• Adult Basic Education Education programs for adults to teach basic skills such as reading, mathematics, high school equivalency preparation, and English as a Second Language (ESL) for non-native speakers. Lack of education constitutes a substantial impairment of their ability to get or retain employment commensurate with their real ability. Adult basic education programs are designed to help raise the level of education of individuals to improve their ability to benefit from occupational training. This also increases opportunities for more productive and profitable employment and assists individuals in taking care of adult responsibilities.
  • Apprenticeship Training– A formal occupational training program that combines on-the-job training and related instruction where workers learn practical and conceptual skills required for a skilled occupation, craft, or trade. The training may be obtained via a registered or unregistered apprenticeship program, such as an industry-recognized apprenticeship program (IRAP).
  • Assessment – A collection of education and employment history, identification of barriers to employment, including skill deficits, and service needs as well as strengths.
  • At Risk of Homelessness – A participant is at risk of homelessness within the next 60 days and meets the following criteria:
    • Has income below 30 percent of the median income for the geographic area; and
    • Has insufficient resources immediately available to attain housing stability; and
    • One of the following:
      • Has moved frequently because of economic reasons; or
      • Is living in the home of another because of economic hardship; or
      • Has been notified that their right to occupy their current housing or living situation will be terminated; or
      • Lives in a hotel or motel; or
      • Lives in severely overcrowded housing; or
      • Is exiting an institution; or
      • Otherwise lives in housing that has characteristics associated with instability and an increased risk of homelessness.
  • Average Hourly Wage at Placement – The average hourly wage of all participants placed into employment programs year-to-date (see definition for Placement Into Employment).
  • Assurance and Certifications – The act of signifying intent to comply with applicable federal and state laws and regulations as a condition for receiving and expanding U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) grant funds.
  • Barriers to Employment – Characteristics that may hinder an individual’s hiring, promotion, or participation in the labor force. Identification of these barriers will vary by location and labor market. Some examples of individuals who may face barriers to employment include single parents, women, displaced homemakers, youth, public assistance recipients, older workers, substance abusers, teenage parents, ethnic minorities, and those with disabilities, limited English-speaking ability, a criminal record, or a lack of education, work experience, credential, childcare arrangements, or transportation.
  • Career Services– Pre-vocational services available to individuals through the grant or through the one-stop delivery system funded under the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA). The term “career services” used under the VETS competitive grants program is the same as the definition used under WIOA:
    1. Basic career services must be made available and, at a minimum, must include the following services, as consistent with allowable program activities and Federal cost principles:
      1. determination of whether the individuals are eligible to receive assistance;
      2. outreach, intake (which may include worker profiling), and orientation to the information and other services;
      3. initial assessment of skill levels (including literacy, numeracy, and English language proficiency), aptitudes, abilities (including skills gaps), and supportive service needs;
      4. labor exchange services, including
        1. job search and placement assistance and, in appropriate cases, career counseling, including
          1. provision of information on in-demand industry sectors and occupations; and
          2. provision of information on nontraditional employment; and
        2. appropriate recruitment and other business services on behalf of employers, including small employers, in the local area, which may include services described in this subsection, such as providing information and referral to specialized business services not traditionally offered through the one-stop delivery system;
      5. provision of referrals to and coordination of activities with other programs and services, including programs and services within the one-stop delivery system and, in appropriate cases, other workforce development programs;
      6. provision of workforce and labor market employment statistics information, including the provision of accurate information relating to local, regional, and national labor market areas, including
        1. job vacancy listings in such labor market areas;
        2. information on job skills necessary to obtain the jobs described in sub-clause (4)(i); and
        3. information relating to local occupations in demand and the earnings, skill requirements, and opportunities for advancement for such occupations;
      7. provision of performance information and program cost information on eligible providers of training services, provided by program;
      8. provision of information, in formats that are usable by and understandable to customers, regarding how the grant program is performing on the local performance accountability measures and any additional performance information with respect to the one-stop delivery system in the local area;
      9. provision of information, in usable and understandable formats and languages, relating to the availability of supportive services or assistance, and appropriate referrals to those services and assistance, including child care; child support; medical or child health assistance available through the State’s Medicaid program and Children’s Health Insurance Program; benefits under SNAP; assistance through the earned income tax credit; and assistance under a State program for TANF, and other supportive services and transportation provided through that program;
      10. provision of information and assistance regarding filing claims for unemployment compensation;
      11. assistance in establishing eligibility for programs of financial aid assistance for training and education programs that are not funded under WIOA;
    2. individualized career services must be made available if determined to be appropriate in order for an individual to obtain or retain employment. These services include the following services, as consistent with program requirements and Federal cost principles:
      1. comprehensive and specialized assessments of the skill levels and service needs of adults and dislocated workers, which may include –
        1. diagnostic testing and use of other assessment tools; and
        2. in-depth interviewing and evaluation to identify employment barriers and appropriate employment goals;
      2. development of an individual employment plan, to identify the employment goals, appropriate achievement objectives, and appropriate combination of services for the participant to achieve the employment goals, including providing information on eligible providers of training services and career pathways to attain career objectives;
      3. group counseling;
      4. individual counseling;
      5. career planning;
      6. short-term pre-vocational services including development of learning skills, communication skills, interviewing skills, punctuality, personal maintenance skills, and professional conduct services to prepare individuals for unsubsidized employment or training;
      7. internships and work experiences that are linked to careers;
      8. workforce preparation activities;
      9. financial literacy services; out-of-area job search assistance and relocation assistance; or
      10. English language acquisition and integrated education and training programs; and
    3. follow-up services must be provided, as appropriate, including counseling regarding the workplace, for participants in adult or dislocated worker workforce investment activities who are placed in unsubsidized employment, for up to 12 months after the first day of employment.
