Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Zambia

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Zambia

2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2015, Zambia made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government adopted the Employment Amendment Act to prohibit casual employment in the informal sector, which may have an indirect effect on child labor. The Government also approved a new youth policy that includes education and empowerment strategies for youth and continued to incrementally scale up its Social Cash Transfer Program. However, children in Zambia continue to engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in the production of tobacco and commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Gaps also remain in the current legal framework related to children; for example, the Education Act does not include the specific age at which education is compulsory, and the Government has not defined what the school-going age is as required in the law, which may leave children under the legal working age vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor.

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Children in Zambia are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in the production of tobacco and commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking.(1-3) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Zambia.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

28.1 (992,722)

Working children by sector, ages 5 to 14 (%)

 

Agriculture

91.8

Industry

1.2

Services

7.0

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

65.2

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

27.6

Primary completion rate (%):

81.0

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2013, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(4)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s Analysis of Statistics from the Labor Force Survey, 2008.(5)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

 

 

Production of corn,* coffee,* tea,* and sunflowers* (1, 2)

Production of cotton† and production of tobacco,† including transplanting, watering, weeding, ridging, grading, stringing, reaping, and applying fertilizers (1, 2, 6)

Raising and herding† cattle (3, 7-9)

Fishing,*† activities unknown (1)

Producing charcoal*† (1)

Industry

Mining gems, including amethysts* and emeralds* (1)

Mining lead,* zinc,* iron ore,* and copper* (1)

Quarrying rock,* conducting rudimentary mine drilling,† and scavenging mine dump sites (1-3)

Crushing stones† (3, 9, 10)

Construction, including transporting construction materials (1, 2, 11, 12)

Services

Domestic work (2, 3, 13, 14)

Street work, including begging and vending (1, 3, 12, 13)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking* (1, 12)

Agriculture activities, mining, and domestic work, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1, 2, 11, 12, 15)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Children trafficked inside Zambia are primarily trafficked from rural to urban areas for domestic work and agriculture.(1, 12, 15) Some children in Zambia are forced to load trucks with stolen copper ore by Jerabo gangs, which are illegal mining syndicates in the Copperbelt province.(2, 12, 15) Along Zambia’s borders, the commercial sexual exploitation of children is common.(12) The Government has yet to release information on child labor from its 2008 Labor Force Survey, although the general Labor Force Survey results – which did not include data on child labor – were released in 2011 and 2014.(3, 16, 17)

Long distances to schools create a barrier to education.(6) Costs also occur for basic education, including fees for school supplies, that prevent some children from attending school.(2, 6, 14)

Zambia has ratified most key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

 

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

 

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

Zambia has not ratified the UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, although commercial sexual exploitation of children continues to be a problem in the country.(12)

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Article 24 of the Constitution; Article 12 of the Employment Act (18, 19)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 4 of the Employment of Young Persons and Children Act; Article 3 of the Prohibition of Employment of Young Persons and Children (Hazardous Labour) Order (20, 21)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Prohibition of Employment of Young Persons and Children (Hazardous Labour) Order (21)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 14 and 24 of the Constitution; Articles 143 and 263 of the Penal Code; Article 3 of the Anti-Human Trafficking Act of 2008 (18, 22, 23)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 24 of the Constitution; Article 143 of the Penal Code; Article 3 of the Anti-Human Trafficking Act of 2008 (18, 22, 23)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 144 of the Penal Code; Article 2 of the Employment of Young Persons and Children Act (20, 23)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 2 of the Employment of Young Persons and Children Act (20)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

N/A*

 

 

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

18

Article 14 of the Defence Act (24)

Compulsory Education Age

No

 

Article 16 of the Education Act, 2011 (25)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 15 of the Education Act, 2011 (25)

* No conscription.(24)

During the reporting period, the Government passed the Employment Amendment Act which aims to reduce child labor by addressing exploitation in casual labor.(3, 26) The Government also passed the Gender Equality and Equity Act, which seeks to reduce school dropout rates among girls.(27) However, gaps remain in the legal framework. Penalties for child prostitution violations in the Employment of Young Persons and Children Act are different from those in the Penal Code.(28) While the Penal Code treats child prostitution as a felony, with a minimum 20-year jail sentence, the Employment of Young Persons and Children Act treats it as a civil penalty and imposes a fine of $35 to $165 and possible discretionary prison time. In practice, the heavier statute of the Penal Code would be applied; however, research did not uncover any such prosecutions in recent years.(29)

