United States Department of Labor
Office of Administrative Law Judges Law Library

Note: The DOT was created by the Employment and Training Administration, and was last updated in 1991. It has been replaced by the O*NET.



024.381-010 to 079.131-010

    This category includes occupations concerned with the theoretical or practical aspects of such fields of human endeavor as art, science, engineering, education, medicine, law, business relations, and administrative, managerial, and technical work. Most of these occupations require substantial educational preparation (usually at the university, junior college, or technical institute level).

024.381-010 LABORATORY ASSISTANT (petrol. & gas) alternate titles: analyst, geochemical prospecting; core analyst; laboratory tester

    Tests sand, shale, and other earth materials to determine petroleum and mineral content and physical characteristics: Performs routine chemical or physical tests of earth samples in field or laboratory to determine content of hydrocarbon or other minerals indicating presence of petroleum and mineral deposits. Tests core samples brought up during well drilling to determine permeability and porosity of sample, fluid content of sand and shale, salinity of drilling mud, and other conditions affecting oil well drilling operations.
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L3 SVP: 5 DLU: 77


    This group includes occupations concerned with the investigation of atmospheric phenomena with specializations, such as synoptic meteorology, climatology, dynamic meteorology, physical meteorology, radar and radio meteorology, and hydrometeorology.

025.062-010 METEOROLOGIST (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: weather forecaster

    Analyzes and interprets meteorological data gathered by surface and upper-air stations, satellites, and radar to prepare reports and forecasts for public and other users: Studies and interprets synoptic reports, maps, photographs, and prognostic charts to predict long and short range weather conditions. Operates computer graphic equipment to produce weather reports and maps for analysis, distribution to users, or for use in televised weather broadcast. Issues hurricane and other severe weather warnings. May broadcast weather forecast over television or radio. May prepare special forecasts and briefings for particular audiences, such as those involved in air and sea transportation, agriculture, fire prevention, air-pollution control, and school groups. May direct forecasting services at weather station, or at radio or television broadcasting facility. May conduct basic or applied research in meteorology. ay establish and staff weather observation stations.
GOE: 02.01.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

025.264-010 HYDROGRAPHER (waterworks)

    Analyzes hydrographic data to determine trends in movement and utilization of water: Reads meters and gauges to measure waterflow and pressure in streams, conduits, and pipelines, and records data. Measures water level in lakes, reservoirs, and tanks. Calculates seepage and evaporation rates for dams and reservoirs. Measures depth of water in wells and test holes to determine ground water level. Measures snow characteristics to evaluate water yield from snow runoff. Prepares graphs and charts to illustrate water patterns. Positions sluice gates to direct water onto spreading grounds. Installs, calibrates, and maintains metering instruments. Recommends locations for metering stations and instrument placement.
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

025.267-010 OCEANOGRAPHER, ASSISTANT (military ser.)

    Analyzes and records oceanographic and meteorological data to forecast changes in weather or sea condition: Collects weather and oceanographic data, using meteorological and oceanographic equipment and visual observation. Sketches surface weather charts, upper air charts, sea condition charts, and other charts and maps to indicate weather and sea conditions. Prepares and forecasts warnings of severe and hazardous weather and sea conditions and prepares briefings of current and predicted environmental conditions and their effect on military operations. Performs preventative maintenance on meteorological and oceanographic equipment.
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M5 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

025.267-014 WEATHER OBSERVER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: meteorological technician

    Observes and records weather conditions for use in forecasting: Periodically observes general weather, sky and visibility conditions, and reads weather instruments including thermometers, barometers, and hygrometers to ascertain elements, such as temperature, barometric pressure, humidity, wind velocity, and precipitation. Transmits and receives weather data from other stations over teletype machine. May collect upper-air data on temperature, humidity, and winds, using weather balloon and radiosonde equipment. May conduct pilot briefings.
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 77


    This group includes occupations, not elsewhere classified, concerned with mathematics and the physical sciences.

029.067-010 GEOGRAPHER (profess. & kin.)

    Studies nature and use of areas of earth's surface, relating and interpreting interactions of physical and cultural phenomena: Conducts research on physical and climatic aspects of area or region, making direct observation of landforms, climates, soils, plants, and animals within area under study and incorporating available knowledge from related scientific fields, such as physics, geology, oceanography, meteorology, and biology. Studies human activities within given area, such as ethnic distribution, economic activity, and political organization. Acts as adviser or consultant to governments and international organizations on subjects, such as economic exploitation of regions and determination of ethnic and natural boundaries between nations or administrative areas. May use surveying equipment or meteorological instruments. May construct and interpret maps, graphs, and diagrams. May specialize in particular branch of cultural geography, such as economic, political, urban, social, or historical geography.
GOE: 02.01.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

029.067-014 GEOGRAPHER, PHYSICAL (profess. & kin.)

    Studies origins, nature, and distribution of features of earth's surface, including landforms, climates, soils, plants, and animals: Makes surveys of physical characteristics of specific regions, conducting studies of features, such as elevations, drainage, geological formations, climate, vegetation, and access to other regions. May conduct environmental studies and prepare environmental impact reports.
GOE: 02.01.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

029.081-010 ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYST (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: environmental scientist

    Conducts research studies to develop theories or methods of abating or controlling sources of environmental pollutants, utilizing knowledge of principles and concepts of various scientific and engineering disciplines: Determines data collection methods to be employed in research projects and surveys. Plans and develops research models, using knowledge of mathematical, statistical, and physical science concepts and approaches. Identifies and analyzes sources of pollution to determine their effects. Collects and synthesizes data derived from pollution emission measurements, atmospheric monitoring, meteorological and mineralogical information, and soil or water samples. Prepares graphs, charts, and statistical models from synthesized data, using knowledge of mathematical, statistical, and engineering analysis techniques. Analyzes data to assess pollution problems, establish standards, and develop approaches for control of pollution. May be designated according to aspect of environment in which engaged as Air Pollution Analyst (profess. & kin.); Soils Analyst (profess. & kin.); Water Quality Analyst (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 02.01.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

029.081-014 MATERIALS SCIENTIST (profess. & kin.)

    Conducts scientific studies for understanding, characterizing and developing materials leading to potential uses for the benefit of science and emerging technologies: Conducts programs for studying structures and properties of various materials, such as metals, alloys, ceramics, semiconductors and polymers to obtain research data. Plans experimental laboratory production of materials having special characteristics to confirm feasibility of processes and techniques for potential users. Prepares reports of materials studies for information of other scientists and requestors. May guide technical staff engaged in developing materials for specific use in projected product or device.
GOE: 02.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M6 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

029.167-010 AERIAL-PHOTOGRAPH INTERPRETER (government ser.)

    Analyzes aerial photographs to detect significant military, industrial, resource, or topographical data: Studies photographs to locate enemy positions, camouflaged military installations and equipment, roads, industrial centers, rivers, wooded areas, and to determine nature of terrain. Interprets photographs to evaluate enemy strength and to predict military intentions. May draw maps for use of field commanders in planning deployment of troops. May interpret photographs for timber evaluation, water shed management, construction, or mining. May request enlargement of photograph for more detailed analysis. May use computers and data banks to store, retrieve, and compare information.
GOE: 02.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77


    Plans, directs, and coordinates activities of staff involved in developing procedures, equipment, and techniques to solve pollution problems, using scientific research methods: Schedules and assigns duties to staff research scientists and engineers based on evaluation of their knowledge of specific disciplines. Confers with project scientists and research engineers to formulate research plan, coordinate project activities, and establish reporting procedures. Prepares environmental research project feasibility and progress reports. Coordinates activities of research personnel conducting successive phases of problem analysis, solution proposals, and testing. Reviews technical aspects of project to assist staff and assess productivity of lines of research. Reviews project operations to ensure coordination of efforts and timely submission of reports. Analyzes reports to evaluate program effectiveness and budgetary needs. Approves expenditures necessary for completion of project. Coordinates planning, testing, and operating phases to complete project. Confers with local regulatory agencies to discover local environmental quality standards, industrial practices, and new developments in pollution abatement. May provide technical assistance to agencies conducting related environmental studies.
GOE: 02.01.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

029.261-010 LABORATORY TESTER (any industry)

    Performs laboratory tests according to prescribed standards to determine chemical and physical characteristics or composition of solid, liquid, or gaseous materials for such purposes as quality control, process control, or product development: Sets up, adjusts and operates laboratory equipment and instruments, such as microscopes, centrifuge, agitators, viscosimeter, chemical balance scales, spectrophotometer, gas chromatograph, colorimeter, and other equipment. Tests materials used as ingredients in adhesives, cement, propellants, lubricants, refractories, synthetic rubber, plastics, paint, paper, cloth, and other products for such qualities as purity, stability, viscosity, density, absorption, burning rate, and melting or flash point. Tests solutions used in processes, such as anodizing, waterproofing, cleaning, bleaching, and pickling for chemical concentration, specific gravity, or other characteristics. Tests materials for presence and content of elements or substances, such as hydrocarbons, manganese, natural grease, tungsten, sulfur, cyanide, ash, dust, or impurities. Tests samples of manufactured products to verify conformity to specifications. Records test results on standardized forms and writes test reports describing procedures used. Cleans and sterilizes laboratory equipment. May prepare graphs and charts. May prepare chemical solutions according to standard formulas. May add chemicals or raw materials to process solutions or product batches to correct or establish formulation required to meet specifications. May calibrate laboratory instruments. May be designated according to product or material tested. For testing of food products see FOOD TESTER (any industry) 029.361-014.
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 86

029.261-014 POLLUTION-CONTROL TECHNICIAN (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: environmental technician

    Conducts tests and field investigations to obtain data for use by environmental, engineering, and scientific personnel in determining sources and methods of controlling pollutants in air, water, and soil, utilizing knowledge of agriculture, chemistry, meteorology, and engineering principles and applied technologies: Conducts chemical and physical laboratory and field tests according to prescribed standards to determine characteristics or composition of solid, liquid, or gaseous materials and substances, using pH meter, chemicals, autoclaves, centrifuge, spectrophotometer, microscope, analytical instrumentation, and chemical laboratory equipment. Collects samples of gases from smokestacks, and collects other air samples and meteorological data to assist in evaluation of atmospheric pollutants. Collects water samples from streams and lakes, or raw, semiprocessed or processed water, industrial waste water, or water from other sources to assess pollution problem. Collects soil, silt, or mud to determine chemical composition and nature of pollutants. Prepares sample for testing, records data, and prepares summaries and charts for review. Sets monitoring equipment to provide flow of information. Installs, operates, and performs routine maintenance on gas and fluid flow systems, chemical reaction systems, mechanical equipment, and other test instrumentation. May operate fixed or mobile monitoring or data collection station. May conduct bacteriological or other tests related to research in environmental or pollution control activity. May collect and analyze engine exhaust emissions to determine type and amount of pollutants and be designated Engine Emission Technician (profess. & kin.). May specialize in one phase or type of environmental pollution or protection and be identified according to specialty.
GOE: 05.03.08 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

029.261-018 TEST-ENGINE OPERATOR (petrol. refin.) alternate titles: research-test-engine operator

    Subjects petroleum fuels and lubricants to simulated operating conditions in full-scale test engines to obtain evaluating data: Runs tests with gasoline, diesel, aviation, and supercharged research test engines, dynamometers, and other mechanical testing equipment, varying such factors as speed, temperature, load, fuel, and bearing, motor, or chassis lubricants as specified. Records horsepower ratings and other performance data. Tests fuels in standardized knock-rating test engines to obtain data for determination of octane or cetene values. Adjusts and makes minor repairs to engines during test runs.
GOE: 05.03.07 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

029.261-022 TESTER (petrol. refin.) alternate titles: crude tester; gas analyst; laboratory inspector; laboratory technician; laboratory tester; oil tester

    Tests and analyzes samples of crude oil and petroleum products during processing stages, using laboratory apparatus, testing equipment, and following standard test procedures to determine physical and chemical properties and ensure products meet quality control standards: Tests samples of crude and blended oils, gases, asphalts, and pressure distillates to determine characteristics, such as boiling, vapor, freeze, condensation, flash and aniline points, viscosity, specific gravity, penetration, doctor solution, distillation, and corrosion, using test and laboratory equipment, such as hydrometers, fractionators, distillation apparatus, and analytical scales. Analyzes content of products to determine presence of gases, such as propane, iso-butane, butane, iso-pentane, and ethene. Determines hydrocarbon composition of gasolines, blending stocks and gases, using fractional distillation equipment, gas chromatography, and mass spectrometer. Operates fractionation column to separate crude oil into oils with different boiling points to determine their properties. Analyzes composition of products to determine quantitative presence of gum, sulfur, aromatics, olefins, water, and sediment. Compares color of liquid product with charts to determine processing factors measurable by color. May test air and water samples to detect industrial pollutants.
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

029.261-026 CRIMINALIST (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: crime laboratory analyst; police chemist

    Applies scientific principles to analysis, identification, and classification of mechanical devices, chemical and physical substances, materials, liquids, or other physical evidence related to criminology, law enforcement, or investigative work: Searches for, collects, photographs, and preserves evidence. Performs variety of analytical examinations, utilizing chemistry, physics, mechanics, and other sciences. Analyzes items, such as paint, glass, printed matter, paper, ink, fabric, dust, dirt, gases, or other substances, using spectroscope, microscope, infrared and ultraviolet light, microphotography, gas chromatograph, or other recording, measuring, or testing instruments. Identifies hair, skin, tissue, blood, bones, or human organs. Examines and classifies explosives, firearms, bullets, shells, and other weapons. Interprets laboratory findings relative to drugs, poisons, narcotics, alcohol, or other compounds ingested or injected into body. Reconstructs crime scene, preserving marks or impressions made by shoes, tires, or other objects by plaster or moulage casts. Prepares reports or presentations of findings, methods, and techniques used to support conclusions, and prepares results for court or other formal hearings. May testify as expert witness on evidence or crime laboratory techniques. Confers with experts in such specialties as ballistics, fingerprinting, handwriting, documents, electronics, metallurgy, biochemistry, medicine, or others.
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 78

029.280-010 PHOTO-OPTICS TECHNICIAN (profess. & kin.)

    Sets up and operates photo-optical instrumentation to record and photograph data for scientific and engineering projects: Operates and calibrates photo-optical equipment according to formalized procedures, maintenance manuals, and schematic diagrams. Operates test equipment and performs analysis of data for engineering and scientific personnel. ay install and calibrate optical and photographic data collection equipment in missiles, aircraft, weaponry, weather or communication satellites, underwater devices, or other installations. May evaluate adequacy of data obtained to determine need for future changes in instrumentation. May modify existing equipment and participate in planning and testing modified equipment and instrumentation procedures.
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

029.361-010 BOTTLE-HOUSE QUALITY-CONTROL TECHNICIAN (beverage) alternate titles: quality-control technician

    Performs physical measuring and chemical analysis tests of packaged beer and materials in quality control laboratory of brewery bottle house: Selects test samples of crowns, cans, lids, bottles, labels, and cartons from packaging lines following established procedures as to time, place, and sequence. Measures dimensions of crowns, cans, bottles, lids, and labels with scales and micrometers. Conducts abrasion tests on cans, lids, bottles, crowns, and labels with abrasion machine. Measures hardness of crowns, lids, and cans, using hardness tester. Measures bursting strength of bottles, using hydraulic bursting machine. Tests wet and dry tearing strengths of labels and cartons. Weighs filled cans and bottles to measure volume of beer. Records test results and prepares graphs and charts.
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

029.361-014 FOOD TESTER (any industry)

    Performs standardized qualitative and quantitative tests to determine physical or chemical properties of food or beverage products, or to ensure compliance with company or government quality standards: Conducts standardized tests of food, beverages, additives, and preservatives for flavor, color, texture, nutritional value, or other factors, using incubator, autoclave, ovens, balance scales, refractometer, or other equipment. Tests flavoring and spices for moisture, oil content, coloring, and pungency, using spectrophotometer, stereomicroscope, and ovens. Tests production samples of food for compliance with standards, using spectrometer, pH meter, distillation equipment, balance scales, and other equipment. Refers to tables or computes such factors as moisture, salt content, sediment, or solubility. Smells samples of food for odors or tastes for prescribed flavor. Observes sample smear, sediment disk, or agar sample through microscope to identify bacterial or extraneous matter. Compares test results with standards and records results. Cleans laboratory equipment. May mix ingredients to make reagents. May operate calculating machine to compute percentages of ingredients in finished product. May be identified according to quality or product tested.
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L3 SVP: 5 DLU: 79

029.361-018 LABORATORY ASSISTANT (utilities) alternate titles: laboratory technician

    Performs standardized physical and chemical tests on materials and supplies used throughout power system to ensure compliance with specifications: Tests water used in boilers of steam generating plant for alkalinity and silica and phosphate content, using colorimeter and spectrophotometer. Notifies POWER-PLANT OPERATOR (utilities) or AUXILIARY-EQUIPMENT OPERATOR (utilities) of amount of chemical additives required to bring water to prescribed level of purity. Tests coal to determine Btu content by burning coal samples in colorimeter. Tests oil used in circuit breakers for dielectric strength by placing sample of oil in ceramic cup positioned between two electrodes, and measuring current conducted by oil, using ohmmeter. Ascertains heat resisting qualities of insulating paints and varnishes by coating pieces of sheet metal with paint and varnish and subjecting them to high temperatures. May determine viscosity index of lubricating oils, using viscosimeter. May inspect rubber protective equipment, such as aprons, gloves, and blankets for flaws.
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

029.381-010 CLOTH TESTER (garment; textile)

    Performs standardized chemical and physical tests on samples of cloth to verify adherence to specifications: Compares test results with specimens of cloth or prepared standard cards, graphs, or tables. Examines cloth microscopically or through magnifying glass to determine number of threads per inch, whether woven, warped or knitted, and to identify type of fibers, such as wool, nylon, cotton, polyester, acrylic, or a blend. Tests cloth for weight, fastness of dye, color, type of material, tensile strength, shrinkage, absorbency, or fire retardency, using special testing devices, chemicals, water, heat, drying oven, dehumidifier and scale. May test items, such as buttons, buckles, bindings, webbing, laces, and threads. May mix and apply chemicals to remove stains from garments or fabric soiled in manufacture or transit.
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 5 DLU: 77

029.381-014 LABORATORY ASSISTANT (textile) alternate titles: laboratory tester

    Performs standardized laboratory tests to verify chemical characteristics or composition of textile fibers, yarns, and products, and materials used in processing textiles: Tests oil and soap products to determine fitness for use in cloth and yarn finishing processes. Tests dyed goods for stripping (removing dye). Tests greige goods to determine if goods are of specified quality for dyeing, printing, and finishing. Verifies dye formulas used to develop or match colors by dyeing samples of cloth, yarn or textile fibers, and determines fastness of dyes, using laboratory equipment. Tests raw stock for moisture content with meter-equipped probe. Verifies efficiency of scouring process by testing wool samples to determine percentage of natural greases removed, using scales, solvents, and ovens. Measures tear strength and wet and dry tensile strength, using tensile-testing equipment. Determines color value by subjecting material to lights. Visually inspects yarns and finished material. May classify finished product according to quality and estimate amount of mending required.
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R3 M3 L3 SVP: 4 DLU: 80

029.383-010 PILOT, SUBMERSIBLE (any industry)

    Pilots submersible craft to conduct research in fields of oceanography or marine biology, test capabilities and performance of craft and auxiliary equipment, or perform underwater activities, such as exploration, mapping, photography, or construction, salvage or rescue work: Plans and develops operational procedures or techniques in order to investigate and test theories, or carry out specific underwater activities. Conducts predive operational tests on craft, life support systems, and other equipment. Pilots and controls craft to carry out mission in accordance with operational plans. Conducts scientific tests on effect of underwater life, life support systems, and habitats on human or other animals. Performs maintenance and repair on underwater facilities, well-heads, or pipelines. Carries out specific salvage or rescue operations. May perform activities outside of craft, using scuba equipment [SCUBA DIVER (any industry)]. May prepare technical reports or provide data for use by scientific or engineering personnel.
GOE: 05.04.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L4 SVP: 5 DLU: 77


    This division includes occupations concerned with the application of computers and computer languages and the utilization of the computer in the design and solution of business, scientific, engineering and other technical problems. This division does not include workers, such as accountants, stock brokers, and secretaries, who use computers to aid them in performing their work. Occupations concerned with the mathematical statement of problems for solution by computers are included in Group 020. Occupations concerned with the application of electronics and the principles of engineering to design and develop computing equipment are included in Group 003. Occupations concerned with writing user instructions for computer application programs are included in Group 131. Occupations concerned with training workers to use new or modified information processing procedures are included in Group 166. Occupations concerned with operating and monitoring computers are included in Group 213.


    This group includes occupations concerned with the analysis and evaluation of procedures and processes to design a sequence of steps for processing data by a computer. These activities may require the conversion of a sequence of steps into a computer language code which will be processed by the computer. Included are testing, locating and correcting program errors, enhancing, maintaining, and executing the coded instructions.

030.062-010 SOFTWARE ENGINEER (profess. & kin.)

    Researches, designs, and develops computer software systems, in conjunction with hardware product development, for medical, industrial, military, communications, aerospace, and scientific applications, applying principles and techniques of computer science, engineering, and mathematical analysis: Analyzes software requirements to determine feasibility of design within time and cost constraints. Consults with hardware engineers and other engineering staff to evaluate interface between hardware and software, and operational and performance requirements of overall system. Formulates and designs software system, using scientific analysis and $T3mathematical models$T1 to predict and measure outcome and consequences of design. Develops and directs software system testing procedures, programming, and documentation. Consults with customer concerning maintenance of software system. May coordinate installation of software system.
GOE: 11.01.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 90

030.162-010 COMPUTER PROGRAMMER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: applications programmer; programmer, business

    Converts data from project specifications and statements of problems and procedures to create or modify computer programs: Prepares, or receives from SYSTEMS ANALYST (profess. & kin.) 030.167-014, detailed workflow chart and diagram to illustrate sequence of steps that program must follow and to describe input, output, and logical operations involved. Analyzes workflow chart and diagram, applying knowledge of computer capabilities, subject matter, and symbolic logic. Confers with supervisor and representatives of departments concerned with program to resolve questions of program intent, data input, output requirements, and inclusion of internal checks and controls. Converts detailed logical flow chart to language processable by computer. Enters program codes into computer system. Inputs test data into computer. Observes computer monitor screen to interpret program operating codes. Corrects program errors, using methods such as modifying program or altering sequence of program steps. Writes instructions to guide operating personnel during production runs. Analyzes, reviews, and rewrites programs to increase operating efficiency or to adapt program to new requirements. Compiles and writes documentation of program development and subsequent revisions. May train workers to use program. May assist COMPUTER OPERATOR (clerical) 213.362-010 to resolve problems in running computer program. May work with SYSTEMS ANALYST (profess. & kin.) to obtain and analyze project specifications and flow charts. May direct and coordinate work of others to write, test, and modify computer programs.
GOE: 11.01.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 90

030.162-014 PROGRAMMER-ANALYST (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: applications programmer-analyst

    Plans, develops, tests, and documents computer programs, applying knowledge of programming techniques and computer systems: Evaluates user request for new or modified program, such as for financial or human resource management system, clinical research trial results, statistical study of traffic patterns, or analyzing and developing specifications for bridge design, to determine feasibility, cost and time required, compatibility with current system, and computer capabilities. Consults with user to identify current operating procedures and clarify program objectives. Reads manuals, periodicals, and technical reports to learn ways to develop programs that meet user requirements. Formulates plan outlining steps required to develop program, using structured analysis and design. Submits plans to user for approval. Prepares flowcharts and diagrams to illustrate sequence of steps program must follow and to describe logical operations involved. Designs computer terminal screen displays to accomplish goals of user request. Converts project specifications, using flowcharts and diagrams, into sequence of detailed instructions and logical steps for coding into language processable by computer, applying knowledge of computer programming techniques and computer languages. Enters program codes into computer system. Enters commands into computer to run and test program. Reads computer printouts or observes display screen to detect syntax or logic errors during program test, or uses diagnostic software to detect errors. Replaces, deletes, or modifies codes to correct errors. Analyzes, reviews, and alters program to increase operating efficiency or adapt to new requirements. Writes documentation to describe program development, logic, coding, and corrections. Writes manual for users to describe installation and operating procedures. Assists users to solve operating problems. Recreates steps taken by user to locate source of problem and rewrites program to correct errors. May use computer-aided software tools, such as flowchart design and code generation, in each stage of system development. May train users to use program. May oversee installation of hardware and software. May provide technical assistance to program users. May install and test program at user site. May monitor performance of program after implementation. May specialize in developing programs for business or technical applications.
GOE: 11.01.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 90

030.162-018 PROGRAMMER, ENGINEERING AND SCIENTIFIC (profess. & kin.)

