Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Zambia

Cattle
Cattle
Child Labor Icon
Cotton
Cotton
Child Labor Icon
Gems
Gems
Child Labor Icon
Stones
Stones
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Tobacco
Tobacco
Child Labor Icon
Zambia
2018 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2018, Zambia made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The government developed national action plans on Child Labor and Anti-Human Trafficking in line with Zambia's 7th National Development Plan. It also increased the number of inspectors, significantly increased the number of labor inspections conducted, identified 511 child labor law violations, and achieved 5 convictions for the crime of child trafficking. In addition, the government published studies that provide insights into child labor and child commercial sexual exploitation and included child labor for the first time in its Labor Force Survey. However, children in Zambia engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in agriculture and commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Children also engage in child labor in agriculture. The Education Act does not specify a compulsory education age, and human trafficking laws are discordant with international standards because they require threats, the use of force, or coercion to be established for the crime of child trafficking. In addition, labor inspectors lack sufficient resources to enforce child labor laws.

Children in Zambia engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in agriculture and commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. (1,2) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Zambia.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

28.1 (992,722)

Working children by sector

5 to 14

 

Agriculture

 

91.8

Industry

 

1.2

Services

 

7.0

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

65.2

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

27.6

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

78.7

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2013, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2019. (3)
Source for all other data: International Labor Organization’s Analysis of Statistics from the Labour Force Survey, 2008. (
4)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Work in the production of cotton,† tobacco,† and other cash crops, including applying fertilizers, grading or ridging fields, harvesting crops, spraying pesticides,† transplanting, watering, and weeding crops (1,5,6)

Raising and herding† cattle (1,6,7

Fishing,† working on boats, and cutting and smoking fish (6,8)

Production of charcoal† (6)

Industry

Mining gems, including amethysts and emeralds (9)

Mining ore, including lead, zinc, iron ore, and copper (9)

Work in quarries, including carrying heavy loads,† conducting rudimentary mine drilling,† crushing stones, and scavenging mine dump sites (6,7,10)

Services

Domestic work (6,11,12)

Street work, including begging and vending (6,11)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2)

Forced labor in agriculture, construction, domestic work, mining, and textile production, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Children trafficked within Zambia are primarily trafficked from rural to urban areas for domestic work and forced labor in agriculture. (2,9,13) Some children in Zambia are forced by Jerabo gangs, which are illegal mining syndicates in the Copperbelt province, to load trucks with stolen copper ore.  Along Zambia’s borders, the commercial sexual exploitation of children is common. (2) In September 2018, immigration authorities intercepted a truck with 23 Congolese nationals aboard, including 9 children, who were suspected of being victims of human trafficking. (14) In 2018, the Government of Zambia and UNICEF published studies on child poverty and violence against children. The study on child poverty reports that adolescents ages 14 to 17 are three times more likely to be engaged in child labor than children ages 5 to 13. (15) The study on violence against children reports that girls ages 13 to 17 are engaged in commercial sexual exploitation. (16) Although the government has conducted regular Labor Force Surveys and published the results in 2011, 2014, and 2016, it had yet to collect and release child labor data. To address this, in 2018, the government included a specific child labor module in the Labor Force Survey; the data are being analyzed and are scheduled for release in 2019. (17-19

Long distances to schools create a barrier to education, particularly in rural areas. (1,20,21) Families also face costs for basic education, including fees for school supplies, which prevent some children from attending school. (1,12) Inadequate educational infrastructure, a lack of materials, and a high student-to-teacher ratio further hinder students. (6,21) In addition, the inability to access birth certificates and the prevalence of the early marriage of girls increase the vulnerability of children to child labor. Children without birth certificates are not able to enroll in school, and once girls marry, they are removed from school and sometimes required to work outside the household. (14,15,22)

Zambia has ratified most key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

 

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

 