The Education Act requires the Government to provide free education up to the seventh grade, and stipulates that education is compulsory for children of “school-going age.”(1, 25, 30) The Act, however, does not set a specific age or define “school-going age,” which may allow children to leave school before they are legally able to work.(25) The lack of standards in this area may increase the risk of children’s involvement in the worst forms of child labor.

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor and Social Security (MLSS) Child Labor Unit (CLU)

Implement and enforce child labor laws.(1, 11) Plays advisory role for different Government agencies. Is also responsible for the regulation of child labor laws.(17)

Zambia Police Service Child Protection Unit

Work with MLSS and Ministry of Youths, Sports, and Child Development to identify and remove vulnerable children from the streets. Work with 72 District Street Children Committees to rescue street children from child labor, including the worst forms, and place them with families, in foster care, or in children’s homes.(3, 16) Work with immigration officials to combat child trafficking, with local officials, regarding crimes against children and with schools to educate and sensitize children about abuse. Collaborate with the Ministry of Justice to investigate and prosecute child labor cases.(16, 31)

Zambia Police Service Victim Support Unit

Handle the enforcement of laws against human trafficking, commercial sexual exploitation, and use of children in illicit activities.(1, 11, 16)

Ministry of Justice

Investigate and prosecute child labor cases.(16, 31)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2015, labor law enforcement agencies in Zambia took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Labor Inspectors

58 (11)

81 (32)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Unknown

No (3)

Training for Labor Inspectors

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Unknown

Unknown

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown

Yes (3)

Number of Labor Inspections

Unknown

Unknown

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown

Unknown

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

Unknown

Unknown

Routine Inspections Conducted

No (11)

No (3)

Routine Inspections Targeted

No (11)

No (3)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (11)

Yes (3)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Unknown

Unknown

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (11)

Yes (3)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (11)

Yes (11)

 

In 2015, the Ministry of Labor and Social Security (MLSS) employed 81 labor inspectors, which is an increase from the 58 employed in 2014.(32) According to the ILO recommendation of one inspector for every 40,000 workers in less developed economies, Zambia should employ roughly 172 inspectors in order to adequately enforce labor laws throughout the country.(3, 11, 33-35) The MLSS reported that it conducted training in the Western province, but research was unable to determine what type of training was conducted, who was trained, and whether it included child labor issues. The Child Labor Unit was allocated approximately $35,800 for 2015.(3) The funding amount represents an increase in funding in the local currency but a decrease in funding based on the value of the currency, compared with the $46,000 allocated for 2014.(3, 11) The MLSS stated that the budget, training, and transportation were inadequate to conduct inspections.(3) The MLSS is authorized to conduct labor inspections in registered private institutions only; it does not conduct investigations in unregistered institutions, as allowed by law, in which child labor is more likely to be found.(1, 36) While no labor officers were employed in 2015, a referral mechanism does exist through District Child Labor Committees that allows labor officers to refer cases to NGOs; however, not all districts have a committee.(11)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2015, criminal law enforcement agencies in Zambia took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2014†

2015

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown

Unknown

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown

Yes (37)

Number of Investigations

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Violations Found

142 (11)

Unknown

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Convictions

Unknown

Unknown

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (11)

Yes (11)

† Data are from January to December 2014.