    Converts scientific, engineering, and other technical problem formulations to format processable by computer: Resolves symbolic formulations, prepares flow charts and block diagrams, and encodes resultant equations for processing by applying extensive knowledge of branch of science, engineering, or advanced mathematics, such as differential equations or numerical analysis, and understanding of capabilities and limitations of computer. Confers with other engineering and technical personnel to resolve problems of intent, inaccuracy, or feasibility of computer processing. Enters program into computer system. Reviews results of computer runs with interested personnel to determine necessity for modifications or reruns. Develops new subroutines or expands program to simplify statement, programming, or coding of future problems. May direct and coordinate activities of COMPUTER PROGRAMMERS (profess. & kin.) 030.162-010 working as part of project team.
GOE: 11.01.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 90

030.162-022 SYSTEMS PROGRAMMER (profess. & kin.)

    Coordinates installation of computer operating system software and tests, maintains, and modifies software, using computer terminal: Reads loading and running instructions for system software, such as task scheduling, memory management, computer file system, or controlling computer input and output, and loads tape into tape drive or transfers software to magnetic disk. Initiates test of system program and observes readout on monitor of computer system to detect errors or work stoppage. Enters code changes into computer system to correct errors. Analyzes performance indicators, such as system's response time, number of transactions per second, and number of programs being processed at once, to ensure that system is operating efficiently. Changes system software so that system performance will meet objectives. Reviews computer system capabilities, workflow, and scheduling limitations to determine if requested changes to operating system are possible. Writes description of steps taken to modify system and procedures required to implement new software. Assists users having problems with use of system software. May train users, COMPUTER OPERATOR (clerical) 213.362-010, and COMPUTER PROGRAMMER (profess. & kin.) 030.162-010 to use system software. May prepare workflow charts and diagrams to modify system software. May visit vendors to observe demonstration of systems software. May administer and monitor computer program that controls user access to system. May review productivity reports and problem records to evaluate performance of computer system.
GOE: 11.01.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 90

030.167-010 CHIEF, COMPUTER PROGRAMMER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: coordinator, computer programming

    Plans, schedules, and directs preparation of programs to process data and solve problems by use of computers: Consults with managerial and systems analysis personnel to clarify program intent, identify problems, suggest changes, and determine extent of programming and coding required. Assigns, coordinates, and reviews work of programming personnel. Develops programs from workflow charts or diagrams, considering factors, such as computer storage capacity and speed, extent of peripheral equipment, and intended use of output data. Converts workflow charts to language processable by computer. Enters program codes into computer. Enters test data into computer. Analyzes test runs on computer to correct or direct correction of coded program and input data. Revises or directs revision of existing programs to increase operating efficiency or adapt to new requirements. Compiles documentation of program development and subsequent revisions. Trains subordinates in programming and program coding. Prescribes standards for terms and symbols used to simplify interpretation of programs. Collaborates with computer manufacturers and other users to develop new programming methods. Prepares records and reports.
GOE: 11.01.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 89

030.167-014 SYSTEMS ANALYST (profess. & kin.)

    Analyzes user requirements, procedures, and problems to automate processing or to improve existing computer system: Confers with personnel of organizational units involved to analyze current operational procedures, identify problems, and learn specific input and output requirements, such as forms of data input, how data is to be summarized, and formats for reports. Writes detailed description of user needs, program functions, and steps required to develop or modify computer program. Reviews computer system capabilities, workflow, and scheduling limitations to determine if requested program or program change is possible within existing system. Studies existing information processing systems to evaluate effectiveness and develops new systems to improve production or workflow as required. Prepares workflow charts and diagrams to specify in detail operations to be performed by equipment and computer programs and operations to be performed by personnel in system. Conducts studies pertaining to development of new information systems to meet current and projected needs. Plans and prepares technical reports, memoranda, and instructional manuals as documentation of program development. Upgrades system and corrects errors to maintain system after implementation. May assist COMPUTER PROGRAMMER (profess. & kin.) 030.162-010 in resolution of work problems related to flow charts, project specifications, or programming. ay prepare time and cost estimates for completing projects. May direct and coordinate work of others to develop, test, install, and modify programs.
GOE: 11.01.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 90


    This group includes occupations concerned with the evaluation of data communications and network hardware and software, coordinating data communications activities, and the transmission and reception of data or information sent electronically. Includes providing support to users of data communications. Occupations concerned with installing, maintaining, and repairing data communications equipment are included in Group 823.

031.132-010 SUPERVISOR, NETWORK CONTROL OPERATORS (any industry) alternate titles: data communications technician supervisor

    Supervises and coordinates activities of workers engaged in monitoring or installing data communication lines and resolving user data communication problems: Distributes work assignments and monitors daily logs of NETWORK CONTROL OPERATORS (any industry) 031.262-014, using microcomputer. Explains data communications diagnostic and monitoring procedures to operators, using computer terminal and following vendor's equipment and software instructions. Explains and demonstrates installation of data communication lines and equipment to operators, using handtools and following vendor manuals. Enters diagnostic commands into computer and determines nature of problem to assist operators to resolve data communication problems. Enters record of actions taken to resolve problem in daily log, using microcomputer. Attends staff meetings to report on and resolve recurrent data communications problems. Attends vendor seminars to learn about changes in data communications technology. Performs other duties as described under SUPERVISOR (any industry) Master Title.
GOE: 07.01.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 88

031.262-010 DATA COMMUNICATIONS ANALYST (profess. & kin.)

    Researches, tests, evaluates, and recommends data communications hardware and software: Identifies areas of operation which need upgraded equipment, such as modems, fiber optic cables, and telephone wires. Conducts survey to determine user needs. Reads technical manuals and brochures to determine equipment which meets establishment requirements. Visits vendors to learn about available products or services. Tests and evaluates hardware and software to determine efficiency, reliability, and compatibility with existing system, using equipment such as computer terminal and modem. Analyzes test data and recommends hardware or software for purchase. Develops and writes procedures for installation, use, and solving problems of communications hardware and software. Monitors system performance. Trains users in use of equipment. Assists users to identify and solve data communication problems. May write technical specifications to send to vendors for bid. May oversee or assist in installation of communications hardware. May perform minor equipment repairs.
GOE: 11.01.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 90

031.262-014 NETWORK CONTROL OPERATOR (any industry)

    Monitors data communications network to ensure that network is available to all system users and resolves data communications problems: Receives telephone call from user with data communications problem, such as failure of data to be transmitted to another location. Reviews procedures user followed to determine if specified steps were taken. Explains user procedures necessary to transmit data. Monitors modems and display screen of terminal to mainframe computer to detect error messages that signal malfunction in communications software or hardware. Enters diagnostic commands into computer to determine nature of problem, and reads codes on screen to diagnose problem. Attaches diagnostic equipment to phone line to learn if line meets specification. Reads technical reference manuals for communications hardware and software to learn cause of problem. Instructs user to enter specified commands into computer to resolve problem. Calls service technician for service when problem cannot be resolved. Enters operating commands into computer to restart program. Records number of daily data communications transactions and number of problems and actions taken, using computer terminal. Updates documentation to record new equipment installed, new sites, and changes to computer configurations. May inspect communications wires and cables. ay train staff and users to use equipment. May coordinate installation of or install communications lines.
GOE: 07.06.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 90


    This group includes occupations concerned with investigating, resolving, and explaining computer-related problems to users of computer systems. Occupations concerned with support for data communications users are included in Group 031.

032.132-010 USER SUPPORT ANALYST SUPERVISOR (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: help desk supervisor

    Supervises and coordinates activities of workers who provide problem-solving support to computer users: Assists USER SUPPORT ANALYST (profess. & kin.) 032.262.010 in solving nonroutine software, hardware, and procedure problems, using computer and manuals. Talks with staff, computer users, supervisors, and managers to determine requirements for new or modified software and hardware. Writes recommendations for management review. Coordinates installation of hardware and software, and implementation of procedure changes. Performs duties described under SUPERVISOR (any industry) Master Title.
GOE: 11.01.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 88

032.262-010 USER SUPPORT ANALYST (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: customer service representative; end user consultant; help desk representative; information center specialist; office automation analyst

    Investigates and resolves computer software and hardware problems of users: Receives telephone calls from users having problems using computer software and hardware or inquiring how to use specific software, such as statistical, graphics, data base, printing, word processing, programming languages, electronic mail, and operating systems. Talks to user to learn procedures followed and source of error. Answers questions, applying knowledge of computer software, hardware, and procedures. Asks user with problem to use telephone and participate in diagnostic procedures, using diagnostic software, or by listening to and following instructions. Determines whether problem is caused by hardware, such as modem, printer, cables, or telephone. Talks with coworkers to research problem and find solution. Talks to programmers to explain software errors or to recommend changes to programs. Calls software and hardware vendors to request service regarding defective products. Reads trade magazines and attends computer trade shows to obtain current information about computers. May test software and hardware to evaluate ease of use and whether product will aid user in performing work. May write software and hardware evaluation and recommendation for management review. May write or revise user training manuals and procedures. May develop training materials, such as exercises and visual displays. May train users on software and hardware on-site or in classroom, or recommend outside contractors to provide training. May install microcomputers, software, and peripheral equipment, following procedures and using handtools [MICROCOMPUTER SUPPORT SPECIALIST (profess & kin.) 039.264-010]. May work as in-house consultant and research alternate approaches to existing software and hardware when standardized approaches cannot be applied. May conduct office automation feasibility studies, including work flow analysis, space design, and cost comparison analysis. May specialize by type of software, computer language, or computer operating system.
GOE: 11.01.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 90


    This group includes occupations concerned with providing technical support for computer systems, rather than to users of computer systems. Includes the development, installation, and maintenance of computer operating systems software.

033.162-010 COMPUTER SECURITY COORDINATOR (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: data security coordinator; information security

    Plans, coordinates, and implements security measures to safeguard information in computer files against accidental or unauthorized modification, destruction, or disclosure: Confers with computer user department personnel and COMPUTER PROGRAMMER (profess. & kin.) 030.162-010 to plan data security for new or modified software, discussing issues, such as employee data access needs and risk of data loss or disclosure. Reviews plan to ensure compatibility of planned security measures with establishment computer security system software. Modifies security data files to incorporate new software security into establishment security software, using computer terminal, or meets with SYSTEMS PROGRAMMER (profess. & kin.) 030.162-022 to request needed programming changes. Enters commands into computer in attempt to circumvent new security measures to test system. Reviews employee violations of computer security procedures recorded by computer and reports violations to user department managers or talks with employee to ensure that violation is not repeated. Coordinates implementation of vendor-issued security software update. Develops and writes computer security department policies and procedures. May assign computer access passwords to employees [COMPUTER SECURITY SPECIALIST (profess. & kin.) 033.362-010]. May develop, coordinate implementation of, and test plan to continue establishment data processing activities at off-site location in case of emergency, such as fire, at main site [DATA RECOVERY PLANNER (profess. & kin.) 033.162-014].
GOE: 11.10.05 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 90

033.162-014 DATA RECOVERY PLANNER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: disaster recovery coordinator

    Develops, coordinates implementation of, and tests plan to continue establishment data processing activities at off-site location in case of emergency, such as fire, at main site: Establishes priority of data processing activities according to importance to business. Determines hardware, software, data files, safe storage facilities, and other resources required. Develops plan to meet emergency data processing needs. Identifies personnel needed to implement plan. Presents plan to management and recommends means of obtaining required facilities, such as contracting with off-site vendor. Coordinates implementation of plan. Tests emergency data processing system, using computer and test data. Writes report to document test results and updates emergency recovery procedures.
GOE: 11.01.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 89

033.162-018 TECHNICAL SUPPORT SPECIALIST (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: project development coordinator; technical operations specialist

    Performs any combination of following duties to provide technical support to workers in information processing departments: Develops work goals and department projects. Assigns and coordinates work projects, such as converting to new hardware or software. Designates staff assignments, establishes work priorities, and evaluates cost and time requirements. Reviews completed projects or computer programs to ensure that goals are met and that programs are compatible with other programs already in use. Evaluates work load and capacity of computer system to determine feasibility of expanding or enhancing computer operations. Makes recommendations for improvements in computer system. Reviews and tests programs written by PROGRAMMER-ANALYST (profess. & kin.) 030.162-014 or COMPUTER PROGRAMMER (profess. & kin.) 030.162-010 to ensure that programs meet objectives and specifications. Consults with QUALITY ASSURANCE ANALYST (profess. & kin.) 033.262-010 to ensure that program follows establishment standards. Modifies, tests, and corrects existing programs. Evaluates and tests vendor-supplied software packages for mainframe computer or microcomputers to determine compatibility with existing system, ease of use, and if software meets user needs. Enters commands into computer to place programs in production status. Inactivates, individually or in combination, each component of computer system, such as central processing unit, tape drives, and mainframe coolers. Tests computer system to determine criticality of component loss. Prioritizes importance of components and writes recommendations for recovering losses and using backup equipment. Assists user to resolve computer-related problems, such as inoperative hardware or software. Trains workers in use of new software or hardware. Reads technical journals or manuals and attends vendor seminars to learn about new computer hardware and software. Writes project reports and documentation for new or modified software and hardware.
GOE: 11.01.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 88

033.167-010 COMPUTER SYSTEMS HARDWARE ANALYST (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: computer systems engineer; information processing engineer; methods analyst, data processing

    Analyzes data processing requirements to plan data processing system that will provide system capabilities required for projected work loads, and plans layout and installation of new system or modification of existing system: Confers with data processing and project managers to obtain information on limitations and capabilities of existing system and capabilities required for data processing projects and projected work load. Evaluates factors such as number of departments serviced by data processing equipment, reporting formats required, volume of transactions, time requirements and cost constraints, and need for security and access restrictions to determine hardware configurations. Analyzes information to determine, recommend, and plan layout for type of computers and peripheral equipment, or modifications to existing equipment and system, that will provide capability for proposed project or work load, efficient operation, and effective use of allotted space. May enter data into computer terminal to store, retrieve, and manipulate data for analysis of system capabilities and requirements. May specify power supply requirements and configuration. May recommend purchase of equipment to control dust, temperature, and humidity in area of system installation. May specialize in one area of system application or in one type or make of equipment. May train users to use new or modified equipment. May monitor functioning of equipment to ensure system operates in conformance with specifications.
GOE: 05.01.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 88

033.262-010 QUALITY ASSURANCE ANALYST (profess. & kin.)

    Evaluates and tests new or modified software programs and software development procedures used to verify that programs function according to user requirements and conform to establishment guidelines: Writes, revises, and verifies quality standards and test procedures for program design and product evaluation to attain quality of software economically and efficiently. Reviews new or modified program, including documentation, diagram, and flow chart, to determine if program will perform according to user request and conform to guidelines. Recommends program improvements or corrections to programmers. Reviews computer operating log to identify program processing errors. Enters instructions into computer to test program for validity of results, accuracy, reliability, and conformance to establishment standards. Observes computer monitor screen during program test to detect error codes or interruption of program and corrects errors. Identifies differences between establishment standards and user applications and suggests modifications to conform to standards. Sets up tests at request of user to locate and correct program operating error following installation of program. Conducts compatibility tests with vendor-provided programs. Monitors program performance after implementation to prevent reoccurrence of program operating problems and ensure efficiency of operation. Writes documentation to describe program evaluation, testing, and correction. May evaluate proposed software or software enhancement for feasibility. May develop utility program to test, track, and verify defects in software program. ay write programs to create new procedures or modify existing procedures. May train software program users.
GOE: 11.01.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 89

033.362-010 COMPUTER SECURITY SPECIALIST (profess. & kin.)

    Regulates access to computer data files, monitors data file use, and updates computer security files: Enters commands into computer to allow access to computer system for employee who forgot password. Reads computer security files to determine whether denial of data access reported by employee is justified. Modifies security files to correct error, or explains that employee authorization does not permit access. Answers employee questions about computer security. Modifies security files to add new employees, delete former employees, and change employee name, following notice received from computer user departments and personnel office. Sends printouts listing employee data authorization to computer user departments to verify or correct information in security files. Reviews data use records and compares user names listed in records with employee authorization to ensure that all employees who accessed data files were entitled to do so. Deletes data access of unauthorized users, and for users who have not used data for specified time.
GOE: 11.10.05 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M2 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 89


    This group includes occupations, not elsewhere classified, concerned with computers.

039.162-010 DATA BASE ADMINISTRATOR (profess. & kin.)

    Coordinates physical changes to computer data bases; and codes, tests, and implements physical data base, applying knowledge of data base management system: Designs logical and physical data bases [DATA BASE DESIGN ANALYST (profess. & kin.) 039.162-014] or reviews description of changes to data base design to understand how changes to be made affect physical data base (how data is stored in terms of physical characteristics, such as location, amount of space, and access method). Establishes physical data base parameters. Codes data base descriptions and specifies identifiers of data base to data base management system or directs others in coding data base descriptions. Calculates optimum values for data base parameters, such as amount of computer memory to be used by data base, following manuals and using calculator. Specifies user access level for each segment of one or more data items, such as insert, replace, retrieve, or delete data. Specifies which users can access data bases and what data can be accessed by user. Tests and corrects errors, and refines changes to data base. Enters codes to create production data base. Selects and enters codes of utility program to monitor data base performance, such as distribution of records and amount of available memory. Directs programmers and analysts to make changes to data base management system. Reviews and corrects programs. Answers user questions. Confers with coworkers to determine impact of data base changes on other systems and staff cost for making changes to data base. Modifies data base programs to increase processing performance, referred to as performance tuning. Workers typically specialize in one or more types of data base management systems. May train users.
GOE: 11.01.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 90

039.162-014 DATA BASE DESIGN ANALYST (profess. & kin.)

    Designs logical and physical data bases and coordinates data base development as part of project team, applying knowledge of data base design standards and data base management system: Reviews project request describing data base user needs. Estimates time and cost required to accomplish project. Determines if project requires creating series of new programs or modifying existing programs that access data stored in data bases. Attends specification meeting with project team workers to determine scope and limitations of project. Reviews workflow chart developed by PROGRAMMER-ANALYST (profess. & kin.) 030.162-014 to understand tasks computer will perform, such as updating records. Reviews procedures in data base management system manuals for making changes to data base, such as defining, creating, revising, and controlling data base. Revises company definition of data as defined in data dictionary (information about data, including name, description, source of data item, and key words for categorizing and searching for data item descriptions). Determines and enters changes to data dictionary descriptions, including type, structure, and intended use of data within system, using computer or assigns data entry work to programmer. Develops data model describing data elements and how they are used, following procedures and using pen and template or computer software. Creates description to enable PROGRAMMER-ANALYST (profess. & kin.) to understand how programs should access data. Writes description of how user accesses data, referred to as logical data base. Writes physical data base description, such as location, space requirements, and access method, to protect company data resources against unauthorized access and accidental destruction, according to computer industry standards and knowledge of data base management system. May specialize in adding, deleting, and modifying data items in data dictionary and be designated Data Dictionary Administrator (profess. and kin.). Workers typically specialize in one or more types of data base management systems.
GOE: 11.01.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 90

039.264-010 MICROCOMPUTER SUPPORT SPECIALIST (profess. & kin.)

    Installs, modifies, and makes minor repairs to microcomputer hardware and software systems and provides technical assistance and training to system users: Inspects microcomputer equipment and reads order sheet listing user requirements to prepare microcomputer for delivery. Installs or assists service personnel in installation of hardware and peripheral components, such as monitors, keyboards, printers, and disk drives on user's premises, following design or installation specifications. Loads specified software packages, such as operating systems, word processing, or spreadsheet programs into computer. Enters commands and observes system functions to verify correct system operation. Instructs user in use of equipment, software, and manuals. Answers client's inquiries in person and via telephone concerning systems operation; diagnoses system hardware, software, and operator problems; and recommends or performs minor remedial actions to correct problems based on knowledge of system operation. Replaces defective or inadequate software packages. Refers major hardware problems to service personnel for correction. Attends technical conferences and seminars to keep abreast of new software and hardware product developments.
GOE: 05.05.05 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 90


    This division includes occupations concerned with research to increase basic knowledge of living organisms, including humans and the practical application of biological and behavioral theories.


    This group includes occupations concerned with the application of scientific principles to problems related to agriculture, horticulture, forestry, and environmental impact. Also includes development of improved methods in cultivation, processing, handling, and storing of products; land conservation practices; pest control; landscape planning; and related activities.

040.061-010 AGRONOMIST (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: crop-research scientist; crop scientist

    Conducts experiments or investigations in field-crop problems and develops new methods of growing crops to secure more efficient production, higher yield, and improved quality: Plans and carries out breeding studies at experiment stations or farms to develop and improve varieties of field crops, such as cotton, tobacco, or cereal with respect to characteristics, such as yield, quality, adaptation to specific soils or climates, and resistance to diseases and pests [PLANT BREEDER (profess. & kin.)]. Studies crop production to discover best methods of planting, cultivation, harvesting, and effects of various climatic conditions on crops. Develops methods for control of noxious weeds, crop diseases, and insect pests [PLANT PATHOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)]. May specialize in specific field crop, group of field crops, or specific agronomic problem.
GOE: 02.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

040.061-014 ANIMAL SCIENTIST (profess. & kin.)

