Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Nepal

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Nepal

2017 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2017, Nepal made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The government passed the Labor Act, which prohibits forced labor and sets penalties for forced labor violations. The government also began implementing a child labor monitoring system in Panauti Municipality and implemented the first nationally representative survey examining forced labor among adult and child workers. However, children in Nepal engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation. Children also perform dangerous tasks in the production of bricks. The Department of Labor’s budget, the number of labor inspectors, and available resources and training are all insufficient for adequately enforcing labor laws, including those related to child labor. Children age 17 are also excluded from the protections of the country’s hazardous work list, leaving them vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor. In addition, the government lacks a policy that addresses all relevant forms of child labor, including hazardous child labor, forced child labor, and the use of children in illicit activities.

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Children in Nepal engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation. Children also perform dangerous tasks in the production of bricks. (1; 2; 3). Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Nepal.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

37.2

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

91.7

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

39.1

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

112.8

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2017, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2018. (4)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Labor Force Survey, 2014. (5)

 

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Farming, including harvesting caterpillar fungus (yarsagumba) (6; 7; 8)

Herding and feeding livestock (6; 9; 10)

Industry

Producing bricks (11; 6; 10; 12; 13; 14; 15; 16; 1; 17)

Quarrying, collecting, and breaking stones, and quarrying and collecting sand (6; 8; 7)

Construction,† activities unknown (8; 10; 18; 19)

Weaving carpet† (6; 10; 20; 21; 22)

Producing embellished textiles (zari)† and embroidery (6; 7; 10; 23; 19)

Producing metal crafts (7; 8; 10; 3)

Services

Domestic work (6; 10; 24; 25; 26; 27)

Working in transportation,† portering, and collecting recyclable waste (6; 8; 10; 18)

Working in hotels,† restaurants,† and tea shops (6; 8; 18)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (6; 2)

Forced labor in embellishing textiles (zari), weaving carpets, and domestic work (21; 26; 2; 3; 19)

Forced labor in agriculture, producing bricks, quarrying, and breaking stones (2; 7; 14; 28; 29; 3)

Use in illicit activities, including the cultivation and trafficking of drugs (8; 3)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

 

Children are trafficked for commercial sexual exploitation both within and outside Nepal, including to India, the Middle East, Asia, and Sub-Saharan Africa. (6; 30; 31; 32; 2; 19) Many children in Nepal are engaged in the production of bricks, which exposes them to hazardous working conditions, including carrying heaving loads, using dangerous machinery, and working in extreme heat. (1)

Nepal has ratified most key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

 

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Nepal’s legal framework to adequately protect children from the worst forms of child labor, including with the lack of a minimum age for hazardous work that is consistent with international standards.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Section 3(1) of the Child Labor (Prohibition and Regulation) Act (33)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

No

17

Section 3(2) of the Child Labor (Prohibition and Regulation) Act (33)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Schedule 1 of the Child Labor (Prohibition and Regulation) Act (33)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Section 4 of the Bonded Labor (Prohibition) Act; Section 4 of the Child Labor (Prohibition and Regulation) Act; Sections 2, 3, 4, 15(1), and 15(2) of the Human Trafficking and Transportation Control Act; Section 4 of the Labor Act (33; 34; 35; 36)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

No

 

Sections 3, 4, 15(1), and 15(2) of the Human Trafficking and Transportation Control Act (35)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

No

 

Sections 3, 4, 15(1), and 15(2) of the Human Trafficking and Transportation Control Act; Sections 16(2) and 16(3) of the Children’s Act (35; 37)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

No

 

Sections 13 and 16(4) of the Children’s Act (37)

Prohibition of Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

N/A*

 

 

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Section 7 of the Military Service Regulation 2069 (38)

Non-state

No

 

Article 39(6) of the Constitution (39)

Compulsory Education Age

No

13‡

Article 31(2) of the Constitution (39)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Section 16D of the Education Act (40)

* No conscription (39; 41)
‡ Age calculated based on available information (42)

 

In 2017, the government passed the Labor Act, which prohibits the employment of persons in forced labor. The Act sets penalties for forced labor offenders of up to two years of imprisonment or a fine of up to five hundred thousand rupees (approximately $4,500) or both. (36; 3; 19)