The Department of Immigration provided training to 106 law enforcement officers during the reporting period.(37) In addition, it was previously reported that the Zambia Police Service Child Protection Unit employed seven investigators, but that their training was inadequate.(11) Inspections are carried out based on complaints only and include site visits.(11)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

MLSS

Coordinate Government efforts on issues of child labor, including its worst forms.(1)

MLSS-CLU

Coordinate with District Child Labor Committees in 26 of Zambia’s 102 districts to increase local awareness and mobilize communities against child labor, including its worst forms.(1, 11)

Ministry of Youths, Sports, and Child Development Child Development Department

Coordinate legislation on child labor.(3)

Zambia Police Service Child Protection Unit

Coordinate with the Ministry of Community Development, Mother, and Child Health to protect children from general abuse, including the worst forms of child labor.(1, 3)

District Child Labor Committees

Respond to child labor complaints at the local level and file complaints to the MLSS. Serve as the main referral mechanism for social welfare services, a mechanism that is reported to be improving. Comprises the Zambia Police Service, the MLSS, the Ministry of Community Development, Mother, and Child Health, and civil society stakeholders.(1) The Government intends to establish Committees in all districts, but lacks the resources to do so. DCLCs serve as the main referral mechanism for social welfare services, and it was reported that these mechanisms have been improving.(1, 11)

 

Due to overlapping responsibilities and communication lapses, individual agency mandates may not be carried out effectively in some cases.(16)

The Government of Zambia has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Child Labor Policy

Establishes an action plan and designates responsible agencies to address child labor issues.(1, 30)

National Action Plan for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2010–2015)

Identifies five specific priorities for the Government to focus on: (1) improve and enforce existing laws and policies on child labor, (2) protect all children from hazardous labor, (3) strengthen institutional capacity, (4) raise awareness, and (5) establish monitoring and evaluation systems.(1, 30)

Revised Sixth National Development Plan (2013–2016)

Includes the eradication of the worst forms of child labor as a goal, and places emphasis on early childhood education and a child’s right to education.(1, 11, 38)

National Employment and Labor Market Policy

Contains the elimination of child labor as a goal.(16, 39)

UNDAF (2011–2015)

Seeks to prevent the worst forms of child labor, protect children, and rehabilitate offenders who engaged in the worst forms of child labor, in accordance with the Revised Sixth National Development Plan.(40)

Education Policy and Education Act, 2011*

Establishes the rights of children, including the right to free education, and provides for the reentry of teen mothers into school.(1, 25)

National Youth Policy*† (2015–2019)

Includes education and empowerment strategies for youth.(3)

* Child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy.
† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

Efforts to implement the National Child Labor Policy have been restricted by inadequate funding.(30)

In 2015, the Government of Zambia funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Achieving Reduction of Child Labor in Support of Education I (2012–2016)

A $1.6 million 5-year project that provides strategies to reduce the worst forms of child labor in tobacco-growing communities.(41, 42) A project evaluation highlighted progress in raising awareness on child labor.(37)

Achieving Reduction of Child Labor in Support of Education II (2015–2018)*

JTI-funded, 3-year global training program that provides strategies to reduce the worst forms of child labor in tobacco-growing communities in Brazil, Malawi, Tanzania, and Zambia.(43)

Program to Reduce the Worst Forms of Child Labor in Tobacco-Growing Communities in Zambia (2011–2015)

JTI-funded, $4.5 million 4-year project that aims to reduce child labor in tobacco-growing communities in Brazil, Malawi, and Zambia. Promotes educational access, economic empowerment, and improved regulatory frameworks around child labor in the tobacco sector.(44)

Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues Project (2011–2016)

USDOL-funded project implemented by the ILO in approximately 40 countries to support the priorities of the Roadmap for Achieving the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor by 2016 established by the Hague Global Child Labor Conference in 2010. Aims to improve the evidence base on child labor and forced labor through data collection and research in Zambia.(45)

Social Cash Transfer Program†

Government program, provides funds to families and has been shown to increase school enrollment. Scaled up by the Government over time.(3, 11, 46, 47)

Government child labor sensitization efforts†

National and district government programs to sensitize the public to child labor through implementing partners and awareness campaigns.(1, 3)

Strengthening Social Dialogue as an Effective Tool to Address the Worst Forms of Child Labour

Irish Aid-funded, five-country project, promotes social dialog with the aim of reducing child labor.(48)

Testing Methodologies to Support Informal Economy Workers and Small Producers to Combat Hazardous Child Labor

Irish Aid-funded, 1-year project, builds capacity of informal economy workers and small producers to address hazardous child labor in Benin, Ghana, India, Malawi, and Zambia.(49)