  • Career Technical Training (CTT) – Any training type conducted in an institutional setting, including vocational education, which is designed to provide individuals with the technical skills and information required to perform a specific job or group of jobs. It may also include training designed to enhance the employability of individuals by upgrading basic skills through courses such as remedial education, training in the primary language of persons with limited English language proficiency, or English as a Second Language training.
  • Case Management – A client-centered approach in the delivery of individualized career services designed to develop comprehensive employment plans for participants, assist participants to overcome barriers to employment, ensure access to the necessary training and supportive services that impart relevant skills and connect participants with high-quality career opportunities, and provide support during program participation and after job placement.
  • Case Management Process – Phases through which case managers provide services to their clients through screening, assessing, career planning, job placement, and post-placement services.
  • Case Manager – One who coordinates, facilitates, or provides direct service to a client or trainee from application through placement, post-placement follow-up, or other case closing exclusively, through periodic contact and the provision of appropriate assistance.
  • Childcare/Dependent Care – HVRP funds may be used to provide childcare services for participants that meet the definition of homeless veterans with children, in accordance with 38 U.S.C. § 2021A, to expedite the reintegration of homeless women veterans and homeless veterans(law.cornell.edu) with children into the labor force. For the purposes of defining child or dependent, DOL/VETS uses the definition of “child” at 38 U.S.C. § 101(4)(A)(uscode.house.gov). The use of grant funds for childcare services (allowable only to participants that meet the definition of a homeless veteran with children) is limited to 45 days, and the amount of assistance must be reasonable considering the average cost of childcare within the local community. Grant recipients must have the use of funds for childcare services for these eligible participants in their budget narrative and must identify how they will exhaust other resources before identifying grant funds for this purpose. A grant recipient must provide proof of co-enrollment with the American Job Center (AJC) and refer homeless veterans with children participants to AJC partners, such as the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program or other federal benefit services(benefits.gov), for childcare services. If a veteran with children can obtain funding for childcare services by any other means, such as through other federal or state programs, then HVRP grant funds cannot be used for such childcare costs. A grant recipient must have a standard operating procedure (SOP) in place to ensure this process is implemented and executed consistently and equitably.
  • Classroom Training – Any training of the type normally conducted in an institutional setting, including vocational education, that is designed to provide individuals with the technical skills and information required to perform a specific job or group of jobs. It may also include training designed to enhance the employability of individuals by upgrading basic skills through courses such as remedial education, training in the primary language of persons with limited English language proficiency, or English as a Second Language training.
  • Closeout – Grant closeout is the process by which the federal grantor agency (in the case of VETS grants, Department of Labor) determines that all applicable administrative actions and all required work of the grant have been completed and takes actions as described in 2 C.F.R. Part 200 by the grant recipient and the grantor. The closeout period is 120 days after the last day in the period of performance (PoP) for the grant award.
  • Co-Enrollment– When a participant receives a Wagner-Peyser Employment service, a Jobs for Veterans State Grant (JVSG) Disabled Veterans Outreach Program (DVOP) service, and/or any other Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) service at the American Job Center (AJC).
  • Community-Based Organization – A non-profit organization in a community that has demonstrated expertise and effectiveness in the field of workforce investment.
  • Continuity of Operations Plan (COOP) – Acal planning body, funded by Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), that coordinates housin plan written to ensure the continued performance of the grant under a broad range of circumstances, including but not limited to localized acts of nature, accidents, and technological or attack-related emergencies. Please see NVTAC’s website for helpful guidelines(nvtac.org) and a template(nvtac.org).
  • Continuum of Care (CoC) – A regional or log and services funding for homeless families and individuals, promotes community-wide commitment to the goal of ending homelessness, and provides funding for efforts by nonprofit providers and state and local governments to quickly rehouse homeless individuals and families while minimizing the trauma and dislocation caused to homeless individuals, families, and communities.
  • Contractor – The term “contractor,” sometimes referred to as a vendor, is a dealer, distributor, merchant, or other seller providing goods or services that are required to implement a federal program (see 2 C.F.R. § 200.1). These goods or services may be for an organization’s own use or for the use of the beneficiaries of the federal program. Additional guidance on distinguishing between a subrecipient and a contractor (vendor) is provided in 2 C.F.R. § 200.331. When procuring contractors for goods and services, DOL/Employment and Training Administration (ETA) recipients and subrecipients must follow the procurement requirements found at 2 C.F.R. § 200.320 (except states, pursuant to 2 C.F.R. § 200.317), which calls for free and open competition.
  • Cost Per Placement – The cost per placement measure is calculated by dividing the total cumulative expenditures for the reporting period by the total number of participants placed in one or more jobs during the reporting period.
  • Counseling – A form of assistance that provides guidance in the development of a participant’s vocational goals and the means to achieve those goals. It may assist a participant with the solution to one or more individual problems that pose a barrier to sustained employment.
