Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Pakistan

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Pakistan

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2016, Pakistan made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. Pakistan ratified the UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict, and the Punjab Provincial Government passed legislation establishing 15 as the minimum age for employment and 18 as the minimum age for employment in hazardous work. Balochistan Province passed the Child Protection Act, which mandates the creation of child protection units, which provide for a referral mechanism by which rescued children can be placed in protective custody and obtain rehabilitation services. In addition, Punjab Province launched the Elimination of Child Labor and Bonded Labor Project. However, children in Pakistan engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in forced domestic work and bonded labor in brick kilns. Balochistan Province has not established a minimum age for work or a minimum age for hazardous work in compliance with international standards. Provincial Governments do not have the resources necessary to enforce laws prohibiting child labor, including its worst forms.

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Children in Pakistan engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in forced domestic work and bonded labor in brick kilns.(1, 2) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Pakistan.

Table 1. Statistics on Children's Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

All Pakistan

Punjab Province

Sindh Province

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

Unavailable

12.4

31.5

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

Unavailable

77.1

60.6

Combining work and school (%)

7 to 14

Unavailable

8.2

11.6

Primary completion rate (%)

 

73.7

Unavailable

Unavailable

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2015, published by the UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(3)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children's Work Project's analysis of statistics from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 5, 2014.(4)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children's Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Farming, including harvesting cotton, wheat, dates, sugarcane, tobacco, and potatoes (5-14)

Raising livestock (7, 8, 10)

Fishing,† including deep-sea fishing,† and harvesting and processing shrimp† (15-17)

Industry

Manufacturing glass bangles,† surgical instruments,† and palm leaf mats (10, 12, 18, 19)

Weaving carpets,† tanning leather,† stitching soccer balls, weaving cloth using power looms,† and producing incense (6, 14, 16, 17, 20-24)

Producing bricks; mining coal,† salt, and gemstones; and quarrying and crushing stone,† including gypsum (2, 5, 6, 10, 14, 21, 23, 25-30)

Welding and steel fabrication, carpentry in small workshops, and construction† (8, 10, 21, 26, 28, 29, 31)

Services

Domestic work (6, 26, 28, 32-35)

Working in hotels, restaurants, tea stalls, gas stations, and transportation (5-7, 9, 10, 21, 23, 26, 28, 29, 33, 36, 37)

Scavenging† and sorting recyclables and collecting waste paper (6, 10, 11, 13, 20, 21, 23, 29, 38)

Automobile repair (6, 7, 13, 21, 23, 26, 28, 29, 37)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Forced labor in brickmaking, carpet weaving, agriculture, manufacturing glass bangles, and mining coal (2, 13, 14, 24, 39, 40)

Forced domestic work, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1, 35, 40)

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (13, 40, 41)

Forced begging, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (13, 40, 42)

Forced recruitment of children by non-state armed groups for use in armed conflict (17, 40)

Use in illicit activities, including trafficking and producing drugs (17)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

A national child labor survey has not been conducted since 1996, and the lack of recent data hampers the ability of the Federal and Provincial Governments to accurately assess the scope and prevalence of child labor.(13) Many child domestic workers are working under conditions of forced labor, including debt bondage, sexual assault, and extreme physical abuse.(1, 35, 40) Some children work with their families as bonded laborers in the production of bricks.(13, 40)

Non-state militant groups, such as pro-Taliban insurgents, force children to engage in espionage, armed conflict, and suicide attacks.(17, 40) There are reports that religious schools are used for military recruitment and training for armed groups.(43)

Many children face barriers in accessing education due to high rates of teacher absenteeism, inadequate facilities, lack of transportation, and corporal punishment, which may deter children from attending school.(17, 44, 45) Armed groups and extremist groups regularly attack and threaten schools, disrupting children's access to education.(17, 46)

Pakistan has ratified most key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

 

In 2016, Pakistan ratified the UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict.

The Federal Government and Provincial Governments, including Balochistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Punjab, and Sindh have established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Pakistan's legal framework to address and protect children from child labor.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Related Entity

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Federal

No

15

Section 50 of the Factories Act; Section 20 of the Shops and Establishments Ordinance; Section 26 of the Mines Act (47-49)

Punjab

Yes

15

Section 3(1) of the Punjab Restriction on Employment of Children Ordinance;

Section 5 of the Punjab Prohibition of Child Labor at Brick Kilns Act (50, 51)

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Yes

15

Sections 2(1)(b) and 3(1) of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Prohibition of Employment of Children Act (52)

Sindh

No

15

Section 3(1) of the Sindh Prohibition of Employment of Children Act; Section 81 of the Sindh Factories Act; Section 20 of the Sindh Shops and Commercial Establishment Act (53-55)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Federal

No

15

Sections 2–3 of the Employment of Children Act (56)

Punjab

Yes

18

Section 3(2) of the Punjab Restriction on Employment of Children Ordinance (51)

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Yes

19

Sections 2(1)(a) and 3(2) of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Prohibition of Employment of Children Act (52)

Sindh

Yes

19

Section 3(2) of the Sindh Prohibition of Employment of Children Act (55)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Federal