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Zambia’s legal framework to adequately protect children from the worst forms of child labor, including an undefined age range for compulsory education and lack of a list of activities considered to be light work, as required by Zambian law.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Article 24 of the Constitution; Article 12 of the Employment Act (23-25)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 17B(2) of the Employment of Young Persons and Children Act; Article 3 of theProhibition of Employment of Young Persons and Children (Hazardous Labor) Order(26,27)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Prohibition of Employment of Young Persons and Children (Hazardous Labor) Order (27)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 14 and 24 of the Constitution; Articles 143 and 263 of the Penal Code; Article 3 of the Anti-Human Trafficking Act of 2008 (23,25,28,29)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

No

 

Article 17 of Amendment to the Constitution; Article 143 of the Penal Code; Articles 2–3 (1–4) of the Anti-Human Trafficking Act of 2008 (23,25,28,29)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 144 of the Penal Code; Article 2 of the Prohibition of Employment of Young Persons and Children (Hazardous Labor) Order 2013 (27,29

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 2 of the Prohibition of Employment of Young Persons and Children (Hazardous Labor) Order 2013 (27

Minimum Age for Voluntary State Military Recruitment

Yes

18

Article 14 of the Defence Act (30)

Prohibition of Compulsory Recruitment of Children by (State) Military

N/A*

   

Prohibition of Military Recruitment by Non-state Armed Groups

Yes

 

Article 3 of the Anti-Human Trafficking Act of 2008 (28)

Compulsory Education Age

No

 

Article 16 of the Education Act, 2011 (31)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 15 of the Education Act, 2011 (31)

* No conscription (31)

The Employment of Young Persons and Children Amendment Act No.10 of 2004 calls for the identification of light work activities for children ages 13 to 15; however, these activities are not yet determined. (32) Penalties for adults convicted of engaging children in prostitution in the Employment of Young Persons and Children Act are different from those in the Penal Code. Although the Penal Code treats child prostitution as a felony, with a minimum 20-year jail sentence, the Employment of Young Persons and Children Act treats it differently and imposes a fine of $35 to $165 and possible discretionary prison time. (27,29) In addition, human trafficking provisions remain discordant with international standards because they require threats, the use of force, or coercion to be established for the crime of child trafficking. (28)

In February 2019, the Parliament approved the Employment Code Act, 2019, which consolidates all labor laws and will take effect in May 2019. (33)

The Education Act requires the government to provide free education up to the seventh grade and stipulates that education is compulsory for children of “school-going age.” (9,31) The Act, however, does not set a specific age or define “school-going age,” which may allow children to leave school before they are legally able to work. (31) The lack of standards in this area may increase the risk of children's involvement in the worst forms of child labor.

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the operations of the Ministry of Labor and Social Security (MLSS) that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor and Social Security (MLSS)

Implements, enforces, and regulates child labor laws. (9,18,34) Advises other government agencies on child labor issues and coordinates government efforts to combat child labor. (6,18)

Ministry of Home Affairs

Enforces criminal laws against human trafficking, child commercial exploitation, use of children as soldiers, and use of children in illegal activities. (14)  

Industrial Relations Court

Imposes penalties for child labor law violations. (14) Research was unable to determine whether the Industrial Relations Court imposed any sanctions for child labor violations in 2018.

Zambia Police Service Child Protection Unit

Works with MLSS, the District Street Children Committees, and the Ministry of Youth, Sports, and Child Development to identify and remove vulnerable children from the streets. Places rescued street children with families, in foster care, or in children's homes. (17) Works with immigration officials to combat child trafficking, with local officials to combat crimes against children, and with schools to educate and sensitize children about abuse. Collaborates with the Ministry of Justice to investigate and prosecute child labor cases. (14)  

Zambia Police Service Victim Support Unit

Handles the enforcement of laws against human trafficking, commercial sexual exploitation, and the use of children in illicit activities. (34,35)

Ministry of Community Development and Social Welfare

Provides social services to victims of human trafficking or sexual abuse. Operates one government shelter in Luapula province and oversees two NGO shelters. (2,14

Ministry of Justice

Investigates and prosecutes child labor cases. (36)

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2018, labor law enforcement agencies in Zambia took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the operations of the MLSS that may hinder adequate enforcement of child labor laws, including human and financial resource allocation.