    Conducts research in selection, breeding, feeding, management, and marketing of beef and dual-purpose cattle, horses, mules, sheep, dogs, goats, and pet animals: Develops improved practices in feeding, housing, sanitation, and parasite and disease control. Controls breeding practices to improve strains of animals. May specialize in animal nutritional research and be designated Animal Nutritionist (profess. & kin.). May be designated according to animal specialty.
GOE: 02.02.01 STRENGTH: M GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

040.061-018 DAIRY SCIENTIST (profess. & kin.)

    Conducts research in selection, breeding, feeding, and management of dairy cattle: Studies feed requirements of dairy animals and nutritive value of feed materials. Carries out experiments to determine effects of different kinds of feed and environmental conditions on quantity, quality, and nutritive value of milk produced. Develops improved practices in care and management of dairy herds and use of improved buildings and equipment. Studies physiology of reproduction and lactation, and carries out breeding programs to improve dairy breeds [ANIMAL BREEDER (agriculture)]. May be designated according to specialty as Dairy-Management Specialist (profess. & kin.); Dairy-Nutrition Specialist (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 02.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

040.061-022 DAIRY TECHNOLOGIST (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: dairy-manufacturing technologist; dairy-products technologist

    Applies principles of bacteriology, chemistry, physics, engineering, and economics to develop new and improved methods in production, preservation, and utilization of milk, cheese, ice cream, and other dairy products: Conducts experiments in such problems as preventing bacterial increase in milk during handling and processing, improving pasteurization methods, and designing better packaging materials, dairy equipment, or supplies. May specialize according to product, as ice cream or cheese, or according to functional activity, as sanitation research or storage problems.
GOE: 02.02.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

040.061-026 FIBER TECHNOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

    Studies nature, origin, use, improvement, and processing methods of plant, animal, and synthetic fibers: Analyzes wool, mohair, cashmere, camel's hair, alpaca, bristles, feathers, and similar animal and fowl fibers, plant fibers, such as cotton, linen, and jute, and synthetic fibers and products made from these fibers. Applies principles of science to improve growth and quality of fibers. Conducts experiments in blending fibers and develops improved manufacturing methods for converting fibers into articles, such as cloth, felts, rugs, mattresses, and brushes. Conducts tests on fibrous structures for quality control, such as tensile strength and stability to heat, light, and chemicals. May be identified according to fibers studied.
GOE: 05.01.08 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

040.061-030 FOREST ECOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

    Conducts research in environmental factors affecting forests: Carries out studies to determine what conditions account for prevalence of different varieties of trees. Studies classification, life history, light and soil requirements, and resistance to disease and insects of different species. Investigates adaptability of different species to new environmental conditions, such as changes in soil type, climate, and altitude.
GOE: 02.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

040.061-038 HORTICULTURIST (profess. & kin.)

    Conducts experiments and investigations to determine methods of breeding, producing, storing, processing, and transporting of fruits, nuts, berries, vegetables, flowers, bushes, and trees: Experiments to develop new or improved varieties having higher yield, quality, nutritional value, resistance to disease, or adaptability to climates, soils, uses, or processes. Determines best methods of planting, spraying, cultivating, and harvesting. ay specialize in research, breeding, production, or shipping and storage of fruits, nuts, berries, vegetables, ornamental plants, or other horticultural products and be identified according to specialty. May prepare articles and give lectures on horticultural specialty.
GOE: 02.02.02 STRENGTH: M GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 79

040.061-042 POULTRY SCIENTIST (profess. & kin.)

    Conducts research in breeding, feeding, and management of poultry: Examines selection and breeding practices to increase efficiency of production and improve quality of poultry products [ANIMAL BREEDER (agriculture)]. Studies nutritional requirements of various classes of poultry. Develops improved practices in incubation, brooding, feeding, rearing, housing, artificial insemination, and disease and parasite prevention and control. Studies effects of management practices and processing methods on quality of eggs and other poultry products. May specialize in artificial insemination.
GOE: 02.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

040.061-046 RANGE MANAGER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: range-management specialist

    Conducts research in range problems to provide sustained production of forage, livestock, and wildlife: Studies range lands to determine best grazing seasons and number and kind of livestock that can be most profitably grazed. Plans and directs construction and maintenance of range improvements, such as fencing, corrals, reservoirs for stock watering, and structures for soil-erosion control. Develops improved practices for range reseeding. Studies forage plants and their growth requirements to determine varieties best suited to particular range. Develops methods for controlling poisonous plants, and for protecting range from fire and rodent damage. May specialize in particular area and be designated Range Conservationist (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 02.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

040.061-050 SILVICULTURIST (profess. & kin.)

    Establishes and cares for forest stands: Manages tree nurseries and thins forests to encourage natural growth of sprouts or seedlings of desired varieties. Conducts research in such problems of forest propagation and culture as tree growth rate, effects of thinning on forest yield, duration of seed viability, and effects of fire and animal grazing on growth, seed production, and germination of different species. Develops techniques for measuring and identifying trees.
GOE: 02.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

040.061-054 SOIL CONSERVATIONIST (profess. & kin.)

    Plans and develops coordinated practices for soil erosion control, moisture conservation, and sound land use: Conducts surveys and investigations on rural or urban planning, agriculture, construction, forestry, or mining on measures needed to maintain or restore proper soil management. Plans soil management practices, such as crop rotation, reforestation, permanent vegetation, contour plowing, or terracing as related to soil and water conservation. Prepares soil conservation plans in cooperation with state, county, or local government, farmers, foresters, miners, or urban planners to provide for use and treatment of land according to needs and capability. Applies principles of two or more specialized fields of science, such as agronomy, soil science, forestry, or agriculture to achieve objectives of conservation. May develop or participate in environmental studies.
GOE: 02.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

040.061-058 SOIL SCIENTIST (profess. & kin.)

    Studies soil characteristics and maps soil types, and investigates responses of soils to known management practices to determine use capabilities of soils and effects of alternative practices on soil productivity: Classifies soils according to standard types. Conducts experiments on farms or experimental stations to determine best soil types for different plants. Performs chemical analysis on micro-organism content of soil to determine microbial reactions and chemical and mineralogical relationship to plant growth. Investigates responses of specific soil types to tillage, fertilization, nutrient transformations, crop rotation, environmental consequences, water, gas or heat flow, industrial waste control and other soil management practices. Advises interested persons on rural or urban land use. May specialize in one or more types of activities relative to soil management and productivity and be designated Soil Fertility Expert (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 02.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

040.061-062 WOOD TECHNOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

    Conducts research to determine composition, properties, behavior, utilization, development, treatments, and processing methods of wood and wood products: Analyzes physical, chemical, and biological properties of wood. Studies methods of curing wood to determine best and most economical procedure. Develops and improves methods of seasoning, preservation, and treating wood with substances to increase resistance to wear, fire, fungi, insects, and marine borers. Conducts tests to determine ability of wood adhesives to withstand water, oil penetration, temperature extremes, and stability, strength, hardness and crystallinity of wood under variety of conditions. Evaluates and improves effectiveness of industrial equipment and production processes. Investigates processes for converting wood into commodities, such as alcohol, veneer, plywood, wood plastics, and other uses. Determines best type of wood for specific application, and investigates methods of turning waste wood materials into useful products. May specialize in research, quality control, marketing and sales, materials engineering, management or administration, manufacturing, production, or process development.
GOE: 02.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

040.167-010 FORESTER (profess. & kin.)

    Manages and develops forest lands and resources for economic and recreational purposes: Plans and directs forestation and reforestation projects. aps forest areas, estimates standing timber and future growth, and manages timber sales. Plans cutting programs to assure continuous production of timber or to assist timber companies achieve production goals. Determines methods of cutting and removing timber with minimum waste and environmental damage and suggests methods of processing wood for various uses. Directs suppression of forest fires and conducts fire-prevention programs. Plans and directs construction and maintenance of recreation facilities, fire towers, trails, roads, and fire breaks. Assists in planning and implementing projects for control of floods, soil erosion, tree diseases, and insect pests in forests [ENTOMOLOGIST (profess. & kin.) 041.061-046; PLANT PATHOLOGIST (profess. & kin.) 041.061-086; SOIL CONSERVATIONIST (profess. & kin.) 040.061-054]. Advises landowners on forestry management techniques and conducts public educational programs on forest care and conservation. May participate in environmental studies and prepare environmental reports. May supervise activities of other forestry workers [SUPERVISOR (any industry) Master Title]. May patrol forests, enforce laws, and fight forest fires. May administer budgets. May conduct research to improve knowledge of forest management. May specialize in one aspect of forest management. May be designated Forestry Supervisor (profess. & kin.); Woods Manager (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 03.01.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 81

040.261-010 SOIL-CONSERVATION TECHNICIAN (profess. & kin.)

    Provides technical assistance to land users in planning and applying soil and water conservation practices, utilizing basic engineering and surveying tools, instruments, and techniques and knowledge of agricultural and related sciences, such as agronomy, soil conservation, and hydrology: Analyzes conservation problems of land and discusses alternative solutions to problems with land users. Advises land users in developing plans for conservation practices, such as conservation cropping systems, woodlands management, pasture planning, and engineering systems, based on cost estimates of different practices, needs of land users, maintenance requirements, and life expectancy of practices. Computes design specification for particular practices to be installed, using survey and field information technical guides, engineering field manuals, and calculator. Submits copy of engineering design specifications to land users for implementation by land user or contractor. Surveys property to mark locations and measurements, using surveying instruments. Monitors projects during and after construction to ensure projects conform to design specifications. Periodically revisits land users to view implemented land use practices and plans.
GOE: 02.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 86


    Measures purity and potency of animal semen to develop improved methods of processing and preserving for artificial insemination: Observes sample of freshly collected semen under microscope to determine mobility of sperm cells. Measures density, using densiometer. Adds measured amounts of extender, sodium citrate, and antibiotics to dilute and preserve sample. Transfers to refrigeration unit. Records data for use in compiling history of sire. Cleans and sterilizes laboratory equipment. Performs experimental tests, as directed, for purposes such as extension of cell survival rate and development of improved preservation processes. Cultivates, isolates, and identifies pathogenic bacteria and other micro-organisms in semen.
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 5 DLU: 77

040.361-014 SEED ANALYST (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: farm-seed specialist

    Tests seed for germination, purity, and weed content: Plants definite number of seeds in box of pure soil and counts number of plants that grow to calculate percentage of germination. Inspects seed with magnifying glass or microscope for chaff, bits of wood, and weed content (any seed other than the one under consideration).
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77


    This group includes occupations concerned with research in the reproduction, growth and development, structure, life processes, behavior, and classification of living organisms and the application of findings to the prevention of disease in the maintenance and promotion of health in plant and animal life. Also includes investigations into economic utilization, environmental impact, or harmful aspects of specific animals and plants.

041.061-010 ANATOMIST (profess. & kin.)

    Studies form and structure of animal bodies: Examines large organs and organ systems of body by systematic observation and dissection, and examines minute structure of organs, tissues, and cells, using microscope. Compares structure of one species with that of another. Determines ability of animal bodies to regenerate destroyed or damaged parts, and investigates possibility of transplanting organs and skin segments from one living body to another. Conducts research into basic laws of biological science to determine application to human medicine.
GOE: 02.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

041.061-014 ANIMAL BREEDER (profess. & kin.)

    Develops systems of breeding desirable characteristics, such as improvement in strength, maturity rate, disease resistance, and meat quality, into economically important animals: Determines generic composition of animal populations, and heritability of traits, utilizing principles of genetics. Crossbreeds animals within existing strains, or crosses strains to obtain new combinations of desirable characteristics. Selects progeny having desired strains of both parents, and continues process until acceptable result is obtained.
GOE: 02.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

041.061-018 APICULTURIST (profess. & kin.)

    Studies bee culture and breeding: Conducts experiments regarding causes and controls of bee diseases and factors affecting yields of nectar and pollen on various plants visited by bees. Conducts research into various phases of pollination. Improves bee strains, utilizing selective breeding by artificial insemination.
GOE: 02.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

041.061-022 AQUATIC BIOLOGIST (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: aquatic ecologist

    Studies plants and animals living in water, and environmental conditions affecting them: Investigates salinity, temperature, acidity, light, oxygen content, and other physical conditions of water to determine their relationship to aquatic life. Examines various types of water life, such as plankton, worms, clams, mussels, and snails. May specialize in study of salt water aquatic life and be designated Marine Biologist (profess. & kin.); or fresh water aquatic life and be designated Limnologist (profess. & kin.). May specialize in culture, breeding, and raising of aquatic life, such as shrimp, lobsters, clams, oysters, or fish, and commercial fish farm operations and be designated Aquaculturist (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 02.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

041.061-026 BIOCHEMIST (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: chemist, biological

    Studies chemical processes of living organisms: Conducts research to determine action of foods, drugs, serums, hormones, and other substances on tissues and vital processes of living organisms. Isolates, analyzes, and identifies hormones, vitamins, allergens, minerals, and enzymes and determines effects on body functions. Examines chemical aspects of formation of antibodies, and conducts research into chemistry of cells and blood corpuscles. Studies chemistry of living processes, such as mechanisms of development of normal and abnormal cells, breathing and digestion, and of living energy changes, such as growth, aging, and death. May specialize in particular area or field of work and be designated Chemist, Clinical (profess. & kin.); Chemist, Enzymes (profess. & kin.); Chemist, Proteins (profess. & kin.); Chemist, Steroids (profess. & kin.). May clean, purify, refine, and otherwise prepare pharmaceutical compounds for commercial distribution and develop new drugs and medications and be designated Chemist, Pharmaceutical (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 02.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

041.061-030 BIOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

    Studies basic principles of plant and animal life, such as origin, relationship, development, anatomy, and functions: May collect and analyze biological data to determine environmental effects of present and potential use of land and water areas, record data, and inform public, state, and federal representatives regarding test results. May prepare environmental impact reports. May specialize in research centering around particular plant, animal, or aspect of biology. May teach. May specialize in wildlife research and management and be designated Wildlife Biologist (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 02.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 81

041.061-034 BIOPHYSICIST (profess. & kin.)

    Studies physical principles of living cells and organisms, their electrical and mechanical energy, and related phenomena: Conducts research to investigate dynamics in such areas as seeing and hearing; the transmission of electrical impulses along nerves and muscles, and damage to cells and tissues caused by x rays and nuclear particles; manner in which characteristics of plants and animals are carried forward through successive generations; and absorption of light by chlorophyll in photosynthesis or by pigments of eye involved in vision. Analyzes functions of electronic and human brains, such as transfer of information into brain from outside (learning), transfer and manipulation of information within brain (thinking), and storage of information (memory). Studies spatial configuration of submicroscopic molecules, such as proteins, using x ray and electron microscope. May specialize in one activity, such as use of radiation and nuclear particles for treating cancer or use of atomic isotopes to discover transformation of substances in cells.
GOE: 02.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

041.061-038 BOTANIST (profess. & kin.)

    Studies development and life processes, physiology, heredity, environment, distribution, anatomy, morphology, and economic value of plants for application in such fields as agronomy, forestry, horticulture, and pharmacology: Studies behavior of chromosomes and reproduction, internal and external structures, and examines mechanics and biochemistry of plants and plant cells, using microscopes, staining techniques, and scientific equipment. Investigates environment and plant communities and effect of rainfall, temperature, climate, soil, and elevation on plant growth from seed to mature plants. Identifies and classifies plants. May conduct environmental studies and prepare reports. May be designated according to field of specialization as Plant Ecologist (profess. & kin.); Plant Taxonomist (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 02.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

041.061-042 CYTOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

    Studies plant and animal cells: Selects and sections minute particles of animal or plant tissue for microscopic study, using microtome and other equipment and employs stain techniques to make cell structures visible or to differentiate parts: Studies parts of cells and details of cell division into new cells, using microscope. Analyzes cells concerned with reproduction, and means by which chromosomes divide or unite. Studies formation of sperm and eggs in animal sex glands and origin of blood and tissue cells. Conducts research in physiology of unicellular organisms, such as protozoa, to ascertain physical and chemical factors involved in growth. Studies influence of physical and chemical factors upon malignant and normal cells. Evaluates exfoliated, asperated, or abraded cells to assess hormonal status and presence of atypical or malignant changes. May be designated according to specialty as Animal Cytologist (profess. & kin.); Plant Cytologist (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 02.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

041.061-046 ENTOMOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

    Studies insects and their relation to plant and animal life: Identifies and classifies species of insects and allied forms, such as mites and spiders. Aids in control and elimination of agricultural, structural, and forest pests by developing new and improved pesticides and cultural and biological methods, including use of natural enemies of pests. Studies insect distribution and habitat and recommends methods to prevent importation and spread of injurious species.
GOE: 02.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

041.061-050 GENETICIST (profess. & kin.)

    Studies inheritance and variation of characteristics in forms of life: Performs experiments to determine laws, mechanisms, and environmental factors in origin, transmission, and development of inherited traits. Analyzes determinants responsible for specific inherited traits, such as color differences, size, and disease resistance to improve or to understand relationship of heredity to maturity, fertility, or other factors. Devises methods for altering or producing new traits, making use of chemicals, heat, light, or other means. May specialize in particular branch of genetics, such as molecular genetics or population genetics. May perform human genetic counseling or medical genetics.
GOE: 02.02.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

041.061-054 HISTOPATHOLOGIST (medical ser.) alternate titles: histologist

    Studies human or animal tissue to provide data to delineate cause and progress of disease that impairs body function: Trains and oversees laboratory personnel in preparing tissue sections or prepares tissue sections from surgical and diagnostic cases and autopsies. Examines tissue under microscope to detect characteristics of cell structure indicative of disease and writes diagnostic reports. Devises and directs use of special stains and methods for isolating, identifying, and studying function, morphology, and pathology of obscure or difficult-to-identify cells, tissues, and connecting fibers. May conduct autopsies to select tissue specimens for study. May engage in research to develop techniques for diagnosing and identifying pathological conditions. May study anatomy of body tissues, formation of organs, and related problems to obtain data on body functions.
GOE: 02.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 89

041.061-058 MICROBIOLOGIST (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: bacteriologist

    Studies growth, structure, development, and general characteristics of bacteria and other micro-organisms: Isolates and makes cultures of significant bacteria or other micro-organisms in prescribed or standard inhibitory media, controlling factors, such as moisture, aeration, temperature, and nutrition. Identifies micro-organisms by microscopic examination of physiological, morphological, and cultural characteristics. Observes action of micro-organisms upon living tissues of plants, higher animals, and other micro-organisms and on dead organic matter. Makes chemical analyses of substances, such as acids, alcohols, and enzymes, produced by bacteria and other micro-organisms on organic matter. May specialize in study of viruses and rickettsiae and be designated Virologist (profess. & kin.). May specialize in particular material or product field and be designated Bacteriologist, Dairy (profess. & kin.); Bacteriologist, Fishery (profess. & kin.); Bacteriologist, Food (profess. & kin.); Bacteriologist, Industrial (profess. & kin.); Bacteriologist, Medical (profess. & kin.); Bacteriologist, Pharmaceutical (profess. & kin.); or Bacteriologist, Soil (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 02.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

041.061-062 MYCOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

    Studies mechanism of life processes of edible, poisonous, and parasitic fungi to discover those that are useful to medicine, agriculture, and industry: Studies structure, affinities, classification, genetics, physiology, and growth of fungi. Applies findings to agriculture, medicine, and industry for development of drugs, medicines, molds, and yeasts. May specialize in research and development in such fields as antibiotics or fabric deterioration. May develop improved methods of propagating and growing edible fungi, as mushrooms and be designated Mushroom-Spawn Maker (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 02.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

041.061-066 NEMATOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

    Studies nematodes (roundworms) that are plant parasitic, transmit diseases, attack insects, or attack soil, fresh water, or marine nematodes: Identifies and classifies nematodes and studies structure, behavior, biology, ecology, physiology, nutrition, culture, and distribution. Studies reactions of plants to parasitic nematodes and associations with other plant disease agents. Develops methods and apparatus for securing representative soil samples containing nematodes, and for isolating, mounting, counting, and identifying specimens. Investigates and develops pest management and control measures, such as chemical, hot water and steam treatments, soil fumigation, biological crop rotations, and cultural practices. See PARASITOLOGIST (profess. & kin.) for scientists who specialize in study of nematodes that are parasitic in man or animals.
GOE: 02.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

041.061-070 PARASITOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

    Studies characteristics, habits, and life cycles of animal parasites, such as protozoans, tapeworms, roundworms, flukes, and other parasitic organisms, to determine manner in which they attack human beings and animals and effects produced: Investigates modes of transmission from host to host. Develops methods and agents to combat parasites. May specialize in study of one variety of parasite, such as animal parasites that attack man, and be designated Medical Parasitologist (profess. & kin.); of parasitic worms and be designated Helminthologist (profess. & kin.); of one celled free living and parasitic organisms and be designated Protozoologist (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 02.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

041.061-074 PHARMACOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

    Studies effects of drugs, gases, dusts, and other materials on tissue and physiological processes of animals and human beings: Experiments with animals, such as rats, guinea pigs, and mice, to determine reactions of drugs and other substances on functioning of organs and tissues, noting effects on circulation, respiration, digestion, or other vital processes. Standardizes drug dosages or methods of immunizing against industrial diseases by correlating results of animal experiments with results obtained from clinical experimentation on human beings. Investigates preventative methods and remedies for diseases, such as silicosis and lead, mercury, and ammonia poisoning. Analyzes food preservatives and colorings, vermin poisons, and other materials to determine toxic or nontoxic properties. Standardizes procedures for manufacture of drugs and medicinal compounds.
GOE: 02.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

041.061-078 PHYSIOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

    Conducts research on cellular structure and organ-system functions of plants and animals: Studies growth, respiration, circulation, excretion, movement, reproduction, and other functions of plants and animals under normal and abnormal conditions. Performs experiments to determine effects of internal and external environmental factors on life processes and functions, using microscope, x-ray equipment, spectroscope, and other equipment. Studies glands and their relationship to bodily functions. May specialize in physiology of particular body area, function, or system. May specialize in physiology of animals and be designated Animal Physiologist (profess. & kin.); of plants and be designated Plant Physiologist (profess. & kin.); of human organisms and be designated Medical Physiologist (medical ser.).
GOE: 02.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

041.061-082 PLANT BREEDER (profess. & kin.)