  • Counselor – A trained and qualified professional authorized to provide direct assistance (beyond advising and informing) through planning, testing, training, and otherwise readying an individual for sustained employment.
  • Customized Training – A training program designed to meet the requirements of a particular employer, or of an employer who has entered into an agreement with a local workforce development area, to hire individuals trained to the employer’s specifications. The training may occur at the employer’s site or may be provided by a training vendor to meet the employer’s requirements.
  • Disabled Veteran – A veteran who is entitled to compensation under laws administered by the Veterans Administration, or an individual who was medically discharged or otherwise released from active duty due to service-connected disability.
  • Disallowed Costs – Charges to a federal award that the federal awarding agency or pass-through entity determines to be unallowable in accordance with applicable federal statutes, regulations, or the terms and conditions of the federal award. DOL/VETS does not allow the purchase of motor vehicles, buildings, or land.
  • Disabled Veterans’ Outreach Program (DVOP) – Under 38 U.S.C. § 4103A(a), a DVOP specialist provides individualized career services to eligible veterans and eligible spouses experiencing significant barriers to employment, as well as other additional populations authorized by the Secretary, with an emphasis on assisting veterans who are economically or educationally disadvantaged.
  • Economically Disadvantaged – An individual who is either a member of a family whose income is below the poverty level, is receiving cash benefits from a federal, state, or local welfare program, is receiving food stamps, is a homeless person, is a foster child, or is an individual with disabilities.
  • Employability Development Services (EDS) – Includes services and activities that will develop or increase the employability of the participant. These include vocational counseling, classroom and on-the-job training, pre-employment services (such as job-seeking skills and job search workshops), temporary or trial employment, sheltered work environments, and other related services and activities. Planned services should assist the participant in addressing barriers to attaining employment.
  • Employment Adjustment Services – Services designed to help a newly employed veteran adjust to his or her new job and are considered part of the veteran employment plan. A career counselor or job coach typically provides these services during the first month or so of employment. They offer guidance on any issues the newly employed individual encounters, including areas such as the following:
    • Counseling to help the newly hired veteran adjust to new routines, schedules, and work environments;
    • Building relationships with co-workers;
    • Enhancing customer service skills;
    • Understanding and adapting to the company’s culture; and
    • Counseling to help the newly employed veteran work through the job situations that they find most troublesome.
  • Employment Development Plan (EDP) – An individualized written plan (may be called an Individual Employment Plan (IEP) or a different term may be used) or intervention strategy for serving an individual who, as a result of a needs assessment, vocational interests, aptitudes, work history, etc., defines a reasonable vocational or employment goal. The EDP includes developmental services or steps required to reach goals and overcome all employment barriers, along with accomplishments made by the individual.
  • Employment Service – The state-level organization or public labor exchange system affiliated with the DOL’s United States Employment Service funded under the Wagner-Peyser Act.
  • Employment Rate in the 2nd Quarter After Exit– The percentage of program participants who are in unsubsidized employment during the second quarter after exit from the program. The rate is computed by dividing the number of exiters employed in the second quarter after exit by the total number of exiters for the reporting period.
  • Employment Rate in the 4th Quarter After Exit– The percentage of program participants who are in unsubsidized employment during the fourth quarter after exit from the program. The rate is computed by dividing the number of exiters employed in the fourth quarter after exit by the total number of exiters for the reporting period.
  • Enrollment– An eligible individual that receives a service funded by the program.
    • Re-enrollment: an individual participant may be enrolled in the program more than once throughout the grant’s PoP under the following conditions: a) more than 90 days have passed since the participant's last exit date; and b) the participant still meets the eligibility criteria to receive HVRP services. This is considered a new enrollment.
    • Re-opening: Participants that exit and return for services within 90 days of exit retain their original enrollment/eligibility status. This is not a new enrollment, as the participant received services within 90 days of exit.
  • Entrepreneurial Training – Training that provides an individual with the knowledge and skills to start and grow a business.
  • Episodically Homeless – An episodically homeless person is an individual who has been continuously homeless for one (1) year or more or has experienced at least four (4) episodes of homelessness in the last three (3) years with a combined length of time homeless of least 12 months. Please note that the definition of episodically homeless differs from the chronically homeless definition used by the Department of Housing and Urban Development, as the individual is not required to have a verified disability.
  • Equity – The consistent and systematic fair, just, and impartial treatment of all individuals, including individuals who belong to underserved communities that have been denied such treatment, such as Black, Latino, and Indigenous and Native American persons, Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders and other persons of color; members of religious minorities; lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, and other sexual and gender-diverse persons (LGBTQIA+); persons with disabilities; persons who live in rural areas; formerly incarcerated individuals and persons otherwise adversely affected by persistent poverty or inequality.
  • Exit Date or Service End Date – The day the participant received the final homeless veterans program service. An individual participant may have more than one exit date if they were enrolled in the program more than once throughout the grant’s PoP.
  • Exit Quarter – The program year quarter containing the participant’s exit date from the homeless veterans' program.
  • Exiter – For the purposes of VETS’ competitive grants, a participant who is placed or dropped during a quarter and is not scheduled to receive future homeless veterans program services for the next 90 or more days must be exited. Follow-up services do not count as “future services”; please see the definition below for Follow-up Services. Note: Training costs are considered “future services” and may only be provided/expended while the participant is an active participant of the program.

