Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Zambia

Cattle
Cattle
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Cotton
Cotton
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Gems
Gems
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Stones
Stones
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Tobacco
Tobacco
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Zambia
2017 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Minimal Advancement

In 2017, Zambia made a minimal advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The government launched an Education Enhancement Project, which aims to strengthen teacher training and increase access to education in rural areas. However, children in Zambia continue to engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Children also engage in child labor in agriculture. The government drastically reduced the number of labor inspectors and funding for the Labor Inspectorate during the reporting period. In addition, the Education Act does not specify the school-going or compulsory education age, and human trafficking laws are discordant with international standards because they require threats, the use of force, or coercion to be established for the crime of child trafficking.

Children in Zambia engage in the worst forms of child labor, including commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Children also engage in child labor in agriculture. (1; 2) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Zambia.

Table 1. Statistics on Children's Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

28.1 (992,722)

Working children by sector

 

 

Agriculture

 

91.8

Industry

 

1.2

Services

 

7.0

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

65.2

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

27.6

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

78.7

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2013, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2018. (3)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s Analysis of Statistics from the Labour Force Survey (LFS), 2008. (4)

 

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children's Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Work in the production of cotton,† tobacco,† and other cash crops, including applying fertilizers, grading or ridging fields, harvesting crops, spraying pesticides,† transplanting, watering, and weeding crops (1; 5; 6)

Raising and herding† cattle (7; 8; 6)

Fishing,† working on boats, cutting and smoking fish (9; 6)

Production of charcoal† (6)

Industry

Mining gems, including amethysts and emeralds (10)

Mining ore, including lead, zinc, iron ore, and copper (10)

Work in quarries, including carrying heavy loads,† conducting rudimentary mine drilling,† crushing stones, and scavenging mine dump sites (8; 11; 6)

Services

Domestic work (12; 13; 6)

Street work, including begging and vending (12; 6)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2)

Forced labor in agriculture, construction, domestic work, mining, and textile production, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

 

Children trafficked inside Zambia are primarily trafficked from rural to urban areas for domestic work and forced labor in agriculture. (10; 14; 15) Some children in Zambia are forced by Jerabo gangs, which are illegal mining syndicates in the Copperbelt province, to load trucks with stolen copper ore. (16; 2) Along Zambia’s borders, the commercial sexual exploitation of children is common. (14) The government has yet to release information on child labor from its 2008, 2012, or 2014 Labour Force Surveys, although the general Labour Force Survey results, which did not include data on child labor, were released in 2011, 2014, and 2016. (17; 18)

Long distances to schools create a barrier to education. (1; 19; 20) Families also face costs for basic education, including fees for school supplies, which prevent some children from attending school. (16; 1; 13) Inadequate educational infrastructure, materials, and a high student-teacher ratio further hinder students. (6; 20)

Zambia has ratified most key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

 

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

 

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Zambia’s legal framework to adequately protect children from the worst forms of child labor, including an undefined age range for compulsory education.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Article 24 of the Constitution; Article 12 of the Employment Act (21; 22; 23)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 17 of the Employment of Young Persons and Children Act; Article 3 of the Prohibition of Employment of Young Persons and Children (Hazardous Labour) Order (24; 25)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Prohibition of Employment of Young Persons and Children (Hazardous Labour) Order (25)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 14 and 24 of the Constitution; Articles 143 and 263 of the Penal Code; Article 3 of the Anti-Human Trafficking Act of 2008 (21; 23; 26; 27)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

No

 

Article 24 of the Constitution; Article 143 of the Penal Code; Articles 2–3 (1 – 4) of the Anti-Human Trafficking Act of 2008 (21; 23; 26; 27)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 144 of the Penal Code; Article 2 of the Employment of Young Persons and Children Act (24; 27)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 2 of the Employment of Young Persons and Children Act (24)

Prohibition of Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

N/A*

 

 

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Article 14 of the Defence Act (28)

Non-state

Yes

18

Article 3 of the Anti-Human Trafficking Act of 2008 (26)

Compulsory Education Age

No

 

Article 16 of the Education Act, 2011 (29)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 15 of the Education Act, 2011 (29)

* No conscription (28)

 

Penalties for child prostitution violations in the Employment of Young Persons and Children Act are different from those in the Penal Code. Although the Penal Code treats child prostitution as a felony, with a minimum 20-year jail sentence, the Employment of Young Persons and Children Act treats it as a civil penalty and imposes a fine of $35 to $165 and possible discretionary prison time. In practice, the heavier statute of the Penal Code would be applied; however, research did not uncover any such prosecutions in recent years. (27; 25) In addition, human trafficking provisions remain discordant with international standards because they require threats, the use of force, or coercion to be established for the crime of child trafficking. (26)

The Education Act requires the government to provide free education up to the seventh grade and stipulates that education is compulsory for children of “school-going age.” (10; 29; 30) The Act, however, does not set a specific age or define “school-going age,” which may allow children to leave school before they are legally able to work. (29) The lack of standards in this area may increase the risk of children's involvement in the worst forms of child labor.