Table 6.Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2017

2018

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown (37)

Unknown (14

Number of Labor Inspectors

134 (2,14)  

155 (14

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (6)

No (14

Initial Training for New Labor Inspectors

N/A (6)

Yes (14

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A (6)

Yes (14

Refresher Courses Provided

No (6)

Unknown (14

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

723 (6)

1,533 (14

Number Conducted at Worksite

723 (6)

1,533 (14

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown

511 (14

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown

Unknown (18

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that Were Collected

Unknown

Unknown (14

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (6)

Yes (14

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (6)

Unknown (14

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (6)

Yes (14

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (6)

Yes (14

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (6)

Yes (14

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (6)

Yes (14

In 2018, the MLSS increased the size of the inspectorate to 155 labor inspectors. (14) However, the number of labor inspectors likely remains insufficient for the size of Zambia's workforce, which includes approximately 6.9 million workers. According to the ILO's technical advice of a ratio approaching 1 inspector for every 40,000 workers in less developed economies, Zambia would employ about 172 inspectors. (38,39) The MLSS has stated that an insufficient budget, insufficient office space, inadequate training, and a lack of transportation and fuel have prevented it from adequately conducting inspections countrywide. (6,40) The MLSS conducts labor inspections in registered private institutions only; it does not conduct investigations, allowed by law, in unregistered institutions where child labor is more likely to be found. (41) In 2018, the MLSS removed 2,787 children from child labor. A referral mechanism exists through District Child Labor Committees that allows labor officers to refer cases to NGOs. (14) The government did not provide information on its labor inspectorate funding, penalties imposed and collected for child labor violations, and whether it conducted target inspections for inclusion in this report.

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2018, criminal law enforcement agencies in Zambia took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including the allocation of financial and human resources.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2017

2018

Initial Training for New Criminal Investigators

N/A (6)

Yes (42

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A (6)

Unknown (42

Refresher Courses Provided

No (6

Unknown (42

Number of Investigations

Unknown

38 (42)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown

Unknown (14

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown

3 (42

Number of Convictions

Unknown

5 (42

Imposed Penalties for Violations Related to The Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown

Unknown

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (6)

Yes (42

In 2018, the government trained more than 1,000 law enforcement officials, coordinated with the government of Botswana to repatriate two Zambian minors trafficked to that country, and assisted 14 child victims of human trafficking. In addition, the government partnered with the IOM to refurbish a protective shelter for vulnerable migrants, including victims of human trafficking. (42) Despite these actions, government agencies do not have sufficient financial and human resources to address human trafficking, nor do they have consistent procedures to screen and identify human trafficking victims. Research did not uncover official reports of child commercial sexual exploitation cases. (42) The government did not provide information regarding criminal enforcement training, the number of child labor violations found, and whether penalties were imposed for violations related to the worst forms of child labor for inclusion in this report.

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including efficacy in accomplishing mandates.

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

MLSS-Child Labor Unit

Coordinates with District Child Labor Committees (DCLCs) in Zambia's 114 districts to increase local awareness and mobilize communities against child labor, including its worst forms. (9,34) In 2018, educated communities on the dangers of child labor and identified and withdrew victims of child labor in the town of Kaoma, in Western Province. In addition, coordinated the commemoration of the June 12 World Day Against Child Labor at district and community levels. (14,43)  

Inter-Ministerial Committee on Anti-Human Trafficking

Leads efforts to address human trafficking. (42) In 2018, updated the National Action Plan on Human Trafficking, Mixed and Irregular Migration to strengthen the implementation of the Anti-Human Trafficking Act and better respond to cases of human trafficking. (42)

DCLC

Responds to child labor complaints at the local level, files complaints to MLSS, and serves as the main referral mechanism for social welfare services. Comprises the Zambia Police Service; MLSS; the Ministry of Community Development, Mother, and Child Health; and civil society stakeholders. (14) In 2018, 40 DCLCs were active, including in areas where child labor in tobacco production is prevalent. (44,45)  

National Steering Committee on Child Labor (NSCL)

Advises and oversees child labor matters, including implementation of the Hazardous Work Statutory Instrument. Comprises government representatives, employers, trade unions, and civil society members. (14,46) In 2018, NSCL developed the National Action Plan for Child Labor (2018–2022) and conducted awareness-raising activities. (14,44,46)

In 2018, the government carried out awareness-raising campaigns to combat human trafficking; in partnership with IOM, the government completed and operationalized a place of safety in Sesheke district; continued to upgrade shelters for vulnerable migrants, including victims of human trafficking in Chipata and Kapiri Mposhi districts; and worked with the UNODC to review human trafficking laws. Other activities included the reintegration of eight child victims of human trafficking back into their communities. (42) However, overlapping responsibilities and communication lapses among government agencies may hinder their ability to implement their mandates. (6,47)

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including lack of implementation of policies.