    Once a participant becomes an exiter, the sequence for tracking outcomes is determined by the exit quarter. Those participants experiencing a gap in service of 90 days or more due to a condition or circumstance, and/or temporary departure from the area such as for National Guard/Reserve duty, may be temporarily exempted from being exited for a portion of the grant recipient’s PoP.

    Refer to the HVRP Technical Performance Report (TPR)/Technical Performance Narrative (TPN) Desk Guide for instructions on exiting participants at the end of the grant’s PoP.
  • Family-Sustaining Employment – Paid employment in line with the homeless veteran’s aspirations, talents, and abilities. The employment should provide the minimum income necessary for a worker to meet his or her basic financial needs.
  • Federal Cognizant Agency – The federal agency that is assigned audit or indirect cost rate approval responsibility for a particular grant recipient organization by the Office of Management and Budget (see 2 C.F.R. Part 200.1).
  • Financial Counseling– Financial counseling may include:
    • Supporting the ability of participants to create household budgets, initiate savings plans, and make informed financial decisions;
    • Supporting the ability to manage spending, credit, and debt, including credit card debt, effectively;
    • Increasing awareness of the availability, usage, and significance of credit reports and scores in obtaining credit and their effect on credit terms;
    • Supporting the ability to understand, evaluate, and compare financial products, services, and opportunities; and
    • Supporting activities that address the particular financial literacy need of non-English speakers, including providing the support through the development and distribution of multilingual financial literacy and education materials.
  • Follow-up Activities – The administrative tracking of the post-program employment and earnings of participants exiting services. Follow-up activities are recorded up to four quarters after the quarter of exit for each participant exiting the program until the end of the PoP.
  • Follow-up Services – Grant recipients will provide post-exit follow-up services to participants enrolled and placed during the current PoP for four quarters after exit, to increase the participant’s success in employment retention. The following are examples of follow-up services:
    • Additional career planning;
    • Contacting the employer;
    • Assisting with work-related problems;
    • Peer support groups;
    • Informational mailings;
    • Co-enrolled partner services for job retention;
    • Follow-up tracking services; and
    • Provision of post-exit support services for job retention. Examples may include referrals for supportive services, incentives, work clothing, transportation assistance, etc.
  • Full-Time Equivalent (FTE) – A personnel charge to the grant equal to 2,080 hours per year.
  • Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA)– A document used to announce the availability of grant funds to the public. The document provides the requirements and instructions for the submission for potential applicants.
  • Fiscal Year (FY) – For federal government purposes, any twelve-month period beginning on October 1 and ending on September 30.
  • General Equivalency Diploma (GED) – A high school equivalency diploma that is obtained by passing the General Educational Diploma Equivalency Test. This test measures the application of skills and knowledge generally associated with four (4) years of traditional high school instruction.
  • Grant Officer’s Technical Representative (GOTR) – An individual serving on behalf of the Grant Officer to maintain and ensure the integrity of the approved grant agreement. This is done by reviewing applications and making recommendations regarding technical matters of the grant.
  • Homeless Veteran – A veteran as defined in 38 U.S.C. § 2002 who is “homeless” or a “homeless individual” as found at 42 U.S.C. § 11302(a-b), as amended by the Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing Act of 2009 (Public Law 111-22) is as follows:
    • An individual or family who lacks a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence;
    • An individual or family with a primary nighttime residence that is a public or private place not designed for or ordinarily used as a regular sleeping accommodation for human beings, including a car, park, abandoned building, bus or train station, airport, or camping ground;
    • An individual or family living in a supervised publicly or privately operated shelter designated to provide temporary living arrangements (including hotels and motels paid for by federal, state, or local government programs for low-income individuals or by charitable organizations, congregate shelters, and transitional housing);
    • An individual who resided in a shelter or place not meant for human habitation and who is exiting an institution where they temporarily resided;
    • An individual or family who—
      • Will imminently lose their housing, including housing they own, rent, or live in without paying rent, are sharing with others, and rooms in hotels or motels not paid for by federal, state, or local government programs for low-income individuals or by charitable organizations, as evidenced by—
        • A court order resulting from an eviction action that notifies the individual or family that they must leave within 14 days;
        • The individual or family having a primary nighttime residence that is a room in a hotel or motel and where they lack the resources necessary to reside there for more than 14 days; or
        • Credible evidence indicating that the owner or renter of the housing will not allow the individual or family to stay for more than 14 days, and any oral statement from an individual or family seeking homeless assistance that is found to be credible shall be considered credible evidence for purposes of this clause;
          • Has no subsequent residence identified; and
          • Lacks the resources or support networks needed to obtain other permanent housing;
    • Unaccompanied youth and homeless families with children and youth defined as homeless under other federal statutes who—
      • Have experienced a long-term period without living independently in permanent housing,
      • Have experienced persistent instability as measured by frequent moves over such period, and
      • Can be expected to continue in such status for an extended period of time because of chronic disabilities, chronic physical health or mental health conditions, substance addiction, histories of domestic violence or childhood abuse, the presence of a child or youth with a disability, or multiple barriers to employment; or
    • Any individual or family who is fleeing, or is attempting to flee, domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, stalking, or other dangerous or life-threatening conditions in the individual’s or family’s current housing situation, including where the health and safety of children are jeopardized, and who have no other residence and lack the resources or support networks to obtain other permanent housing.