The minimum age for hazardous work is not consistent with international standards as it does not prohibit 17 year old children from engaging in hazardous work. (33; 43) The types of hazardous work prohibited for children also do not include brick-making, a sector in which there is evidence that work involves carrying heavy loads and exposure to hazardous substances. (11; 33)

Laws related to child trafficking are insufficient because they do not clearly criminalize recruitment, harboring or receipt, or transportation in the absence of force, fraud or coercion. (44) The legal framework also does not explicitly prohibit the use of a child in the production of child pornography. (37) In addition, the legal framework prohibiting the use of children in illicit activities is insufficient as it does not prohibit the use of children in the production of drugs or extend to children who are 17 years of age. (37)

While the Constitution prohibits the recruitment of children by non-state armed groups, there is no specific legislation penalizing this practice. (39; 45; 41) Children in Nepal are required to attend school only up to age 13. (39; 42) This standard makes children age 13 vulnerable to child labor as they are not required to attend school but are not legally permitted to work.

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, the exceptionally low number of worksite inspections conducted at the national level in Nepal impeded the enforcement of their child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Department of Labor, Ministry of Labor, Employment, and Social Security (MLESS)

Enforce labor laws, including those involving child labor. Investigate and hold hearings in 10 District Labor Offices. (46) In March 2018, the Ministry of Labor and Employment was re-named as the Ministry of Labor, Employment and Social Security. (47)

Nepal Police Women and Children Service Directorate

Investigate crimes involving women and children, including human trafficking. Conduct work through the Nepal Police Women and Children Service Centers in all 77 districts. (48) The Nepal Police handle complaints received about child labor in districts without a District Labor Office. (46)

Ministry of Land Reform and Management

Enforce laws that prohibit bonded labor in agriculture. (3)

Child Protection Officers and Investigators, Department of Women and Children

Investigate and manage cases involving violations of children’s rights through 22 child protection officers and 53 child protection inspectors. (49; 50)

Monitoring Action Committees, Ministry of Women, Children, and Senior Citizens (MWCSC)

Investigate reports of commercial sexual exploitation at the district level, including the exploitation of children in the adult entertainment sector. (51)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2017, the exceptionally low number of worksite inspections conducted at the national level in Nepal impeded the enforcement of child labor laws (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$6,080† (8)

$4,000‡ (3)

Number of Labor Inspectors

12† (52)

14‡ (3)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (8)

Yes (3)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown (8)

Unknown (3)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A

Unknown (3)

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown (8)

Unknown (3)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

213† (8)

1,857‡ (3)

Number Conducted at Worksites

Unknown (8)

Unknown (3)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown* (8)

27 (3)

Number of Child Labor Violations for which Penalties were Imposed

Unknown (8)

Unknown (3)

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that were Collected

Unknown (8)

Unknown (3)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (8)

Yes (3)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (8)

No (41)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (8)

Yes (3)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (8)

Yes (3)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (8)

Yes (3)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (8)

Yes (3)

* The government does not publish this data.
† Data are from the Government of Nepal for the period from July 2015 to July 2016.
‡ Data are from the Government of Nepal for the period from July 2016 to July 2017.

 

The Gorkha earthquake in 2015 impacted the government’s ability to conduct labor inspections among other activities and resulted in a lower number of inspections conducted from July 2015 to July 2016. (3) Department of Labor officials noted that they lacked the resources to collect and publish data on child labor law violations. They also noted that the budget was insufficient and had been decreased from the previous year. (8; 3) In addition, the number of labor inspectors is likely insufficient for the size of the country’s workforce, which includes over 15.6 million workers. According to the ILO’s technical advice of a ratio approaching 1 inspector for every 40,000 workers in developing economies, Nepal would employ roughly 390 inspectors. (53; 54; 55) Although labor inspectors periodically receive training on child labor laws and inspection, this training does not necessarily adhere to any formal schedule. (46) In addition, the government and NGOs agreed that the fines and employer-paid compensation outlined in the Child Labor Act were not adequate as deterrents to child labor violations. (49; 3)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2017, criminal law enforcement agencies in Nepal took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including with the enforcement of laws that prohibit bonded labor in agriculture.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown (8)

Unknown (3)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (8)

Unknown (3)

Number of Investigations

Unknown* (8)

Unknown (3)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown* (8)

Unknown (3)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown* (8)

Unknown (3)

Number of Convictions

Unknown* (8)

Unknown (3)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (8)

Yes (3)

* The government does not publish this data.