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Child Labor Policy

Sets strategies to address child labor issues. Strategies include working with local communities to develop programs to assist children who are vulnerable to child labor. (9,48) In 2018, the government developed the National Action Plan for the Elimination of Child Labor (2018–2022), which will be reviewed by key stakeholders across the country before it is officially approved. The National Plan is part of the implementation of the Child Labor National Policy and is a follow-up to pledges made at the 2017 Global Conference on the Sustained Eradication of Child Labor. (33,49) It also conducted awareness-raising activities to prevent child labor. (50

7th National Development Plan (2017–2021)

Outlines Zambia’s strategy to promote inclusive economic growth and national development. Seeks to improve access to quality education and reduce poverty by 20 percent by 2021. In 2018, the government, in partnership with ILO, completed the review and final drafting of the Zambia Decent Work Country Program 2019–2022. In addition, ILO provided technical and financial support to MLSS to carry out consultative review workshops for the National Action Plan for the Elimination of Child Labor at district and national levels. (43,51)  

Vision 2030

Sets Zambia's long-term sustainable development goals. Aims to eliminate child labor and improve quality education by 2030. In 2018, the government provided training to DCLC members on the integrated approach to child labor elimination and sponsored scholarships and educational opportunities for at risk-children, as well as provided technical support to district and community-level efforts to address child labor. (43,52

National Youth Policy

Outlines Zambia's strategies to ensure that social programs benefit vulnerable youth, including victims of sexual exploitation and human trafficking. (53) In 2018, the Ministry of Youth, Sport, and Child Development distributed Information and Communication Technology equipment to youths in 60 districts as part of its goal to provide entrepreneurial training to at-risk youths. (54)

National Employment and Labor Market Policy

Outlines policy framework to promote decent work, including child labor elimination. (14) In 2018, the government drafted an updated National Employment and Labor Market Policy to be approved by the Zambian cabinet. (19

UN’s Sustainable Development Partnership Framework (2016–2021)

$806 million framework that builds upon the previous UNDAF but with a stronger emphasis on partnership. (55) Aims to prevent the worst forms of child labor and protect children. In 2018, established mentorship and youth apprenticeship opportunities for at-risk children, and supported programs reintegrating victims of the worst forms of child labor into education. (43,56)

The government has not included child labor elimination and prevention strategies in the Education Policy. (57

In 2018, the government hosted an international conference on artisanal and small-scale mining and quarrying, which included discussions on child labor in mining. One of the outcomes of the conference was the development of the Mosi-oa-Tunya Declaration on Artisanal and Small-scale Mining, Quarrying and Development, which calls for the need to combat the worst forms of child labor. (58)

In 2018, the government funded and participated in programs that included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including the adequacy of programs to address child labor in all relevant sectors.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

EMPOWER: Increasing Economic and Social Empowerment for Adolescent Girls and Vulnerable Women in Zambia (2016-2020)

$5 million, 4-year, USDOL-funded project implemented by Winrock International to address child labor. (50)  To date, more than 1,000 girls have participated in training courses on rural entrepreneurship and leadership life skills. (33) Additional information is available on the USDOL website.