  • Homeless Women Veterans and Homeless Veterans with Children Reintegration Grant Program (HWVHVWC) – Previously referred to as Homeless Female Veterans/Veterans with Families (HFVVWF), this category of HVRP applicants provides 100 percent of their grant funding to assisting homeless women veterans and/or homeless veterans with children achieve high-quality job outcomes. Homeless veterans with children means homeless veterans with dependents. For the definition of “dependents,” we are using the definition of “child” at 38 U.S.C. § 101(4).
  • Housing Status 
    • Unsheltered Homeless: living in a place not designed or ordinarily used as a regular sleeping accommodation for humans.
    • Sheltered Homeless/Temporary Supportive Housing: living in emergency shelters and transitional housing projects. Temporary Supportive Housing or Transitional Housing provides interim stability and support to successfully move to and maintain permanent housing. 
    • Permanent Supportive Housing: living in subsidized housing with supportive services for the residents to enable them to live as independently as is practicable throughout the duration of their residence (includes the HUD Veterans Affairs Supportive Housing (VASH) Rapid Re-housing program).
  • Incarcerated Veterans’ Transition Program (IVTP) – Authorized under 38 U.S.C. § 2023(d), a subset of HVRP that dedicates 100 percent of their grant funding to serve veterans that meet the following criteria:

    • Is a resident of a penal institution or an institution that provides long-term care for mental illness; and
    • Is at risk of homelessness absent referral and counseling services provided under the program.

    VETS considers an “at risk” determination to involve factors deemed appropriate by the grant recipient; however, VETS does not permit grant recipients to determine that a veteran is “at risk” if the veteran is not scheduled to be released from incarceration within 12 months.

  • Independent City – A city or town that does not form part of another general-purpose local government entity.
  • Indirect Cost – Indirect (facilities & administrative (F&A)) costs are costs incurred for a common or joint purpose that benefit more than one cost objective and are not readily assignable to one cost objective without specifically benefitting effort disproportionate to the results achieved.
  • Institutional Skills Training – Training conducted in an institutional setting designed to ensure that individuals acquire the skills, knowledge, and abilities necessary to perform a job.
  • Intake – An eligibility process for screening individual applicants in which (a) an initial determination of eligibility is made; (b) program information is provided; and (c) individual applicants are selected for participation in the program.
  • Internship – The position held by a student or trainee who works in an organization, sometimes without pay, to gain work experience or satisfy requirements for a qualification.
  • Job Club Activities – Job search assistance provided in a group setting. Job clubs provide instruction and assistance in completing job applications, developing resumés, and maximizing employment opportunities in the labor market by developing job leads. Many job clubs use telephone banks and provide group support to participants before and after job interviews.
  • Job Development – Marketing a program participant to employers, including informing employers about what participants can do in order to solicit a job interview for that individual with the employer (targeted job development). The development of one or more job openings or training opportunities with one or more employers uses a variety of techniques and means of contact.
  • Job Placement Services– Job placement services are geared towards placing participants in jobs and may involve activities such as job search assistance or job development. These services do not count as training. Job placement services are initiated to enhance and expedite participants’ transition from training to employment. The following activities prepare participants to seek, obtain, and retain employment:
    • Preparing a cover or thank you letter;
    • Work-focused career exploration;
    • Preparation in effective job seeking; or
    • Instruction in soft skills and workplace expectations, such as:
      • Behavior on the job;
      • Getting along with co-workers/boss;
      • Being reliable and on-time;
      • Filling out paperwork (for example, timesheets); and
      • Appropriate attire.
  • Job Search Assistance – An activity focusing on building practical skills, identifying and initiating employer contact, and conducting successful interviews with employers. Various approaches may include job club participation, identifying personal strengths and goals, resumé application preparation, interviewing techniques, and receiving labor market information. Job search assistance is often self-service activities where individuals obtain information about job openings.
  • Justice Involved – Any adult or juvenile who has been subject to the criminal justice process for whom services may be beneficial or who requires assistance in overcoming barriers to employment as a result of arrest or conviction.
  • Labor Exchange– Wagner-Peyser Act-funded services provided to job seekers and employers by the State Employment Services Agencies or other designated entities. Services to job seekers may include assessment, testing, counseling, provision of labor market information, and targeted job development. This results in job referral and follow-up with prospective employers. 

    Employer-oriented services may include accepting job orders, screening applicants, referring qualified applicants, and providing follow-up to foster job retention and develop additional job openings or training opportunities.
  • Labor Market Area – An economically integrated geographic area where individuals can reside and find employment within a reasonable distance or can readily change employment without changing their place of residence.
  • Labor Market Information (LMI) – Labor-related information about unemployment, industries, occupations, etc. LMI covers economic, social, demographic, and labor force data. It describes the characteristics of the supply of labor (the people who are workers or potential workers in the labor market) and provides information on the job opportunities in the labor market (current and projected needs of current and future employers). Sources of LMI often give historical, current, and forecasted information to satisfy the different users’ needs.
  • Leveraged Resources – Any resources contributed to the project beyond the funds provided by the agency.