    Plans and carries out breeding studies to develop and improve varieties of crops: Improves specific characteristics, such as yield, size, quality, maturity, and resistance to frost, drought, disease and insect pests in plants, utilizing principles of genetics and knowledge of plant growth. Develops variety and selects most desirable plants for crossing. Breeds plants, using methods such as inbreeding, crossbreeding, backcrossing, outcrossing, mutating, or interspecific hybridization and selection. Selects progeny having desired characteristics and continues breeding and selection process to reach desired objectives.
GOE: 02.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

041.061-086 PLANT PATHOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

    Conducts research in nature, cause, and control of plant diseases and decay of plant products: Studies and compares healthy and diseased plants to determine symptoms of diseased condition. Inoculates healthy plants with culture of suspected agents taken from diseased plants and studies effects to determine agents responsible for disease. Isolates disease-causing agent, studies habits and life cycle, and devises methods of destroying or controlling agent [MICROBIOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)]. Tests possible control measures under laboratory and field conditions for comparative effectiveness, practicality, and economy. Investigates comparative susceptibility of different varieties of plants and develops varieties immune to disease [PLANT BREEDER (profess. & kin.)]. Studies rates of spread and intensity of disease under different conditions of soil, climate, and geography, and predicts outbreaks of plant diseases. Determines kinds of plants and insects that harbor or transmit disease. Studies losses from deterioration of perishable plant products in transit or storage and develops practices to prevent or reduce losses. Determines presence of disease producing agents in seed stocks to reduce losses from seed borne diseases. May specialize in type of plant affected, such as cereal crops, fruit, or forest trees, or by type of disease, such as bacterial, virus, fungus, mycoplasma, or nematode. May inspect flower and vegetable seeds and flowering bulbs for diseases, infections, and insect injuries.
GOE: 02.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

041.061-090 ZOOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

    Studies origin, interrelationships, classification, life histories, habits, life processes, diseases, relation to environment, growth and development, genetics, and distribution of animals: Studies animals in natural habitat and collects specimens for laboratory study. Dissects and examines specimens under microscope and uses chemicals and various types of scientific equipment to carry out experimental studies. Prepares collections of preserved specimens or microscopic slides for such purposes as identification of species, study of species development, and study of animal diseases. May raise specimens for experimental purposes. May specialize in one aspect of animal study, such as functioning of animal as an organism, or development of organism from egg to embryo stage. May specialize in study of reptiles, frogs, and salamanders and be designated Herpetologist (profess. & kin.); of fish and fishlike forms and be designated Ichthyologist (profess. & kin.); of sponges, jellyfish, and protozoa and be designated Invertebrate Zoologist (profess. & kin.); of birds and be designated Ornithologist (profess. & kin.); of mammals and be designated Mammalogist (profess. & kin.). May study animals for purposes of identification and classification and be designated Animal Taxonomist (profess. & kin.); or study effects of environment on animals and be designated Animal Ecologist (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 02.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

041.061-094 STAFF TOXICOLOGIST (government ser.)

    Studies effects of toxic substances on physiological functions of human beings, animals, and plants to develop data for use in consumer protection and industrial safety programs: Designs and conducts studies to determine physiological effects of various substances on laboratory animals, plants, and human tissue, using biological and biochemical techniques. Interprets results of studies in terms of toxicological properties of substances and hazards associated with misuse of products containing substances. Provides information concerning toxicological properties of products and materials to regulatory agency personnel and industrial firms. Reviews toxicological data submitted by others for adequacy, and suggests amendment or expansion of data to clarify or correct information. Confers with governmental and industrial personnel to provide advice on precautionary labeling for hazardous materials and products and on nature and degree of hazard in cases of accidental exposure or ingestion. Prepares and maintains records of studies for use as toxicological resource material. Testifies as expert witness on toxicology in hearings and court proceedings.
GOE: 02.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 86

041.067-010 MEDICAL COORDINATOR, PESTICIDE USE (government ser.)

    Studies human health-and-safety aspects of pesticides and other agricultural chemicals: Studies long-term health implications of low-dose pesticide exposure and determines safe worker reentry intervals. Reviews and provides recommendations on medical regulations governing use of pesticides. Reviews information and recommendations pertaining to safe levels of pesticide residues on agricultural products. Recommends specifications for safe working conditions for workers exposed to pesticides or their residues, and makes recommendations on public safety aspects of pesticide exposure. Confers with health department personnel to develop programs to improve ability of physicians and other medical personnel to diagnose, treat, and report pesticide-related illnesses. Confers with government agency representatives, physicians, university staff members, and other research workers to develop health and safety standards related to pesticide exposure. Advises industry representatives on organization of adequate medical supervision programs for employers. Prepares reports on research studies. Addresses interested groups as requested.
GOE: 02.02.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 9 DLU: 86

041.081-010 FOOD TECHNOLOGIST (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: food scientist

    Applies scientific and engineering principles in research, development, production technology, quality control, packaging, processing, and utilization of foods: Conducts basic research, and new product research and development of foods. Develops new and improved methods and systems for food processing, production, quality control, packaging, and distribution. Studies methods to improve quality of foods, such as flavor, color, texture, nutritional value, convenience, or physical, chemical, and microbiological composition of foods. Develops food standards, safety and sanitary regulations, and waste management and water supply specifications. Tests new products in test kitchen and develops specific processing methods in laboratory pilot plant, and confers with process engineers, flavor experts, and packaging and marketing specialists to resolve problems. May specialize in one phase of food technology, such as product development, quality control, or production inspection, technical writing, teaching, or consulting. May specialize in particular branch of food technology, such as cereal grains, meat and poultry, fats and oils, seafood, animal foods, beverages, dairy products, flavors, sugars and starches, stabilizers, preservatives, colors, and nutritional additives, and be identified according to branch of food technology.
GOE: 02.02.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

041.167-010 ENVIRONMENTAL EPIDEMIOLOGIST (government ser.)

    Plans, directs, and conducts studies concerned with incidence of disease in industrial settings and effects of industrial chemicals on health: Confers with industry representatives to select occupational groups for study and to arrange for collection of data concerning work history of individuals and disease concentration and mortality rates among groups. Plans methods of conducting epidemiological studies and provides detailed specifications for collecting data to personnel participating in studies. Develops codes to facilitate computer input of demographic and epidemiological data for use by data processing personnel engaged in programming epidemiological statistics. Compares statistics on causes of death among members of selected working populations with those among general population, using life-table analyses. Analyzes data collected to determine probable effects of work settings and activities on disease and mortality rates, using valid statistical techniques and knowledge of epidemiology. Presents data in designated statistical format to illustrate common patterns among workers in selected occupations. Initiates and maintains contacts with statistical and data processing managers in other agencies to maintain access to epidemiological source materials. Evaluates materials from all sources for addition to or amendment of epidemiological data bank. Plans and directs activities of clerical and statistical personnel engaged in tabulation and analysis of epidemiological information to ensure accomplishment of objectives.
GOE: 02.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 86

041.261-010 PUBLIC-HEALTH MICROBIOLOGIST (government ser.)

    Conducts experiments to detect presence of harmful or pathogenic bacteria in water, food supply, or general environment of community and to control or eliminate sources of possible pollution or contagion: Makes periodic laboratory counts of bacteria in water supply. Analyzes samples of sewage for harmful micro-organisms and for rate of sludge purification by aerobic bacteria. Examines milk, shellfish, and other food items for micro-organisms constituting menace to public health. Cooperates with hospitals and clinical laboratories in identifying micro-organisms taken from diseased persons to determine presence of bacteria causing contagious or epidemic diseases. May inoculate members of community against contagious diseases.
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

041.381-010 BIOLOGY SPECIMEN TECHNICIAN (profess. & kin.)

    Prepares and embeds in plastic, biological specimens of plant and animal life for use as instructional aids: Selects plant or animal specimen in preserved or dried state. Dissects animal and cleans all matter from skeletal structures. Prepares slices or cross sections of small animals, embryos, or cross sections of animal organs, such as glands, kidneys, hearts, or eyes. Selects, trims, and stains a variety of stalks, flowers, and leaves to show plant structure and systems. Selects different stains to clearly indicate support structure, circulatory system, or other feature of plant or animal. Assembles and positions components of specimen in mold, using pins and holding devices. Mixes polylite plastic or other material and completes embedding by varied molding techniques. Works with plants, animals, mollusks, insects, and other classes of plants and animals. Identifies type and age of specimen, date of preparation, and type of embedding material used. May operate incubator to grow chicken eggs for embryo specimens. May prepare ecological kits which demonstrate polluting conditions in water, soil, or air.
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M3 L3 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

041.384-010 HERBARIUM WORKER (profess. & kin.)

    Fumigates, presses, and mounts plant specimens, and maintains collection records of herbarium maintained by botanical garden, museum, or other institution: Records identification information concerning incoming plants. Places specimens in fumigation cabinet and turns valves to release toxic fumes that destroy insects, fungus, or parasites adhering to specimens. Arranges specimens between sheets of unsized paper so that upper and under portions of leaves, blossoms, and other components are visible, and pads paper with layers of felt and newsprint to protect specimens and form stacks. Places specified number of stacks in pressing frame and writes identification information on top layer of paper on each stack. Secures frame around stacks by tightening frame section with screws, fastening with leather straps, or tying with twine, to compress stacks and press and dry specimens in desired configuration. Mounts dried specimens on heavy paper, using glue, adhesive strips, or needle and thread, taking care to prevent distortion or breakage of specimens. Writes identification information on papers and inserts mounted specimens in labeled envelopes or folders. Files folders in drawers or cabinets according to standard botanical classification system. Maintains card files of specimens in herbarium collection and records of acquisitions, loans, exchanges, or sales of specimens.
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 5 DLU: 86


    This group includes occupations concerned with the collection, interpretation, and application of scientific data relating to human behavior and mental processes. Activities are in either applied fields of psychology or in basic science fields and research.

045.061-010 PSYCHOLOGIST, DEVELOPMENTAL (profess. & kin.)

    Investigates problems concerning growth and development of emotional, mental, physical, and social aspects of individuals, to increase understanding of origins of behavior and processes of human growth and decline: Formulates hypothesis or research problem and selects or develops method of investigation to test hypothesis. Studies behavior of children to analyze processes of learning, development of language in children, and parents' influence on children's behavior. Administers intelligence and performance tests to establish and measure patterns of intellectual and psychological growth, development, and decline in children and adults. Observes and records behavior of infants to establish patterns of social, motor, and sensory development. Analyzes growth of social values and attitudes, using information obtained from observation, questionnaires, and interviews. Formulates theories based on research findings for application in such fields as juvenile delinquency, education and guidance of children, parent education, and welfare of aged. Experiments with animals [PSYCHOLOGIST, EXPERIMENTAL (profess. & kin.)], to make comparative studies across species lines to contribute to understanding of human behavior. May specialize in study and treatment of children and be designated Child Psychologist (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 11.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

045.061-014 PSYCHOLOGIST, ENGINEERING (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: human factors specialist

    Conducts research, development, application, and evaluation of psychological principles relating human behavior to characteristics, design, and use of environments and systems within which human beings work and live: Collaborates with equipment designers in design, development, and utilization of man-machine systems to obtain optimum efficiency in terms of human capabilities. Advises on human factors to be considered in design of man-machine systems, military equipment, and industrial products. Participates in solving such problems as determining numbers and kinds of workers required to operate machines, allocation of functions to machines and operators, and layout and arrangement of work sites. Analyzes jobs to establish requirements for use in classification, selection, placement, and training of personnel [JOB ANALYST (profess. & kin.)]. Develops training methods and materials, such as curriculums, lectures, and films, and prepares handbooks of human engineering data for use by equipment and system designers. May conduct research to develop psychological theories concerning such subjects as effects of physical factors (temperature, humidity, vibration, noise, and illumination) on worker's behavior; functional design of dials, scales, meters, and other instruments to minimize sensory requirements; specifications for optimal size, shape, direction and speed of motion, and location of equipment controls; and effects of environmental, organismic, and task or job variables on work behavior and life quality.
GOE: 11.03.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

045.061-018 PSYCHOLOGIST, EXPERIMENTAL (profess. & kin.)

    Plans, designs, conducts, and analyzes results of experiments to study problems in psychology: Formulates hypotheses and experimental designs to investigate problems of perception, memory, learning, personality, and cognitive processes. Designs and constructs equipment and apparatus for laboratory study. Selects, controls, and modifies variables in laboratory experiments with humans or animals, and observes and records behavior in relation to variables. Analyzes test results, using statistical techniques, and evaluates significance of data in relation to original hypothesis. Collaborates with other scientists in such fields as physiology, biology, and sociology in conducting interdisciplinary studies of behavior and formulating theories of behavior. Writes papers describing experiments and interpreting test results for publication or for presentation at scientific meetings. May specialize in aesthetics, memory, learning, autonomic functions, electroencephalography, feeling and emotion, motivation, motor skills, perception, or higher order cognitive processes. May conduct experiments to study relationship of behavior to various bodily mechanisms and be designated Psychologist, Physiological (profess. & kin.). May specialize in study of animal behavior to develop theories of animal and human behavior and be designated Psychologist, Comparative (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 11.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

045.067-010 PSYCHOLOGIST, EDUCATIONAL (profess. & kin.)

    Investigates processes of learning and teaching and develops psychological principles and techniques applicable to educational problems to foster intellectual, social, and emotional development of individuals: Conducts experiments to study importance of motivation in learning, implications of transfer of training in teaching, and nature and causes of individual differences in mental abilities to promote differentiated educational procedures to meet individual needs of students. Analyzes characteristics and adjustment needs of superior and inferior students and recommends educational program to promote maximum adjustment. Formulates achievement, diagnostic, and predictive tests to aid teachers in planning methods and content of instruction. Administers standardized tests to diagnose disabilities and difficulties among students and to develop special methods of remedial instruction. Investigates traits and attitudes of teachers to study conditions that contribute to or detract from optimal mental health of teachers. Studies effects of teachers' feelings and attitudes upon pupils, and characteristics of successful teachers to aid school administrators in selection and adjustment of teachers. Collaborates with education specialists in developing curriculum content and methods of organizing and conducting classroom work. May specialize in educational measurement, school adjustment, school learning, or special education.
GOE: 11.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

045.067-014 PSYCHOLOGIST, SOCIAL (profess. & kin.)

    Investigates psychological aspects of human interrelationships to gain understanding of individual and group thought, feeling, and behavior, utilizing behavioral observation, experimentation, or survey techniques: Evaluates individual and group behavior, developing such techniques as rating scales and sampling methods to collect and measure data. Conducts surveys and polls to measure and analyze attitudes and opinions as basis for predicting economic, political, and other behavior, using interviews, questionnaires, and other techniques, and adhering to principles of statistical sampling in selecting people. Observes and analyzes relations of individuals to religious, racial, political, occupational, and other groups to evaluate behavior of individuals toward one another in groups, attitudes that exist in groups, and influence of group on individual. Investigates social behavior of individuals to study such problems as origin and nature of prejudice and stereotyping, transmission of values and attitudes in child rearing, and contribution of factors in social environment to individual mental health and illness. Conducts experimental studies on motivation, morale, and leadership, and prepares reports on findings.
GOE: 11.03.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M6 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

045.067-018 PSYCHOMETRIST (profess. & kin.)

    Administers, scores, and interprets intelligence, aptitude, achievement, and other psychological tests to provide test information to teachers, counselors, students, or other specified entitled party: Gives paper and pencil tests or utilizes testing equipment, such as picture tests and dexterity boards, under standard conditions. Times tests and records results. Interprets test results in light of standard norms, and limitations of test in terms of validity and reliability.
GOE: 11.03.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 87

045.107-010 COUNSELOR (profess. & kin.)

    Counsels individuals and provides group educational and vocational guidance services: Collects, organizes, and analyzes information about individuals through records, tests, interviews, and professional sources, to appraise their interests, aptitudes, abilities, and personality characteristics, for vocational and educational planning. Compiles and studies occupational, educational, and economic information to aid counselees in making and carrying out vocational and educational objectives. Refers students to placement service. Assists individuals to understand and overcome social and emotional problems. May engage in research and follow-up activities to evaluate counseling techniques. May teach classes. May be designated according to area of activity as Academic Counselor (education); Career Placement Services Counselor (education); Employment Counselor (government ser.); Guidance Counselor (education); Vocational Adviser (education).
GOE: 10.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 81

045.107-014 COUNSELOR, NURSES' ASSOCIATION (medical ser.)

    Offers vocational, educational, and professional counseling to registered professional nurses, licensed practical nurses, and prospective professional and practical nurse students: Compiles credentials and prepares biographies of counselees. Provides information relative to qualifications required, opportunities for placement and advancement, wages, hours, and other data pertaining to selected field of work to assist nurses in determining educational and vocational objectives. Refers qualified nurses to employers for placement. Assists in establishing personnel policies relative to placement. Aids applicants in obtaining vocational, health, or other assistance from community agencies. May assist in recruitment.
GOE: 10.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

045.107-018 DIRECTOR OF COUNSELING (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: counseling-center manager; director, counseling bureau; director, vocational counseling; head counselor

    Directs personnel engaged in providing educational and vocational guidance for students and graduates: Assigns and evaluates work of personnel. Conducts in-service training program for professional staff. Coordinates counseling bureau with school and community services. Analyzes counseling and guidance procedures and techniques to improve quality of service. Counsels individuals and groups relative to personal and social problems, and educational and vocational objectives. Addresses community groups and faculty members to interpret counseling service. Supervises maintenance of occupational library for use by counseling personnel. Directs activities of testing and occupational service center. May supervise auxiliary services, such as student learning center. May supervise in-service training programs in counseling, testing, or occupational information for graduate students. May teach graduate courses in psychology, guidance, and related subjects. May participate in appraising qualifications of candidates for faculty positions and eligibility of students for admission to medical, nursing, and engineering schools.
GOE: 10.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

045.107-022 CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGIST (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: psychologist, clinical

    Diagnoses or evaluates mental and emotional disorders of individuals, and administers programs of treatment: Interviews patients in clinics, hospitals, prisons, and other institutions, and studies medical and social case histories. Observes patients in play or other situations, and selects, administers, and interprets intelligence, achievement, interest, personality, and other psychological tests to diagnose disorders and formulate plans of treatment. Treats psychological disorders to effect improved adjustments utilizing various psychological techniques, such as milieu therapy, psychodrama, play therapy and hypnosis. Selects approach to use in individual therapy, such as directive, nondirective, and supportive therapy, and plans frequency, intensity, and duration of therapy. May collaborate with PSYCHIATRIST (medical ser.) 070.107-014, and other specialists in developing treatment programs for patients. May instruct and direct students serving psychological internships in hospitals and clinics. May develop experimental designs and conduct research in fields of personality development and adjustment, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders. May serve as consultant to industrial, social, educational, welfare, and other agencies on individual cases or in evaluation, planning, and development of mental health programs. May specialize in behavior problems and therapy, crime and delinquency, group therapy, individual diagnosis and therapy, mental deficiency, objective tests, projective techniques, or speech pathology.
GOE: 10.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 81

045.107-026 PSYCHOLOGIST, COUNSELING (profess. & kin.)

    Provides individual and group counseling services in universities and colleges, schools, clinics, rehabilitation centers, Veterans Administration hospitals, and industry, to assist individuals in achieving more effective personal, social, educational, and vocational development and adjustment: Collects data about individual through use of interview, case history, and observational techniques. Selects and interprets psychological tests designed to assess individual's intelligence, aptitudes, abilities, and interests, applying knowledge of statistical analysis. Evaluates data to identify causes of problem of individuals and to determine advisability of counseling or referral to other specialists or institutions. Conducts counseling or therapeutic interviews to assist individual to gain insight into personal problems, define goals, and plan action reflecting interests, abilities, and needs. Provides occupational, educational, and other information to enable individual to formulate realistic educational and vocational plans. Follows up results of counseling to determine reliability and validity of treatment used. May engage in research to develop and improve diagnostic and counseling techniques. May administer and score psychological tests.
GOE: 10.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77


    Develops and applies psychological techniques to personnel administration, management, and marketing problems: Observes details of work and interviews workers and supervisors to establish physical, mental, educational, and other job requirements. Develops interview techniques, rating scales, and psychological tests to assess skills, abilities, aptitudes, and interests as aids in selection, placement, and promotion. Organizes training programs, applying principles of learning and individual differences, and evaluates and measures effectiveness of training methods by statistical analysis of production rate, reduction of accidents, absenteeism, and turnover. Counsels workers to improve job and personal adjustments. Conducts research studies of organizational structure, communication systems, group interactions, and motivational systems, and recommends changes to improve efficiency and effectiveness of individuals, organizational units, and organization. Investigates problems related to physical environment of work, such as illumination, noise, temperature, and ventilation, and recommends changes to increase efficiency and decrease accident rate. Conducts surveys and research studies to ascertain nature of effective supervision and leadership and to analyze factors affecting morale and motivation. Studies consumer reaction to new products and package designs, using surveys and tests, and measures effectiveness of advertising media to aid in sale of goods and services. ay advise management on personnel policies and labor-management relations. May adapt machinery, equipment, workspace, and environment to human use. May specialize in development and application of such techniques as job analysis and classification, personnel interviewing, ratings, and vocational tests for use in selection, placement, promotion, and training of workers and be designated Psychologist, Personnel (profess. & kin.). May apply psychological principles and techniques to selection, training, classification, and assignment of military personnel and be designated Psychologist, Military Personnel (profess. & kin.). May conduct surveys and tests to study consumer reaction to new products and package design and to measure effectiveness of advertising media to aid manufacturers in sale of goods and services and be designated Market-Research Analyst (profess. & kin.) II.
GOE: 11.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

045.107-034 PSYCHOLOGIST, SCHOOL (profess. & kin.)

    Evaluates needs of average, gifted, handicapped, and disturbed children within educational system or school, and plans and carries out programs to enable children to attain maximum achievement and adjustment: Conducts diagnostic studies to identify child's needs, limitations, and potentials, observing child in classroom and at play, studying school records, consulting with parents and school personnel, and administering and interpreting diagnostic findings. Plans special placement or other treatment programs. Counsels pupils individually and in groups, using psychodrama, play therapy, personal interviews, and other psychological methods to assist pupils to achieve personal, social, and emotional adjustment. Carries out research to aid in introduction of programs in schools to meet current psychological, educational, and sociological needs of children. Advises teachers and other school personnel on methods to enhance school and classroom atmosphere to provide motivating educational environment. Refers individuals to community agencies to secure medical, vocational, or social services for child or family. Participates in planning of remedial classes and testing programs designed to meet needs of students. Serves as consultant to school board, superintendent, administrative committees, and parent-teacher groups in matters involving psychological services within educational system or school.
GOE: 10.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

045.107-038 RESIDENCE COUNSELOR (education) alternate titles: counselor, dormitory; dormitory supervisor; head resident, dormitory

    Provides individual and group guidance services relative to problems of scholastic, educational, and personal-social nature to dormitory students: Suggests remedial or corrective actions and assists students in making better adjustments and in planning intelligent life goals. Plans and directs program to orient new students and assists in their integration into campus life. Initiates and conducts group conferences to plan and discuss programs and policies related to assignment of quarters, social and recreational activities, and dormitory living. Supervises dormitory activities. Investigates reports of misconduct and attempts to resolve or eliminate causes of conflict. May interview all dormitory students to determine need for counseling.
GOE: 10.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

045.107-042 VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION COUNSELOR (government ser.) alternate titles: counselor, vocational rehabilitation

    Counsels handicapped individuals to provide vocational rehabilitation services: Interviews and evaluates handicapped applicants, and confers with medical and professional personnel to determine type and degree of handicap, eligibility for service, and feasibility of vocational rehabilitation. Accepts or recommends acceptance of suitable candidates. Determines suitable job or business consistent with applicant's desires, aptitudes, and physical, mental, and emotional limitations. Plans and arranges for applicant to study or train for job. Assists applicant with personal adjustment throughout rehabilitation program. Aids applicant in obtaining medical and social services during training. Promotes and develops job openings and places qualified applicant in employment. May specialize in type of disability, such as mental illness, alcohol abuse, hearing and visual impairment, or readjustment after prison release.
GOE: 10.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 81

045.107-046 PSYCHOLOGIST, CHIEF (profess. & kin.)