Yes

 

Parts 1–2 of the Schedule of the Employment of Children Act (56)

Punjab

Yes

 

Schedule of Hazardous Work of the Punjab Restriction on Employment of Children Ordinance (51)

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Yes

 

Parts 1–2 of the Schedule of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Prohibition of Employment of Children Act (52)

Sindh

Yes

 

Schedule of the Hazardous Work of the Sindh Prohibition of Employment of Children Act (55)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Federal

Yes

 

Section 4 of the Bonded Labor System (Abolition) Act; Sections 367, 370, 371A, 371B, and 374 of the Penal Code (57, 58)

Punjab

Yes

 

Section 11(3) of the Punjab Restriction on Employment of Children Ordinance; Section 4 of the Punjab Bonded Labor System (Abolition) Act (51, 59)

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Yes

 

Sections 2(j) and 3 of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Bonded Labor System (Abolition) Act (60)

Sindh

Yes

 

Section 4 of the Sindh Bonded Labor System (Abolition) Act (61)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Federal

No

 

Sections 2 and 3 of the Prevention and Control of Human Trafficking Ordinance; Sections 366A and 366B of the Penal Code (58, 62)

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

No

 

Section 52 of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Child Protection and Welfare Act (63)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Federal

No

 

Sections 292(B) and (C) (64)

Punjab

Yes

 

Section 11(3)(b) of the Punjab Restriction on Employment of Children Ordinance; Section 40 of the Punjab Destitute and Neglected Children Act (51, 65)

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

No

 

Sections 48 and 50 of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Child Protection and Welfare Act (63)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Federal

No

 

 

Punjab

Yes

 

Section 11(3)(c) of the Punjab Restriction on Employment of Children Act; Section 36 of the Punjab Destitute and Neglected Children Act (51, 65)

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

No

 

Sections 35, 38, and 45 of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Child Protection and Welfare Act (63)

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

 

 

 

 

State Compulsory

Federal

N/A*

 

 

State Voluntary

Federal

Yes

18

Section 3 of the National Service Ordinance (66)

Non-state Compulsory

Federal

No

 

 

Punjab

Yes

18

Section 11(3)(a) of the Punjab Restriction on Employment of Children Act(51)

Compulsory Education Age

Federal

Yes

16

Section 3 of the Right to Free and Compulsory Education Act (67)

Punjab

Yes

16

The Punjab Free and Compulsory Education Ordinance (68)

Sindh

Yes

16

Section 3(1) of the Sindh Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act (69)

Balochistan

Yes

16

Section 3 of the Balochistan Compulsory Education Act (70)

Free Public Education

Federal

Yes

 

Section 3 of the Right to Free and Compulsory Education Act (67)

Punjab

Yes

 

The Punjab Free and Compulsory Education Act (68)

Sindh

Yes

 

Section 3(1) of the Sindh Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act (69)

Balochistan

Yes

 

Section 2(f) of the Balochistan Compulsory Education Act (70)

* No conscription (66)

The 18th Amendment to the Pakistan Constitution devolves all child welfare and labor issues from the Federal Government to the four Provincial Governments. Until each Province repeals or adopts a replacement law, Federal child labor laws are in force.(71) According to the Constitution, both Federal and Provincial Governments can pass legislation on criminal law.(72)

In 2016, Punjab Province passed the Punjab Restriction on Employment of Children Act, which establishes age 15 as the minimum age for employment and age 18 as the minimum age for employment in hazardous work.(51) The Province also passed the Punjab Prohibition of Child Labor at Brick Kilns Act, which prohibits the employment of children under age 14 at brick kilns.(50) During the year, Sindh Province passed laws prohibiting children under age 15 from working in factories and commercial establishments.(53, 54) Sindh Province also passed the Sindh Bonded Labor System (Abolition) Act.(61, 73) The Federal Government gave the final approval for the Criminal Law (Second Amendment) Act, which prohibits the use of children in pornography.(64)

In 2017, Sindh Province passed the Sindh Prohibition of Employment of Children, which establishes age 15 as the minimum age for employment and age 19 as the minimum age for employment in hazardous work.(55)

Pakistan's Federal and Provincial laws are not completely in compliance with international standards on child labor, including the worst forms of child labor. Balochistan Province has not established a minimum age for employment or a minimum age for hazardous work. The Federal law setting the minimum age of 15 for hazardous work is not in compliance with international standards.(56) Hazardous work prohibitions for the Federal Government and the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Punjab, and Sindh Provinces are not comprehensive because they do not cover brickmaking and domestic work.(51, 52, 55, 56) The Federal Government's minimum age for work and minimum age for hazardous work are not in compliance with international standards because they do not extend to informal employment.(47-49, 56) Sindh Province's laws setting the minimum age for work also do not extend to informal work, because they apply only to factories that employ 10 or more employees, and shops and establishments.(53, 54)

The Prevention and Control of Human Trafficking Ordinance and the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Child Protection and Welfare Act do not comply with international standards because they do not provide that children can be trafficked without coercion. These laws are also insufficient because they do not specifically prohibit internal human trafficking.(62, 63) The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Child Protection and Welfare Act further does not comply with international standards because it prohibits child trafficking only for exploitative entertainment.(63)

