Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Pakistan

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Pakistan

2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2015, Pakistan made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Provincial Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa passed the Prohibition of Employment of Children Act and the Bonded Labor Systems (Abolition) Act. The Provincial Government of Punjab collaborated with the International Labor Organization to provide free education and books to the children of brick kiln workers. The Criminal Law (Amendment) Bill, which criminalizes serious offenses against children, was passed by the National Assembly and is waiting for Senate approval. However, children in Pakistan are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in forced domestic work and bonded labor in brick kilns. Three Provincial Governments have not established a minimum working age, and the Federal minimum age for hazardous work falls short of international standards. Provincial Governments do not have the resources necessary to enforce laws prohibiting child labor, including its worst forms.

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Children in Pakistan are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in forced domestic work and bonded labor in brick kilns.(1, 2) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Pakistan.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Working children, ages 10 to 14 (% and population):

13.0 (2,449,480)

Working children by sector, ages 10 to 14 (%):

 

Agriculture

76.0

Industry

9.3

Services

14.6

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

72.3

Children combining work and school, ages 10 to 14 (%):

1.6

Primary completion rate (%):

73.7

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2014, published by the UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(3)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from the Labor Force Survey, 2010–2011.(4)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Farming, including harvesting cotton,* wheat,* dates,* sugarcane,* and potatoes* (5-12)

Raising livestock (7, 8, 10)

Fishing,* including deep-sea fishing,* and harvesting and processing shrimp* (13-15)

Industry

Manufacturing glass bangles,† surgical instruments, and palm leaf mats* (10, 12, 16, 17)

Weaving carpets,† tanning leather, stitching soccer balls,* and weaving cloth using power looms*† (6, 12, 14, 15, 18-23)

Producing bricks, mining coal and salt,* and quarrying and crushing stone,* including gypsum* (5, 6, 10, 19, 22, 24-28)

Welding and steel fabrication, carpentry in small workshops, and construction*† (8, 10, 14, 19, 25, 27-29)

Services

Domestic work (6, 25, 27, 30, 31)

Working in hotels, restaurants, tea stalls, and transportation* (5-7, 9, 10, 19, 22, 25, 27, 28, 31)

Scavenging and sorting recyclables and collecting waste paper* (6, 10, 11, 18, 19, 22, 28)

Automobile repair (6, 7, 19, 22, 25, 27, 28)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Forced labor in brickmaking, carpet weaving, agriculture,* manufacturing glass bangles,* and mining coal (2, 15, 23, 32, 33)

Forced domestic work, sometimes as a result of human trafficking* (1, 33, 34)

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking* (33, 35)

Forced begging, sometimes as a result of human trafficking* (33, 36)

Use in armed conflict as a result of forced recruitment* (33, 37)

Use in illicit activities, including smuggling small arms* and drugs* (38, 39)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

A national child labor survey has not been conducted since 1996, and the lack of recent data hampers the ability of the Federal and Provincial Governments to accurately assess the scope and prevalence of child labor.(40)

Girls are trafficked domestically and internationally into commercial sexual exploitation.(33) Boys are victims of human trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation around hotels, truck stops, bus stations, and shrines in Pakistan.(33, 35) Children are sold or kidnapped and forced to beg in Pakistan.(33, 41)

Non-state militant groups, such as pro-Taliban insurgents, force children to engage in espionage, armed conflict, and suicide attacks.(33, 37) Children are used to smuggle drugs and small arms across the Pakistan-Afghanistan border.(38, 39)

Some child domestic workers are subjected to sexual assault and extreme abuse, including cases in which child domestic workers were killed by their employers.(1, 34) Some children work as bonded laborers in the production of bricks and in coal mines. This is typically a result of Pakistan’s debt bondage system, peshgi, in which children are forced to work to pay off a family loan.(32, 42)

While education is free and compulsory through age 16, access to education is still limited. High rates of teacher absenteeism, inadequate facilities, lack of transportation, and corporal punishment may deter children from attending school.(15, 40, 43) In conflict zones, military operations often disrupt school attendance and damage infrastructure.(44) Armed groups and extremist groups regularly attack and threaten schools, disrupting children’s access to education.(43, 45)