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the operations of the Ministry of Labor and Social Security (MLSS) that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor and Social Security (MLSS)

Implement, enforce, and regulate child labor laws. (10; 31; 18) Advise other government agencies on child labor issues and coordinate government efforts to combat child labor. (18; 6)

Zambia Police Service Child Protection Unit

Work with the MLSS, District Street Children Committees, and the Ministry of Youth, Sports, and Child Development to identify and remove vulnerable children from the streets. Place rescued street children with families, in foster care, or in children's homes. (17) Work with immigration officials to combat child trafficking; with local officials to combat crimes against children; and with schools to educate and sensitize children about abuse. Collaborate with the Ministry of Justice to investigate and prosecute child labor cases. (32)

Zambia Police Service Victim Support Unit

Handle the enforcement of laws against human trafficking, commercial sexual exploitation, and the use of children in illicit activities. (31; 33)

Ministry of Community Development, Mother and Child Health (MCDMCH)

Provide social services to victims of human trafficking or sexual abuse. Operate one government shelter in Luapula province and oversee two NGO shelters. (2)

Ministry of Justice

Investigate and prosecute child labor cases. (32)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2017, labor law enforcement agencies in Zambia took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the operations of the MLSS that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including human and financial resource allocation.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$350,049 (34)

Unknown (35)

Number of Labor Inspectors

110 (2)

Unknown (35)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (6)

No (6)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (34)

N/A (6)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Yes (34)

N/A (6)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (17)

No (6)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

980 (34)

723 (6)

Number Conducted at Worksites

980 (34)

723 (6)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties were Imposed

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that were Collected

Unknown

Unknown

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (34)

Yes (6)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (34)

Yes (6)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (34)

Yes (6)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (34)

Yes (6)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (34)

Yes (6)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (34)

Yes (6)

 

In 2016, the MLSS employed 110 labor inspectors, but the figure for 2017 was unknown. (6; 34) Without a documented increase, the number of labor inspectors likely remains insufficient for the size of Zambia's workforce, which includes approximately 6.9 million workers. According to the ILO's technical advice of a ratio approaching 1 inspector for every 40,000 workers in less developed economies, Zambia would employ about 172 inspectors. (36; 37; 38) The MLSS has stated that an insufficient budget, insufficient office space, inadequate training, and a lack of transportation and fuel have prevented it from adequately conducting inspections countrywide. (6; 39) The MLSS conducts labor inspections in registered private institutions only; it does not conduct investigations, allowed by law, in unregistered institutions, where child labor is more likely to be found. (40) A referral mechanism exists through District Child Labor Committees that allows labor officers to refer cases to NGOs; however, not all districts have a committee due to a lack of government funding. (31) The MLSS has stated that all penalties are administrated by the courts. (6)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2017, criminal law enforcement agencies in Zambia took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including with training for criminal investigators.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (2)

N/A (6)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Yes (34)

N/A (6)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (41)

No (6)

Number of Investigations

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Violations Found

14 (2)

Unknown

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

0 (2)

Unknown

Number of Convictions

0 (2)

Unknown

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (34)

Yes (6)

 

Research was unable to determine specific enforcement activities and their results. (6)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including efficacy in accomplishing mandates.

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role and Description

MLSS-CLU

Coordinate with District Child Labor Committees (DCLCs) in Zambia's 114 districts to increase local awareness and mobilize communities against child labor, including its worst forms. (10; 31) Research was unable to determine coordination activities performed during the year.