    Plans psychological service programs and directs, coordinates, and participates in activities of personnel engaged in providing psychological services to clients in psychiatric center or hospital: Reviews reports, case management reviews, and psychiatric center's or hospital's procedural manual to assess need for psychological services. Plans psychological treatment programs that meet standards of accreditation. Plans utilization of available staff, assigns staff to treatment units, and recruits professional and nonprofessional psychological staff. Develops, directs, and participates in training programs. Directs testing and evaluation of new admissions and re-evaluation of present clients. Participates in staff conferences to evaluate and plan treatment programs. Interviews clients that present difficult and complex diagnostic problems and assesses their psychological status. Reviews management of cases, assignments, case problems, issues, and methods of treatment. Works with community agencies to develop effective corrective programs and to arrange to provide psychological services. Plans and supervises psychological research. Collaborates with psychiatrists and other professional staff to help develop comprehensive program of therapy, evaluation, and treatment.
GOE: 10.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 86

045.107-050 CLINICAL THERAPIST (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: clinical counselor

    Counsels individuals or groups regarding psychological or emotional problems, such as stress, substance abuse, or family situations, using evaluative techniques, and develops and implements therapeutic treatment plan in medical setting: Interviews patient to obtain information concerning medical history or other pertinent information. Observes client to detect indications of abnormal physical or mental behavior. Selects and administers various tests, such as psychological tests, personality inventories, and intelligence quotient tests, to identify behavioral or personality traits and intelligence levels, and records results. Reviews results of tests to evaluate client needs. Plans and administers therapeutic treatment, such as behavior modification and stress management therapy, using biofeedback equipment, to assist patient in controlling disorders and other problems. Changes method and degree of therapy when indicated by client reactions. Discusses progress toward goals with client, such as controlling weight, stress, or substance abuse. Consults with medical doctor or other specialists concerning treatment plan and amends plan as directed. Conducts relaxation exercises, peer counseling groups, and family counseling during clinical therapy sessions. Refers client to supportive services to supplement treatment and counseling. May conduct research in treatment and test validation. May develop evaluative studies of therapy and therapy outcome.
GOE: 10.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

045.107-054 COUNSELOR, MARRIAGE AND FAMILY (profess. & kin.)

    Provides individual, marital, and family counseling services to adults and children, to assist clients to identify personal and interactive problems, and to achieve effective personal, marital, and family development and adjustment: Collects information about clients (individuals, married couples, or families), using interview, case history, and observation techniques, $T3funnel approach$T1, and appraisal and assessment methods. Analyzes information collected to determine advisability of counseling or referral to other specialists or institutions. Reviews notes and information collected to identify problems and concerns. Consults reference material, such as textbooks, manuals, and journals, to identify symptoms, make diagnoses, and develop therapeutic or treatment plan. Counsels clients, using counseling methods and procedures, such as psychotherapy and hypnosis, to assist clients in gaining insight into personal and interactive problems, to define goals, and to plan action reflecting interests, abilities, and needs. Evaluates results of counseling methods to determine reliability and validity of treatment used. Interacts with other professionals to discuss therapy or treatment, new resources or techniques, and to share information.
GOE: 10.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 90

045.107-058 SUBSTANCE ABUSE COUNSELOR (profess. & kin.)

    Counsels and aids individuals and families requiring assistance dealing with substance abuse problems, such as alcohol or drug abuse: Interviews clients, reviews records, and confers with other professionals to evaluate condition of client. Formulates program for treatment and rehabilitation of client, using knowledge of drug and alcohol abuse problems and counseling and treatment techniques. Counsels clients individually and in group sessions to assist client in overcoming alcohol and drug dependency. Counsels family members to assist family in dealing with and providing support for client. Refers client to other support services as needed, such as medical evaluation and treatment, social services, and employment services. Monitors condition of client to evaluate success of therapy, and adapts treatment as needed. Prepares and maintains reports and case histories. May formulate and conduct programs to promote prevention of alcohol and drug abuse. May prepare documents for presentation in court and accompany client to court as needed.
GOE: 10.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 78

045.117-010 DIRECTOR OF GUIDANCE IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS (education) alternate titles: supervisor, counseling and guidance; supervisor of guidance and testing; supervisor of research

    Organizes, administers, and coordinates guidance program in public school system: Formulates guidance policies and procedures. Plans and conducts in-service training program for guidance workers and selected teachers. Plans and supervises testing program in school system and devises and directs use of records, reports, and other material essential to program. Supervises school placement service. Establishes and supervises maintenance of occupational libraries in schools. Coordinates guidance activities with community agencies and other areas of school system. Conducts or supervises research studies to evaluate effectiveness of guidance program. May counsel students on referral basis relative to educational and vocational objectives and personal and social problems.
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77


    This group includes occupations, not elsewhere classified, concerned with the application of theoretical or practical aspects of life science.

049.127-010 PARK NATURALIST (government ser.)

    Plans, develops, and conducts programs to inform public of historical, natural, and scientific features of national, state, or local park: Confers with park staff to determine subjects to be presented and program schedule. Surveys park to determine forest conditions and distribution and abundance of fauna and flora. Interviews specialists in desired fields to obtain and develop data for programs. Takes photographs and motion pictures to illustrate lectures and publications and to develop displays. Plans and develops audiovisual devices, prepares and presents illustrated lectures, constructs visitor-center displays, and conducts field trips to point out scientific, historic, and natural features of park. Performs emergency duties to protect human life, government property, and natural features of park. May plan, organize, and direct activities of seasonal staff members. May maintain official photographic and informational files for department.
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

049.364-010 FEED-RESEARCH AIDE (agriculture)

    Feeds rations of experimental feeds to animals, such as poultry, dogs, and cows, and compiles data on growth, productivity, and health of animals: Weighs feed rations and livestock and gathers eggs and milks cows. Observes livestock to note changes in health and preference for certain foods. Records data for evaluation by professional personnel. Waters stock and cleans pens.
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: M GED: R3 M2 L2 SVP: 4 DLU: 77

049.364-014 VECTOR CONTROL ASSISTANT (government ser.)

    Assists public health staff in activities concerned with identification, prevention, and control of vectors (disease-carrying insects and rodents): Carries and sets up field equipment to be used in surveys of number and type of vectors in area. Sets traps and cuts through brush and weeds to obtain specimens of vector population for use in laboratory tests, using sweep. Prepares, mounts, and stores specimens, following instructions of supervisor. Prepares reports of field surveys and laboratory tests based upon information obtained from personnel involved in specific activities, for use in planning and carrying out projects for prevention and control of vectors.
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M2 L3 SVP: 5 DLU: 86

049.364-018 BIOLOGICAL AIDE (agriculture)

    Assists research workers in experiments in biology, bacteriology, plant pathology, mycology, and related agricultural sciences: Sets up laboratory and field equipment, performs routine tests, and keeps records of plant growth, experimental plots, greenhouse activity, use of insecticides, bee hives, and other agricultural experimentation. Cleans and maintains field and laboratory equipment.
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: M GED: R3 M3 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 77


    This division includes occupations concerned with human society and its characteristic elements, such as origin, race, or state; and with economic and social relations and institutions involved in man's existence as a member of an organized community.


    This group includes occupations concerned with research and application of economic principles relating to sources of income, expenditures, development of natural resources, and production and consumption of goods. Includes developing theories based on research data and formulating plans to aid in the solution of economic problems in such fields as agriculture, credit and financing, taxation, industry, international trade, and labor supply.

050.067-010 ECONOMIST (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: economic analyst

    Plans, designs, and conducts research to aid in interpretation of economic relationships and in solution of problems arising from production and distribution of goods and services: Studies economic and statistical data in area of specialization, such as finance, labor, or agriculture. Devises methods and procedures for collecting and processing data, utilizing knowledge of available sources of data and various econometric and sampling techniques. Compiles data relating to research area, such as employment, productivity, and wages and hours. Reviews and analyzes economic data in order to prepare reports detailing results of investigation, and to stay abreast of economic changes. Organizes data into report format and arranges for preparation of graphic illustrations of research findings. Formulates recommendations, policies, or plans to aid in market interpretation or solution of economic problems, such as recommending changes in methods of agricultural financing, domestic, and international monetary policies, or policies that regulate investment and transfer of capital. May supervise and assign work to staff. May testify at regulatory or legislative hearings to present recommendations. May specialize in specific economic area or commodity and be designated Agricultural Economist (profess. & kin.); Commodity-Industry Analyst (profess. & kin.); Financial Economist (profess. & kin.); Industrial Economist (profess. & kin); International-Trade Economist (profess. & kin.); Labor Economist (profess. & kin.); Price Economist (profess. & kin.); Tax Economist (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 11.03.05 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 81

050.067-014 MARKET-RESEARCH ANALYST I (profess. & kin.)

    Researches market conditions in local, regional, or national area to determine potential sales of product or service: Establishes research methodology and designs format for data gathering, such as surveys, opinion polls, or questionnaires. Examines and analyzes statistical data to forecast future marketing trends. Gathers data on competitors and analyzes prices, sales, and methods of marketing and distribution. Collects data on customer preferences and buying habits. Prepares reports and graphic illustrations of findings.
GOE: 11.06.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77


    Directs activities of personnel engaged in compiling, analyzing, and presenting data on employment problems, unemployment compensation benefits, and labor market activities: Plans and directs research projects and surveys to develop data for administration of federal or state laws governing employment service activities. Directs analysis of statistical data for implementing employment service programs and for supplying information to legislative bodies in revising employment legislation. Confers with government officials, employers, labor leaders, and other parties to disseminate and secure information on employment problems and assist in formulating policies to meet demonstrated needs. Advises legislators on implications of employment and training planning and program activities.
GOE: 11.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77


    This group includes occupations concerned with research in the origin, development, and organization of formal and informal political entities. Includes developing theories based on research data; and making recommendations for the solution of problems in such fields as organization and administration of national and local governments, international organizations and relations, governmental policies in foreign and domestic matters, and the relations between governments and special interest groups.

051.067-010 POLITICAL SCIENTIST (profess. & kin.)

    Studies phenomena of political behavior, such as origin, development, operation, and interrelationships of political institutions, to formulate and develop political theory: Conducts research into political philosophy and theories of political systems, utilizing information available on political phenomena, such as governmental institutions, public laws and administration, political party systems, and international law. Consults with government officials, civic bodies, research agencies, and political parties. Analyzes and interprets results of studies, and prepares reports detailing findings, recommendations or conclusions. May organize and conduct public opinion surveys and interpret results. May specialize in specific geographical, political, or philosophical aspect of political behavior.
GOE: 11.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77


    This group includes occupations concerned with recording past or current events dealing with some phase of human activity, either in terms of individuals or social, ethnic, political, or geographic groups. Includes occupations in biography and genealogy.

052.067-010 BIOGRAPHER (profess. & kin.)

    Specializes in reconstruction in narrative form of career or phase in life of individual: Assembles biographical material from sources, such as news accounts, diaries, personal papers and correspondence, written accounts of events in which subject participated, and consultation with associates and relatives of subject. Portrays character and behavior of subject on basis of historical environment and application of psychological analysis, relating subject's activities to pertinent events during subject's lifetime [WRITER, PROSE, FICTION AND NONFICTION (profess. & kin.)].
GOE: 01.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

052.067-014 DIRECTOR, STATE-HISTORICAL SOCIETY (profess. & kin.)

    Directs activities of state historical society: Directs and coordinates activities of research staff. Reviews publications and exhibits prepared by staff prior to public release in order to ensure historical accuracy of presentations. Speaks before various groups, organizations, and clubs to promote society aims and activities. Consults with or advises other individuals on historical authenticity of various materials. Conducts historical research on subjects or topics of import to society. Performs administrative duties, such as budget preparation, employee evaluation, and program planning. May edit society publications. May conduct campaigns to raise funds for society programs and projects.
GOE: 11.03.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

052.067-018 GENEALOGIST (profess. & kin.)

    Conducts research into genealogical background of individual or family in order to establish descent from specific ancestor or to discover and identify forebears of individual or family: Consults American and foreign genealogical tables and publications and documents, such as church and court records, for evidence of births, baptisms, marriages, deaths, and legacies in order to trace lines of descent or succession. Constructs chart showing lines of descent and family relationships. Prepares history of family in narrative form or writes brief sketches emphasizing points of interest in family background.
GOE: 11.03.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

052.067-022 HISTORIAN (profess. & kin.)

    Prepares in narrative, brief, or outline form chronological account or record of past or current events dealing with some phase of human activity, either in terms of individuals, or social, ethnic, political, or geographic groupings: Assembles historical data by consulting sources of information, such as historical indexes and catalogs, archives, court records, diaries, news files, and miscellaneous published and unpublished materials. Organizes and evaluates data on basis of authenticity and relative significance. Acts as adviser or consultant, and performs research for individuals, institutions, and commercial organizations on subjects, such as technological evolution within industry or manners and customs peculiar to certain historical period. May trace historical development within restricted field of research, such as economics, sociology, or philosophy.
GOE: 11.03.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

052.067-026 HISTORIAN, DRAMATIC ARTS (profess. & kin.)

    Conducts research to authenticate details, such as customs, costumes, manners of speech, architectural styles, modes of transportation, and other items peculiar to given historical period or specific locality, to avoid anachronisms and inaccuracies in presentation of stage or radio dramas or motion pictures. Reads written historical texts and documents and pictorial material in libraries and museums, consults experts or witnesses of historical events, and visits and observes peculiarities of areas to be used as locale of drama to procure information.
GOE: 11.03.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

052.167-010 DIRECTOR, RESEARCH (motion picture; radio-tv broad.)

    Directs activities of motion picture or television production research department, and conducts research on various subjects to ensure historical authenticity of productions: Researches specific period, locality or historical event to obtain authentic background for production, such as customs, speech characteristics, or dress, and architectural style of era. Advises members of production staff on matters relating to historical details of subject being photographed or recorded. Reviews and collects data, such as books, pamphlets, periodicals, and rare newspapers, to provide source material for research. Approves or recommends purchase of library reference materials for department, and coordinates activities of workers engaged in cataloging and filing materials. May translate or request translation of reference materials.
GOE: 11.03.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77


    This group includes occupations concerned with research on the development, structure, and processes of society, its institutions and cultures, and the behavior of human beings as members of collectivities and of social systems; on development and consequences of expected and deviant behavior; and on economic, political, and other differences in customs and institutions among cultures. Occupations in social work are included in Group 195.

054.067-010 RESEARCH WORKER, SOCIAL WELFARE (profess. & kin.)

    Plans, organizes, and conducts research for use in understanding social problems and for planning and carrying out social welfare programs: Develops research designs on basis of existing knowledge and evolving theory. Constructs and tests methods of data collection. Collects information and makes judgments through observation, interview, and review of documents. Analyzes and evaluates data. Writes reports containing descriptive, analytical, and evaluative content. Interprets methods employed and findings to individuals within agency and community. May direct work of statistical clerks, statisticians, and others. May collaborate with research workers in other disciplines. May be employed in voluntary or governmental social welfare agencies, community welfare councils, and schools of social work.
GOE: 11.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

054.067-014 SOCIOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

    Conducts research into development, structure, and behavior of groups of human beings and patterns of culture and social organization which have arisen out of group life in society. Collects and analyzes scientific data concerning social phenomena, such as community, associations, social institutions, ethnic minorities, social classes, and social change. May teach sociology, direct research, prepare technical publications, or act as consultant to lawmakers, administrators, and other officials dealing with problems of social policy. May specialize in research on relationship between criminal law and social order in causes of crime and behavior of criminals and be designated Criminologist (profess. & kin.). May specialize in research on punishment for crime and control and prevention of crime, management of penal institutions, and rehabilitation of criminal offenders and be designated Penologist (profess. & kin.). May specialize in research on group relationships and processes in an industrial organization and be designated Industrial Sociologist (profess. & kin.). May specialize in research on rural communities in contrast with urban communities and special problems occasioned by impact of scientific and industrial revolutions on rural way of life and be designated Rural Sociologist (profess. & kin.). May specialize in research on interrelations between physical environment and technology in spatial distribution of people and their activities and be designated Social Ecologist (profess. & kin.). May specialize in research on social problems arising from individual or group deviation from commonly accepted standards of conduct, such as crime and delinquency, or social problems and racial discrimination rooted in failure of society to achieve its collective purposes and be designated Social Problems Specialist (profess. & kin.). May specialize in research on origin, growth, structure, and demographic characteristics of cities and social patterns and distinctive problems that result from urban environment and be designated Urban Sociologist (profess. & kin.). May specialize in research on social factors affecting health care, including definition of illness, patient and practitioner behavior, social epidemiology, and delivery of health care, and be designated Medical Sociologist (profess. & kin.). May plan and conduct demographic research, surveys, and experiments to study human populations and affecting trends and be designated Demographer (profess. & kin.) II.
GOE: 11.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

054.107-010 CLINICAL SOCIOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

    Develops and implements corrective procedures to alleviate group dysfunctions: Confers with individuals and groups to determine nature of group dysfunction. Observes group interaction and interviews group members to identify problems related to factors such as group organization, authority relationships, and role conflicts. Develops approaches to solution of group's problems, based on findings and incorporating sociological research and study in related disciplines. Develops intervention procedures, utilizing techniques such as interviews, consultations, role playing, and participant observation of group interaction, to facilitate resolution of group problems. Monitors group interaction and role affiliations to evaluate progress and to determine need for additional change.
GOE: 11.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 6 DLU: 86


    This group includes occupations concerned with research to determine the origin and development of the human race by comparing physical characteristics of fossilized human remains with those of existing racial groups; and research in the cultural and social development of civilization from data previously recorded or from the study of relics and ruins encountered in excavations.

055.067-010 ANTHROPOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

    Makes comparative studies in relations to distribution, origin, evolution, and races of humans, cultures they have created, and their distribution and physical characteristics: Gathers, analyzes, and reports data on human physique, social customs, and artifacts, such as weapons, tools, pottery, and clothing. May apply anthropological data and techniques to solution of problems in human relations in fields, such as industrial relations, race and ethnic relations, social work, political administration, education, public health, and programs involving transcultural or foreign relations. May specialize in application of anthropological concepts to current problems and be designated Applied Anthropologist (profess. & kin.). May specialize in study of relationships between language and culture and socialinguistic studies and be designated Anthropological Linguist (profess. & kin.); or in study of relationship between individual personality and culture and be designated Psychological Anthropologist (profess. & kin.); or in study of complex, industrialized societies and be designated Urban Anthropologist (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 11.03.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

055.067-014 ANTHROPOLOGIST, PHYSICAL (profess. & kin.)

    Studies meanings and causes of human physical differences and interrelated effects of culture, heredity, and environment on human form: Studies human fossils and their meaning in terms of long-range human evolution. Observes and measures bodily variations and physical attributes of existing human types. Studies physical and physiological adaptations to differing environments and hereditary characteristics of living populations. Studies growth patterns, sexual differences, and aging phenomena of human groups, current and past. ay study museum collections of skeletal remains. May specialize in measurement of body or skeleton and be designated Anthropometrist (profess. & kin.). May specialize in epidemiology and nutritional studies, especially in developing or preliterate societies, and be designated edical Anthropologist (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 02.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

055.067-018 ARCHEOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

    Reconstructs record of extinct cultures, especially preliterate cultures: Studies, classifies, and interprets artifacts, architectural features, and types of structures recovered by excavation in order to determine age and cultural identity. Establishes chronological sequence of development of each culture from simpler to more advanced levels. ay specialize in study of literate periods of major civilizations in Near and Middle East and be designated Archeologist, Classical (profess. & kin.). May specialize in study of past Columbian history of the Americas and be designated Historical Archeologist (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 11.03.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

055.067-022 ETHNOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

    Makes comparative studies of cultures or of selected aspects of cultures of living peoples and of peoples no longer in existence in order to determine historical relations, arrive at typological classifications, and make generalizations concerning cultural process and human behavior: Studies cultures of societies, particularly preindustrial and non-Western societies, including social and political organization, religion, economics, mythology and traditions, and intellectual and artistic life. May formulate general laws of cultural development, general rules of social and cultural behavior, or general value orientations. ay specialize in description of details of custom and belief and their interrelations in one culture at a time and be designated Ethnographer (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 11.03.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

055.381-010 CONSERVATOR, ARTIFACTS (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: preservationist

    Cleans, restores, and preserves archeological specimens and historical artifacts according to accepted chemical and physical techniques and training in archeological science: Cleans and repairs or reinforces specimens, such as weapons, mummified remains, and pottery, using handtools and prescribed chemical agents. Restores artifacts by polishing, joining together broken fragments, or other procedures, using handtools, power tools, and acid, chemical, or electrolytic corrosion-removal baths. Treats specimens to prevent or minimize deterioration, according to accepted procedures. Records treatment of each artifact. Prepares reports of activities. May plan and conduct research to improve methods of restoring and preserving specimen.
GOE: 01.06.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 77


    This group includes occupations, not elsewhere classified, concerned with the application of the theoretical or practical aspects of social sciences.

059.067-010 PHILOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

    Studies structure and development of specific language or language group: Traces origin and evolution of words and syntax through comparative analysis of ancient parent languages and modern language groups, studying word and structural characteristics, such as morphology, semantics, phonology, accent, grammar, and literature. Identifies and classifies obscure languages, both ancient and modern, according to family and origin. Reconstructs and deciphers ancient languages from examples found in archeological remains of past civilizations. May specialize in study of origin, history, and development of words and be designated Etymologist (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 11.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M1 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

059.067-014 SCIENTIFIC LINGUIST (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: linguist

    Studies components, structure, and relationships within specified language to provide comprehension of its social functioning: Prepares description of sounds, forms, and vocabulary of language. Contributes to development of linguistic theory. Applies linguistic theory to any of following areas: development of improved methods in translation, including computerization; teaching of language to other than native speakers; preparation of language-teaching materials, dictionaries, and handbooks; reducing previously unwritten languages to standardized written form; preparation of literacy materials; preparation of tests for language-learning aptitudes and language proficiency; consultation with government agencies regarding language programs; or preparation of descriptions of comparative languages to facilitate improvement of teaching and translation.
GOE: 11.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

059.167-010 INTELLIGENCE RESEARCH SPECIALIST (profess. & kin.)

    Plans and directs research into proposed problem solutions or courses of action to determine feasibility of military planning alternatives: Confers with military leaders and supporting personnel to determine dimensions of problem and discuss proposals for solution. Develops plans for predicting such factors as cost and probable success of each alternative, according to accepted operations research techniques and mathematical or computer formulations. Evaluates results of research and prepares recommendations for implementing or rejecting proposed solutions or plans. May be designated according to nature of research conducted as Air Intelligence Specialist (profess. & kin.); Combat Operations Research Specialist (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 11.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

059.267-010 INTELLIGENCE SPECIALIST (government ser.)

    Evaluates data concerning subversive activities, enemy propaganda, and military or political conditions in foreign countries to facilitate counteraction by United States, according to familiarity with geography, cultural traditions, and social, political, and economic structure of countries under consideration.
GOE: 11.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

059.267-014 INTELLIGENCE SPECIALIST (military ser.)

