exists through District Child Labor Committees that allows labor officers to refer cases to NGOs; however, not all districts have a committee.(14)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in Zambia took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Yes (40)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown

Yes (11)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (41)

Yes (41)

Number of Investigations

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Violations Found

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Convictions

Unknown

Unknown

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (14)

Yes (11)

In 2016, the Government reported that insufficient training hampered criminal law enforcement.(11)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

MLSS

Coordinate Government efforts on issues of child labor, including its worst forms.(1)

MLSS-CLU

Coordinate with District Child Labor Committees in 26 of Zambia's 102 districts to increase local awareness and mobilize communities against child labor, including its worst forms.(1, 14)

Ministry of Youths, Sports, and Child Development's Child Development Department

Coordinate legislation on child labor.(2)

Zambia Police Service Child Protection Unit

Coordinate with the Ministry of Community Development, Mother, and Child Health to protect children from general abuse, including the worst forms of child labor.(1, 2)

District Child Labor Committees (DCLCs)

Respond to child labor complaints at the local level and file complaints to the MLSS. Serve as the main referral mechanism for social welfare services, a mechanism that is reported to be improving. Comprises the Zambia Police Service; the MLSS; the Ministry of Community Development, Mother, and Child Health; and civil society stakeholders.(1) The Government intends to establish Committees in all districts but lacks the resources to do so. DCLCs serve as the main referral mechanism for social welfare services, and it was reported that these mechanisms have been improving.(1, 14)

Due to overlapping responsibilities and communication lapses, individual agency mandates may not be effective in some cases.(19)

The Government has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Child Labor Policy

Establishes an action plan and designates responsible agencies to address child labor issues.(1, 33, 42)

Revised Sixth National Development Plan (2013–2016)

Includes the eradication of the worst forms of child labor as a goal. Places emphasis on early childhood education and a child's right to education.(1, 14, 43)

National Employment and Labor Market Policy

Contains the elimination of child labor as a goal.(19, 44)

UNDAF (2016–2021)†

Identifies child labor as a pervasive problem in Zambia and seeks to prevent the worst forms of child labor and protect children.(45)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

In 2016, the National Action Plan for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor expired and was not replaced.(11, 46) The Government has not included child labor elimination and prevention strategies in the Education Policy and the National Youth Policy.(1, 2) Efforts to implement the National Child Labor Policy have been restricted by inadequate funding.(32, 33) No new activities were undertaken to implement the National Child Labor Policy, Revised Sixth National Development Plan, and National Employment and Labor Market Policy during the reporting period, in large part due to poor funding.(32)

In 2016, the Government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

USDOL-funded projects

Empower: Increasing Economic and Social Empowerment for Adolescent Girls and Vulnerable Women in Zambia,* $5 million USDOL-funded, 4-year project implemented by Winrock International to reduce child labor in rural Zambia among adolescent girls, ages 15 to17, by increasing access to technical, vocational, entrepreneurial, and life skills training.(47) Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues Project, implemented by the ILO in approximately 40 countries, supports the priorities of the Roadmap for Achieving the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor by 2016 established by the Hague Global Child Labor Conference in 2010. Aims to improve the evidence base on child labor and forced labor through data collection and research in Zambia.(48) Additional information is available on the USDOL Web site.

Achieving Reduction of Child Labor in Support of Education II (2015–2018)*

Japan Tobacco International-funded, 3-year global training program that provides strategies to reduce the worst forms of child labor in tobacco-growing communities in Brazil, Malawi, Tanzania, and Zambia.(49) In April 2016, Phase II of the project was launched in Zambia.(11, 50)

Social Cash Transfer Program†

Government program that provides funds to families and has been shown to increase school enrollment. Scaled up by the Government over time.(2, 14, 51, 52)

Strengthening Social Dialogue as an Effective Tool to Address the Worst Forms of Child Labour

Irish Aid-funded, five-country project, promotes social dialogue with the aim of reducing child labor.(53)

Decent Work Country Programme (2013–2016)

Government program with emphasis on human development, including social protection, child labor, forced labor, and human trafficking.(54)

Zambia National Service Skills Training Camps†

Government program that provides life-skills training camps for at-risk youth, including for victims of the worst forms of child labor.(19, 33)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Zambia.
‡ The Government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms.(1, 55)

Although Zambia has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Zambia (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ratify the CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography.

2013 – 2016

Harmonize legislation to ensure that penalties for child commercial sexual exploitation are consistent.

2009 – 2016

Determine through statutory instrument the "school-going age" for compulsory education consistent with international law.

2012 – 2016

Enforcement

Make information publicly available on the number of child labor violations found, penalties imposed and collected, and whether desk review inspections were conducted.