DREAMS

U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief/USAID project that aims to reduce rates of HIV among adolescent girls and young women, including girls vulnerable to commercial sexual exploitation, in Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. (59,60) In 2018, this initiative in Zambia prioritized orphans and vulnerable children, including adolescent girls vulnerable to commercial sexual exploitation, benefiting 653,600 individuals. (43,59)  

Service Efficiency and Effectiveness for Vulnerable Children and Adolescents*

Joint initiative with USAID and UNICEF that improves child protection services for children and adolescents, including children vulnerable to child labor, in 15 districts. The program launched in 2018. (61

Achieving Reduction of Child Labor in Support of Education

Joint initiative with Japan Tobacco International, Winrock International, and ILO that seeks to combat the worst forms of child labor in tobacco-growing communities in Brazil, Malawi, Tanzania, and Zambia. To date, more than 4,000 children have participated in this initiative in Zambia. (20,62)

Social Cash Transfer Program†

Provides funds to families and increases school enrollment. (14,63) In 2018, the government increased its support of this program to $56 million (721 million kwacha), targeting 700,000 households. (14,43)  

Zambia National Service Skills Training Camps†

Provides life skills training camps for at-risk youth, including for victims of the worst forms of child labor. The program currently has 18 centers across the country. (64) In 2018, the government allocated $1.3 million (16.8 million kwacha) toward youth skills training under the Zambia National Service. (43

World Bank-funded Projects

Projects to improve access to education, particularly for girls. Includes: Education Enhancement Project (2017–2022), a $60 million project to improve math and science instruction in primary and secondary schools; and Girls’ Education and Women’s Empowerment and Livelihood Project (GEWEL) (2015–2020), a $64 million project to provide livelihood support to extremely poor households and increase secondary school enrollment for girls. (47,65) By the end of 2018, the GEWEL Project supported 16,239 girls in secondary school. (65)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Zambia
‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. (
9,66)

Although Zambia has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem in all relevant sectors, particularly regarding child labor in agriculture, domestic work, and commercial sexual exploitation.

In 2018, the President of Zambia ordered an audit of the conditional cash transfer program due to corruption allegations. In September 2018, donors such as the UK Department of International Development and the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency suspended funding for the program, and the President dismissed the Minister of Community Development and Social Welfare. (14,67) Seventy percent of the program is funded by the government, and international donors provide the remaining 30 percent. (14,67)  

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Zambia (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

 

Legal Framework

Accede to the UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography.

2018

 

Determine through statutory instrument the "school-going age" for compulsory education, consistent with international law.

2012 – 2018

 

Determine list of light work activities for children ages 13 to 15.

2018

 

Harmonize legislation to ensure that penalties for child commercial sexual exploitation are consistent.

2009 – 2018

 

Ensure that laws prohibiting child trafficking do not require threats, the use of force, or coercion for an act to be considered child trafficking.

2017 – 2018

 

Publish information on law enforcement efforts, including training, investigations, number of child labor violations found, and penalties imposed for violations related to the worst forms of child labor.

2014 – 2018

 

Enforcement

Publish information regarding the labor inspectorate’s funding.

2018

 

Authorize the labor inspectorate to assess penalties, while ensuring that the Industrial Relations Court is able to carry out its intended mandates.

2017 – 2018

 

Increase the number of labor inspectors to meet the ILO’s technical advice.

2012 – 2018

 

Ensure that labor inspectors receive adequate training and resources to enforce labor laws throughout the country and that inspections cover all areas in which children work, including registered and unregistered businesses.

2010 – 2018

 

Develop and implement consistent procedures to screen and identify human trafficking victims.

2018

 

Improve lines of communication and clarify responsibilities among agencies to improve effectiveness and referrals to social services.

2011 – 2018

 

Coordination

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the Education Policy.

2013 – 2018

 

Government Policies

Publish child labor data, including results of the child labor module of the Labor Force Survey.

2011 – 2018

 

Social Programs

Provide free education to all children as required by law, improve school infrastructure, increase the number of qualified teachers, decrease the distance students must travel to access education,  and increase birth certificate registration. 

2012 – 2018

 

Expand existing programs to address the full scope of the child labor problem in all relevant sectors, including agriculture, mining, domestic work, and commercial sexual exploitation.

2011 – 2018

 

Ensure that the conditional cash transfer program has control and accountability mechanisms in place to prevent corruption.

2018

 

1

ILO-IPEC. A Rapid Assessment on child labour in tobacco-growing communities in Kaoma District, Zambia. 2014.
http://www.ilo.org/ipec/Informationresources/WCMS_IPEC_PUB_24856/lang--en/index.htm.