 

The government reported 89 victims of child trafficking from July 2016 to July 2017 and at least one current pending case of a child labor law violation. (3; 41) The government does not have the capacity to enforce laws prohibiting crimes related to the worst forms of child labor and does not maintain a centralized database of cases involving the worst forms of child labor, including child trafficking. (56; 8)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role and Description

Labor Relations, Child Labor Prevention, and Information Section

Coordinate policy-making on child labor inspection guidelines and monitor implementation of guidelines. (52; 57) Consists of a senior factory inspector, two labor officers, and a senior assistant in MLESS. Confers with MWCSC, Central Child Welfare Board, Department of Labor, and district labor offices. (52)

National Network Against Child Labor

Coordinate the referral of children who are found in child labor to social services. (58) Consists of District Labor Officers, District Women and Children Officers, officers from the Nepal Police Women and Children Service Centers, Chief District Officers, NGOs, and thousands of youth clubs. (48) Research was unable to determine whether this coordinating body was active during the reporting period.

National Coordination Committee on Human Trafficking

Coordinate the implementation of anti-human trafficking laws, policies, and programs at the central, district, and local levels of government. Led by MWCSC and consists of government officials and representatives of NGOs. (48; 51) Research was unable to determine whether this coordinating body was active during the reporting period.

National Human Rights Commission

Monitor and receive complaints on child rights violations. (50) Report on the status of human trafficking victims and coordinate with civil society organizations through the Office of the Special Rapporteur on Trafficking. (48; 50) Research was unable to determine whether this coordinating body was active during the reporting period.

Central Child Welfare Board, MWCSC

Coordinate with MOLESP and civil society to formulate and implement child protection and child labor-related policies. (50; 46) Receive and document complaints via national hotline, in coordination with NGOs. Maintain Central Emergency Fund intended for use in humanitarian support for children. (59)

District Child Welfare Boards

Report on child welfare activities, monitor child care homes, mobilize resources for children at risk, receive and respond to child protection cases, and establish mechanisms to refer children to social services. Consists of social workers, medical practitioners, and government officials. (50; 60)

The Government of Nepal has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including with the lack of a policy designed to address other worst forms of child labor.

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor‡

Policy

Description

School Sector Development Plan (2016/17–2022/23)

Aims to expand access to education and provide alternative schooling and non-formal education to vulnerable populations, including children who are out of school and at risk of entering the worst forms of child labor. Overseen by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology. (3) In 2017, the government increased interventions in the five most disadvantaged districts in Nepal to provide education for out of school children. (47)

National Plan of Action Against Trafficking in Persons (2011–2022)

Promotes and protects the rights of human trafficking victims and survivors, and outlines policies for providing justice and punishing perpetrators. (61) In 2017, MWCSC completed a mid-term review of the plan, highlighting the need to revise the plan to better address forced labor and align with broader government efforts and structures. (41)

‡ The government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor. (3)

 

In 2017, Nepal made a pledge at the IV Global Conference on the Sustained Eradication of Child Labor held in Argentina to take initiatives on adopting the National Master Plan on the Elimination of Child Labor, amending the Child Labor (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, and conducting research on child labor and forced labor. (62) Although the government has a policy to address human trafficking, it does not have a policy to address other worst forms of child labor. In 2017, the National Planning Commission approved the National Master Plan on the Elimination of Child Labor and forwarded it the Cabinet, where it remains waiting for endorsement. (63; 3)

In 2017, the Government of Nepal funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs including with barriers to education.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Green Flag Movement (2014–2017)†

ILO-funded, municipal government campaign to eliminate child labor. Includes child labor monitoring and awareness-raising activities. (64) In 2017, ILO provided assistance to six municipalities to assist in promotion of the Green Flag Movement. (65)

Child Helpline – 1098†

MWCSC- and Child Workers in Nepal-funded helpline operated by the Nepal Telecommunications Authority. (49) Responds to calls about missing children, child abuse, child labor, child trafficking, and child sexual abuse in 13 districts and municipalities in Nepal, as well as in Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. (66; 49; 46) In 2017, the helpline remained active and received 1,857 calls, including 160 related to child labor. (3; 67)

Country-Level Engagement and Assistance to Reduce Child Labor II (CLEAR II) (2014–2018)

USDOL-funded capacity-building project implemented by Winrock International and partners Verité and Lawyers Without Borders in at least eight countries to build the local and national capacity of the government to address child labor. (63) During the reporting period, the program partnered with the government to train labor inspectors, prosecutors, and government personnel on child labor cases, and began implementing a Child Labor Monitoring System in the Panauti Municipality. (63) Additional Information is available on the USDOL website.