The Federal Penal Code does not specifically prohibit the use, procuring, and offering of children for pornographic performances.(58) Although the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Child Protection and Welfare Act prohibits the use of a child for the production of pornography, the law does not prohibit procuring and offering a child for the production of pornography. It also does not prohibit using, procuring, and offering of a child for prostitution or pornographic performances.(63)

Federal and Provincial laws, with the exception of the Punjab Provincial law, do not prohibit the use of children in drug production and drug trafficking.(51, 63) The Federal and Provincial Governments, with the exception of Punjab Province, have not enacted laws that prohibit the recruitment and use of children by non-state groups for armed conflict.(17)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor law and criminal law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Provincial Labor Inspectors

Inspect industrial areas and markets to identify child labor violations, enforce Provincial labor laws, and pursue legal action against employers.(17)

Provincial and Regional Police

Enforce violations of Federal and Provincial laws, including the Pakistan Penal Code and the Bonded Labor System (Abolition) Act, concerning the worst forms of child labor. Refer children taken into custody to Child Protection Officers.(17)

District Vigilance Committees

Implement the Bonded Labor System (Abolition) Act and assist in rehabilitating bonded laborers. Report to the District Magistrate. (17, 57)

Anti-Trafficking Unit of the Federal Investigation Agency

Enforce transnational trafficking-related laws, particularly the Prevention and Control of Human Trafficking Ordinance. Cooperate with other governments on trafficking cases, operate a hotline for victims, and publish information on anti-trafficking efforts on its Web site.(17)

Child Protection Units

Take into custody at-risk children, including those rescued from exploitative labor situations. Present cases of children taken into custody to the Child Protection Court or the appropriate authority. Established in Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and Sindh Provinces.(17, 63, 65, 74-76)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, labor law enforcement agencies in Pakistan took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

Related Entity

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

 

Unknown (77)

Unknown (17)

Number of Labor Inspectors

National Total

Unknown

334 (78)

Punjab

Unknown

130 (78)

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

54 (77)

39 (78)

Sindh

138 (77)

120 (78)

Balochistan

Unknown

45 (78)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

 

Yes (77)

Yes (17)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

 

Unknown (77)

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

 

Unknown (77)

Unknown (17)

Refresher Courses Provided

 

Yes (77)

Yes (17)

Number of Labor Inspections

National Total

Unknown (77)

68,924 (78)

Punjab

Unknown

9,237 (78)

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

2,094 (77)

45,367 (78)

Sindh

50,000† (77)

4,933 (78)

Balochistan

Unknown

9,387 (78)

Number Conducted at Worksite

 

Unknown (77)

Unknown (17)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

 

Unknown (77)

Unknown (17)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

National Total

Unknown (77)

Unknown (17)

Punjab

Unknown

773 (17)

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

120 (77)

Unknown

Sindh

Unknown

28 (17)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

National Total

Unknown (77)

Unknown (17)

Punjab

Unknown

268 (17)

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

1 (77)

Unknown

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

 

1 (77)

Unknown (17)

Routine Inspections Conducted

 

Yes (77)

Yes (17)

Routine Inspections Targeted

 

Unknown (77)

Unknown (17)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

 

Yes (77)

Yes (17)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

 

Unknown (77)

Unknown (17)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

 

Yes (77)

Yes (17)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

 

Yes (77)

Yes (17)

† Data are from 2014 and 2015.

Following the devolution of Federal powers to Provincial Governments, the Provinces are responsible for enforcing labor laws, including those involving child labor law violations.(17) Limited labor inspection data are available for the Provincial Governments.

The number of labor inspectors is insufficient for the size of Pakistan's workforce, which includes more than 65 million workers. According to the ILO's recommendation of 1 inspector for every 40,000 workers in less developed economies, Pakistan should employ about 1,628 inspectors.(79-81) Provincial agencies that support law enforcement are also severely under-resourced. For example, labor inspectors receive very little training and have insufficient resources, which hamper the labor inspectorate's ability to inspect workplaces.(17, 82, 83)

Labor inspections vary across Provincial Governments. In Punjab, inspections are conducted regularly, but in Sindh, inspectors have stopped conducting unannounced inspections, and inspections are sporadic due to harassment.(17, 82) In 2016, labor inspectors in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa conducted 45,367 inspections. Each inspector therefore conducted an average of 1,163 inspections during this period.(78) This is a high number of inspections conducted by each inspector, and it is unknown whether this high number affects the quality of inspections. Across the provinces, fines and penalties are assessed infrequently and are insufficient to deter employers from using child labor.(71, 77)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in Pakistan took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown (77)

Yes (84)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown (77)

Unknown (17)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (85)

Unknown (17)

Number of Investigations

Unknown (77)

Unknown (17)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown (77)

Unknown (17)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown (77)

Unknown (17)

Number of Convictions

Unknown (77)

Unknown (17)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (77)

Yes (17)

 