DCLCs

Respond to child labor complaints at the local level and file complaints to the MLSS. Serve as the main referral mechanism for social welfare services. Comprises the Zambia Police Service; the MLSS; the Ministry of Community Development, Mother, and Child Health; and civil society stakeholders. (10) In 2017, the DCLC for the Chipata district was active, convening several meetings to assess current efforts and to plan activities to combat child labor. (42)

National Steering Committee on Child Labor

Advise and oversee on child labor matters, including implementation of the Hazardous Work Statutory Instrument. Comprises government representatives, employers, trade unions, and civil society members. (6; 33)

 

The Anti-Trafficking Interministerial Committee met during the year and hosted the Malawi anti-trafficking inter-ministerial committee. (43) In addition, due to overlapping responsibilities and communication lapses, individual agency mandates may not be effective in some cases. (43)

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including implementation.

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Child Labor Policy

Created an action plan and designates responsible agencies to address child labor issues. (10; 30; 44) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement the policy during the reporting period.

National Employment and Labor Market Policy

Aims to eliminate child labor. Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement the policy during the reporting period.

UN’s Sustainable Development Partnership Framework (2016–2021)

$806 million framework that builds upon the previous UNDAF but with a stronger emphasis on partnership. (45) Aims to prevent the worst forms of child labor and protect children. (46)

 

In 2017, the government was in the process of revising the National Action Plan for the Elimination of Child Labor. (6) Research found no evidence of implementation of the National Child Labor Policy and National Employment and Labor Market Policy during the reporting period. The Seventh National Development Plan outlines some activities that indirectly aim at reducing child labor. (6) In addition, the government has not included child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the Education Policy and the National Youth Policy. (10; 17)

At the 2017 Global Conference on the Sustained Eradication of Child Labor, the government made pledges concerning the ratification and domestication of international labor standards related to eliminating child labor; amending legislation to effectively address child labor; reviewing the Action Plan on Child Labor to take into account outside advice; adopting a strategy and action plan for youth employment, school to work transition and empowerment; and developing a social protection policy to better protect child labor and forced labor victims and their families. (47)

In 2017, the government funded and participated in programs that included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including the adequacy of programs to address all relevant sectors.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

USDOL-funded Projects

USDOL projects which aim to combat child labor. Includes: EMPOWER: Increasing Economic and Social Empowerment for Adolescent Girls and Vulnerable Women in Zambia, $5 million, 4-year project implemented by Winrock International and the Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues Project, implemented by the ILO in approximately 40 countries,. (48; 49) Additional information is available on the USDOL website.

ARISE: Achieving Reduction of Child Labor in Support of Education

Joint initiative between Japan Tobacco International, Winrock International, and the ILO - that provides strategies to reduce the worst forms of child labor in tobacco-growing communities in Brazil, Malawi, Tanzania, and Zambia. (50; 51; 19)

Social Cash Transfer Program†

Provides funds to families and increases school enrollment. (17; 31; 52; 53) Participants reached through the Ministry of Community Development and Social Welfare increased to 590,000 households from 242,000 in 2016. (43)

Zambia National Service Skills Training Camps†

Provides life-skills training camps for at-risk youth, including for victims of the worst forms of child labor. (30) In 2017 the government established youth skills training centers within the Zambia National Service Skills Training Camps. (43)

World Bank-Funded Projects

Projects to improve access to education, particularly for girls. Includes: Education Enhancement Project (2017 – 2022)*, a $60 million project to improve math and science instruction in primary and secondary schools and Girls’ Education and Women’s Empowerment and Livelihood Project (GEWEL) (2015-2020), a $64 million project to provide livelihoods support to extremely poor households and increase secondary school enrollment for girls. (54; 55) By the end of 2017, the GEWEL Project supported 8,669 girls in secondary school. (56)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Zambia.
‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. (10; 57)

 

Although Zambia has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem in all relevant sectors because no programs target child labor in agriculture, domestic work, or commercial sexual exploitation. In addition, shelter space is insufficient, resulting in some victims being temporarily housed in jail. (58; 2)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Zambia (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Accede to the CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography.

2013 – 2017

Determine through statutory instrument the "school-going age" for compulsory education, consistent with international law.

2012 – 2017

Harmonize legislation to ensure that penalties for child commercial sexual exploitation are consistent.

2009 – 2017

Ensure that laws prohibiting child trafficking do not require threats, the use of force, or coercion to be considered child trafficking.

2017

Enforcement

Institutionalize training for labor inspectors, investigators, and law enforcement, including through periodic refresher courses.

2010 – 2017

Authorize the Labor Inspectorate to assess penalties.

2017

Publish complete information on Labor Inspectorate funding, number of labor inspectors, number of violations found, penalties imposed and collected, investigations conducted, prosecutions initiated, and convictions achieved.