Pakistan has ratified most key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

 

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution, and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

 

The Federal and Provincial Governments have established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Related Entity

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Federal

No

 

 

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Yes

15

Sections 2(1)(b) and 3(1) of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Prohibition of Employment of Children Act (46)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Federal

Yes

15

Sections 2 and 3 of the Employment of Children Act (47)

Punjab

Yes

15

Sections 2 and 3 of the Government of Punjab Employment of Children Act (48)

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Yes

19

Sections 2(1)(a) and 3(2) of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Prohibition of Employment of Children Act (46)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Federal

Yes

 

Parts 1 and 2 of the Schedule of the Employment of Children Act (47)

Punjab

Yes

 

Parts 1 and 2 of the Schedule of the Government of Punjab Employment of Children Act (48)

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Yes

 

Parts 1 and 2 of the Schedule of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Prohibition of Employment of Children Act (46)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Federal

Yes

 

Section 4 of the Bonded Labor System (Abolition) Act; Section 3 of the Prevention and Control of Human Trafficking Ordinance; Sections 366A, 366B, 367, 370, 371A, 371B, and 374 of the Penal Code; Sections 17–23 of the Emigration Ordinance (49-52)

Punjab

Yes

 

Section 4 of the Punjab Bonded Labor System (Abolition) Act (53)

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Yes

 

Sections 2(j) and 3 of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act (54)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Federal

Yes

 

Sections 2 and 3 of the Prevention and Control of Human Trafficking Ordinance; Sections 366A and 366B of the Penal Code (50, 51)

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Yes

 

Section 52 of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Child Protection and Welfare Act (55)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Federal

Yes

 

Sections 366A and 366B of the Penal Code; Section 3(iii) of the Prevention and Control of Human Trafficking Ordinance(50)

Punjab

Yes

 

Section 40 of the Punjab Destitute and Neglected Children Act (56)

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Yes

 

Sections 48,50, and 52 of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Child Protection and Welfare Act (55)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Federal

No

 

 

Punjab

No

 

Section 36 of the Punjab Destitute and Neglected Children Act (56)

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

No

 

Sections 35, 38, and 45 of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Child Protection and Welfare Act (55)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

Federal

N/A*

 

 

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Federal

Yes

18

Section 3 of the National Service Ordinance (57)

Compulsory Education Age

Federal

Yes

16

Section 3 of the Right to Free and Compulsory Education Act (58)

Sindh

Yes

16

Section 3(1) of the Sindh Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act (59)

Balochistan

Yes

16

Section 3 of the Balochistan Compulsory Education Act (60)

Free Public Education

Federal

Yes

 

Section 3 of the Right to Free and Compulsory Education Act (58)

Sindh

Yes

 

Section 3(1) of the Sindh Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act (59)

Balochistan

Yes

 

Section 2(f) of the Balochistan Compulsory Education Act (60)

* No conscription (57)

The 18th Amendment to the Pakistan Constitution devolves all child welfare and labor issues from the Federal Government to the four Provincial Governments. Until each Province repeals or adopts a replacement law, Federal laws on child protection and bonded labor are in force.(40)

In 2015, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province passed the Prohibition of Employment of Children Act and the Bonded Labor Systems (Abolition) Act.(46, 54) During the year, the National Assembly passed the Criminal Law (Amendment) Bill, which criminalizes serious offenses against children, including child pornography and domestic trafficking in persons. The bill was waiting for Senate approval.(61, 62)

Pakistan’s Federal and Provincial laws are not completely in compliance with international standards on child labor, including the worst forms of child labor. The Federal and Provincial Governments, with the exception of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa nave not established a national minimum age for employment, which may increase the likelihood that very young children engage in activities that jeopardize their health and safety. The Federal law and Punjab Provincial law setting the minimum age of 15 for hazardous work is not in compliance with international standards.(47, 63) Punjab, Sindh, and Balochistan Provinces have drafted legislation that prohibits work for children under age 14, and hazardous work for children under age 18; however, legislation in these Provinces has been pending ratification since 2012.(64)

Pakistan’s hazardous work prohibitions are not comprehensive because they do not cover domestic work.(39) Pakistan’s minimum age for hazardous work does not extend to factories with fewer than 10 people employed.(47)