Decent Work Country Programme (2013–2016)

Government program, emphasizes human development, including social protection, child labor, forced labor, and human trafficking.(50)

Protecting Migrant Children from Trafficking and Exploitation (2013–2015)

EU-funded $2.7 million, 3-year program implemented by UNICEF, the IOM, the UNHCR, and the Government to combat child trafficking, largely in migrant communities.(3, 11, 51)

Zambia National Service Skills Training Camps†

Government program, provides life-skills training camps for at-risk youth, including for victims of the worst forms of child labor.(16, 30)

Youth Empowerment Fund†

Government program, provides start-up capital for youth to start businesses, based on their skills.(1)

School Feeding Program†

Ministry of Education program, initiated by the WFP, provides meals for children who attend school.(1, 52)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Zambia.

Although Zambia has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem, particularly for children working in agriculture and mining, and those working on the streets.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Zambia (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ratify the CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography.

2013 – 2015

Harmonize legislation to ensure that penalties for child commercial sexual exploitation are consistent.

2009 – 2015

Determine through statutory instrument the “school-going age” for compulsory education consistent with international law.

2012 – 2015

Enforcement

Make information publicly available on the Labor Inspectorate funding, training, inspections, and the number of child labor violations found, penalties imposed, and whether unannounced inspections are conducted.

2015

Strengthen the Labor Inspectorate by initiating routine inspections, rather than performing inspections based solely on complaints received.

2015

Ensure that a sufficient number of labor inspectors, based on the ILO standard, are available.

2015

Ensure adequate funding, human resources, and training for law enforcement agencies.

2010 – 2015

Ensure inspections cover all areas in which children work, including registered and unregistered businesses.

2013 – 2015

Establish District Child Labor Committees in remaining districts.

2011 – 2015

Make information publicly available on criminal law enforcement trainings, investigations, violations, prosecutions, and convictions.

2014 – 2015

Coordination

Improve lines of communication and clarify responsibilities among agencies to improve effectiveness and referrals to social services.

2011 – 2015

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the Education Policy.

2013 – 2015

Provide adequate funding to implement the National Child Labor Policy.

2012 – 2015

Social Programs

Publish the data on child labor from the 2008 Labor Force Survey.

2011 – 2015

Provide free education, as required by the Education Act, 2011, and address other barriers to education.

2012 – 2015

Create and implement programs to address the worst forms of child labor, particularly for street children and those working in the agriculture and mining sectors.

2011 – 2015

1.         U.S. Embassy- Lusaka. reporting, January 16, 2014.

2.         U.S. Department of State. "Zambia," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2014. Washington, DC; June 25, 2015; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/236632.pdf.

3.         U.S. Embassy- Lusaka. reporting, January 15, 2016.

4.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed December 16, 2015]; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. Because the calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age), the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

5.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Labor Force Survey, 2008. Analysis received December 18, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

6.         ILO-IPEC. A Rapid Assessment on child labour in tobacco-growing communities in Kaoma District, Zambia. Geneva; 2014. http://www.ilo.org/ipec/Informationresources/WCMS_IPEC_PUB_24856/lang--en/index.htm.

7.         Siwawa, S. "Cattle Herding: Barrier to Early Education." Zambia Daily Mail, Lusaka, December 19, 2013. [source on file].

8.         Kalunga, K. "Zambia: Cattle Herding Robs East Boy-Child Right to Education." Times of Zambia, Ndola, June 18, 2012. http://allafrica.com/stories/201206181013.html?viewall=1.

9.         Kumwenda, M. Child Labor Cases High in Zambia, Mwape Kumwenda, [online] 2016 [cited January 20, 2016]; http://mwapekumwenda.com/work/child-labor-cases-high-in-zambia.html.

10.       ZKidsExtra. Child Labour - Stone Crushing [You tube]. Zambia: Zkidsextra; 2013, 1 min. 44 sec., December 23, 2014; https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UuQHYDo3w-8.

11.       U.S. Embassy- Lusaka. reporting, January 28, 2015.

12.       U.S. Department of State. "Zambia," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015. Washington, DC; July 27, 2015; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/243562.pdf.