2014 – 2017

Ensure the number of labor inspectors is sufficient to meet the ILO’s technical advice.

2012 – 2017

Ensure that labor inspectors receive adequate resources to enforce labor laws throughout the country and that inspections cover all areas in which children work, including registered and unregistered businesses.

2010 – 2017

Establish District Child Labor Committees in remaining districts.

2011 – 2017

Coordination

Improve lines of communication and clarify responsibilities among agencies to improve effectiveness and referrals to social services.

2011 – 2017

Government Policies

Provide sufficient funding to implement existing policies.

2012 – 2017

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the Education Policy and National Youth Policy.

2013 – 2017

Social Programs

Publish the data on child labor from the 2008, 2012, and 2014 Labor Force Surveys.

2011 – 2017

Provide free education to all children as required by law, improve school infrastructure, decrease the distance students must travel to access education, and increase the number of qualified teachers.

2012 – 2017

Expand existing programs to address the full scope of the child labor problem in all relevant sectors, including agriculture, domestic work, and commercial sexual exploitation.

2011 – 2017

1. ILO-IPEC. A Rapid Assessment on child labour in tobacco-growing communities in Kaoma District, Zambia. 2014. http://www.ilo.org/ipec/Informationresources/WCMS_IPEC_PUB_24856/lang--en/index.htm.

2. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2017: Zambia. Washington, DC. June 27, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2017/271315.htm.

3. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed January 4, 2018. http://data.uis.unesco.org/. For more information, please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

4. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Labour Force Survey, 2008. Analysis received December 15, 2016. Please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

5. Maingaila, Francis. Zambia faces up to blight of child labor. Anadolu Agency. May 3, 2016. http://aa.com.tr/en/world/zambia-faces-up-to-blight-of-child-labor/565445.

6. U.S. Embassy- Lusaka. Reporting, January 16, 2018.

7. Siwawa, Sitembile. Cattle Herding: Barrier to Early Education. Zambia Daily Mail. December 19, 2013. [Source on file].

8. Kumwenda, Mwape. Child Labor Cases High in Zambia. 2016. [Source on file].

9. Nawa, Doreen. Children speak out on child labour Vs education challenge. Daily Mail. May 31, 2016. https://www.daily-mail.co.zm/?p=68100.

10. U.S. Embassy- Lusaka. Reporting, January 16, 2014.

11. ZKidsExtra. Child Labour - Stone Crushing [YouTube Video]. Zambia: Zkidsextra. 2013, 1 min. 44 sec. December 23, 2014. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UuQHYDo3w-8.

12. Zimba, Miriam. Child labour still evident in Zambia." Lusaka Voice. March 28, 2014. http://lusakavoice.com/2014/03/28/child-labour-still-evident-in-zambia/.

13. Chanda, Patrick. Impact of Child Domestic Labour on Children's Education: A Case Study of Lusaka City in Zambia. European Scientific Journal, Special Edition (August 2014). http://eujournal.org/index.php/esj/article/view/4021/3832.

14. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016: Zambia. Washington, DC. June 30, 2016. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/258882.pdf.

15. U.S. Embassy- Lusaka. Reporting, February 25, 2015.

16. U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2015: Zambia. Washington, DC. April 13, 2016. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/252955.pdf.

17. U.S. Embassy- Lusaka. Reporting, January 15, 2016.

18. U.S. Embassy- Lusaka official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 29, 2016.

19. ARISE. A Journey Together: Annual Review 2016. 2017. http://ariseprogram.org/files/5114/9690/7550/ARISE_Annual_Review_2016.pdf.

20. UN General Assembly Human Rights Council. Summary of Stakeholders’ submissions on Zambia - Report of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. August 18, 2017: A/HRC/WG.6/28/ZMB/3. https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G17/242/01/PDF/G1724201.pdf?OpenElement.

21. Government of Zambia. Zambia Constitution. Enacted: August 24, 1991. http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/cafrad/unpan004847.pdf.

22. —. The Employment Act, Chapter 268 of The Laws of Zambia. Enacted: 1956. http://www.parliament.gov.zm/sites/default/files/documents/acts/Employment%20Act.pdf.

23. —. Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) Act, 2016. Enacted: January 5, 2016. http://www.parliament.gov.zm/sites/default/files/documents/amendment_act/Constitution%20of%20Zambia%20%20%28Amendment%29%2C%202016-Act%20No.%202_0.pdf.