    Collects, records, analyzes, and disseminates tactical, strategic, or technical intelligence information: Segregates and records incoming intelligence data according to type of data to facilitate comparison, study, and accessibility. Prepares and analyzes information concerning strength, equipment, location, disposition, organization, and movement of enemy forces. Assists intelligence officers in analysis and selection of aerial bombardment targets. Compiles intelligence information to be used in preparing situation maps, charts, visual aids, briefing papers, reports, and publications. Briefs and debriefs ground or aviation personnel prior to and after missions. Maintains intelligence libraries, including maps, charts, documents, and other items. Plans or assists superiors in planning and supervising intelligence activities of unit assigned. May examine source materials and compile terrain intelligence, such as condition of travel routes over land, port facilities, and sources of water, sand, gravel, rock, and timbers.
GOE: 04.01.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77


    This division includes occupations concerned with the health care of humans or animals in the fields of medicine, surgery, and dentistry; and in related patient-care areas, such as nursing, therapy, dietetics, prosthetics, rehabilitation, diagnostic imaging, and pharmacy. Also includeed are occupations in sanitation, environmental and public health, and in laboratories and other health facilities. Many occupations in this category require licensing or registration to practice or use a specific title.


    This group includes occupations concerned with diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases and injuries; and research in the causes, transmission, and control of diseases and other ailments.

070.061-010 PATHOLOGIST (medical ser.) alternate titles: medical pathologist

    Studies nature, cause, and development of diseases, and structural and functional changes caused by them: Diagnoses, from body tissue, fluids, secretions, and other specimens, presence and stage of disease, utilizing laboratory procedures. Acts as consultant to other medical practitioners. Performs autopsies to determine nature and extent of disease, cause of death, and effects of treatment. May direct activities of pathology department in medical school, hospital, clinic, medical examiner's office, or research institute. ay be designated according to specialty as Clinical Pathologist (medical ser.); Forensic Pathologist (medical ser.); Neuropathologist (medical ser.); Surgical Pathologist (medical ser.).
GOE: 02.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 87

070.101-010 ANESTHESIOLOGIST (medical ser.)

    Administers anesthetics to render patients insensible to pain during surgical, obstetrical, and other medical procedures: Examines patient to determine degree of surgical risk, and type of anesthetic and sedation to administer, and discusses findings with medical practitioner concerned with case. Positions patient on operating table and administers local, intravenous, spinal, caudal, or other anesthetic according to prescribed medical standards. Institutes remedial measures to counteract adverse reactions or complications. Records type and amount of anesthetic and sedation administered and condition of patient before, during, and after anesthesia. May instruct medical students and other personnel in characteristics and methods of administering various types of anesthetics, signs and symptoms of reactions and complications, and emergency measures to employ.
GOE: 02.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 87

070.101-014 CARDIOLOGIST (medical ser.) alternate titles: heart specialist

    Diagnoses and treats diseases of heart and its functions: Examines patient for symptoms indicative of heart disorders, using medical instruments and equipment. Studies diagnostic images and electrocardiograph recordings to aid in making diagnoses. Prescribes medications, and recommends dietary and activity program, as indicated. Refers patient to SURGEON (medical ser.) 070.101-094 specializing in cardiac cases when need for corrective surgery is indicated. May engage in research to study anatomy of and diseases peculiar to heart.
GOE: 02.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 9 DLU: 87

070.101-018 DERMATOLOGIST (medical ser.) alternate titles: skin specialist

    Diagnoses and treats diseases of human skin: Examines skin to determine nature of disease, taking blood samples and smears from affected areas, and performing other laboratory procedures. Examines specimens under microscope, and makes various chemical and biological analyses and performs other tests to identify disease-causing organisms or pathological conditions. Prescribes and administers medications, and applies superficial radiotherapy and other localized treatments. Treats abscesses, skin injuries, and other skin infections, and surgically excises cutaneous malignancies, cysts, birthmarks, and other growths. Treats scars, using dermabrasion.
GOE: 02.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 87

070.101-022 GENERAL PRACTITIONER (medical ser.) alternate titles: physician, general practice

    Diagnoses and treats variety of diseases and injuries in general practice: Examines patients, using medical instruments and equipment. Orders or executes various tests, analyses, and diagnostic images to provide information on patient's condition. Analyzes reports and findings of tests and of examination, and diagnoses condition. Administers or prescribes treatments and drugs. Inoculates and vaccinates patients to immunize patients from communicable diseases. Advises patients concerning diet, hygiene, and methods for prevention of disease. Provides prenatal care to pregnant women, delivers babies, and provides postnatal care to mother and infant [OBSTETRICIAN (medical ser.) 070.101-054]. Reports births, deaths, and outbreak of contagious diseases to governmental authorities. Refers patients to medical specialist or other practitioner for specialized treatment. Performs minor surgery. May make house and emergency calls to attend to patients unable to visit office or clinic. May conduct physical examinations to provide information needed for admission to school, consideration for jobs, or eligibility for insurance coverage. May provide care for passengers and crew aboard ship and be designated Ship's Doctor (medical ser.).
GOE: 02.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 87

070.101-026 FAMILY PRACTITIONER (medical ser.) alternate titles: family physician

    Provides comprehensive medical services for members of family, regardless of age or sex, on continuing basis: Examines patients, using medical instruments and equipment. Elicits and records information about patient's medical history. Orders or executes various tests, analyses, and diagnostic images to provide information on patient's condition. Analyzes reports and findings of tests and examination, and diagnoses condition of patient. Administers or prescribes treatments and medications. Promotes health by advising patients concerning diet, hygiene, and methods for prevention of disease. Inoculates and vaccinates patients to immunize patients from communicable diseases. Provides prenatal care to pregnant women, delivers babies, and provides postnatal care to mothers and infants [OBSTETRICIAN (medical ser.) 070.101-054]. Performs surgical procedures commensurate with surgical competency. Refers patients to medical specialist for consultant services when necessary for patient's well-being.
GOE: 02.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 90

070.101-034 GYNECOLOGIST (medical ser.)

    Diagnoses and treats diseases and disorders of female genital, urinary, and rectal organs: Examines patient to determine medical problem, utilizing physical findings, diagnostic images, laboratory test results, and patient's statements as diagnostic aids. Discusses problem with patient, and prescribes medication and exercise or hygiene regimen, or performs surgery as needed to correct malfunctions or remove diseased organ. May care for patient throughout pregnancy and deliver babies [OBSTETRICIAN (medical ser.) 070.101-054].
GOE: 02.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 87

070.101-042 INTERNIST (medical ser.) alternate titles: internal medicine specialist

    Diagnoses and treats diseases and injuries of human internal organ systems: Examines patient for symptoms of organic or congenital disorders and determines nature and extent of injury or disorder, referring to diagnostic images and tests, and using medical instruments and equipment. Prescribes medication and recommends dietary and activity program, as indicated by diagnosis. Refers patient to medical specialist when indicated.
GOE: 02.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 87

070.101-046 PUBLIC HEALTH PHYSICIAN (medical ser.)

    Plans and participates in medical care or research program in hospital, clinic, or other public medical facility: Provides medical care for eligible persons, and institutes program of preventive health care in county, city, or other government or civic division. Gives vaccinations, imposes quarantines, and establishes standards for hospitals, restaurants, and other areas of possible danger. May conduct research in particular areas of medicine to aid in cure and control of disease. May be designated Medical Officer (government ser.).
GOE: 02.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 90

070.101-050 NEUROLOGIST (medical ser.) alternate titles: nerve specialist

    Diagnoses and treats organic diseases and disorders of nervous system: Orders and studies results of chemical, microscopic, biological, and bacteriological analyses of patient's blood and cerebro-spinal fluid to determine nature and extent of disease or disorder. Identifies presence of pathological blood conditions or parasites and prescribes and administers medications and drugs. Orders and studies results of electroencephalograms or x rays to detect abnormalities in brain wave patterns, or indications of abnormalities in brain structure. Advises patient to contact other medical specialist, as indicated.
GOE: 02.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 87

070.101-054 OBSTETRICIAN (medical ser.)

    Treats women during prenatal, natal, and postnatal periods: Examines patient to ascertain condition, utilizing physical findings, laboratory results, and patient's statements as diagnostic aids. Determines need for modified diet and physical activities, and recommends plan. Periodically examines patient, prescribing medication or surgery, if indicated. Delivers infant, and cares for mother for prescribed period of time following childbirth. Performs cesarean section or other surgical procedure as needed to preserve patient's health and deliver infant safely. May treat patients for diseases of generative organs [GYNECOLOGIST (medical ser.) 070.101-034].
GOE: 02.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 87

070.101-058 OPHTHALMOLOGIST (medical ser.) alternate titles: eye specialist; oculist

    Diagnoses and treats diseases and injuries of eyes: Examines patient for symptoms indicative of organic or congenital ocular disorders, and determines nature and extent of injury or disorder. Performs various tests to determine vision loss. Prescribes and administers medications, and performs surgery, if indicated. Directs remedial activities to aid in regaining vision, or to utilize sight remaining, by writing prescriptions for corrective glasses, and instructing patient in eye exercises.
GOE: 02.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 87

070.101-062 OTOLARYNGOLOGIST (medical ser.) alternate titles: otorhinolaryngologist

    Diagnoses and treats diseases of ear, nose, and throat: Examines affected organs, using equipment such as audiometers, prisms, nasoscopes, microscopes, x-ray machines, and fluoroscopes. Determines nature and extent of disorder, and prescribes and administers medications, or performs surgery. Performs tests to determine extent of loss of hearing due to aural or other injury, and speech loss as result of diseases or injuries to larynx. May specialize in treating throat, ear, or nose and be designated Laryngologist (medical ser.); Otologist (medical ser.); Rhinologist (medical ser.).
GOE: 02.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 9 DLU: 87

070.101-066 PEDIATRICIAN (medical ser.)

    Plans and carries out medical care program for children from birth through adolescence to aid in mental and physical growth and development: Examines patients to determine presence of disease and to establish preventive health practices. Determines nature and extent of disease or injury, prescribes and administers medications and immunizations, and performs variety of medical duties.
GOE: 02.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 87

070.101-070 PHYSIATRIST (medical ser.) alternate titles: physical medicine specialist

    Specializes in clinical and diagnostic use of physical agents and exercises to provide physiotherapy for physical, mental, and occupational rehabilitation of patients: Examines patient, utilizing electrodiagnosis and other diagnostic procedures to determine need for and extent of therapy. Prescribes and administers treatment, using therapeutic methods and procedures, such as light therapy, diathermy, hydrotherapy, iontophoresis, and cryotherapy. Instructs PHYSICAL THERAPIST (medical ser.) 076.121-014 and other personnel in nature and duration or dosage of treatment, and determines that treatments are administered as specified. Prescribes exercises designed to develop functions of specific anatomical parts or specific muscle groups. Recommends occupational therapy activities for patients with extended convalescent periods and for those whose disability requires change of occupation.
GOE: 02.03.01 STRENGTH: M GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 90

070.101-078 PHYSICIAN, OCCUPATIONAL (medical ser.) alternate titles: company doctor; physician, industrial

    Diagnoses and treats work-related illnesses and injuries of employees, and conducts fitness-for-duty physical examinations: Attends patients in plant or hospital, and reexamines disability cases periodically to verify progress. Oversees maintenance of case histories, health examination reports, and other medical records. Formulates and administers health programs. Inspects plant and makes recommendations regarding sanitation and elimination of health hazards.
GOE: 02.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 90

070.101-082 POLICE SURGEON (medical ser.) alternate titles: surgeon, chief

    Examines and treats members of municipal police force for duty-related injuries and illnesses and gives first-aid treatment to civilians under arrest: Examines and reports physical condition of applicants for police force. Maintains records of sick personnel. Examines officers who claim disability and, upon proof of such disability, issues required certificate. Reports charges against officers who feign illness or injury to evade duty or whose illness or injury results from improper conduct, intemperance, or habits. Prepares annual report on activities and evaluation of physical condition of police force.
GOE: 02.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 90

070.101-086 PROCTOLOGIST (medical ser.)

    Diagnoses and treats diseases and disorders of anus, rectum, and colon: Diagnoses diseases and disorders utilizing techniques, such as discussion of symptoms and medical history with patient, instrumental inspection of rectum and colon, examination of diagnostic images of affected parts, and evaluation of laboratory test results. Treats diseases and disorders by surgical removal or repair of diseased or malfunctioning parts, or by prescription of medication and suggestions for adaptation of patient's living habits.
GOE: 02.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 87

070.101-090 RADIOLOGIST (medical ser.)

    Diagnoses and treats diseases of human body, using x-ray and radioactive substances: Examines internal structures and functions of organ systems, making diagnoses after correlation of x-ray findings with other examinations and tests. Treats benign and malignant internal and external growths by exposure to radiation from x-rays, high energy sources, and natural and manmade radioisotopes directed at or implanted in affected areas of body. Administers radiopaque substances by injection, orally, or as enemas to render internal structures and organs visible on x-ray films or fluoroscopic screens. May specialize in diagnostic radiology or radiation oncology. May diagnose and treat diseases of human body, using radioactive substances, and be certified in Nuclear Radiology or Nuclear Medicine.
GOE: 02.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 87

070.101-094 SURGEON (medical ser.)

    Performs surgery to correct deformities, repair injuries, prevent diseases, and improve function in patients: Examines patient to verify necessity of operation, estimate possible risk to patient, and determine best operational procedure. Reviews reports of patient's general physical condition, reactions to medications, and medical history. Examines instruments, equipment, and surgical setup to ensure that antiseptic and aseptic methods have been followed. Performs operations, using variety of surgical instruments and employing established surgical techniques appropriate for specific procedures. May specialize in particular type of operation, as on nervous system, and be designated Neurosurgeon (medical ser). May specialize in repair, restoration, or improvement of lost, injured, defective, or misshapen body parts and be designated Plastic Surgeon (medical ser.). May specialize in correction or prevention of skeletal abnormalities, utilizing surgical, medical, and physical methodologies, and be designated Orthopedic Surgeon (medical ser.).
GOE: 02.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 9 DLU: 88

070.101-098 UROLOGIST (medical ser.)

    Diagnoses and treats diseases and disorders of genitourinary organs and tract: Examines patient, using x-ray machine, fluoroscope, and other equipment to aid in determining nature and extent of disorder or injury. Treats patient, using diathermy machine, catheter, cystoscope, radium emanation tube, and similar equipment. Performs surgery, as indicated. Prescribes and administers urinary antiseptics to combat infection.
GOE: 02.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 9 DLU: 88

070.101-102 ALLERGIST-IMMUNOLOGIST (medical ser.) alternate titles: allergist; allergy specialist

    Diagnoses and treats diseases and conditions with allergic or immunologic causes: Examines patient, utilizing medical instruments and equipment, patch tests, and blood tests as diagnostic aids. Elicits and records information about patient's history. Analyses reports and test results and prescribes treatment or medication for conditions, such as bronchial asthma, dermatological disorders, connective tissue syndromes, transplantation, and autoimmunity. Refers patients to ancillary and consultant services when indicated.
GOE: 02.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 9 DLU: 88

070.107-014 PSYCHIATRIST (medical ser.)

    Diagnoses and treats patients with mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders: Organizes data concerning patient's family, medical history, and onset of symptoms obtained from patient, relatives, and other sources, such as NURSE, GENERAL DUTY (medical ser.) 075.364-010 and SOCIAL WORKER, PSYCHIATRIC (profess. & kin.) 195.107-034. Examines patient to determine general physical condition, following standard medical procedures. Orders laboratory and other special diagnostic tests and evaluates data obtained. Determines nature and extent of mental disorder, and formulates treatment program. Treats or directs treatment of patient, utilizing variety of psychotherapeutic methods and medications.
GOE: 02.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 88


    This group includes occupations concerned with the application of manipulative procedures in treating patients, in addition to the other accepted methods of medical care. Includes diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases and injuries; research in the causes, transmission, and control of disease and other ailments.

071.101-010 OSTEOPATHIC PHYSICIAN (medical ser.) alternate titles: doctor, osteopathic; osteopath

    Diagnoses and treats diseases and injuries of human body, relying upon accepted medical and surgical modalities: Examines patient to determine symptoms attributable to impairments in musculoskeletal system. Corrects disorders and afflictions of bones, muscles, nerves, and other body systems by medicinal and surgical procedures and, when deemed beneficial, manipulative therapy. Employs diagnostic images, drugs, and other aids to diagnose and treat bodily impairments. May practice medical or surgical speciality.
GOE: 02.03.01 STRENGTH: M GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 89


    This group includes occupations concerned with examination, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of ailments or abnormalities of gums ,jaws, soft tissue, and teeth. Includes oral surgery.

072.061-010 ORAL PATHOLOGIST (medical ser.)

    Studies nature, cause, and development of diseases associated with mouth: Examines patient's mouth, jaw, face, and associated areas and obtains specimen, using medical instruments. Examines specimen from patient's mouth or associated area to determine pathological conditions, such as tumors and lesions, using microscope and other laboratory equipment and applying knowledge of medical pathology and dentistry. Discusses diagnosis with patient and referring practitioner.
GOE: 02.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 89

072.101-010 DENTIST (medical ser.)

    Diagnoses and treats diseases, injuries, and malformations of teeth and gums, and related oral structures: Examines patient to determine nature of condition, utilizing x rays, dental instruments, and other diagnostic procedures. Cleans, fills, extracts, and replaces teeth, using rotary and hand instruments, dental appliances, medications, and surgical implements. Provides preventive dental services to patient, such as applications of fluoride and sealants to teeth, and education in oral and dental hygiene.
GOE: 02.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 89

072.101-014 ENDODONTIST (medical ser.)

    Examines, diagnoses, and treats diseases of nerve, pulp, and other dental tissues affecting vitality of teeth: Examines teeth, gums, and related tissues to determine condition, using dental instruments, x ray, and other diagnostic equipment. Diagnoses condition and plans treatment. Treats exposure of pulp by pulp capping or removal of pulp from pulp chamber and root canal, using dental instruments. Performs partial or total removal of pulp, using surgical instruments. Treats infected root canal and related tissues, and fills pulp chamber and canal with endodontic materials. Removes pathologic tissue at apex of tooth, surgically. Reinserts teeth that have been knocked out of mouth by accident. Bleaches discolored teeth to restore natural color.
GOE: 02.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 89

072.101-018 ORAL AND MAXILLOFACIAL SURGEON (medical ser.) alternate titles: oral surgeon

    Performs surgery on mouth, jaws, and related head and neck structure: Executes difficult and multiple extraction of teeth. Removes tumors and other abnormal growths. Performs preprosthetic surgery to prepare mouth for insertion of dental prosthesis. Corrects abnormal jaw relations by mandibular or maxillary revision. Treats fractures of jaws. Administers general and local anesthetics. May treat patients in hospital.
GOE: 02.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 89

072.101-022 ORTHODONTIST (medical ser.)

    Examines, diagnoses, and treats abnormalities in development of jaws, position of teeth, and other dental-facial structures: Plans treatment, using cephalometric, height, and weight records, dental x rays, and front and lateral dental photographs. Designs and fabricates appliances, such as space maintainers, retainers, and labial and lingual arch wires, to alter position and relationship of teeth and jaws, and to realign teeth to produce and maintain normal function.
GOE: 02.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 89

072.101-026 PEDIATRIC DENTIST (medical ser.) alternate titles: pedodontist

    Provides dental care for infants, children, and adolescents: Fabricates space maintainers designed for patients. Treats primary and secondary teeth and constructs and places bridges, dentures, and obturating appliances suitable for growing arches. anages patients with behavioral problems or handicapping conditions. Counsels and advises patients and family on growth and development dental problems of patient. Provides preventive services through use of fluorides and sealants and instructs patient and family members on dental care.
GOE: 02.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 88

072.101-030 PERIODONTIST (medical ser.)

    Diagnoses and treats inflammatory and destructive diseases of investing and supporting tissue of teeth: Cleans and polishes teeth, eliminates irritating margins of fillings, and corrects occlusions. Performs surgical procedures to remove diseased tissue, using dental instruments. Establishes recall treatment program to monitor oral health practices.
GOE: 02.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 89

072.101-034 PROSTHODONTIST (medical ser.) alternate titles: prosthetic dentist

    Restores and maintains oral functions: Records physiologic position of jaws to determine shape and size of dental prostheses, using face bows, dental articulators, and other recording devices. Replaces missing teeth and associated oral structures with artificial teeth to improve chewing, speech, and appearance. Corrects natural and acquired deformation of mouth and jaws through use of prosthetic appliances.
GOE: 02.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 89

072.101-038 PUBLIC-HEALTH DENTIST (medical ser.)

    Plans, organizes, and maintains dental health program of public health agency: Analyzes dental needs of community to determine changes and trends in patterns of dental disease. Instructs community, school, and other groups on preventive oral health care services. Produces and evaluates dental health educational materials. Provides clinical and laboratory dental care and services. Instigates methods for evaluating changes in dental health status and needs of community.
GOE: 02.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 89

072.117-010 DIRECTOR, DENTAL SERVICES (medical ser.)

    Administers dental program in hospital and directs departmental activities in accordance with accepted national standards and administrative policies: Confers with hospital administrators to formulate policies and recommend procedural changes. Establishes training program to advance knowledge and clinical skill levels of resident dentists studying for dental specializations. Implements procedures for hiring of professional staff and approves hiring and promotion of staff members. Establishes work schedules and assigns staff members to duty stations to maximize efficient use of staff. Observes and assists staff members at work to ensure safe and ethical practices and to solve problems and demonstrate techniques. Confers with hospital administrator to submit budget and statistical reports used to justify expenditures for equipment, supplies, and personnel.
GOE: 02.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 89


    This group includes occupations concerned with diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of animal disorders. Includes occupations in veterinary bacteriology, epidemiology, virology, pathology, and pharmacology.


    Examines, diagnoses, and treats diseases of laboratory animals to ensure health of animals used in scientific research and to comply with regulations governing their humane and ethical treatment: Examines animals to detect indications of disease or injury, and treats animals when indications are found, to prevent spread of disease to other animals or workers. Discusses research projects with associates to plan procedures and selects animals for specific research based on knowledge of species and research principles and techniques. Participates in research projects. Oversees activities concerned with feeding, care, and maintenance of animal quarters to ensure compliance with laboratory regulations.
GOE: 02.02.01 STRENGTH: M GED: R6 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 89

073.061-014 VETERINARY ANATOMIST (profess. & kin.)