In 2016, Balochistan Province passed the Child Protection Act, which mandates the creation of child protection units to provide a referral mechanism by which rescued children can be placed in protective custody and obtain rehabilitation services.(76)

Although some District Vigilance Committees have been established in Pakistan, many of the committees are inactive or ineffective.(40)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

Ministry of Overseas Pakistanis and Human Resource Development Child Labor Focal Point

Coordinate government efforts to eliminate child labor at the Federal and Provincial levels. Responsible for developing a national strategy to eliminate child labor and works with Provincial Governments to adopt legislation and conduct child labor surveys.(86)

Interagency Task Force

Coordinate the anti-human trafficking efforts of the Ministry of the Interior, intelligence and law enforcement agencies, the Ministry of Law and Justice, and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Support 27 Federal Investigation Agency anti-trafficking units that work with Provincial and district police officers to monitor and combat internal and transnational human trafficking.(40, 87) Maintain an Integrated Border Management System.(88)

Punjab Child Protection and Welfare Bureau

Coordinate the protection of destitute and neglected children by appointing child protection officers, supervising child protection units, and establishing child protection institutions and child protection courts.(65)

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Child Protection and Welfare Commission

Coordinate efforts to enhance the safety, welfare, and well-being of children, including by running programs for the prevention of exploitative child labor practices.(89) Led by the Province's Social Welfare, Special Education and Women Empowerment Department.(90)

Sindh Child Protection Authority

Coordinate efforts to ensure the rights of children in need of special protection, including child laborers, by establishing child protection units and appointing child protection officers.(75) Headed by the Provincial minister; members include two parliamentarians, lawyers, social activists, and representatives from departments that deal with children's issues.(91)

The Government has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor‡

Policy

Description

Provincial Plans of Action to Combat Child Labor

Details how each Province plans to revise child labor legislation, including by strengthening the capacity of labor inspectors, generating awareness of child labor, improving reporting, and computerizing labor inspection data.(92)

Sindh and Punjab Provincial Plans of Action to Combat Bonded Labor

Details how the Sindh and Punjab Provinces plan to revise their bonded labor laws. Includes plans to strengthen the capacity of labor inspectors, generate awareness of bonded labor, improve reporting, and computerize labor inspection data.(93)

Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) Child Protection Policy

Describes how FATA will promote and create a protective environment for all children. Includes actions to be taken toward the prevention and elimination of child labor.(94)

Punjab Labor Policy

Seeks to improve working conditions, eradicate child and bonded labor, and establish social safety for workers and their families. Includes the goal of ending all child labor in brick kilns, in addition to the construction of schools, hospitals, and residences for workers.(95)

‡ The Government has other policies which may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor. (96-102)

The Provincial Government education policies have not included child labor elimination and prevention strategies.(96-102)

In 2016, the Government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Bait-ul-Mal programs†

Government-funded programs that aim to remove children from child labor, including its worst forms, and to increase vulnerable children's access to education. Programs include the National Centers for Rehabilitation of Child Labor and the Child Support Program.(103, 104)

Sabawoon Rehabilitation Center†

Pakistan Army center that rehabilitates children who were recruited and ideologically influenced by terrorist organizations and militant groups. Reintegrates youth into society by providing psychological treatment, education, and vocational training.(87, 105)

Elimination of Child Labor and Bonded Labor Project (Integrated Project for Promotion of 'Decent Work for Vulnerable Workers' in Punjab Province)*†

Punjab Government-funded programs that aims to provide education to vulnerable children, rehabilitate bonded laborers working in brick kilns, promote integration and coordination of government responses, strengthen legislation, increase the capacity of law enforcement and service providers, and increase the knowledge base on these issues.(106-108)

ILO-Funded Projects

ILO projects in Pakistan that aim to eliminate child labor, including its worst forms. These project include Education Program for Children of Brick Kiln Workers, implemented by the Government of Punjab in the Punjab Province; Strengthening Capacity of Constituents to Address Unacceptable Forms of Work Focusing on Child Labor, Bonded Labor and Informal Economy Workers (2015–2016); and Elimination of Child Labour and Promotion of Decent Work in the Stora Enso Value Chain (2015–2017).(109-111)

Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues

USDOL-funded project, implemented by the ILO in approximately 40 countries to support the priorities of the Roadmap for Achieving the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor by 2016 established by The Hague Global Child Labor Conference in 2010. Aims to strengthen legal protections and social services delivery for child domestic workers in Pakistan.(112) Additional information is available on the USDOL Web site.

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Pakistan.

The social programs of the Federal and Provincial Governments are insufficient to address the prevalence and scope of Pakistan's child labor problem. Existing programs also do not provide enough protection and rehabilitation services for bonded laborers and victims of human trafficking.(40) Government initiatives are needed to specifically target child domestic workers and child labor in the informal sector.(83) Additional social programs are also necessary to raise awareness and provide assistance to children used by non-state militant groups to engage in armed conflict.(113)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Pakistan (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including Its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ratify the Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons.

2013 – 2016

Ensure that the age up to which education is compulsory is the same as the minimum age for work in Balochistan Province.