  • Living Wage – What one full-time worker must earn on an hourly basis to cover the cost of minimum basic needs where the individual lives, while still being self-sufficient. This is not the same as subsistence, which refers to a biological minimum. These needs include shelter (housing) and other incidentals such as food, childcare, healthcare, and transportation.
  • Local Veterans’ Employment Representative (LVER)– Under 38 U.S.C. § 4104(b), the LVER’s principal duties are to (1) conduct outreach to employers in the area to assist veterans in gaining employment, including conducting seminars for employers and, in conjunction with employers, conducting job search workshops and establishing job search groups; and (2) facilitate employment, training, and placement services furnished to veterans in a state under the applicable state employment service delivery systems.
  • Local Workforce Investment Board (LWIB) – LWIBs are responsible for overseeing the implementation of America’s public workforce investment system in local communities.
  • Long Term Care – Provision of health, mental health, or other services over a prolonged or extended period to someone with a chronic illness, mental illness, or disability. Care can be provided in an institutional setting or the community (e.g., at home) by healthcare professionals, family, or friends.
  • Marginalized Veterans – Veterans that have historically been denied equal treatment, such as Black, Latino, and Indigenous and Native American persons, Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders and other persons of color; members of religious minorities; lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, and other sexual and gender-diverse persons (LGBTQIA+); persons with disabilities; persons who live in rural areas; and persons otherwise adversely affected by persistent poverty or inequality.
  • Median Earnings in the 2nd Quarter After Exit – The median earnings of program participants who are in unsubsidized employment during the second quarter after exit from the program. Earnings are calculated based on one quarter’s worth of wages (a quarter is 13 weeks). The median is found by listing all of the exited participants’ earning more than $0 in the second quarter after exit from lowest value to highest value and picking the middle value. If there are two values in the middle, the median is the average of those two values.
  • National Veterans’ Training Institute (NVTI)– Established to further develop and enhance the professional skills of service providers for veterans’ employment and training throughout the United States (38 U.S.C. § 4109).
  • Occupational Skills Training – Includes both vocational education that provides individuals with the technical skills and information required to perform a specific job or group of jobs, and unpaid on-the-job training.
  • On-the-Job Training (OJT) – Training by an employer that is provided to a paid participant and (a) provides knowledge or skills essential to performance of the job; and/or (b) provides reimbursement to the employer of up to 50 percent of the wage rate of the participant. This includes costs of providing the training and additional supervision related to the participant and takes into account the content of the training, the prior work experience of the participant, and the service strategy of the participant. In the OJT agreement, there is a promise on the part of the employer to hire the trainee upon successful completion of the training.
  • On-Site Industry-Specific Training – Training specifically tailored to the needs of a particular employer and/or industry. Participants are trained according to specifications for an occupation or group of occupations at a job site. There is often an obligation on the part of the employer to hire a certain number of participants who successfully complete the training.
  • Other Training – Other Training refers to any type of relevant employment-based training service not otherwise described in this glossary (see also the definition of Training below).
  • Outreach – An active effort by program staff to encourage individuals in the designated service delivery area to avail themselves of program services.
  • Participant – An individual who is determined to be eligible to participate in the grant program, is enrolled into the program, and receives a service funded by the program.
  • Participant Support Costs – A participant support cost may only be provided to participants to enable their participation in HVRP services and must be tied to a specific HVRP service; it is not intended to meet every need of the participant. Needs are typically identified through the intake and assessment process and outlined in the employment plan. A participant support payment is made to, or on behalf of, eligible participants for temporary assistance required to support the individual’s employment plan. A participant support cost should be reasonable and necessary to enable a participant to take part in services and activities related to the employment plan. A participant support cost should not duplicate a service a participant receives from another program (i.e., federal, state, or local programs).
  • Percentage of Enrollments Receiving Training Services – The percentage of participants enrolled who received some type of training service, whether provided directly by the grant recipient or referred to and provided by another training provider. Performance on this indicator is calculated by dividing the number of participants enrolled who received at least one training service by the total number of participants enrolled in the grant program, cumulative to the reporting quarter. The count of participants enrolled who received at least one training service is based on the first date of training received and is unduplicated across the PoP (e.g., a participant who received two trainings over two quarters in Q1 and Q2 will be counted as receiving training in Q1 but not again in Q2).
  • Period of Performance (PoP) – The time during which the federal agency authorizes a grant recipient to complete approved work of a project described in the original proposal. In addition, the non-federal entity may incur new obligations to carry out the work authorized under the federal award. Each grant award includes a start and end date for the PoP.
  • Person-Centered Care – Care that is responsive to an individual’s personal circumstances, values, needs, and preferences.
  • Placement Into Employment – Participants who secure or attain employment during the period of enrollment either through direct involvement by the grant recipient, through a robust referral system, or through the participant’s own efforts. Grant recipients are allowed to report and take credit for one placement per enrollment. Please note that each placed participant must also be exited in order to obtain credit when computing performance on the placement rate indicator. Also, while each grant recipient may report only one countable placement per enrolled eligible participant, you may track and report total placement transactions (when a participant is placed into employment multiple times) within your narrative reports.
  • Placement Rate – The placement rate is calculated by dividing the total number of participants employed in one or more jobs in the reporting period by the total number of exiters during the same period. Each placed participant must also be exited in order to obtain credit on this indicator.