From Protocol to Practice: A Bridge to Global Action on Forced Labor (The Bridge Project) (2015–2019)

USDOL-funded global project implemented by the ILO to support global and national efforts aimed at combating forced labor of adults and children under the 2014 ILO Protocol and supporting Recommendation to ILO C. 29 on Forced Labor. Includes Mauritania, Nepal, and Peru as priority countries. (68) During the reporting period, the project supported the implementation of the first nationally representative survey examining forced labor among adult and child workers. (68) Additional Information is available on the USDOL website.

Decent Work Country Program, Nepal (2013–2017)

ILO, MLESS, Federation of Nepalese Chambers of Commerce and Industry, and Nepal Trade Union Congress-implemented program. (69) Provide technical and financial assistance to implement the provisions of ratified conventions on child labor, strengthen MLESS’s child labor monitoring and reporting systems for prevention and early detection, support the mapping of community service providers, and assist the government in revising a hazardous child labor list. (69) In 2017, project assisted the government in the passage of the recent Labor Act among other activities. (65)

Combating Trafficking in Persons (CTIP) Project (2010–2017)

$9.1 million, USAID-funded project to reduce human trafficking and protect the rights of victims. Strengthen protection services for survivors of human trafficking, build the capacity of the judiciary and law enforcement agencies to enforce legal measures and increase prosecutions, and prevent human trafficking by building awareness among groups that are vulnerable to human trafficking for purposes of labor and sexual exploitation. (8; 49; 70) In 2017, undertook efforts to address a range of areas from assistance in the launching of the fifth national trafficking in persons report to judicial outreach programs and the digitization of court cases. (3)

Support for Schools†

MLESS program that supports schools for children ages 5–16 who are at risk of working in the worst forms of child labor. Provides scholarships to cover associated schooling costs for children outside the Kathmandu Valley to attend a local public school, and works with local NGOs to verify that children are attending class. (8) In 2017, MLESS provided support to five schools in the Kathmandu area for children at risk of child labor. (56)

Hamro Samman (Our Respect)* (2017–2022)

USAID-funded project, implemented by Winrock International, to strengthen national and local efforts to combat trafficking in persons, improve civil society advocacy and engagement, and increase private sector partnerships to empower survivors. (3) During the reporting period, the project continued to work with the government to establish formal agreements to enable implementation of the project. (71; 72)

UNICEF Nepal Country Program (2013–2017)

UNICEF-funded program that supports the government’s efforts to ensure children’s access to education, health care, nutrition, sanitation, hygiene, safe water, and protection among other services. (73; 74) In 2017, an evaluation was undertaken to identify the lessons learned in order to apply those to the 2018-2022 UNICEF Country Program. (73)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Nepal.

 

Some children, particularly girls, face barriers to accessing education due to lack of sanitation facilities, geographic distance, and costs associated with schooling. (75; 3) Children with disabilities face additional barriers to accessing education. (76; 3)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Nepal (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ratify the Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons.

2013 – 2017

Ensure that laws are in line with ILO C. 182 by raising the minimum age for entry into hazardous work to 18.

2009 – 2017

Ensure that the types of hazardous work prohibited for children are comprehensive and include sectors where there is evidence of child labor, including brickmaking.

2015 – 2017

Ensure that the legal framework comprehensively criminally prohibits the trafficking of children in accordance with international standards.

2015 – 2017

Ensure that the law explicitly criminalizes the use of children in the production of child pornography.

2015 – 2017

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the use of children through age 17 in the production and trafficking of drugs.

2015 – 2017

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under 18 by non-state armed groups.

2016 – 2017

Ensure that the age up to which education is compulsory is the same as the minimum age for work.

2009 – 2017

Enforcement

Provide sufficient resources for the collection, storage, and publication of data on labor and criminal law enforcement actions including the number of violations, prosecutions, and convictions related to child labor, in addition to a centralized database to track and monitor cases of the worst forms of child labor.