2009 – 2016

Establish a minimum age of 18 for hazardous work in the Federal Government and Balochistan Province.

2009 – 2016

Create comprehensive prohibitions against additional specific hazardous activities, such as brickmaking and domestic work.

2009 – 2016

Ensure that the Federal Government’s and Sindh Province’s minimum age laws extend to all sectors and informal employment, regardless of the number of employees.

2011 – 2016

Ensure that the law criminalizes child trafficking in compliance with international standards, including internal trafficking within Pakistan.

2011 – 2016

Ensure that the law criminalizes the use, procurement, and offering of children in all forms of commercial sexual exploitation, including for prostitution, child pornography and pornographic performances.

2011 – 2016

Ensure that the law prohibits the use of children in illicit activities, including in the production and trafficking of drugs.

2011 – 2016

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the recruitment and use of children under 18 by non-state groups for armed conflict.

2015 – 2016

Enforcement

Collect and publish enforcement data for child labor law violations and criminal violations of laws prohibiting the worst forms of child labor.

2010 – 2016

Hire a sufficient number of labor inspectors for the size of the workforce to enforce child labor laws.

2016

Provide the funding necessary to adequately hire, train, and equip inspectors and investigators to enforce laws prohibiting the worst forms of child labor.

2010 – 2016

Allow labor inspectors in all Provinces to conduct inspections and assess penalties at any time, without notice.

2011 – 2016

Determine whether the inspection ratio for each labor inspector in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is appropriate to ensure the quality and scope of inspections.

2016

Ensure that fines and penalties are sufficient to deter employers from violating child labor laws.

2014 – 2016

Publish information about criminal law investigations, violations found, prosecutions initiated, and the number of convictions in all provinces.

2016

Ensure that vigilance committees are established and active throughout Pakistan.

2013 – 2016

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies in the education policies of the Provincial Governments.

2014 – 2016

Social Programs

Conduct child labor surveys at the Federal and Provincial levels.

2009 – 2016

Ensure that all children have access to free and compulsory education, as required by law.

2011 – 2016

Increase the size and scope of government programs to reach children working in the worst forms of child labor, including domestic workers, bonded child laborers, and victims of human trafficking.

2009 – 2016

Implement programs to raise awareness of and provide assistance to children used by non-state militant groups to engage in armed conflict.

2011 – 2016

1.         Child Rights Movement Punjab. The Unending Plight of Child Domestic Workers in Pakistan: Exploitation, Abuse, Rape, and Murder; 2013. http://www.isj.org.pk/policy-research/the-unending-plight-of-child-domestic-workers-in-pakistan/.

2.         Arfan Latif, Shoukat Ali, Abdullah Awan, and Jafer Riaz Kataria. "Socio-economic and political determinants of child labor at brick kilns: A case study of district Jhang." A Research Journal of South Asian Studies, 31(no. 1)(2016); source on file.

3.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed December 16, 2016; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. The calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age). Therefore, the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

4.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 5, 2014 Analysis received April 13, 2017. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information,  please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

5.         Provincial Child Labour Unit Punjab. Rapid Assessment Survey of Children's Involvement in Worst Forms of Child Labour in Mianwali District, Punjab. Geneva, ILO; 2013. source on file.

6.         Provincial Child Labour Unit Punjab. Rapid Assessment Survey of Children's Involvement in Worst Forms of Child Labour in Attock District, Punjab. Geneva, ILO; 2013. source on file.

7.         Provincial Child Labour Unit Punjab. Rapid Assessment Survey of Children's Involvement in Worst Forms of Child Labour in Dera Ghazi Khan District, Punjab. Geneva, ILO; 2013. source on file.

8.         Provincial Child Labour Unit Punjab. Rapid Assessment Survey of Children's Involvement in Worst Forms of Child Labour in Okara District, Punjab. Geneva, ILO; 2013. source on file.

9.         Provincial Child Labour Unit Punjab. Rapid Assessment Survey of Children's Involvement in Worst Forms of Child Labour in Vehari District, Punjab. Geneva, ILO; 2013. source on file.

10.       ILO-IPEC. The effect of work on children's health: Report of research on ten occupational sectors in Pakistan. Geneva; 2013. http://www.ilo.org/ipec/Informationresources/WCMS_IPEC_PUB_22375/lang--en/index.htm.

11.       Socio-Economic and Business Consultants. Child Labour in Wheat Straw and Recycled Paper Supply Chains. Islamabad; 2015. http://assets.storaenso.com/se/com/DownloadCenterDocuments/SEBCON_Stora_Enso_Pakistan_report.pdf.

12.       U.S. Embassy- Islamabad. reporting, November 12, 2015.

13.       Society for the Protection of the Rights of the Child. "Child Labor," in The State of Pakistan's Children; 2015; http://sparcpk.org/2015/SOPC2015/Child%20Labor.pdf.

14.       U.S. Department of State. "Pakistan," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2016. Washington, DC; March 3, 2017; https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265758.pdf.