The Prevention and Control of Human Trafficking Ordinance and the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Child Protection and Welfare Act do not comply with international standards because they do not provide that children can be trafficked without coercion. These laws are also insufficient because they do not specifically prohibit internal human trafficking.(51, 55) The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Child Protection and Welfare Act further does not comply with international standards because it prohibits child trafficking only for exploitative entertainment.(55) In 2013, the Federal Government drafted anti-trafficking legislation to address internal and transnational trafficking, with a focus on crimes against women and children; however, it has yet to be introduced in the National Assembly.(65)

The Federal Penal Code prohibits procuring girls under age 18 for prostitution; however, the law does not sufficiently prohibit commercial sexual exploitation because it does not extend to boys under age 18, and it does not prohibit using children for prostitution. It also does not  criminalize the use, procuring, or offering of children in the production of pornography and pornographic performances.(50) Punjab Province has enacted legislation that criminalizes the procurement of a child for prostitution; however, the law does not prohibit the use of children for pornography and pornographic performances.(56) Federal and provincial laws do not criminally prohibit the possession of child pornography.(50, 55, 56)

While Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab Provinces have enacted legislation prohibiting the use of children in begging, these Provincial laws and the Federal law are not sufficient as they do not prohibit the use of children in drug production and drug trafficking.(55, 56) The Federal and Provincial Governments have not enacted laws that prohibit the recruitment and use of children by non-state groups for armed conflict.(43)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Provincial Labor Inspectors

Inspect industrial areas and markets to identify child labor violations, enforce Provincial labor laws, and pursue legal action against employers.(66)

Provincial and Regional Police

Enforce violations of Federal and Provincial laws, including the Pakistan Penal Code and the Bonded Labor System (Abolition) Act, concerning the worst forms of child labor. Refer children taken into custody to Child Protection Officers.(67)

District Vigilance Committees

Implement the Bonded Labor System (Abolition) Act and assist in rehabilitating bonded laborers.(49)

Anti-Trafficking Unit of the Federal Investigation Agency

Enforce transnational trafficking-related laws, particularly the Prevention and Control of Human Trafficking Ordinance. Cooperate with other governments on trafficking cases, operate a hotline for victims, and publish information on anti-trafficking efforts on its Web site.(68)

Child Protection Units

Take into custody at-risk children, including those rescued from exploitative labor situations. Present cases of children taken into custody to the Child Protection Court or the appropriate authority. Established in Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and Sindh Provinces.(55, 56, 69, 70)

Child Protection Courts

Determine protective custody for at-risk children, including those rescued from exploitative labor situations. Established in Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Provinces.(55, 56, 71)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2015, labor law enforcement agencies in Pakistan took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

Related Entity

2014

2015

Labor Inspectorate Funding

 

Unknown

Unknown (62)

Number of Labor Inspectors

National Total

2800 (62)

2711 (62)

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

54 (43)

54 (43, 62, 72)

Sindh

Unknown

138 (62)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

 

Yes (62)

Yes (62)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

   

Initial Training for New Employees

 

Unknown

Unknown (62)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

 

Unknown

Unknown (62)

Refresher Courses Provided

 

Unknown

Yes (62)

Number of Labor Inspections

National Total

Unknown (62)

Unknown (62)

Sindh

Unknown

50,000† (62)

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Unknown

2,094 (62)

Number Conducted at Worksite

 

 

Unknown

Unknown (62)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

 

 

Unknown

Unknown (62)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

National Total

Unknown

Unknown (62)

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Unknown

120 (62)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

National Total

Unknown

Unknown (62)

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Unknown

1 (62)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

 

Unknown

1 (62)

Routine Inspections Conducted

 

Yes (73)

Yes (62)

Routine Inspections Targeted

 

Unknown

Unknown (62)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

 

Yes (62)

Yes (62)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

 

Unknown

Unknown (62)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

 

Yes (62)

Yes (62)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

 

Yes (62)

Yes (62)

† Data are from 2014 and 2015.