2009 – 2017

Ensure that the Department of Labor’s budget is sufficient to adequately enforce child labor laws.

2016 – 2017

Increase the number of labor inspectors trained and responsible for providing enforcement of child labor laws.

2010 – 2017

Increase penalties to ensure sufficient deterrence of child labor law violations.

2015 – 2017

Provide additional resources to criminal law enforcement agencies so that they are able to enforce laws prohibiting crimes related to the worst forms of child labor.

2011 – 2017

Strengthen the Labor Inspectorate by initiating routine inspections rather than performing inspections solely based on complaints received.

2017

Coordination

Publish information on activities undertaken by coordinating bodies.

2017

Government Policies

Adopt a policy that addresses all relevant worst forms of child labor, such as commercial sexual exploitation of children, forced labor of children, and use of children in illicit activities.

2016 – 2017

Social Programs

Eliminate barriers to education, especially for children with disabilities, including the lack of sanitation facilities at schools, long distances to schools, and fees associated with schooling.

2013 – 2017

1. Myers, Lisa, and Laura Theytaz-Bergman. The Neglected Link: Effects of Climate Change and Environmental Degredation on Child Labour. Terre des Hommes. June 2017. http://www.terredeshommes.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/CL-Report-2017-engl.pdf.

2. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2018: Nepal. Washington, DC. June 28, 2018. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/282803.pdf.

3. U.S. Embassy- Kathmandu. Reporting, January 12, 2018.

4. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed April 18, 2018. http://data.uis.unesco.org/. For more information, please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

5. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Labour Force Survey, 2008. Analysis received January 12, 2018. Please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report..

6. Luitel, S.R. Interview with USDOL official. April 23, 2015.

7. Saroj, K.C. Child Labour: Learn from Others. Himalayan Times. July 28, 2016. https://thehimalayantimes.com/opinion/child-labour-learn-others/.

8. U.S. Embassy- Kathmandu. Reporting, January 13, 2017.

9. Pradhanang, U.B., et al. National Livestock Policy of Nepal: Needs and Opportunities. Agriculture 5 (2015). http://www.mdpi.com/2077-0472/5/1/103/pdf.

10. Neupane, L.R. Interview with USDOL official. April 23, 2015.

11. ILO-IPEC. Occupational Health and Safety Assessment of Child Workers in the Brick Industry, Nepal. Geneva. September 1, 2014. http://www.ilo.org/ipec/Informationresources/WCMS_IPEC_PUB_25297/lang--en/index.htm.

12. Andrews, Deborah. A Better Brick: Addressing Child Labor in Nepal's Brick-Making Industry. The Stop Child Labor Coalition. May 6, 2016. http://stopchildlabor.org/?p=4325.

13. Himalayan Times. Number of child workers in brick kilns alarming. June 13, 2016. http://thehimalayantimes.com/kathmandu/number-child-workers-brick-kilns-alarming/.

14. Pattisson, Pete. Aid money for development projects in Nepal linked to child labour. The Guardian. February 12, 2015. https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2015/feb/12/aid-money-development-projects-nepal-child-labour.

15. Child Development Society. Children in Brick Kilns: Origin and Migration Status. June 12, 2016. [Source on file].

16. Khanal, Kalpana. For Children Working in Kilns, Nepal’s Anti-Child Labor Laws Remain Distant, Ineffective. Global Press Journal. May 7, 2017. https://globalpressjournal.com/asia/nepal/children-working-kilns-nepals-anti-child-labor-laws-remain-distant-ineffective/.

17. Shrestha, Anita. Brick Kilns still a hub of child labour. Himalayan Times. June 12, 2017. [Source on file].

18. Republica. High number of child labor in Udaypur. July 28, 2016. [Source on file].

19. U.S. Embassy- Kathmandu. Reporting, February 8, 2018.

20. Balch, Oliver. 10,000 children estimated to work in Nepal's carpet industry. The Guardian. November 20, 2014. http://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/2014/nov/20/10000-children-estimated-to-work-in-nepals-carpet-industry.

21. Kathmandu Post. Child workers flee carpet factory due to poor condition, sexual harassment. February 29, 2016. http://kathmandupost.ekantipur.com/news/2016-02-29/child-workers-flee-carpet-factory-due-to-poor-condition-sexual-harassment.html.