  • Program Year (PY) – The 12-month period beginning July 1 in the fiscal year for which the appropriation is made and ending on the following June 30.
  • Racial Equity – The condition that would be achieved if one's racial identity no longer predicted, in a statistical sense, one’s housing, economic, and health outcomes. With racial equity, race would no longer be used to predict outcomes, and outcomes for all groups are improved. Racial equity includes addressing root causes of inequities, not just their outcomes. This includes elimination of policies, practices, attitudes, and cultural messages that reinforce differential outcomes by race or otherwise fail to address them. Racial equity is also a process. This means that Black people, Indigenous people, and people of color—those most impacted—are part of the decision-making about funding, policies, and programs. Sources: Center for Assessment and Policy Development and Center for Social Inclusion.
  • Recently Separated Veteran – An individual who applies for program participation or assistance within 48 months of separation from active U.S. military service [29 U.S.C. § 3102(63)(B)].
  • Remedial Education – Educational instruction, particularly in basic skills, to raise an individual’s general competency level to succeed in vocational education, skill training programs, or employment.
  • Saturation Level – The total number of HVRP grant recipients’ planned enrollments in a Continuum of Care (CoC) divided by the number of veterans experiencing homelessness (VEH) in the CoC from the HUD Point-in-Time (PIT) count.
    • Oversaturated – CoCs that have saturation levels of 100 percent or more.
    • Unsaturated – CoCs that have saturation levels between 1 percent and 79 percent.
    • Service Gap – CoCs with a homeless veteran population that are not served by an HVRP grant recipient.
  • Self-Employed – Self-employment income is income that arises from the performance of personal services but which cannot be classified as wages because an employer-employee relationship does not exist between the payer and the payee. The participant will file a 1099 with the IRS to report those earnings. The participant must provide the grant recipient documentation for earnings verification during follow-up.
  • Service-Connected Disabled – A disability that was incurred or aggravated in the line of duty in the active military, naval, air, or space service (38 U.S.C. § 101(16)).
  • Service Delivery Area (SDA) – Defined by county(s), parish, independent city, or Native American tribal area. Locations for counties, parishes, and independent cities are defined by the U.S. Census Bureau’s County and County Equivalent Entities tables. Tribal areas are defined by the U.S. Census Bureau’s Nation-Based Data Files for Alaska Native Regional Corporations & Statistical Areas, American Indian Joint Use Areas, Federal American Indian Reservations, Off-Reservation Trust Lands, Oklahoma Tribal Statistical Areas, State American Indian Reservations/State Designated Tribal Statistical Areas, and Tribal Designated Statistical Areas/Tribal Subdivisions.
    • Primary State – the state where the highest number of the grant recipient’s planned enrollments are located.
    • Second State – the state where the second highest number of the grant recipient’s planned enrollments are located.
    • Third State – the state where the third highest number of the grant recipient’s planned enrollments are located.
    • Fourth State – the state where the lowest number of the grant recipient’s planned enrollments are located.
  • Service End Date – The final date the participant received funded services that are not self-service, information-only, or follow-up services.
  • Stand Down (SD) – A Stand Down is an event held in a locality for one or more days where services are provided to veterans experiencing homelessness. These services may include hygiene kits, meals, clothing, employment services, and medical attention. These events are organized within a community and bring service providers together, such as the VA, HUD, the local Continuum of Care, Disabled Veterans’ Outreach Program (DVOP) specialists from the State Workforce Agencies, veteran service organizations, civic leaders, and a variety of other interested persons, groups, and support organizations. Many of these organizations provide services onsite with referrals for continued assistance after the SD event. These events often serve as the catalyst that enables homeless veterans to get back into mainstream society.
  • Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) – A written procedure to ensure supportive services are implemented and executed consistently and equitably. The SOP must describe the means for justifying the cost to the HVRP program, how costs will be documented, and the procedures for issuing payment. Grant recipients using HVRP funds for incentives must have an SOP in place that outlines a disbursement policy and tracking system to ensure supportive services are implemented and executed consistently and equitably before incentives are dispersed.

    The grant recipient’s SOP on incentives must describe the following:

    • Type(s) of incentives and their amounts;
    • Criteria for participant issuance;
    • Authorization process for a transaction;
    • Receipt and custody of the asset;
    • Recording and reporting activity related to that asset;
    • Taking periodic inventory and reconciling balances; and
    • Segregation of duties, such as:
      • Requiring limited access to cards and who can handle, etc. 
      • Having managers or staff from the program offices perform specific cash-related functions.
      • Requiring two authorizing signatures on checks issued.
      • Requiring supervisory approval for each use of vouchers.
      • Verifying usage and balances of logs through management information system reports.

    Please see NVTAC’s website under the HVRP Customizable Forms (nvtac.org) section for a helpful guide (nvtac.org) and a template (nvtac.org).

  • State Workforce Agency (SWA) – The agency or bureau in each state that provides employment and labor services.
  • Subaward – An award provided by a pass-through entity to a subrecipient for the subrecipient to carry out part of a federal award received by the pass-through entity. It does not include payments to a contractor or payments to an individual that is a beneficiary of a federal program. A subaward may be provided through any form of legal agreement, including an agreement that the pass-through entity considers a contract.