Following the devolution of Federal powers to Provincial Governments, the Provinces are responsible for enforcing labor laws, including those involving child labor law violations. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Sindh Provinces were the only Provinces to provide information about labor law enforcement actions taken during 2015.(62)

Pakistan has a critical shortage of labor inspectors and provincial agencies that support law enforcement are severely under-resourced. For example, labor inspectors receive very little training and have insufficient resources to adequately inspect workplaces.(43, 62, 73) Labor inspections vary across Provincial Governments. In Punjab, inspections are conducted regularly, while in Sindh, inspectors are required to give advance notice to employers.(73) Fines and penalties are assessed only infrequently and are insufficient to deter employers from using child labor.(40, 62)

In 2015, the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province created a labor complaint cell and allocated $160,990 to establish a child labor and bonded labor unit in the Directorate of Labor.(62)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2015, criminal law enforcement agencies in Pakistan took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown (62)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown

Unknown (62)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (74)

Yes (75)

Number of Investigations

Unknown

Unknown (62)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown

Unknown (62)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown

Unknown (62)

Number of Convictions

Unknown

Unknown (62)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (62)

Yes (62)

 

Research has found no evidence that Balochistan has a referral mechanism by which rescued children can be placed in protective custody and obtain rehabilitation services. The Province has not yet passed legislation mandating the creation of child protection units.(76)

Law enforcement officials lack the necessary personnel, training, and equipment to confront the armed guards who often oversee bonded laborers.(2) These circumstances have hampered the effectiveness and enforcement of the Bonded Labor System Abolition Act and, since its passage in 1992, no convictions have been made under the Act.(33) District Vigilance Committees have been established in Punjab, and cases of bonded labor have been reported by the local police. In other Provinces, however, District Vigilance Committees may not be functioning.(33)

In 2015, the Federal Investigation Agency hosted anti-human trafficking training for local law enforcement officials and judges who hear trafficking cases.(75)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

Federal and Provincial Child Labor Units

Advise Provincial Governments and coordinate reporting responsibilities on the implementation of child labor conventions.(77) Conduct research, build capacity, and coordinate anti-child labor activities.(68)

Interagency Task Force

Coordinate the anti-human trafficking efforts of the Ministry of the Interior; intelligence and law enforcement agencies; the Ministry of Law and Justice; and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Support 13 anti-trafficking units that work with Provincial and district police officers to monitor and combat internal and transnational human trafficking.(74) Maintain an Integrated Border Management System.(78)

Punjab Child Protection and Welfare Bureau

Coordinate the protection of destitute and neglected children by appointing child protection officers, supervising child protection units, and establishing child protection institutions and child protection courts.(56)

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Child Protection and Welfare Commission

Coordinate efforts to enhance the safety, welfare, and well-being of children, including by running programs for the prevention of exploitative child labor practices.(79)

Sindh Child Protection Authority

Coordinate efforts to ensure the rights of children in need of special protection, including child laborers, by establishing child protection units and appointing child protection officers.(70) The Provincial minister heads the authority and members include two parliamentarians, lawyers, social activists, and representatives from departments that deal with children’s issues.(80) As of May 2015, the Sindh Child Protection Authority has not set up district child protection units nor established rules of business or a budget.(81)

 

Research has found no evidence that Balochistan Province has a coordination mechanism to ensure the welfare and protection of children at the provincial level. A new version of the Balochistan Child Welfare Protection Bill, which would mandate the creation of child welfare and protection bureau, was drafted in 2015, but it has yet to be passed by the Provincial Assembly.(76, 82)

The Government of Pakistan has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Action Plan for Children

Aims to prohibit, restrict, and regulate child labor with the eventual goal of its elimination.(83) Lays out 14 key strategies and actions, including harmonizing work among Government agencies, NGOs, and donors; promoting research on child labor issues; developing non-formal education for child laborers; providing microcredit for families of child laborers; and conducting national surveys on child labor. Also addresses child trafficking and outlines key objectives for its elimination.(83)

National Education Policy

Focuses on increasing the literacy rate and providing livelihood skills to children, including those engaged in child labor. Aims to expand non-formal and vocational education programs to children, including child laborers.(84)

National Action Plan for Combating Human Trafficking

Describes prevention, prosecution, and protection strategies for ending human trafficking, including child trafficking.(85)