22. Shrestha, Shreejana. Gruesome exploitation of children continues in carpet factories. Republica. June 19, 2015. http://admin.myrepublica.com/society/story/23101/gruesome-exploitation-of-children-continues-in-carpet-factories.html.

23. World Education and Child Development Society. Child Labor in the Zari Industry. Kathmandu. April 2013. http://www.worlded.org/WEIInternet/inc/common/_download_pub.cfm?id=13991&lid=3.

24. ILO Country Office for Nepal. ILO Nepal Decent Work Newsletter. Kathmandu. May 2014: Newsletter. http://www.ilo.org/kathmandu/info/public/WCMS_248195/lang--en/index.htm.

25. Children and Women in Social Service and Human Rights. Status of Domestic Child Labor (DCL) in Kathmandu. Kathmandu. 2016. http://www.cwish.org.np/uploads/files/Status%20of%20Child%20Domestic%20Workers%20in%20Kathmandu%202016%20CWISH%20min%202017-08-13%2020-31-34.pdf.

26. Hodal, Kate. 'My dream is coming true': the Nepalese woman who rose from slavery to politics. The Guardian. October 18, 2017. https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2017/oct/18/i-lived-in-fear-nepalese-official-sold-as-a-slave-at-10-years-old-domestic-worker.

27. Shrestha, Shreejana. Modern-day domestic slaves. Nepali Times. June 2017. http://nepalitimes.com/article/nation/Modern-day-domestic-slaves-domestic-workers,3785.

28. ILO. Forced labour of adults and children in the agriculture sector of Nepal: Focusing on Haruwa-Charuwa in eastern Tarai and Haliya in far-western Hills. Kathmandu. July 1, 2013. http://www.ilo.org/kathmandu/whatwedo/publications/WCMS_217086/lang--en/index.htm.

29. Republica. 30 children found working as bonded laborers in Lalitpur brick kiln. February 28, 2016. [Source on file].

30. Nazish, Kiran. Women and Girls, A Commodity: Human Trafficking in Nepal. The Diplomat . February 22, 2014. http://thediplomat.com/2014/02/women-and-girls-a-commodity-human-trafficking-in-nepal/.

31. Orlinsky, Katie. Women, Bought and Sold in Nepal. New York Times. August 31, 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/01/opinion/sunday/women-bought-and-sold-in-nepal.html.

32. Patkar, Pravin, and Priti Patkar. A Close Look at Indo-Nepal Cross-Border Child Trafficking. Caritas India. 2017. https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/A-CLOSE-LOOK-AT-INDO-NEPAL-CROSS-BORDER-CHILD-TRAFFICKING_Book.pdf.

33. Government of Nepal. Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, No. 14. Enacted: June 21, 2000. http://www.nepaldemocracy.org/documents/national_laws/childlabour_act.htm.

34. —. The Bonded Labor (Prohibition) Act. Enacted: April 20, 2002. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex4.detail?p_lang=en&p_isn=71670.

35. —. Trafficking in Person and Transportation (Control) Act, 2064 Bikram Era. Enacted 2007.

36. —. Labour Act. Enacted: September 4, 2017. [Source on file].

37. —. Children's Act. Enacted: May 20, 1992. http://www.nepaldemocracy.org/documents/national_laws/children_act.htm.

38. —. Military Service Regulations. 2013. [Source on file].

39. —. Constitution of the Kingdom of Nepal. Enacted: 2015. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/MONOGRAPH/100061/119815/F-1676948026/NPL100061%20Eng.pdf.

40. —. Education Act. Enacted: 1971. [Source on file].

41. U.S. Embassy- Kathmandu official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. January 26, 2018.

42. —. E-mail communication to USDOL official. January 19, 2017.

43. ILO Committee of Experts. Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Nepal (ratification: 2002) Published: 2013. Accessed March 7, 2014. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3057745:NO.

44. Government of Nepal. Trafficking in Person and Transportation (Control) Act, 2064 Bikram Era. Enacted 2007. [Source on file].

45. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Concluding observations on the report submitted by Nepal under article 8 (1) of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict. Geneva. July 8, 2016: CRC/C/OPAC/NPL/CO/1. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fOPAC%2fNPL%2fCO%2f1&Lang=en.