15.       Provincial Child Labour Unit Punjab. Rapid Assessment Survey of Children's Involvement in Worst Forms of Child Labour in Muzaffargharh District, Punjab. Geneva, ILO; 2013. source on file.

16.       U.S. Embassy- Islamabad. reporting, January 31, 2012.

17.       U.S. Embassy- Islamabad. reporting, February 9, 2017.

18.       Tickle, L. "Why does so much of the NHS's surgical equipment start life in the sweatshops of Pakistan? ." The Independent, London, January 20, 2015. http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/health-and-families/features/why-does-so-much-of-the-nhss-surgical-equipment-start-life-in-the-sweatshops-of-pakistan-9988885.html.

19.       Chaudhry, S. "Millions pushed into child labor in Pakistan." reuters.com [online] February 7, 2012 [cited March 18, 2014]; http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/02/07/us-pakistan-childlabour-idUSTRE8160LA20120207.

20.       Provincial Child Labour Unit Punjab. Rapid Assessment Survey of Children's Involvement in Worst Forms of Child Labour in Gujranwala District, Punjab. Geneva, ILO; 2013. source on file.

21.       Provincial Child Labour Unit Punjab. Rapid Assessment Survey of Children's Involvement in Worst Forms of Child Labour in Toba Tek Singh District, Punjab. Geneva, ILO; 2013. source on file.

22.       Ernst & Young. Sustainability in the Leather Supply Chain; June 2013. https://www.mvovlaanderen.be/sites/default/files/media/executive_summary_sustainability_in_the_leather_sc_juni_2013.pdf.

23.       Provincial Child Labour Unit Punjab. Rapid Assessment Survey of Children's Involvement in Worst Forms of Child Labour in Sargodha District, Punjab. Geneva, ILO; 2013. source on file.

24.       Haider, M. "At the khaddi: Weaving yarn instead of dreams." The Express Tribune, Islamkot, June 3, 2013. http://tribune.com.pk/story/558057/atthekhaddiweavingyarninsteadofdreams/.

25.       Muhammad Zakria Zakar, Rubeena Zakar, Nauman Aqil, Shazia Qureshi, Noshina Saleem, and Sajjad Imran. ""Nobody likes a person whose body is covered with mud": Health hazards faced by child labourers in the brick kiln sector of the Okara district, Pakistan." Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 47(no. 1):21-28 (2015); source on file.

26.       SALAR Development Foundation. Rapid Assessment Survey of Children's Involvement in Worst Forms of Child Labour in District Loralai; 2013. source on file.

27.       Ghosh, P. "Balochistan, Pakistan: Where Children Work, And Do Not Attend School." ibtimes.com [online] November 21, 2013 [cited January 24, 2014]; http://www.ibtimes.com/balochistan-pakistan-where-children-work-do-not-attend-school-1480666.

28.       Provincial Child Labour Unit Punjab. Rapid Assessment Survey of Children's Involvement in Worst Forms of Child Labour in Khushab District, Punjab. Geneva, ILO; 2013. source on file.

29.       Provincial Child Labour Unit Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Rapid Assessment Survey of Children's Involvement in Worst Forms of Child Labour in District Haripur, KPK. Geneva, ILO; 2013. source on file.

30.       Richard C.W.Miller. "Work or Starve: Child Labour in Pakistan's Brick Kilns." The Huffington Post, London, January 30, 2014. http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/richard-cw-miller/child-labour-pakistan_b_4694541.html.

31.       Provincial Child Labour Unit Punjab. Rapid Assessment Survey of Children's Involvement in Worst Forms of Child Labour in Bahawalpur District, Punjab. Geneva, ILO; 2013. source on file.

32.       "Violence against child workers condemned." Express Tribune, Karachi, January 24, 2014; Pakistan. http://tribune.com.pk/story/662587/violence-against-child-workers-condemned/.

33.       Murtaza, A. Pakistan: Child labor -- Who are the ultimate losers?, Asian Human Rights Commission, [online] November 7, 2013 [cited January 24, 2014]; http://www.humanrights.asia/news/ahrc-news/AHRC-STM-203-2013.

34.       Javed, F. "What about rights of children working in houses?" The Nation (AsiaNet), July 21, 2016. source on file.

35.       Naqvi, R. "The invisible workers." Dawn, June 12, 2016. source on file.

36.       Syed Zubair Haider, and Ayesha Qureshi. "Are All Children Equal? Causative Factors of Child Labour in Selected Districts of South Punjab, Pakistan." New Approaches in Educational Research, 5(no. 1)(2016); source on file.

37.       The Express Tribune. "15,566 children working in 10 districts." Karachi, June 24, 2016. source on file.

38.       Zahira Batool, and Faiza Anjum. "A Sociological Study of Trash Picker Children in Faisalabad City, Punjab, Pakistan." Pakistan Journal of Life & Social Sciences, 14(no. 1)(2016); source on file.

39.       SOciety for the Protection of the Rights of the Child. Coal Mines in Balochistan; June 23, 2013. http://www.sparcpk.org/2015/Publications/Coal-Mines-in-Balochistan.pdf.