    Studies form and structure of animals, both gross and microscopic. Required to hold degree of Doctor of Veterinary Medicine.
GOE: 02.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

073.061-018 VETERINARY MICROBIOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

    Studies biology, ecology, etiology, bacteriology, virology, and immunology of micro-organisms causing diseases in animals: Prepares laboratory cultures of micro-organisms taken from body fluids and tissues of diseased animals and identifies them by microscopic examination and bacteriological tests. Tests virulence of pathogenic organisms by observing effects of inoculations on laboratory and other animals. Investigates efficiency of vaccines, antigens, antibiotics, and other materials in prevention, diagnosis, and control of animal diseases. May specialize in bacteria causing animal diseases and be known as Veterinary Bacteriologist (profess & kin.). May specialize in study of viruses and rickettsiae and be known as Veterinary Virologist (profess. & kin.). May be required to hold degree of Doctor of Veterinary Medicine.
GOE: 02.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 88

073.061-022 VETERINARY EPIDEMIOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

    Studies factors influencing existence and spread of diseases among humans and animals, particularly those diseases transmissible from animals to humans. Required to hold degree of Doctor of Veterinary Medicine.
GOE: 02.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

073.061-026 VETERINARY PARASITOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

    Studies animal parasites that attack domestic animals and poultry: Conducts research to determine control and preventive measures, utilizing chemicals, heat, electricity, and other methods. Required to hold degree of Doctor of Veterinary Medicine.
GOE: 02.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

073.061-030 VETERINARY PATHOLOGIST (medical ser.) alternate titles: clinical veterinarian

    Studies nature, cause, and development of animal diseases, and structural and functional changes resulting from them: Conducts tests, performs biopsies, and analyzes body tissue, fluids and other specimens to diagnose presence and stage of disease in animals, and probable source of contamination or infection. Conducts further research to expand scope of findings, or recommends treatment to consulting veterinary personnel. May direct activities of veterinary pathology department in educational institution or industrial establishment.
GOE: 02.02.01 STRENGTH: M GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 88

073.061-034 VETERINARY PHARMACOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

    Studies drugs, including materia medica and therapeutics, as related to veterinary medicine. Required to hold degree of Doctor of Veterinary Medicine.
GOE: 02.02.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

073.061-038 VETERINARY PHYSIOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

    Studies function and mechanism of systems and organs in healthy and diseased animals. Required to hold degree of Doctor of Veterinary Medicine.
GOE: 02.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

073.101-010 VETERINARIAN (medical ser.)

    Diagnoses, and treats diseases and injuries of pets, such as dogs and cats, and farm animals, such as cattle or sheep: Examines animal to determine nature of disease or injury and treats animal surgically or medically. Tests dairy herds, horses, sheep, and other animals for diseases and inoculates animals against rabies, brucellosis, and other disorders. Advises animal owners about sanitary measures, feeding, and general care to promote health of animals. May engage in research, teaching, or production of commercial products. May specialize in prevention and control of communicable animal diseases and be designated Veterinarian, Public Health (medical ser.). May specialize in diagnosis and treatment of animal diseases, using roentgen rays and radioactive substances, and be designated Veterinary Radiologist (medical ser.).
GOE: 02.03.03 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 88

073.101-014 VETERINARIAN, POULTRY (agriculture)

    Advises individual poultry raisers on poultry problems: Gathers from owner information on care, condition, performance, and action of birds. Inspects flocks, pens, and housing. Diagnoses disease and prescribes treatment. Culls undesirable birds from flock. Suggests feed changes to increase egg production or growth of fowls.
GOE: 02.03.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

073.101-018 ZOO VETERINARIAN (medical ser.)

    Plans, directs, and participates in health care program of veterinary clinic in zoo: Establishes and conducts effective quarantine and testing procedures for all incoming animals to ensure health of collection, prevent spread of disease, and comply with government regulations. Conducts regularly scheduled immunization and preventive care programs to maintain health of animals and guard against communicable diseases. Provides immediate medical attention to diseased or traumatized animals. Participates with other personnel in planning and executing nutrition and reproduction programs for animals in zoo. Develops special programs to encourage reproduction among animals designated as endangered species, based on knowledge of native habitat and instincts. Participates in employee training in handling and care of animals. Conducts postmortem studies and analyses. Cooperates with zoo and aquarium personnel to exchange information concerning care of animals, to arrange transfer, sale, or trade of animals, and to maintain nationwide inventory of animals of every species, including notation of live births. Acts as consultant to veterinarians in general practice seeking advice in treatment of exotic animals.
GOE: 02.03.03 STRENGTH: M GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 89

073.161-010 VETERINARY LIVESTOCK INSPECTOR (government ser.)

    Inspects animals for presence of disease: Performs standard clinical tests and submits specimens of tissues and other parts for laboratory analysis. Reports existence of disease conditions to state and federal authorities. Advises livestock owners of economic aspects of disease eradication and advises consumers of public health implications of diseases transmissible from animals to humans. May institute and enforce quarantine or other regulations governing import, export, and interstate movement of livestock. Required to hold degree of Doctor of Veterinary Medicine.
GOE: 02.03.03 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

073.261-010 VETERINARY VIRUS-SERUM INSPECTOR (government ser.)

    Inspects establishments where serums, toxins, and similar products, used in treatment of animals, are manufactured to enforce state or federal standards of sanitation, purity, labeling, and storage. Examines animals used in production process to determine if diseases are present. Inspects production areas to determine that standards of sanitation are being maintained. Required to hold degree of Doctor of Veterinary Medicine.
GOE: 02.03.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

073.264-010 VETERINARY MEAT-INSPECTOR (government ser.) alternate titles: veterinary medical officer

    Inspects establishments engaged in slaughtering livestock and processing meat intended for intrastate, interstate, and foreign shipment to enforce municipal, state, or federal standards: Examines animal and carcass before and after slaughtering to detect evidence of disease or other abnormal conditions. Determines that ingredients used in processing and marketing meat and meat products comply with standards of purity and grading, and that products are not adulterated or misbranded. Inspects processing areas to ensure sanitary conditions are maintained. Required to hold degree of Doctor of Veterinary Medicine. May specialize in inspecting establishments engaged in processing milk and milk products and be designated Veterinary Milk-Specialist (government ser.); or inspecting establishments engaged in processing poultry and edible poultry products and be designated Veterinary-Poultry Inspector (government ser.).
GOE: 02.03.03 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 78


    This group includes occupations concerned with compounding prescriptions of physicians, dentists, and other practitioners; and the bulk selection, compounding, dispensing, and preservation of drugs and medicines.

074.161-010 PHARMACIST (medical ser.) alternate titles: druggist

    Compounds and dispenses prescribed medications, drugs, and other pharmaceuticals for patient care, according to professional standards and state and federal legal requirements: Reviews prescriptions issued by physician, or other authorized prescriber to assure accuracy and determine formulas and ingredients needed. Compounds medications, using standard formulas and processes, such as weighing, measuring, and mixing ingredients. Directs pharmacy workers engaged in mixing, packaging, and labeling pharmaceuticals. Answers questions and provides information to pharmacy customers on drug interactions, side effects, dosage and storage of pharmaceuticals. Maintains established procedures concerning quality assurance, security of controlled substances, and disposal of hazardous waste drugs. Enters data, such as patient name, prescribed medication and cost, to maintain pharmacy files, charge system, and inventory. May assay medications to determine identity, purity, and strength. May instruct interns and other medical personnel on matters pertaining to pharmacy, or teach in college of pharmacy. May work in hospital pharmacy and be designated Pharmacist, Hospital (medical ser.)
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 87

074.161-014 RADIOPHARMACIST (medical ser.)

    Prepares and dispenses radioactive pharmaceuticals used for patient diagnosis and therapy, applying principles and practices of pharmacy and radiochemistry: Receives radiopharmaceutical prescription from physician and reviews prescription to determine suitability of radiopharmaceutical for intended use. Verifies that specified radioactive substance and reagent will give desired results in examination or treatment procedures, utilizing knowledge of radiopharmaceutical preparation and principles of drug biodistribution. Calculates volume of radioactive pharmaceutical required to provide patient with desired level of radioactivity at prescribed time, according to established rates of radioisotope decay. Compounds radioactive substances and reagents to prepare radiopharmaceutical, following radiopharmacy laboratory procedures. Assays prepared radiopharmaceutical, using measuring and analysis instruments and equipment, such as ionization chamber, pulse-height analyzer, and radioisotope dose calibrator, to verify rate of drug disintegration and to ensure that patient receives required dose. Consults with physician following patient treatment or procedure to review and evaluate quality and effectiveness of radiopharmaceutical. Conducts research to develop or improve radiopharmaceuticals. Prepares reports for regulatory agencies to obtain approval for testing and use of new radiopharmaceuticals. Maintains control records for receipt, storage, preparation, and disposal of radioactive nuclei. Occasionally conducts training for students and medical professionals concerning radiopharmacy use, characteristics, and compounding procedures.
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 87

074.167-010 DIRECTOR, PHARMACY SERVICES (medical ser.)

    Directs and coordinates, through subordinate supervisory personnel, activities and functions of hospital pharmacy: Plans and implements procedures in hospital pharmacy according to hospital policies and legal requirements. Directs pharmacy personnel programs, such as hiring, training, and intern programs. Confers with computer personnel to develop computer programs for pharmacy information management systems, patient and department charge systems, and inventory control. Analyzes records to indicate prescribing trends and excessive usage. Prepares pharmacy budget and department reports required by hospital administrators. Attends staff meetings to advise and inform hospital medical staff of drug applications and characteristics. Observes pharmacy personnel at work and develops quality assurance techniques to ensure safe, legal, and ethical practices. Oversees preparation and dispensation of experimental drugs.
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 87

074.381-010 PHARMACIST ASSISTANT (military ser.)

    Mixes and dispenses prescribed medicines and pharmaceutical preparations in absence of or under supervision of PHARMACIST (medical ser.): Compounds preparations according to prescriptions issued by medical, dental, or veterinary officers. Pours, weighs, or measures dosages and grinds, heats, filters, or dissolves and mixes liquid or soluble drugs and chemicals. Procures, stores, and issues pharmaceutical materials and supplies. Maintains files and records and submits required pharmacy reports.
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

074.382-010 PHARMACY TECHNICIAN (medical ser.) alternate titles: pharmacy clerk

    Performs any combination of following duties to assist PHARMACIST (medical ser.) 074.161-010 in hospital pharmacy or retail establishment: Mixes pharmaceutical preparations, fills bottles with prescribed tablets and capsules, and types labels for bottles. Assists PHARMACIST (medical ser.) to prepare and dispense medication. Receives and stores incoming supplies. Counts stock and enters data in computer to maintain inventory records. Processes records of medication and equipment dispensed to hospital patient, computes charges, and enters data in computer. Prepares intravenous (IV) packs, using sterile technique, under supervision of hospital pharmacist. Cleans equipment and sterilizes glassware according to prescribed methods.
GOE: 05.09.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R3 M3 L3 SVP: 3 DLU: 87


    This group includes occupations concerned with administering nursing care to the ill or injured. Includes nursing administration and instruction; and public health, industrial, private duty, and surgical nursing. Licensing or registration is required.

075.117-010 CONSULTANT, EDUCATIONAL, STATE BOARD OF NURSING (government ser.) alternate titles: director, educational board of nurse examiners

    Directs activities concerned with maintaining educational standards established by board of nursing or other legally authorized agency: Participates in development and implementation of philosophy, purpose, policies, and plans of board of agency, and consults with and advises administrators of nursing schools in regard to curricula and facilities for instruction. Plans and conducts surveys of nursing schools and advises institutions desiring to establish schools on policies and procedures. Maintains current and comprehensive records and reports and keeps informed on trends and developments within the profession. May assist with administrative functions.
GOE: 11.07.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

075.117-014 DIRECTOR, COMMUNITY-HEALTH NURSING (medical ser.) alternate titles: director, public-health nursing

    Administers nursing service in community health agency: Coordinates and evaluates nursing activities in agency to ensure balanced and adequate program, and to formulate progressive program designed to meet changing needs of community. Directs collection, analysis, and interpretation of statistics significant to program planning and budget preparation. Prepares and submits budget estimates for nursing activities. Participates in establishing programs for guidance and professional development of nursing staff, and in establishing personnel policies, qualifications, and salaries. Recruits, selects, and assigns personnel for nursing services. Plans nursing consulting services. Participates in community planning concerning health and social welfare problems. Consults with advisory committee in establishment of medical policies of community health agency.
GOE: 11.07.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

075.117-018 DIRECTOR, EDUCATIONAL, COMMUNITY-HEALTH NURSING (medical ser.) alternate titles: director, educational, public-health nursing

    Plans and directs educational program for community health agency: Develops educational plans for in-service education and orientation of health personnel. Confers with supervisors and staff to ensure efficiency of program. Cooperates with nursing specialists and supervisors to organize educational programs for staff and community. Obtains educational materials for use in teaching and demonstrating nursing and other health related activities. Confers with administrative personnel to determine procedures and techniques for patient care and to implement new programs. Assists in selecting nursing candidates and in orienting new employees. Cooperates with nursing schools and colleges in providing supervised field instruction for students to gain work experience and observe nursing techniques. Conducts surveys and analyses to determine adequacy of educational materials and effectiveness of program.
GOE: 10.02.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

075.117-022 DIRECTOR, NURSING SERVICE (medical ser.)

    Administers nursing program in hospital, nursing home, or other medical facility to maintain standards of patient care, and advises medical staff, department heads, and administrators in matters related to nursing service: Recommends establishment or revision of policies and develops organizational structure and standards of performance. Interprets policies and objectives of nursing service to staff and community groups. Promotes working relationships with community agencies and with other establishment departments. Assists in preparation of departmental budget. Establishes personnel qualification requirements, drafts procedure manuals, initiates in-service programs, installs record and reporting system, and performs other personnel management tasks. Initiates studies to evaluate effectiveness of nursing services in relation to their objectives and costs. May assist nursing schools with curricular problems.
GOE: 11.07.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 89

075.117-026 DIRECTOR, OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH NURSING (medical ser.) alternate titles: director, industrial nursing

    Plans with management, medical director, and legal counsel scope and objectives of nursing service in industrial establishment, and directs nursing activities: Determines qualifications, duties, and responsibilities of nursing staff, and assists in selection. Arranges for orientation of newly appointed nursing staff in company policy and nursing procedures. Prepares and maintains nursing policy and procedure manual. Evaluates nursing service and assists in evaluation of total health service. Establishes system of records and reports. Advises management in development and maintenance of plant sanitation and housekeeping practices. Develops nursing procedures for emergency and followup care of occupational and nonoccupational injuries and illnesses. Provides for health counseling and health education on individual or group basis. Interprets nursing functions in interdepartmental planning and coordination of health and welfare benefit programs. May visit branches and subsidiaries of company periodically to evaluate nursing service.
GOE: 11.07.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

075.117-030 DIRECTOR, SCHOOL OF NURSING (medical ser.) alternate titles: dean, school of nursing

    Directs and administers educational program in school of nursing: Assists in preparation of budget, and administers program within budgetary limitations. Defines and interprets aims and policies of school. Interviews and appoints faculty and administrative staff. Participates in planning curriculums and schedule of instruction. Participates in establishing qualifications for faculty, staff, and students and in recruiting eligible candidates. Arranges with hospital and other institutions and agencies for students to use their facilities, under faculty supervision, for clinical experience. Maintains student records of educational experience and achievement. May arrange student living accommodations, and social and recreational opportunities. May advise institutions on educational problems.
GOE: 11.07.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

075.117-034 EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR, NURSES' ASSOCIATION (medical ser.) alternate titles: executive secretary, nurses' association

    Administers program of professional nurses' association, as formulated by board of directors and association members: Participates in establishing objectives and policies of association, and interprets program to members and general public at general and professional meetings. Assists in organizing committees and aids in attaining objectives in such matters as legislation affecting nursing, employment conditions, health programs, and research designed to facilitate professional growth and efficiency. Publicizes program of association through various media.
GOE: 11.05.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M4 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

075.124-010 NURSE, SCHOOL (medical ser.)

    Provides health care services to students: Plans school health program, in cooperation with medical authority and administrative school personnel. Participates in medical examinations and reviews findings to evaluate health status of pupils and progress of program. Instructs classes in subjects, such as child care, first aid, and home nursing, and establishes nursing policies to meet emergencies. Cooperates with school personnel in identifying and meeting social, emotional, and physical needs of school children. Administers immunizations, provides first-aid, and maintains health records of students. Counsels students in good health habits. Works with community agencies in planning facilities to meet needs of children outside school situation. May assist in program for care of handicapped children. May work in college and be designated Nurse, College (medical ser.).
GOE: 10.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 80

075.124-014 NURSE, STAFF, COMMUNITY HEALTH (medical ser.) alternate titles: public-health nurse

    Instructs individuals and families in health education and disease prevention in community health agency: Visits homes to determine patient and family needs, develops plan to meet needs, and provides nursing services. Instructs family in care and rehabilitation of patient, and in maintenance of health and prevention of disease for family members. Gives treatments to patient following physician's instructions. Assists community members and health field personnel to assess, plan for, and provide needed health and related services. Refers patients with social and emotional problems to other community agencies for assistance. Teaches home nursing, maternal and child care, and other subjects related to individual and community welfare. Participates in programs to safeguard health of children, including child health conferences, school health, group instruction for parents, and immunization programs. Assists in preparation of special studies and in research programs. Directs treatment of patient by NURSE, LICENSED PRACTICAL (medical ser.) 079.374-014 and HOME ATTENDANT (personal ser.) 354.377-014. Cooperates with families, community agencies, and medical personnel to arrange for convalescent and rehabilitative care of sick or injured persons. May specialize in one phase of community health nursing, such as clinical pediatrics or tuberculosis.
GOE: 10.02.01 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

075.124-018 NURSE, INSTRUCTOR (medical ser.)

    Demonstrates and teaches patient care in classroom and clinical units to nursing students and instructs students in principles and application of physical, biological, and psychological subjects related to nursing: Lectures to students, conducts and supervises laboratory work, issues assignments, and directs seminars and panels. Supervises student nurses and demonstrates patient care in clinical units of hospital. Prepares and administers examinations, evaluates student progress, and maintains records of student classroom and clinical experience. Participates in planning curriculum, teaching schedule, and course outline. Cooperates with medical and nursing personnel in evaluating and improving teaching and nursing practices. May specialize in specific subject, such as anatomy, chemistry, psychology, or nutrition, or in type of nursing activity, such as nursing of medical or surgical patients. May conduct classes for patients in health practices and procedures.
GOE: 10.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 86

075.127-010 INSTRUCTOR, PSYCHIATRIC AIDE (education)

    Provides clinical and academic instruction in psychiatric nursing methods and procedures for PSYCHIATRIC AIDES (medical ser.): Plans curricular content and sequence. Prepares schedules and arranges for lectures given by members of hospital staff, or prepares orientation course for psychiatric aide trainees. Prepares study material and presents lectures and demonstrations. Observes student progress, conducts examinations, and compiles records. Confers with students and evaluates performances at end of training course. Assists with assignment of students to units.
GOE: 10.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

075.127-014 NURSE, CONSULTANT (medical ser.)

    Advises hospitals, schools of nursing, industrial organizations, and public health groups on problems related to nursing activities and health services: Reviews and suggests changes in nursing organization and administrative procedures. Analyzes nursing techniques and recommends modifications. Aids schools in planning nursing curriculums, and hospitals and public health nursing services in developing and carrying out staff education programs. Provides assistance in developing guides and manuals for specific aspects of nursing services. Prepares educational materials and assists in planning and developing health and educational programs for industrial and community groups. Advises in services available through community resources. Consults with nursing groups concerning professional and educational problems. Prepares or furnishes data for articles and lectures. Participates in surveys and research studies.
GOE: 10.02.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

075.127-026 NURSE, SUPERVISOR, COMMUNITY-HEALTH NURSING (medical ser.) alternate titles: supervisor, public-health nursing

    Supervises and coordinates activities of nursing personnel in community health agency: Serves as liaison between staff and administrative personnel. Develops standards and procedures for providing nursing care and for evaluating service. Provides orientation, teaching, and guidance to staff to improve quality and quantity of service. Evaluates performance of personnel and interprets nursing standards to staff, advisory boards, nursing committees, and community groups. Recommends duty assignment of nursing personnel and coordinates services with other health and social agencies to render program more effective. Reviews, evaluates, and interprets nursing records, vital statistics, and other data affecting health service in order to assess community needs and to plan and implement programs to meet these needs. Assists in planning educational programs for nurses, related professional workers, and community groups to meet needs of personnel and practitioners. Assists in preparation of agency budget. May plan for and participate in field research related to community health nursing.
GOE: 10.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

075.127-030 NURSE, SUPERVISOR, EVENING-OR-NIGHT (medical ser.)

    Plans, organizes, and directs activities for evening or night shift of hospital nursing department: Establishes policies and procedures for nursing department, following directions of hospital administrators. Observes techniques of and services rendered by nursing staff to ensure adherence to hospital guidelines. Demonstrates techniques for nursing students and new personnel to provide training and direction. Identifies problem areas in nursing department, such as understaffing, absenteeism, and wastefulness, and takes corrective action. onitors use of supplies and equipment to avoid abuses and requisitions supplies. Responds to various departments requesting emergency assistance and assigns staff accordingly during emergencies. Prepares work schedule and assigns duties to nursing staff in department for efficient use of personnel.
GOE: 10.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 86

075.127-034 NURSE, INFECTION CONTROL (medical ser.)

    Directs and coordinates infection control program in hospital: Compares laboratory reports with communicable diseases list to identify conditions that require infection control procedures. Advises and consults with physicians, nurses, and hospital personnel concerning precautions to be taken to protect patients, staff, and other persons from possible contamination or infection. Investigates infection control problems and arranges for follow-up care for persons exposed to infection or disease. Instructs hospital personnel in universal and specific infection control procedures.
GOE: 10.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 90

075.137-010 NURSE, SUPERVISOR, OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH NURSING (medical ser.) alternate titles: nurse supervisor, industrial nursing

    Directs employee health services of industrial organization: Interprets plant and departmental health policies and regulations to nursing staff and employees. Coordinates activities of personnel rendering assistance to physician and nursing care to employees. Trains nursing staff in techniques of industrial nursing. Participates in planning and executing health information programs designed to improve efficiency and reduce absentee and accident rates. Assists workers in securing medical or other aid. Establishes work schedules for nursing staff and requisitions supplies. May conduct classes in first aid and home nursing for employees. May recommend appointment of nursing personnel.
GOE: 10.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

075.137-014 NURSE, HEAD (medical ser.)

    Supervises and coordinates nursing activities in hospital unit: Assigns duties and coordinates nursing service. Evaluates nursing activities to ensure patient care, staff relations, and efficiency of service. Observes nursing care and visits patients to ensure that nursing care is carried out as directed, and treatment administered in accordance with physician's instructions. Directs preparation and maintenance of patients' clinical records. Inspects rooms and wards for cleanliness and comfort. Accompanies physician on rounds, and keeps informed of special orders concerning patients. Participates in orientation and training of personnel. Orders, or directs ordering of drugs, solutions, and equipment, and maintains records on narcotics. Investigates and resolves complaints, or refers unusual problems to superior.
GOE: 10.02.01 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 87

075.167-010 NURSE, SUPERVISOR (medical ser.)