13.       Zimba, M, Times of Zambia. "Child labour still evident in Zambia." Lusaka Voice, Lusaka, March 28, 2014; General News. http://lusakavoice.com/2014/03/28/child-labour-still-evident-in-zambia/.

14.       Chanda, P. "Impact of Child Domestic Labour on Children's Education. A Case Study of Lusaka City in Zambia." European Scientific Journal, Special Edition(2014); http://eujournal.org/index.php/esj/article/view/4021/3832.

15.       U.S. Embassy- Lusaka. reporting, February 25, 2015.

16.       U.S. Embassy- Lusaka. reporting, January 30, 2012.

17.       U.S. Embassy- Lusaka official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 29, 2016.

18.       Government of Zambia. Constitution of Zambia, enacted August 24, 1991. http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/cafrad/unpan004847.pdf.

19.       Government of Zambia. Employment Act, Chapter 268 of the Laws of Zambia, enacted 1956. http://www.parliament.gov.zm/downloads/VOLUME%2015.pdf.

20.       Government of Zambia. Employment of Young Persons and Children Act (Amendment), 2004, enacted September 8, 2004. http://www.parliament.gov.zm/downloads/VOLUME%2015.pdf.

21.       Government of Zambia. Prohibition of Employment of Young Persons and Children (Hazardous Labour) Order, No. 121, enacted December 27, 2013. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/SERIAL/95833/113000/F-1150065941/ZMB95833.pdf.

22.       Government of Zambia. The Anti-Human Trafficking Bill, 2008, enacted September 26, 2008. http://www.parliament.gov.zm/index.php?option=com_docman&task=cat_view&gid=89&Itemid=113.

23.       Government of Zambia. Penal Code, as amended, enacted 2005. http://www.unodc.org/res/cld/document/zmb/1931/the_penal_code_act_html/Zambia_Penal_Code_Act_1930_as_amended_2005.pdf.

24.       Government of Zambia. Defence Act, enacted 1964. [source on file].

25.       Government of Zambia. Education Act of 2011, enacted 2011. [source on file].

26.       Government of Zambia. Employment Amendment Act, 2015, enacted 2015. http://www.parliament.gov.zm/node/4824.

27.       Government of Zambia. The Gender Equity and Equality Bill, 2015, enacted December, 2015. http://www.parliament.gov.zm/index.php?option=com_docman&task=cat_view&gid=89&Itemid=113.

28.       U.S. Embassy- Lusaka official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 7, 2012.

29.       U.S. Embassy- Lusaka official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 15, 2014.

30.       U.S. Embassy- Lusaka. reporting, February 5, 2013.

31.       U.S. Department of State official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 31, 2013.

32.       U.S. Embassy- Lusaka official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 29, 2016.

33.       Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook, CIA, [online] [cited January 19, 2016]; https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors based on the country’s level of development as determined by the UN.

34.       ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a “sufficient number” of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a “sufficient” number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

35.       UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies; “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies, and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

36.       U.S. Embassy- Lusaka official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 17, 2015.

37.       U.S. Embassy- Lusaka. reporting, February 1, 2016.

38.       Government of Zambia. Sixth National Development Plan 2011–2015. Lusaka; January 2011. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTZAMBIA/Resources/SNDP_Final_Draft__20_01_2011.pdf.

39.       UCW. Towards Ending Child Labour in Zambia. Rome; September 2012. http://www.ucw-project.org/Pages/bib_details.aspx?id=12301&Pag=0&Country=232.

40.       United Nations. Development Assistance Framework 2011-2015; 2011. http://countryoffice.unfpa.org/zambia/drive/ZambiaUNDAF2011-2015.pdf.

41.       ILO. ARISE I: A Programme to combat child labour in tobacco-growing. Project Description; March 21, 2015. http://www.ilo.org/ipec/projects/global/WCMS_356145/lang--en/index.htm.

42.       ILO-IPEC Geneva official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 22, 2016.

43.       ILO. ARISE II - Global Training Programme: Elimination of child labour in tobacco-growing communities. Project Description; March 19, 2015. http://www.ilo.org/ipec/projects/global/WCMS_355736/lang--en/index.htm.

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