  • Subsidized Employment – Employment in the private sector or public sector for which the employer receives a subsidy from public funds to offset all or a part of the wages and costs of employing an individual. A placement may only be recorded once the individual is placed into unsubsidized employment (see definition for Unsubsidized Employment).
  • Subrecipient – An entity, usually but not limited to non-federal entities, that receives a subaward from a pass-through entity to carry out part of a federal award but does not include an individual that is a beneficiary of such award. A subrecipient may also be a recipient of other federal awards directly from a federal awarding agency. Grant recipients must follow the provisions at 2 C.F.R. §§ 200.331–200.333 regarding subrecipient monitoring and management. Also see 2 C.F.R. § 200.308(c)(6) regarding prior approval requirements for subawards.
  • Support Services – Services provided to support the reintegration of enrolled HVRP participants back into the labor force. Examples of support services include, but are not limited to, transportation, healthcare, financial assistance, drug and alcohol abuse counseling and referral, individual and family counseling, special services and materials for individuals with disabilities, job coaches, childcare and dependent care (if eligible), temporary shelter (if eligible), financial counseling, and other reasonable expenses required for participation in the training program. Support services may be provided in-kind or through partnerships. Questions regarding supportive services should be directed to the GOTR who is assigned to the award.
  • Temporary Shelter/Housing Assistance – Grant recipients must have the use of funds for housing assistance for these eligible participants in their budget narrative (an allowable cost only for recently released incarcerated veterans) and must identify how they will exhaust other housing options, such as those offered by penal institutions, community-based housing providers, or other housing assistance options, before identifying grant funds for this purpose. The use of grant funds for housing assistance is limited to 90 days, and the amount of assistance must meet the test of rent reasonableness. To meet this test and to be able to pay a landlord up to 90 days of reasonable rent, the applicant must secure at least three (3) samples of rent for housing units located in the specific community and zip code of the desired housing that meet the needs of eligible, recently released incarcerated veterans. If a veteran recently released from incarceration can obtain housing by any other means, such as through other federal or state programs, then HVRP grant funds cannot be used for such housing assistance. A grant recipient must have a standard operating procedure (SOP) in place to ensure this process is implemented and executed consistently and equitably. Temporary shelter is defined as a person living in a supervised public or privately operated shelter designed to provide temporary living arrangements.
  • Training – Grant recipients provide job-driven training that is targeted to the specific industries, occupations, and skills that are in demand locally. Job-driven training must enable a participant to become employable or seek a higher grade of employment. Training services can be provided through the local American Job Center, in-house, or through partners in the community, including VA Compensated Work Therapy (CWT). Life skills, financial management, resumé writing, interviewing preparation, and other job readiness or preparation services are not considered training.
  • Transitional Job – A transitional job is one that provides a time-limited work experience, that is wage-paid and subsidized, and is in the public, private, or non-profit sectors for those individuals with barriers to employment who are chronically unemployed or have inconsistent work history, as determined by the Local Workforce Development Board. These jobs are designed to enable an individual to establish a work history, demonstrate work success in an employee-employer relationship, and develop the skills that lead to unsubsidized employment (see 20 C.F.R. § 680.190). 
  • Unserved Communities – Communities that are not served by an HVRP grant. These communities have a homeless veteran population but do not have a current HVRP grant recipient operating in the areas where there are veterans experiencing homelessness.
  • Unsubsidized Employment – Employment in the private sector or public sector for which the employer does not receive a subsidy from public funds to offset all or a part of the wages and costs of employing an individual.
  • Upgrading – Training given to an individual who will advance above an entry-level position. This training includes assisting veterans to acquire state certification for employment in a field that they were trained on in the military (i.e., Commercial Truck Driving License, Emergency Medical Technician, Airframe & Power Plant, Teaching Certificate, etc.).
  • Veteran – Eligible participants must be a “veteran,” which means a person who served in the United States Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force, Space Force, Coast Guard, or Reserve Component (National Guard or Reserve), who meets the following criteria:
    • Received a discharge or release under conditions other than dishonorable (see 38 U.S.C. § 101(18)); and 
    • At least one day of active duty (see 38 U.S.C. § 101(21)) to include time spent in basic training for active-duty members; or
    • Federal active duty for National Guard and Reserve members (not including inactive duty and active duty for training as defined in 38 U.S.C. § 101(22) and (23)); or
    • Any period of inactive duty or active duty for training during which National Guard and Reserve members received a service-connected disability resulting from a disease or injury incurred or aggravated in the line of duty (see 38 U.S.C. § 101(24)).
  • Vocational Rehabilitation (VR or Voc rehab) – A process that enables persons with functional, psychological, developmental, cognitive, and emotional disabilities or impairments or health disabilities to overcome barriers to accessing, maintaining, or returning to employment or other useful occupation.
  • Welfare and/or Public Assistance Recipient– An individual who, during the course of the program year, receives or is a member of a family who receives cash welfare or public assistance payments under a federal, state, or local welfare program.
  • Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA)– WIOA preserves the nation’s workforce program infrastructure, allowing continuity in the delivery of federally funded employment services, workforce development, basic education for adults, and vocational rehabilitation activities for people with disabilities. The goal of WIOA is to improve the quality of the workforce, reduce welfare dependency, increase economic self-sufficiency, meet skills requirements of employers, and enhance the productivity and competitiveness of the nation.