Provincial Plans of Action to Combat Child Labor

Details how each Province plans to revise child labor legislation, including by strengthening the capacity of labor inspectors, generating awareness of child labor, improving reporting, and computerizing labor inspection data.(77, 86)

Sindh and Punjab Provincial Plans of Action to Combat Bonded Labor

Details how the Sindh and Punjab Provinces plan to revise their bonded labor laws. Includes plans to strengthen the capacity of labor inspectors, generate awareness of bonded labor, improve reporting, and computerize labor inspection data.(86, 87)

Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) Child Protection Policy

Describes how FATA will promote and create a protective environment for all children. Includes actions to be taken toward the prevention and elimination of child labor.(88)

Punjab Labor Policy†

Seeks to improve working conditions, eradicate child and bonded labor, and establish social safety for workers and their families. Includes the goal of ending all child labor in brick kilns, in addition to the construction of schools, hospitals, and residences for workers.(89)

National Plan of Action to Accelerate Education-Related Millennium Development Goals (2013–2016)*

Aims to increase enrollment of out-of-school children in primary education, to retain all children enrolled in school and ensure they complete their primary education, and to improve the quality of primary education. Sets out province-level action plans to achieve these goals.(90)

One UN Program II (2013–2017)*

Identifies key strategic priority areas for UN development assistance, including increased access to social services and food security, development of sustainable livelihoods, and strengthened governance and social protections for excluded and vulnerable populations.(91)

Balochistan Education Sector Plan (2013–2017)*

Seeks to increase the quality and relevance of school curriculum and increase inclusion of excluded communities and children in primary, secondary, and non-formal educational institutions.(92) In 2014, Balochistan Province was awarded $34 million from the Global Partnership for Education to implement its State Action Plan.(93)

Punjab Reforms Road Map*

Aims to achieve 100 percent enrollment of all school-age children, 100 percent retention of all enrolled children up to age 16, and to provide free and compulsory education for all in the Punjab Province.(94)

Sindh Education Sector Plan (2014–2018)*†

Aims to increase equitable access to education and to improve the quality of the teachers and curriculum.(95) In 2014, the Sindh Provincial Government was awarded $66 million from the Global Partnership for Education to implement the Plan.(96)

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Education Sector Plan (2010–2015)*

Set out strategies to increase student enrollment, improve the quality of education, and improve school infrastructure and learning environments.(97)

* Child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy.
† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

In 2015, the Government of Pakistan funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

National Centers for Rehabilitation of Child Labor†

Pakistan Bait-ul-Mal program that aims to remove children ages 5–14 from hazardous labor and provide them with education, clothing, and a stipend.(98)

Child Support Program†

Pakistan Bait-ul-Mal program that distributes conditional cash transfers to families living below the poverty line to send their children ages 5–16 to primary school. Approximately $3 million has been disbursed.(99)

Benazir Bhutto Income Support Program†

Federal Government scheme that provides financial assistance to underprivileged families and offers incentives for parents to keep their children in school and out of work.(40)

Decent Work Country Program (2010–2015)

ILO technical assistance program that included strategies to reduce the worst forms of child labor by strengthening institutions and taking direct action to withdraw children from the workforce. Program also sought to combat forced labor by strengthening law enforcement interventions in cases of internal human trafficking and bonded labor in the Sindh and Punjab Provinces.(100)

Sabawoon Rehabilitation Center†

Pakistan Army center that rehabilitates children who were recruited and ideologically influenced by terrorist organizations and militant groups. Reintegrated more than 2,200 youth into society.(74)

Project to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Punjab Provincial Child Labor Unit program that provides non-formal education and literacy services to children in the worst forms of child labor in four Punjab districts. Provides livelihood services to target families and improve working conditions.(101)

Education Program for Children of Brick Kiln Workers*

ILO-funded project implemented by the Government of Punjab to provide free education to children of brick kiln workers, enrolls children in school and provides them with free school bags and books. Covers all brick kilns in the Punjab Province.(102)

Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues*

USDOL-funded project, implemented by the ILO in approximately 40 countries to support the priorities of the Roadmap for Achieving the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor by 2016 established by The Hague Global Child Labor Conference in 2010. Aims to strengthen legal protections and social services delivery for child domestic workers in Pakistan.(103)

Education Voucher Scheme‡

Punjab Educational Foundation program that provides stipends to students from low-income areas to attend private schools.(14, 104)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Pakistan.
‡ Program is funded by the Provincial Government of Punjab.