2

U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2018: Zambia. Washington, DC: June 2018.
https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-trafficking-in-persons-report/zambia/.

3

UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed March 16, 2019. For more information, please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.
http://data.uis.unesco.org/.

4

ILO. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Labour Force Survey, 2008. Analysis received March 12, 2019 Please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

5

Maingaila, Francis. Zambia faces up to blight of child labor. Clear The Air News Tobacco Blog May 3, 2016.
http://tobacco.cleartheair.org.hk/?p=13978.

6

U.S. Embassy- Lusaka. Reporting. January 16, 2018.

7

Kumwenda, Mwape. Child Labor Cases High in Zambia. 2016. Source on file.

8

Nawa, Doreen. Children speak out on child labour Vs education challenge. Daily Mail, May 31, 2016.
https://www.daily-mail.co.zm/?p=68100.

9

U.S. Embassy- Lusaka. Reporting. January 16, 2014.

10

ZKidsExtra. Child Labour - Stone Crushing [YouTube Video]. Zambia: Zkidsextra, 2013, 1 min. 44 sec. December 23, 2014.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UuQHYDo3w-8.

11

Zimba, Miriam. "Child labour still evident in Zambia." Lusaka Voice, March 28, 2014.
http://lusakavoice.com/2014/03/28/child-labour-still-evident-in-zambia/.

12

Chanda, Patrick. Impact of Child Domestic Labour on Children's Education: A Case Study of Lusaka City in Zambia. European Scientific Journal, Special Edition, August 2014.
http://eujournal.org/index.php/esj/article/view/4021/3832.

13

U.S. Embassy- Lusaka. Reporting. February 25, 2015.

14

U.S. Embassy- Lusaka. Reporting. January 15, 2019.

15

Government of Zambia. Child Poverty in Zambia. Lusaka: UNICEF. 2018
https://www.unicef.org/zambia/media/1176/file.

16

Government of Zambia, UNICEF, et al. Violence against Children in Zambia. Lusaka. 2018.
https://www.unicef.org/zambia/reports/violence-against-children-zambia-study.

17

U.S. Embassy- Lusaka. Reporting. January 15, 2016.

18

U.S. Embassy- Lusaka official. Email communication to USDOL official. April 29, 2016.

19

ILO-Zambia. Email communication to USDOL official. March 11, 2019.

20

ARISE. A Journey Together: Annual Review 2017. 2018.
http://ariseprogram.org/files/8415/2872/7578/ARISE_Annual_Review_2017.pdf.

21

UN General Assembly Human Rights Council. Summary of Stakeholders’ submissions on Zambia - Report of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. August 18, 2017: A/HRC/WG.6/28/ZMB/3.
https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G17/242/01/PDF/G1724201.pdf?OpenElement.

22

Government of Zambia. National report submitted in accordance with paragraph 5 of the annex to Human Rights Council resolution 16/21*: Zambia. Human Rights Council, Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review,Twenty-eighth session. October 26, 2017.
https://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/UPR/Pages/ZMIndex.aspx.

23

Government of Zambia. Zambia Constitution. Enacted: August 24, 1991.
http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/cafrad/unpan004847.pdf.

24

Government of Zambia. The Employment Act, Chapter 268 of The Laws of Zambia. Enacted: 1956.
http://www.parliament.gov.zm/sites/default/files/documents/acts/Employment Act.pdf.

25

Government of Zambia. Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) Act, 2016. Enacted: May 23, 2016.
http://www.parliament.gov.zm/sites/default/files/documents/bills/CONSTITUTION AMENDMENT BILL No.37 2016.pdf.

26

Government of Zambia. Employment of Young Persons and Children Act (Amendment), 2004. Enacted: September 8, 2004.
http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/82353/90114/F103895610/ZMB82353.pdf.

27

Government of Zambia. Prohibition of Employment of Young Persons and Children (Hazardous Labour) Order, No. 121. Enacted: December 27, 2013.
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28

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29

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30

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31

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32

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33

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34

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35

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36

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37

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38

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39

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40

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41

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50

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