2015 – 2016

Increase the number of labor inspectors to meet the ILO recommendation.

2015 – 2016

Ensure sufficient funding, human resources, and training for law enforcement agencies.

2010 – 2016

Ensure that inspections cover all areas in which children work, including registered and unregistered businesses.

2013 – 2016

Establish District Child Labor Committees in remaining districts.

2011 – 2016

Make information publicly available on the number of criminal investigations conducted, violations found, prosecutions initiated, and convictions achieved.

2014 – 2016

Coordination

Improve lines of communication and clarify responsibilities among agencies to improve effectiveness and referrals to social services.

2011 – 2016

Government Policies

Develop a National Action Plan for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor.

2016

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the Education Policy and National Youth Policy.

2013 – 2016

Provide sufficient funding to implement the National Child Labor Policy.

2012 – 2016

Social Programs

Publish the data on child labor from the 2008, 2012, and 2014 Labour Force Surveys.

2011 – 2016

Provide free education, as required by law, and address other barriers to education.

2012 – 2016

Expand existing programs to address the scope of the child labor problem.

2011 – 2016

1.         U.S. Embassy- Lusaka. reporting, January 16, 2014.

2.         U.S. Embassy- Lusaka. reporting, January 15, 2016.

3.         U.S. Department of State. "Zambia," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2015. Washington, DC; April 13, 2016; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/252955.pdf.

4.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed December 16, 2016; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary education. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. The calculation includes all new entrants to the last grade (regardless of age). Therefore, the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

5.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Labour Force Survey, 2008. Analysis received December 15, 2016. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information,  please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

6.         ILO-IPEC. A Rapid Assessment on child labour in tobacco-growing communities in Kaoma District, Zambia. Geneva; 2014. http://www.ilo.org/ipec/Informationresources/WCMS_IPEC_PUB_24856/lang--en/index.htm.

7.         Maingaila, F, Anadolu Agency. "Zambia faces up to blight of child labor." [online] May 3, 2016 [cited November 3, 2016]; http://aa.com.tr/en/world/zambia-faces-up-to-blight-of-child-labor/565445.

8.         Siwawa, S. "Cattle Herding: Barrier to Early Education." Zambia Daily Mail, Lusaka, December 19, 2013. [source on file].

9.         Kalunga, K. "Zambia: Cattle Herding Robs East Boy-Child Right to Education." Times of Zambia, Ndola, June 18, 2012. http://allafrica.com/stories/201206181013.html.

10.       Kumwenda, M. Child Labor Cases High in Zambia, Mwape Kumwenda, [online] 2016 [cited January 20, 2016]; [source on file].

11.       U.S. Embassy- Lusaka. reporting, January 11, 2017.

12.       Nawa, D. "Children speak out on child labour Vs education challenge." daily-mail.co.zm [online] May 31, 2016 [cited November 10, 2016]; https://www.daily-mail.co.zm/?p=68100.

13.       ZKidsExtra. Child Labour - Stone Crushing [YouTube Video]. Zambia: Zkidsextra; 2013, 1 min. 44 sec., December 23, 2014; https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UuQHYDo3w-8.

14.       U.S. Embassy- Lusaka. reporting, January 28, 2015.

15.       U.S. Department of State. "Zambia," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016 Washington, DC; June 30, 2016; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/258882.pdf.

16.       Zimba, M, Times of Zambia. "Child labour still evident in Zambia." Lusaka Voice, Lusaka, March 28, 2014. http://lusakavoice.com/2014/03/28/child-labour-still-evident-in-zambia/.

17.       Chanda, P. "Impact of Child Domestic Labour on Children's Education. A Case Study of Lusaka City in Zambia." European Scientific Journal, Special Edition(2014); http://eujournal.org/index.php/esj/article/view/4021/3832.

18.       U.S. Embassy- Lusaka. reporting, February 25, 2015.

19.       U.S. Embassy- Lusaka. reporting, January 30, 2012.

20.       U.S. Embassy- Lusaka official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 29, 2016.

21.       Government of Zambia. Zambia Constitution, enacted August 24, 1991. http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/cafrad/unpan004847.pdf.

22.       Government of Zambia. The Employment Act, Chapter 268 of The Laws of Zambia, enacted 1956. http://www.parliament.gov.zm/sites/default/files/documents/acts/Employment%20Act.pdf.

23.       Government of Zambia. Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) Act, 2016, enacted January 5, 2016. http://www.parliament.gov.zm/sites/default/files/documents/amendment_act/Constitution%20of%20Zambia%20%20%28Amendment%29%2C%202016-Act%20No.%202_0.pdf.