24. —. Employment of Young Persons and Children Act (Amendment), 2004. Enacted: September 8, 2004. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/82353/90114/F103895610/ZMB82353.pdf.

25. —. Prohibition of Employment of Young Persons and Children (Hazardous Labour) Order, No. 121. Enacted: December 27, 2013. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/SERIAL/95833/113000/F-1150065941/ZMB95833.pdf.

26. —. The Anti-Human Trafficking Bill, 2008. Enacted: September 26, 2008. http://ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex4.detail?p_lang=en&p_isn=79940&p_country=ZMB&p_count=182.

27. —. The Penal Code Act, as amended. Enacted: 2005. http://www.unodc.org/res/cld/document/zmb/1931/the_penal_code_act_html/Zambia_Penal_Code_Act_1930_as_amended_2005.pdf.

28. —. Defence Act. Enacted: 1964. [Source on file].

29. —. Education Act of 2011. Enacted: 2011. [Source on file].

30. U.S. Embassy- Lusaka. Reporting, February 5, 2013.

31. —. Reporting, January 28, 2015.

32. U.S. Department of State official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 31, 2013.

33. ILO Committee on the Application of Standards. Discussion of Individual Cases- Zambia: C.App./PV.15. June 2017. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_norm/---relconf/documents/meetingdocument/wcms_557880.pdf.

34. U.S. Embassy- Lusaka. Reporting, January 11, 2017.

35. U.S. Embassy- Lusaka official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. July 19, 2018.

36. CIA. The World Factbook. Accessed March 15, 2018. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html. Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

37. ILO Committee on Employment and Social Policy. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

38. UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2017 Statistical Annex. New York. 2017. https://www.un.org/development/desa/dpad/wp-content/uploads/sites/45/publication/2017wesp_full_en.pdf. Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

39. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Labour Inspection Convention, 1947 (No. 81) (ratification: 2013) and Labour Inspection (Agriculture) Convention, 1969 (No. 129) (ratification: 2013) Published: 2017. Accessed October 25, 2017. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3300004.

40. U.S. Embassy- Lusaka official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 17, 2015.

41. U.S. Embassy- Lusaka. Reporting, February 1, 2016.

42. Winrock International. EMPOWER: Increasing Economic and Social Empowerment for Adolescent Girls and Vulnerable in Zambia. Technical Progress Report. March 31, 2018. [Source on file].

43. U.S. Embassy- Lusaka. Reporting, June 16, 2018.

44. Government of Zambia. National Child Labour Policy. 2011. http://www.eclt.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/National_Child_Labour_Policy_Securing_a_Better_Future_for_Our_Children.pdf.

45. United Nations Zambia. The United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF). Accessed May 18, 2018. http://www.zm.one.un.org/undaf.

46. United Nations, and Government of Zambia. Zambia–United Nations Sustainable Development Partnership Framework (2016-2021). 2016. http://www.ilo.org/addisababa/countries-covered/zambia/WCMS_465095/lang--en/index.htm.

47. Global Conference on the Sustained Eradication of Child Labor. Pledges. November 14-16, 2017. http://www.childlabour2017.org/en/resources/updates/pledges.

48. ILO-IPEC. Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues. Technical Progress Report. April 2014. [Source on file].

49. U.S. Department of Labor. EMPOWER: Increasing Economic and Social Empowerment for Adolescent Girls and Vulnerable Women in Zambia. 2016. https://www.dol.gov/agencies/ilab/projects/zambia-empower.

50. ILO. ARISE II - Global Training Programme: Elimination of child labour in tobacco-growing communities. March 19, 2015: Project Description. http://www.ilo.org/ipec/projects/global/WCMS_355736/lang--en/index.htm.

51. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Zambia (ratification: 1976) Published: 2017. Accessed October 25, 2017. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3292558.

52. UNICEF. Social Protection Systems in Southern Africa Presentation. 2015. [Source on file].

53. Handa, Sudhanshu, et al. The Impact of Zambia's Unconditional Child Grant on Schooling and Work: Results from a large-scale social experiment. Florence, UNICEF Office of Research. Report No. Innocenti Working Paper No. 2015-01. April 2015. https://www.unicef-irc.org/publications/776/.

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55. —. Final GEWEL Procurement Plan. May 26, 2016. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/267451525884486402/pdf/Plan-Archive-12.pdf.

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