List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor
The Bureau of International Labor Affairs (ILAB) maintains a list of goods and their source countries which it has reason to believe are produced by child labor or forced labor in violation of international standards, as required under the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act (TVPRA) of 2005 and subsequent reauthorizations. The List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor comprises 159 goods from 78 countries and areas, as of September 28, 2022.
ILAB maintains the List primarily to raise public awareness about forced labor and child labor around the world and to promote efforts to combat them; it is not intended to be punitive, but rather to serve as a catalyst for more strategic and focused coordination and collaboration among those working to address these problems.
Publication of the List has resulted in new opportunities for ILAB to engage with foreign governments to combat forced labor and child labor. It is also a valuable resource for researchers, advocacy organizations and companies wishing to carry out risk assessments and engage in due diligence on labor rights in their supply chains.
The countries on the List span every region of the world. The most common agricultural goods listed are sugarcane, cotton, coffee, tobacco, cattle, rice, and fish. In the manufacturing sector, bricks, garments, textiles, footwear, carpets, and fireworks appear most frequently. In mined or quarried goods, gold, coal and diamonds are most common.
ILAB published the initial TVPRA List in 2009 and updated it annually through 2014, following a set of procedural guidelines that were the product of an intensive public consultation process. ILAB now updates and publishes the List every other year, pursuant to changes in the law.
On May 15, 2020, ILAB's Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking published Procedural Guidelines for the development and maintenance of the List of Goods from countries produced by child labor or forced labor in violation of international standards.
|India||Child Labor, Forced Labor|
There are reports that children are forced to produce carpets in Nepal. Children age 14 and older are found in registered carpet factories, while children younger than 14 are found in informal, unregistered carpet factories. Carpet factories are concentrated in the Kathmandu Valley. Some children work alone or with their families as bonded laborers in the factories. Most children do not receive payment for their work. Some children work to pay off advance payments for their labor made by the employer to the recruiter or their families. These children live in the factory or nearby in accommodations provided by the employer. The children are not free to leave until the debt has been repaid. Many of the children are forced to work long hours and overtime, up to 18 hours per day; many cannot leave the factory even after they have completed their long workday. Such children are punished by employers for refusing to work, missing production quotas, falling asleep, or making mistakes.
|Child Labor, Forced Labor|
There are reports that children as young as age five are forced to work in the production of carpets, often through a system of bonded labor. Based on reports from the ILO and the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD), as many as half a million children have been producing carpets under conditions of forced labor throughout the country. Children of migrants, refugees, and impoverished families are particularly vulnerable to this practice. Typical of the Pakistani “peshgis” system, children are often sent to work to pay off their family's debt. Families accept a loan in the form of advanced payment for a year of their child's work, and the child is prohibited from leaving the workplace until the debt is paid in full. The children live in the workplace, away from their families, and do not have the freedom to leave. Some children are forced to work without equipment to protect them from exposure to toxic chemicals and dust. The children are paid little, and deductions are taken from their wages for food and shelter. Some children are fined or beaten for any mistakes.
|Child Labor, Forced Labor|