24.       Government of Zambia. Employment of Young Persons and Children Act (Amendment), 2004, enacted September 8, 2004. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/82353/90114/F103895610/ZMB82353.pdf.

25.       Government of Zambia. Prohibition of Employment of Young Persons and Children (Hazardous Labour) Order, No. 121, enacted December 27, 2013. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/SERIAL/95833/113000/F-1150065941/ZMB95833.pdf.

26.       Government of Zambia. The Anti-Human Trafficking Bill, 2008, enacted September 26, 2008. http://ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex4.detail?p_lang=en&p_isn=79940&p_country=ZMB&p_count=182.

27.       Government of Zambia. The Penal Code Act, as amended, enacted 2005. http://www.unodc.org/res/cld/document/zmb/1931/the_penal_code_act_html/Zambia_Penal_Code_Act_1930_as_amended_2005.pdf.

28.       Government of Zambia. Defence Act, enacted 1964. [source on file].

29.       Government of Zambia. Education Act of 2011, enacted 2011. [source on file].

30.       U.S. Embassy- Lusaka official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 7, 2012.

31.       U.S. Embassy- Lusaka official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 15, 2014.

32.       U.S. Embassy- Lusaka official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 19, 2017.

33.       U.S. Embassy- Lusaka. reporting, February 5, 2013.

34.       U.S. Department of State official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 31, 2013.

35.       U.S. Embassy- Lusaka official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 29, 2016.

36.       CIA. The World Factbook, [online] [cited January 19, 2017]; https://www.cia.gov/Library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2095rank.html. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors based on the country’s level of development as determined by the UN.

37.       ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a “sufficient number” of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a “sufficient” number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

38.       UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies; “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies, and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

39.       U.S. Embassy- Lusaka official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 17, 2015.

40.       U.S. Embassy- Lusaka. reporting, February 10, 2017.

41.       U.S. Embassy- Lusaka. reporting, February 1, 2016.

42.       Government of Zambia. National Child Labour Policy; 2011. http://www.eclt.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/National_Child_Labour_Policy_Securing_a_Better_Future_for_Our_Children.pdf

43.       Government of Zambia. Sixth National Development Plan 2011–2015. Lusaka; January 2011. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTZAMBIA/Resources/SNDP_Final_Draft__20_01_2011.pdf.

44.       UCW. Towards Ending Child Labour in Zambia. Rome; September 2012. http://www.ucw-project.org/attachment/ending_CL_Zambia_resource_requirements_201220121122_105629.pdf.

45.       United Nations, and Government of Zambia. Zambia–United Nations Sustainable Development Partnership Framework (2016-2021), [Online] 2016 [cited November 10, 2016]; http://www.ilo.org/addisababa/countries-covered/zambia/WCMS_465095/lang--en/index.htm.

46.       Government of Zambia. National Action Plan for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour 2010–2015; 2011. http://www.eclt.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/NAP_for_the_Elimination_of_the_Worst_Forms_of_Child_Labour_in_Zambia.pdf.

47.       USDOL. US Labor Department commits $5 M to fight child labor in Zambia as new partner in 'Let Girls Learn' initiative. 2016. https://www.dol.gov/newsroom/releases/ilab/ilab20161013

48.       ILO-IPEC. Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues. Technical Progress Report. Geneva; April 2014. [source on file].

49.       ILO. ARISE II - Global Training Programme: Elimination of child labour in tobacco-growing communities. Project Description; March 19, 2015. http://www.ilo.org/ipec/projects/global/WCMS_355736/lang--en/index.htm.

50.       ILO. How to make Child Labour History in Zambia. Press Release. Kaoma; April 19, 2016. http://www.ilo.org/addisababa/countries-covered/zambia/WCMS_475099/lang--en/index.htm.

51.       UNICEF. Social Protection Systems in Southern Africa Presentation; 2015, [source on file].

52.       Sudhanshu Handa, Luisa Natali, David Seidenfeld, Gelson Tembo, and the Zambia Cash Transfer Evaluation Team. The Impact of Zambia's Unconditional Child Grant on Schooling and Work: Results from a large-scale social experiment. Florence, UNICEF Office of Research; April 2015. Report No. Innocenti Working Paper No. 2015-01. https://www.unicef-irc.org/publications/776/.

53.       ILO-IPEC Geneva official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 9, 2017.

54.       ILO, and Government of Zambia. Zambia Decent Work Country Programme. Lusaka. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/bureau/program/dwcp/download/zambia.pdf.

55.       World Food Programme. Zambia WFP Activities, WFP, [online] 2014 [cited November 13, 2014]; http://www.wfp.org/countries/zambia/operations.

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