40.       U.S. Department of State. "Pakistan," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016. Washington, DC; June 30, 2016; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/258881.pdf.

41.       Faiza Mirza. "When Silence Screams." Dawn, July 23, 2012. http://www.dawn.com/news/736642/when-silence-screams.

42.       Izah Shahid. "Forced Child Beggers: Future of Pakistan in Danger." Times of Pakistan, May 23, 2014. http://timesofpakistan.pk/opinion/2014-05-23/forced-child-beggars-future-pakistan-danger/86145/.

43.       UN Security Council. Children and armed conflict - Report of the Secretary-General; April 20, 2016. Report No. A/70/836–S/2016/360. http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=s/2016/360&referer=/english/&Lang=E.

44.       Bari, F. "Getting to School." Dawn, June 5, 2015. http://www.dawn.com/news/1186277.

45.       Society for the Protection of the Rights of the Child (SPARC). "Violence Against Children," in The State of Pakistan's Children; 2015; http://sparcpk.org/2015/SOPC2015/VAC.pdf.

46.       General Assembly Security Council. Children and armed conflict: Report of the Secretary-General. New York; June 8, 2015. Report No. A/65/820-S/2011/250. source on file.

47.       Government of Pakistan. The Factories Act, enacted January 1, 1935. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/WEBTEXT/35384/64903/E97PAK01.htm.

48.       Government of Pakistan. West Pakistan Shops and Establishments Ordinance, enacted July 3, 1969. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/travail/docs/1008/West%20Pakistan%20Shops%20and%20Establishments%20Ordinance%201969.pdf.

49.       Government of Pakistan. The Mines Act, enacted 1923. http://extwprlegs1.fao.org/docs/pdf/pak64462.pdf.

50.       Government of Punjab Province, Pakistan. The Punjab Prohibition of Child Labor at Brick Kilns Ordinance, enacted January 14, 2016. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/102087/123287/F1018921745/PAK102087.pdf.

51.       Government of Punjab Province, Pakistan. Punjab Restriction on Employment of Children Ordinance, enacted July 13, 2016. http://www.punjabcode.punjab.gov.pk/public/dr/PUNJAB%20RESTRICTION%20ON%20EMPLOYMENT%20OF%20CHILDREN%20ORDINANCE%202016.doc.pdf.

52.       Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Prohibition of Employment Children Act, enacted May 2015. http://www.pakp.gov.pk/2013/wp-content/uploads/Prohibition-of-Employment-of-Children-Bill-2015-S.pdf.

53.       Government of Sindh Province, Pakistan. Sindh Shops and Commercial Establishment Act, enacted April 29, 2016. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/102142/123388/F-1352480253/PAK102142.pdf.

54.       Government of Sindh Province, Pakistan. Sindh Factories Act, enacted April 29, 2016. https://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/102141/123387/F839757544/PAK102141.pdf.

55.       Government of Sindh Province, Pakistan. Sindh Prohibition of Employment of Children Act, enacted January 25, 2017. http://www.pas.gov.pk/uploads/acts/Sindh%20Act%20No.III%20of%202017.pdf.

56.       Government of Pakistan. Pakistan Employment of Children Act, Act No. V of 1991, enacted 1991. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/WEBTEXT/22707/64834/E91PAK01.htm.

57.       Government of Pakistan. Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act, enacted March 17, 1992. http://www.na.gov.pk/uploads/documents/1334287962_481.pdf.

58.       Government of Pakistan. Pakistan Penal Code, XLV of 1860, enacted October 6, 1860. http://www.pakistani.org/pakistan/legislation/1860/actXLVof1860.html.

59.       Government of Pakistan. The Punjab Bonded Labor System (Abolition) (Amendment) Act, enacted 2012. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/102096/123301/F-1719753875/PAK102096.pdf.

60.       Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act, enacted 2015. http://www.pakp.gov.pk/2013/wp-content/uploads/Bonded-Labour-System-Abolition-ACT-2015.pdf.

61.       Government of Sindh Province, Pakistan. Sindh Bonded Labor System (Abolition) Act, enacted 2016. [source on file].

62.       Government of Pakistan. Prevention and Control of Human Trafficking Ordinance, enacted 2002. http://www.fmu.gov.pk/docs/laws/Prevention_and_Control_of_Human_Trafficking_Ordinance_2002.pdf.

63.       Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Child Protection and Welfare Act, enacted 2010. https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwit2IqYnMLSAhXG6iYKHVT8CyEQFggaMAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ilo.org%2Fdyn%2Fnatlex%2Fdocs%2FELECTRONIC%2F92232%2F107301%2FF1592784103%2FPAK92232.pdf&usg=AFQjCNF6pdaxRD2E6RSRUdYocmSqUPK-vw&sig2=ZysBEYiCKSlcsn6j24h5og.

64.       Government of Pakistan. The Criminal Law (Second Amendment) Act, amending the Pakistan Penal Code, enacted March 22, 2016. http://www.na.gov.pk/uploads/documents/1467011388_916.pdf.