In 2015, the Government of Punjab conducted a survey of brick kilns in the district and found 23,000 children residing at 6,600 brick kilns. The survey resulted in the enrollment of 18,622 brick kiln children in school.(105)

The social programs of the Federal and Provincial Governments are insufficient to address the prevalence and scope of Pakistan’s child labor problem. Existing programs also do not provide enough protection and rehabilitation services for bonded laborers and victims of human trafficking.(33) Government initiatives are needed to specifically target child domestic workers and child labor in the informal sector. Additional social programs are also necessary to raise awareness and provide assistance to children used by non-state militant groups to engage in armed conflict.(43, 64)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Pakistan (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including Its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ratify the UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict and the Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons.

2013 – 2015

Establish a minimum age for employment that is harmonized with the compulsory education age.

2009 – 2015

Create comprehensive prohibitions against additional specific hazardous activities and clearly establish a minimum age of 18 for hazardous work.

2009 – 2015

Ensure that relevant child labor laws and regulations apply equally to children working in all sectors, regardless of the size of the establishment.

2011 – 2015

Ensure that the law criminalizes child trafficking in compliance with international standards, including internal trafficking within Pakistan.

2011 – 2015

Ensure that the law criminalizes the use of both female and male children in all forms of commercial sexual exploitation, including child pornography and pornographic performances and prostitution.

2011 – 2015

Ensure that the law prohibits the use of children in illicit activities, including in producing and trafficking of drugs.

2011 – 2015

Prohibit the recruitment and use of children by non-state groups for armed conflict.

2015

Enforcement

Collect and publish enforcement data for child labor violations and criminal violations of laws prohibiting the worst forms of child labor.

2010 – 2015

Provide the funding necessary to adequately hire, train, and equip inspectors and investigators to enforce laws prohibiting the worst forms of child labor.

2010 – 2015

Allow labor inspectors in all Provinces to conduct inspections and assess penalties at any time, without notice.

2011 – 2015

Ensure that fines and penalties are sufficient to deter employers from violating child labor laws.

2014 – 2015

Ensure that referral mechanisms exist among labor investigators, law enforcement officers, and child protection services in all Provinces.

2014 – 2015

Ensure that vigilance committees are established and active throughout Pakistan.

2013 – 2015

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the education and development policies of the Federal and Provincial Governments.

2014 – 2015

Social Programs

Ensure that all children have access to free and compulsory education, as required by law.

2011 – 2015

Conduct child labor surveys at the Federal and Provincial levels.

2009 – 2015

Increase the size and scope of government programs to reach children working in the worst forms of child labor, including domestic work, bonded child laborers, and victims of human trafficking.

2009 – 2015

Implement programs to raise awareness of and provide assistance to children used by non-state militant groups to engage in armed conflict.

2011 – 2015

 

 

1.         Child Rights Movement Punjab. The Unending Plight of Child Domestic Workers in Pakistan: Exploitation, Abuse, Rape, and Murder; 2013. http://www.isj.org.pk/policy-research/the-unending-plight-of-child-domestic-workers-in-pakistan/.

2.         ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Pakistan (ratification: 2001) Published: 2011; accessed January 24, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/english/iloquery.htm.

3.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed December 16, 2015]; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. Because the calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age), the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

4.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from LFS Survey, 2010-2011. Analysis received February 18, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

5.         Provincial Child Labour Unit Punjab. Rapid Assessment Survey of Children's Involvement in Worst Forms of Child Labour in Mianwali District, Punjab. Geneva, ILO; 2013.

6.         Provincial Child Labour Unit Punjab. Rapid Assessment Survey of Children's Involvement in Worst Forms of Child Labour in Attock District, Punjab. Geneva, ILO; 2013.

7.         Provincial Child Labour Unit Punjab. Rapid Assessment Survey of Children's Involvement in Worst Forms of Child Labour in Dera Ghazi Khan District, Punjab. Geneva, ILO; 2013.