46. U.S. Embassy- Kathmandu. Reporting, January 9, 2015.

47. U.S. Embassy- Kathmandu official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 12, 2018.

48. U.S. Embassy- Kathmandu. Reporting, January 21, 2014.

49. —. Reporting, January 19, 2016.

50. Ministry of Women Children and Social Welfare. Child Protection Mapping and Assessment Summary Report. September 2015. http://unicef.org.np/uploads/files/862008621206930562-child-protection-book.pdf.

51. U.S. Embassy- Kathmandu. Reporting, February 26, 2015.

52. U.S. Embassy- Kathmandu official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 4, 2017.

53. ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva. Committee on Employment and Social Policy. November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

54. UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2017 Statistical Annex. New York. 2017. https://www.un.org/development/desa/dpad/wp-content/uploads/sites/45/publication/2017wesp_full_en.pdf Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

55. CIA. The World Factbook. Accessed January 19, 2018. https://www.cia.gov/libraryLibrary/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095rankorder/2095rank.html#131. Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

56. U.S. Embassy- Kathmandu official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 12, 2018.

57. Winrock. Assessment of the Nepal Labor Inspectorate's Work on Child Labor. 2015. [Source on file].

58. U.S. Embassy- Kathmandu official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 11, 2014.

59. Government of Nepal. State of Children in Nepal. 2017. http://www.ccwb.gov.np/informations/view/215/Centraluploads/Resource/CCWB%20Publication/report/State%20Of%20Children%20In%20Nepal%202017%20%7BEnglish%20Version%7D.pdf.

60. —. Central Child Welfare Board. Ministry of Women, Children, and Senior Citizen. 2018. http://www.ccwb.gov.np/.

61. National Human Rights Commission. Trafficking in Persons Especially on Women and Children in Nepal. Kathmandu. 2014. http://www.nhrcnepal.org/nhrc_new/doc/newsletter/1592866493Report%20of%20Trafficking%20in%20Persons%20%28Especially%20on%20Women%20and%20Children%29%20National%20Report%202012-2013.pdf.

62. IV Global Conference on the Sustained Eradication of Child Labour. Pledges. November 10, 2017. http://childlabour2017.org/en/resources/updates/pledges.

63. Winrock. Country Level Engagement and Assistance to Reduce Child Labor II (CLEAR II). October 2017: Technical Progress Report. [Source on file].

64. Children and Women in Social Services and Human Rights. Green Flag Movement. [Source on file].

65. ILO official. E-mail Communication with USDOL official. February 9, 2018.

66. Child Workers in nepal Concern Centre. Child Helpline - 1098. Accessed February 11, 2018. https://www.cwin.org.np/index.php/programme-of-actions/child-helpline-1098.html.

67. Child Workers in Nepal Concern Centre. Annual Report of Child Helpline Nepal. 2017. [Source on file].

68. ILO. From Protocol to Practice: A Bridge to Global Action on Forced Labor (The Bridge Project). October 2017. Technical Progress Report. [Source on file].

69. —. Decent Work Country Programme, Nepal 2013-2017. Kathmandu. February 21, 2014. http://www.ilo.org/kathmandu/whatwedo/publications/WCMS_235929/lang--en/index.htm.

70. USAID. Combating Trafficking in Persons (CTIP) Project. Kathmandu. 2010: Fact Sheet. http://www.usaid.gov/nepal/fact-sheets/combating-trafficking-in-persons-ctip.

71. Winrock. Hamro Samman. Quarterly Report. FY17 Q4. 2017. [Source on file].

72. —. Hamro Samman. Quarterly Report. FY18 Q1. 2018. [Source on file].

73. UNICEF. Evaluation of UNICEF Nepal Country Programme Action Plan (2013-2017). January 18, 2017. https://www.unicef.org/evaldatabase/files/Nepal_2016-009_CO_CPAP_2013-2017_Evaluation_Report.pdf.

74. —. Nepal Country Programme 2013-2017. September 14, 2012. https://www.unicef.org/about/execboard/files/Nepal-2013-2017-final_approved-English-14Sept2012.pdf.

75. U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices-2016: Nepal. Washington, DC. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265756.pdf.

76. Save the Children- Nepal. Appeal for Education of Children with Disability. June 26, 2014. https://nepal.savethechildren.net/news/appeal-education-children-disability.

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