65.       Government of Punjab. Punjab Destitute and Neglected Children (Amendment) Act, enacted 2007. source on file.

66.       Government of Pakistan. National Service Ordinance, enacted http://molaw.bizz.pk/body.php?sg=&id=32190#4.

67.       Government of Pakistan. The Right to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2012, No. XXIV, enacted December 19, 2012. http://www.na.gov.pk/uploads/documents/1357015194_179.pdf.

68.       Government of Punjab Province, Pakistan. Punjab Free and Compulsory Education Act, enacted November 10, 2014. https://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/99329/118490/F770068822/PAKD99329.pdf.

69.       Government of Sindh Province, Pakistan. The Sindh Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, enacted March 6, 2013. http://unesco.org.pk/education/documents/2013/rte_sindh_feb/Sindh_Act_RTFCE.pdf.

70.       Government of Balochistan Province, Pakistan. The Compulsory Education in the Province of Balochistan Act, No. 5 of 2014, enacted February 6, 2014. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/96221/113658/F-955909891/PAK96221.pdf.

71.       U.S. Embassy- Islamabad. reporting, January 22, 2014.

72.       UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. List of issues in relation to the fifth periodic report of Pakistan - Addendum: Replies of Pakistan to the list of issues. Prepared by the Government of Pakistan, April 11, 2016. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fPAK%2fQ%2f5%2fAdd.1&Lang=en.

73.       "Ebad accords assent to Sindh Bonded Labor (Abolition) Bill." Business Recorder, June 24, 2016. http://fp.brecorder.com/2016/06/2016062459796/.

74.       Child Protection & Welfare Bureau. Child Protection Unit, Government of Pakistan, [Online] 2013 [cited December 18, 2015]; https://cpwb.punjab.gov.pk/functional_unit.

75.       Provincial Assembly of Sindh. The Sindh Child Protection Authority Act, XIV of 2011, enacted June 9, 2011. http://www.pas.gov.pk/uploads/acts/Sindh%20Act%20No.XIV%20of%202011.pdf.

76.       Government of Balochistan Province, Pakistan. Balochistan Child Protection Act, enacted November 15, 2016. http://pabalochistan.gov.pk/uploads/acts/2016/Act072016.pdf.

77.       U.S. Embassy- Islamabad. reporting, January 26, 2016.

78.       U.S. Embassy Islamabad official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 25, 2017 2017.

79.       CIA. The World Factbook, [online] [cited March 25, 2016]; https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors based on the country’s level of development as determined by the UN.

80.       ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a “sufficient number” of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a “sufficient” number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

81.       UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex. New York; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies; “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies, and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

82.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Labour Inspection Convention, 1947 (No. 81) Pakistan (ratification: 1953) Published: 2014; accessed October 26, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3148975.

83.       U.S. Embassy- Islamabad official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 6, 2016.

84.       The News International. "Police officers trained to deal with displaced children." November 5, 2016. source on file.

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90.       "Govt appoints members of KP Child protection, Welfare Commission." The Frontier Post, November 14, 2016. source on file.

91.       Our Correspondent. "Progress made: Children in Sindh inch closer to rights protection authority." The Express Tribune, Karachi, January 21, 2014. http://tribune.com.pk/story/661270/progress-made-children-in-sindh-inch-closer-to-rights-protection-authority/.

92.       ILO. Provinces Finalize Action Plans against Child Labour & Bonded Labour and Agree to improve Reporting on ILO Conventions. Geneva; 2013. http://www.ilo.org/islamabad/info/public/pr/WCMS_214744/lang--en/index.htm.

93.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29) Pakistan (ratification: 1957) Published: 2014; accessed October 26, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3137028.

94.       Government of Pakistan Social Welfare, Women Empowerment, Zakat & Ushr Department, and Federally Administered Tribal Areas Secretariat. Child Protection Policy. Islamabad; 2012. https://www.humanitarianresponse.info/system/files/documents/files/FATA%20Child%20Protection%20Policy%20.pdf.

95.       Labor and Human Resource Department. Punjab Labor PolicyGovernment of Punjab; 2015. http://www.dgpr.punjab.gov.pk/vd/dgpr/media/policies/Punjab%20Labour%20Policy%20Final,%202015.pdf.

96.       Education and Literacy Department. Sindh Education Sector Plan, 2014-2018Government of Sindh. http://www.itacec.org/document/sector_plans/Sindh%20Education%20Sector%20Plan.pdf.

97.       Education Department, Government of Balochistan. Balochistan Education Sector Plan, 2013-2017; 2014. http://www.aserpakistan.org/document/learning_resources/2014/Sector_Plans/Balochistan%20Sector%20Plan%202013-2017.pdf.

98.       Ministry of Education, Trainings and Standards in Higher Education, Government of Pakistan. National Plan of Action to Accelerate Education-Related MDGs, 2013-2016; September 2013. http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/sites/planipolis/files/ressources/pakistan_national_plan_of_action_2013-2016.pdf.

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109.     ILO. Efforts launched to combat child labour in Punjab’s brick kilns. Geneva: August 25, 2015. http://www.ilo.org/islamabad/info/public/pr/WCMS_396171/lang--en/index.htm.

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