8.         Provincial Child Labour Unit Punjab. Rapid Assessment Survey of Children's Involvement in Worst Forms of Child Labour in Okara District, Punjab. Geneva, ILO; 2013.

9.         Provincial Child Labour Unit Punjab. Rapid Assessment Survey of Children's Involvement in Worst Forms of Child Labour in Vehari District, Punjab. Geneva, ILO; 2013.

10.       ILO-IPEC. The Effect of Work on Children's Health: Report of Research on Ten Occupational Sectors in Pakistan. Geneva; 2013. http://www.ilo.org/ipec/Informationresources/WCMS_IPEC_PUB_22375/lang--en/index.htm.

11.       Socio-Economic and Business Consultants. Child Labour in Wheat Straw and Recycled Paper Supply Chains. Islamabad; 2015. http://assets.storaenso.com/se/com/DownloadCenterDocuments/SEBCON_Stora_Enso_Pakistan_report.pdf.

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13.       Provincial Child Labour Unit Punjab. Rapid Assessment Survey of Children's Involvement in Worst Forms of Child Labour in Muzaffargharh District, Punjab. Geneva, ILO; 2013.

14.       U.S. Embassy- Islamabad. reporting, January 31, 2012.

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18.       Provincial Child Labour Unit Punjab. Rapid Assessment Survey of Children's Involvement in Worst Forms of Child Labour in Gujranwala District, Punjab. Geneva, ILO; 2013.

19.       Provincial Child Labour Unit Punjab. Rapid Assessment Survey of Children's Involvement in Worst Forms of Child Labour in Toba Tek Singh District, Punjab. Geneva, ILO; 2013.

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22.       Provincial Child Labour Unit Punjab. Rapid Assessment Survey of Children's Involvement in Worst Forms of Child Labour in Sargodha District, Punjab. Geneva, ILO; 2013.

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28.       Provincial Child Labour Unit Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Rapid Assessment Survey of Children's Involvement in Worst Forms of Child Labour in District Haripur, KPK. Geneva, ILO; 2013.

29.       Provincial Child Labour Unit Punjab. Rapid Assessment Survey of Children's Involvement in Worst Forms of Child Labour in Bahawalpur District, Punjab. Geneva, ILO; 2013.

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60.       Government of Balochistan. The Compulsory Education in the Province of Balochistan Act, No. 5 of 2014, enacted February 6, 2014. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/96221/113658/F-955909891/PAK96221.pdf.

61.       Butt, N. "National Assembly passes law on protection of child." Business Recorder, Karachi, December 11, 2015. http://www.brecorder.com/top-stories/0/1254982/.

62.       U.S. Embassy- Islamabad. reporting, January 26, 2016.

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67.       ILO. Police Officers trained to address legal needs of bonded labourers. Press Release. Karachi; April 24, 2013. http://www.ilo.org/islamabad/info/public/pr/WCMS_212605/lang--en/index.htm.

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77.       ILO. Provinces Finalize Action Plans against Child Labour & Bonded Labour and Agree to improve Reporting on ILO Conventions. Geneva; 2013. http://www.unic.org.pk/pdf/PR-ILO-20130603.pdf.

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80.       Our Correspondent. "Progress made: Children in Sindh inch closer to rights protection authority." The Express Tribune, January 21, 2014. http://tribune.com.pk/story/661270/progress-made-children-in-sindh-inch-closer-to-rights-protection-authority/.

81.       Mansoor, H. "Sindh Child Protection Body Stalled." Dawn, May 13, 2015. http://www.dawn.com/news/1181569.

82.       Balochistan Provincial Assembly. The Balochistan Child Welfare & Protection Bill 2015, No. 10 of 2015, enacted Draft law. http://www.pabalochistan.gov.pk/uploads/bills/Child%20Welfare%20and%20Protection%20Bill.No.%2004%20of%202015.pdf.

83.       Ministry of Social Welfare and Special Education, Government of Pakistan. National Plan of Action for Children. Islamabad; 2006. pakistan.childrightsdesk.com/doc1/NPA%2520for%2520Children.pdf.

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