    Directs, through head nurses, activities of nursing staff: Plans and organizes activities in nursing services, such as obstetrics, pediatrics, or surgery, or for two or more patient-care units to ensure patient needs are met in accordance with instructions of physician and hospital administrative procedures. Coordinates activities with other patient care units. Consults with NURSE, HEAD (medical ser.) 075.137-014 on nursing problems and interpretation of hospital policies to ensure patient needs are met. Plans and organizes orientation and in-service training for unit staff members, and participates in guidance and educational programs. Assists in formulating budget. Engages in studies and investigations related to improving nursing care.
GOE: 10.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 87

075.167-014 QUALITY ASSURANCE COORDINATOR (medical ser.)

    Interprets and implements quality assurance standards in hospital to ensure quality care to patients: Reviews quality assurance standards, studies existing hospital policies and procedures, and interviews hospital personnel and patients to evaluate effectiveness of quality assurance program. Writes quality assurance policies and procedures. Reviews and evaluates patients' medical records, applying quality assurance criteria. Selects specific topics for review, such as problem procedures, drugs, high volume cases, high risk cases, or other factors. Compiles statistical data and writes narrative reports summarizing quality assurance findings. May review patient records, applying utilization review criteria, to determine need for admission and continued stay in hospital. May oversee personnel engaged in quality assurance review of medical records.
GOE: 10.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 90

075.264-010 NURSE PRACTITIONER (medical ser.) alternate titles: primary care nurse practitioner

    Provides general medical care and treatment to patients in medical facility, such as clinic, health center, or public health agency, under direction of physician: Performs physical examinations and preventive health measures within prescribed guidelines and instructions of physician. Orders, interprets, and evaluates diagnostic tests to identify and assess patient's clinical problems and health care needs. Records physical findings, and formulates plan and prognosis, based on patient's condition. Discusses case with physician and other health professionals to prepare comprehensive patient care plan. Submits health care plan and goals of individual patients for periodic review and evaluation by physician. Prescribes or recommends drugs or other forms of treatment such as physical therapy, inhalation therapy, or related therapeutic procedures. May refer patients to physician for consultation or to specialized health resources for treatment. May be designated according to field of specialization as Pediatric Nurse Practitioner (medical ser.). Where state law permits, may engage in independent practice.
GOE: 10.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 89

075.264-014 NURSE-MIDWIFE (medical ser.)

    Provides medical care and treatment to obstetrical patients under supervision of OBSTETRICIAN (medical ser.), delivers babies, and instructs patients in prenatal and postnatal health practices: Participates in initial examination of obstetrical patient, and is assigned responsibility for care, treatment, and delivery of patient. Examines patient during pregnancy, utilizing physical findings, laboratory test results, and patient's statements to evaluate condition and ensure that patient's progress is normal. Discusses case with OBSTETRICIAN (medical ser.) to assure observation of specified practices. Instructs patient in diet and prenatal health practices. Stays with patient during labor to reassure patient and to administer medication. Delivers infant and performs postpartum examinations and treatments to ensure that patient and infant are responding normally. When deviations from standard are encountered during pregnancy or delivery, administers stipulated emergency measures, and arranges for immediate contact of OBSTETRICIAN (medical ser.). Visits patient during postpartum period in hospital and at home to instruct patient in care of self and infant and examine patient. Maintains records of cases for inclusion in establishment file. Conducts classes for groups of patients and families to provide information concerning pregnancy, childbirth, and family orientation. May direct activities of other workers. May instruct in midwifery in establishment providing such training.
GOE: 10.02.01 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M5 L3 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

075.364-010 NURSE, GENERAL DUTY (medical ser.) alternate titles: nurse, staff

    Provides general nursing care to patients in hospital, nursing home, infirmary, or similar health care facility: Administers prescribed medications and treatments in accordance with approved nursing techniques. Prepares equipment and aids physician during treatments and examinations of patients. Observes patient, records significant conditions and reactions, and notifies supervisor or physician of patient's condition and reaction to drugs, treatments, and significant incidents. Takes temperature, pulse, blood pressure, and other vital signs to detect deviations from normal and assess condition of patient. May rotate among various clinical services of institution, such as obstetrics, surgery, orthopedics, outpatient and admitting, pediatrics, and psychiatry. May prepare rooms, sterile instruments, equipment and supplies, and hand items to SURGEON (medical ser.) 070.101-094; OBSTETRICIAN (medical ser.) 070.101-054, or other medical practitioner. May make beds, bathe, and feed patients. May serve as leader for group of personnel rendering nursing care to number of patients.
GOE: 10.02.01 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

075.371-010 NURSE ANESTHETIST (medical ser.)

    Administers local, inhalation, intravenous, and other anesthetics prescribed by ANESTHESIOLOGIST (medical ser.) 070.101-010 to induce total or partial loss of sensation or consciousness in patients during surgery, deliveries, or other medical and dental procedures: Fits mask to patient's face, turns dials and sets gauges of equipment to regulate flow of oxygen and gases to administer anesthetic by inhalation method, according to prescribed medical standards. Prepares prescribed solutions and administers local, intravenous, spinal, or other anesthetic, following specified methods and procedures. Notes patient's skin color and dilation of pupils and observes video screen and digital display of computerized equipment to monitor patient's vital signs during anesthesia. Initiates remedial measures to prevent surgical shock or other adverse conditions. Informs physician of patient's condition during anesthesia.
GOE: 10.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 90

075.374-014 NURSE, OFFICE (medical ser.)

    Cares for and treats patients in medical office, as directed by physician: Prepares patient for and assists with examinations. Administers injections and medications, dresses wounds and incisions, interprets physician's instructions to patients, assists with emergency and minor surgery, and performs related tasks as directed. Maintains records of vital statistics and other pertinent data of patient. Cleans and sterilizes instruments and equipment, and maintains stock of supplies. May conduct specified laboratory tests. May record and develop electrocardiograms. May act as receptionist, perform secretarial duties, and prepare monthly statements.
GOE: 10.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

075.374-018 NURSE, PRIVATE DUTY (medical ser.) alternate titles: nurse, special

    Contracts independently to render nursing care, usually to one patient, in hospital or private home: Administers medications, treatments, dressings, and other nursing services, according to physician's instructions and condition of patient. Observes, evaluates, and records symptoms. Applies independent emergency measures to counteract adverse developments and notifies physician of patient's condition. Directs patient in good health habits. Gives information to family in treatment of patient and maintenance of healthful environment. Maintains equipment and supplies. Cooperates with community agencies furnishing assistance to patient. May supervise diet when employed in private home. May specialize in one field of nursing, such as obstetrics, psychiatry, or tuberculosis.
GOE: 10.02.01 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

075.374-022 NURSE, STAFF, OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH NURSING (medical ser.) alternate titles: nurse, staff, industrial

    Provides nursing service and first aid to employees or persons who become ill or injured on premises of department store, industrial plant, or other establishment: Takes patient's vital signs, treats wounds, evaluates physical condition of patient, and contacts physician and hospital to arrange for further medical treatment, when needed. aintains record of persons treated, and prepares accident reports and insurance forms. Develops employee programs, such as health education, accident prevention, alcohol abuse counseling, curtailment of smoking, and weight control regimens. May assist physician in physical examination of new employees.
GOE: 10.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 87


    This group includes occupations concerned with the treatment and rehabilitation of persons with physical or mental disabilities or disorders, to develop or restore functions, prevent loss of physical capacities, and maintain optimum performance. Includes occupations utilizing means, such as exercise, massage, heat, light, water, electricity, and specific therapeutic apparatus, usually as prescribed by a physician; or participation in medically oriented rehabilitative programs, including educational, occupational, and recreational activities.

076.101-010 AUDIOLOGIST (medical ser.)

    Determines type and degree of hearing impairment and implements habilitation and rehabilitation services for patient: Administers and interprets variety of tests, such as air and bone conduction, and speech reception and discrimination tests, to determine type and degree of hearing impairment, site of damage, and effects on comprehension and speech. Evaluates test results in relation to behavioral, social, educational, and medical information obtained from patients, families, teachers, SPEECH PATHOLOGISTS (profess. & kin.) 076.107-010 and other professionals to determine communication problems related to hearing disability. Plans and implements prevention, habilitation, or rehabilitation services, including hearing aid selection and orientation, counseling, auditory training, lip reading, language habilitation, speech conservation, and other treatment programs developed in consultation with SPEECH PATHOLOGIST (profess. & kin.) and other professionals. May refer patient to physician or surgeon if medical treatment is determined necessary. May conduct research in physiology, pathology, biophysics, or psychophysics of auditory systems, or design and develop clinical and research procedures and apparatus. May act as consultant to educational, medical, legal, and other professional groups. May teach art and science of audiology and direct scientific projects.
GOE: 02.03.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 80

076.104-010 VOICE PATHOLOGIST (profess. & kin.)

    Diagnoses and treats voice disorders, such as those associated with professional use of voice: Develops and implements perceptual evaluation procedures and psychophysical methods for voice assessment. Collects diagnostic data on individuals, such as output pressures, airflow, chestwall movements, and articular and laryngeal displacement, using scopes and other measuring instruments. Analyzes and interprets diagnostic data and consults with OTOLARYNGOLOGIST (medical ser.) 070.101-062 and other professionals to determine method of treatment, such as surgery, vocal modification, or voice therapy. Plans and conducts voice therapy sessions, applying auditory, visual, kinematic, and biofeedback techniques. Plans and conducts voice hygiene workshops. Calibrates equipment. May teach voice science to associates and direct research in area of voice. May establish procedures and direct operation of laboratory specializing in diagnosing and treating voice disorders and be designated Director, Bio-Communications Laboratory (medical ser.).
GOE: 02.03.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 86

076.107-010 SPEECH PATHOLOGIST (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: speech clinician; speech therapist

    Specializes in diagnosis and treatment of speech and language problems, and engages in scientific study of human communication: Diagnoses and evaluates speech and language skills as related to educational, medical, social, and psychological factors. Plans, directs, or conducts habilitative and rehabilitative treatment programs to restore communicative efficiency of individuals with communication problems of organic and nonorganic etiology. Provides counseling and guidance and language development therapy to handicapped individuals. Reviews individual file to obtain background information prior to evaluation to determine appropriate tests and to ensure that adequate information is available. Administers, scores, and interprets specialized hearing and speech tests. Develops and implements individualized plans for assigned clients to meet individual needs, interests, and abilities. Evaluates and monitors individuals, using audio-visual equipment, such as tape recorders, overhead projectors, filmstrips, and demonstrative materials. Reviews treatment plan, and assesses individual performance to modify, change, or write new programs. Maintains records as required by law, establishment's policy, and administrative regulations. Attends meetings and conferences and participates in other activities to promote professional growth. Instructs individuals to monitor their own speech and provides ways to practice new skills. May act as consultant to educational, medical, and other professional groups. May conduct research to develop diagnostic and remedial techniques. May serve as consultant to classroom teachers to incorporate speech and language development activities into daily schedule. May teach manual sign language to student incapable of speaking. May instruct staff in use of special equipment designed to serve handicapped. See AUDIOLOGIST (medical ser.) 076.101-010 for one who specializes in diagnosis of, and provision of rehabilitative services for, auditory problems.
GOE: 02.03.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

076.117-010 COORDINATOR OF REHABILITATION SERVICES (medical ser.) alternate titles: director of rehabilitative services

    Plans, administers, and directs operation of health rehabilitation programs, such as physical, occupational, recreational, and speech therapies: Consults with medical and professional staff of other departments and personnel from associated health care fields to plan and coordinate joint patient and management objectives. Conducts staff conferences and plans training programs to maintain proficiency of staff in therapy techniques and use of new methods and equipment to meet patients' needs. Allocates personnel on basis of work load, space, and equipment available. Analyzes operating costs and prepares department budget. Recommends patient fees for therapy based on use of equipment and therapy staff. May coordinate research projects to develop new approaches to rehabilitative therapy. May serve as rehabilitative therapy consultant to employers, educational institutions, and community organizations.
GOE: 11.07.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 89

076.121-010 OCCUPATIONAL THERAPIST (medical ser.)

    Plans, organizes, and conducts occupational therapy program in hospital, institution, or community setting to facilitate development and rehabilitation of mentally, physically, or emotionally handicapped: Plans program involving activities, such as manual arts and crafts; practice in functional, prevocational, vocational, and homemaking skills, and activities of daily living; and participation in sensorimotor, educational, recreational, and social activities designed to help patients or handicapped persons develop or regain physical or mental functioning or adjust to handicaps. Consults with other members of rehabilitation team to select activity program consistent with needs and capabilities of individual and to coordinate occupational therapy with other therapeutic activities. Selects constructive activities suited to individual's physical capacity, intelligence level, and interest to upgrade individual to maximum independence, prepare individual for return to employment, assist in restoration of functions, and aid in adjustment to disability. Teaches individuals skills and techniques required for participation in activities and evaluates individual's progress. Designs and constructs special equipment for individual and suggests adaptation of individual's work-living environment. Requisitions supplies and equipment. Lays out materials for individual's use and cleans and repairs tools at end of sessions. May conduct training programs or participate in training medical and nursing students and other workers in occupational therapy techniques and objectives. May plan, direct, and coordinate occupational therapy program and be designated Director, Occupational Therapy (medical ser.).
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

076.121-014 PHYSICAL THERAPIST (education; medical ser.) alternate titles: physiotherapist

    Plans and administers medically prescribed physical therapy treatment for patients suffering from injuries, or muscle, nerve, joint and bone diseases, to restore function, relieve pain, and prevent disability: Reviews physician's referral (prescription) and patient's condition and medical records to determine physical therapy treatment required. Tests and measures patient's strength, motor development, sensory perception, functional capacity, and respiratory and circulatory efficiency, and records findings to develop or revise treatment programs. Plans and prepares written treatment program based on evaluation of patient data. Administers manual exercises to improve and maintain function. Instructs, motivates, and assists patient to perform various physical activities, such as nonmanual exercises, ambulatory functional activities, daily-living activities, and in use of assistant and supportive devices, such as crutches, canes, and prostheses. Administers treatments involving application of physical agents, using equipment, such as hydrotherapy tanks and whirlpool baths, moist packs, ultraviolet and infrared lamps, and ultrasound machines. Evaluates effects of treatment at various stages and adjusts treatments to achieve maximum benefit. Administers massage, applying knowledge of massage techniques and body physiology. Administers traction to relieve pain, using traction equipment. Records treatment, response, and progress in patient's chart or enters information into computer. Instructs patient and family in treatment procedures to be continued at home. Evaluates, fits, and adjusts prosthetic and orthotic devices and recommends modification to ORTHOTIST (medical ser.) 078.261-018. Confers with physician and other practitioners to obtain additional patient information, suggest revisions in treatment program, and integrate physical therapy treatment with other aspects of patient's health care. Orients, instructs, and directs work activities of assistants, aides, and students. May plan and conduct lectures and training programs on physical therapy and related topics for medical staff, students, and community groups. May plan and develop physical therapy research programs and participate in conducting research. May write technical articles and reports for publications. May teach physical therapy techniques and procedures in educational institutions. May limit treatment to specific patient group or disability or specialize in conducting physical therapy research. In facilities where assistants are also employed, may primarily administer complex treatment, such as certain types of manual exercises and functional training, and monitor administration of other treatments. May plan, direct, and coordinate physical therapy program and be designated Director, Physical Therapy (medical ser.). Must comply with state requirement for licensure.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

076.121-018 EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGIST (medical ser.)

    Develops, implements, and coordinates exercise programs and administers medical tests, under physician's supervision, to program participants to promote physical fitness: Explains program and test procedures to participant. Interviews participant to obtain vital statistics and medical history and records information. Records heart activity, using electrocardiograph (EKG) machine, while participant undergoes stress test on treadmill, under physician's supervision. Measures oxygen consumption and lung functioning, using spirometer. easures amount of fat in body, using such equipment as hydrostatic scale, skinfold calipers, and tape measure, to assess body composition. Performs routine laboratory test of blood samples for cholesterol level and glucose tolerance, or interprets test results. Schedules other examinations and tests, such as physical examination, chest x ray, and urinalysis. Records test data in patient's chart or enters data into computer. Writes initial and follow-up exercise prescriptions for participants, following physician's recommendation, specifying equipment, such as treadmill, track, or bike. Demonstrates correct use of exercise equipment and exercise routines. Conducts individual and group aerobic, strength, and flexibility exercises. Observes participants during exercise for signs of stress. Teaches behavior modification classes, such as stress management, weight control, and related subjects. Orders material and supplies and calibrates equipment. May supervise work activities of other staff members.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 90

076.124-010 MANUAL-ARTS THERAPIST (medical ser.)

    Instructs patients in prescribed manual arts activities to prevent anatomical and physiological deconditioning, and to assist in maintaining, improving, or developing work skills: Collaborates with other members of rehabilitation team in planning and organizing work activities consonant with patients' capabilities and disabilities. Teaches, by means of actual or simulated work situations, activities, such as woodworking, photography, metalworking, agriculture, electricity, and graphic arts. Prepares reports showing development of patient's work tolerance, and emotional and social adjustment to aid medical personnel in evaluating patient's progress and ability to meet physical and mental demands of employment.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

076.124-014 RECREATIONAL THERAPIST (medical ser.) alternate titles: therapeutic recreation worker

    Plans, organizes, and directs medically approved recreation program for patients in hospitals and other institutions: Directs and organizes such activities as sports, dramatics, games, and arts and crafts to assist patients to develop interpersonal relationships, to socialize effectively, and to develop confidence needed to participate in group activities. Regulates content of program in accordance with patients' capabilities, needs and interests. Instructs patients in relaxation techniques, such as deep breathing, concentration, and other activities, to reduce stress and tension. Instructs patients in calisthenics, stretching and limbering exercises, and individual and group sports. Counsels and encourages patients to develop leisure activities. Organizes and coordinates special outings and accompanies patients on outings, such as ball games, sightseeing, or picnics to make patients aware of available recreational resources. Prepares progress charts and periodic reports for medical staff and other members of treatment team, reflecting patients' reactions and evidence of progress or regression. ay supervise and conduct in-service training of other staff members, review their assessments and program goals, and consult with them on selected cases. May train groups of volunteers and students in techniques of recreation therapy. May serve as consultant to employers, educational institutions, and community health programs. May prepare and submit requisition for needed supplies.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M2 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 89

076.124-018 HORTICULTURAL THERAPIST (medical ser.)

    Plans, coordinates, and conducts therapeutic gardening program to facilitate rehabilitation of physically and mentally handicapped patients: Confers with medical staff and patients to determine patients' needs. Evaluates patients' disabilities to determine gardening programs. Conducts gardening sessions to rehabilitate, train, and provide recreation for patients. Revises gardening program, based on observations and evaluation of patients' progress.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 86

076.127-010 ART THERAPIST (medical ser.)

    Plans and conducts art therapy programs in public and private institutions to rehabilitate mentally and physically disabled clients: Confers with members of medically oriented team to determine physical and psychological needs of client. Devises art therapy program to fulfill physical and psychological needs. Instructs individuals and groups in use of various art materials, such as paint, clay, and yarn. Appraises client's art projections and recovery progress. Reports findings to other members of treatment team and counsels on client's response until art therapy is discontinued. Maintains and repairs art materials and equipment.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

076.127-014 MUSIC THERAPIST (medical ser.)

    Plans, organizes, and directs medically prescribed music therapy activities as part of mental and physical health care and treatment of patients to influence behavioral and psychological changes leading to restoration, maintenance, and improvement of health and increased comprehension of self, environment, and physical ability: Collaborates with other members of rehabilitation team in planning music activities in accordance with patients' physical or psychological needs, capabilities, and interests. Develops treatment plan, using individualized needs assessment, depending on focus of therapy, such as hospice, psychiatric, or obstetrics. Directs and participates in instrumental and vocal music activities designed to meet patients' physical or psychological needs, such as solo or group singing, rhythmic and other creative music activities, music listening, or attending concerts. Instructs patients individually or in groups in prescribed instrumental or vocal music and music projective techniques, such as guided imagery, progressive relaxation, awareness of conscious feelings, or musically intergraded Lamaze Method. Studies and analyzes patients' reactions to various experiences and prepares reports describing symptoms indicative of progress or regression. Submits periodic reports to treatment team or physician to provide clinical data for evaluation. May oversee practicum and approved internships.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

076.127-018 DANCE THERAPIST (medical ser.)

    Plans, organizes, and leads dance and body movement activities to improve patients' mental outlooks and physical well-beings: Observes and evaluates patient's mental and physical disabilities to determine dance and body movement treatment. Confers with patient and medical personnel to develop dance therapy program. Conducts individual and group dance sessions to improve patient's mental and physical well-being. Makes changes in patient's program based on observation and evaluation of progress. Attends and participates in professional conferences and workshops to enhance efficiency and knowledge.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 86

076.167-010 INDUSTRIAL THERAPIST (medical ser.)

    Arranges salaried, productive employment in actual work environment for mentally ill patients, to enable patients to perform medically prescribed work activities, and to motivate and prepare patients to resume employment outside hospital environment: Determines work activities for greatest therapeutic value for particular patient within limits of patient's disability. Plans work activities in coordination with other members of rehabilitation team. Assigns patient to work activity and evaluates patient's progress. Processes payroll records and salary distribution.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

076.224-010 PHYSICAL THERAPIST ASSISTANT (medical ser.) alternate titles: physical therapy assistant; physical therapy technician

    Administers physical therapy treatments to patients, working under direction of and as assistant to PHYSICAL THERAPIST (medical ser.) 076.121-014: Administers active and passive manual therapeutic exercises, therapeutic massage, and heat, light, sound, water, and electrical modality treatments, such as ultrasound, electrical stimulation, ultraviolet, infrared, and hot and cold packs. Administers traction to relieve neck and back pain, using intermittent and static traction equipment. Instructs, motivates, and assists patients to learn and improve functional activities, such as preambulation, transfer, ambulation, and daily-living activities. Observes patients during treatments and compiles and evaluates data on patients' responses to treatments and progress and reports orally or in writing to PHYSICAL THERAPIST (medical ser.). Fits patients for, adjusts, and trains patients in use and care of orthopedic braces, prostheses, and supportive devices, such as crutches, canes, walkers, and wheelchairs. Confers with members of physical therapy staff and other health team members, individually and in conference, to exchange, discuss, and evaluate patient information for planning, modifying, and coordinating treatment programs. Gives orientation to new PHYSICAL THERAPIST ASSISTANTS (medical ser.) and directs and gives instructions to PHYSICAL THERAPY AIDES (medical ser.) 355.354-010. Performs clerical duties, such as taking inventory, ordering supplies, answering telephone, taking messages, and filling out forms. May measure patient's range-of-joint motion, length and girth of body parts, and vital signs to determine effects of specific treatments or to assist PHYSICAL THERAPIST (medical ser.) to compile data for patient evaluations. May monitor treatments administered by PHYSICAL THERAPY AIDES (medical ser.).
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 87

076.224-014 ORIENTATION AND MOBILITY THERAPIST FOR THE BLIND (education; medical ser.; nonprofit org.) alternate titles: counselor, orientation and mobility; instructor of blind; orientor; orientation therapist for blind; therapist for blind

    Assists blind and visually impaired clients to achieve personal adjustment and maximum independence through training in techniques of daily living: Interviews clients, analyzes client's lifestyle, and administers assessment tests to determine present and required or desired orientation and mobility skills. Trains clients in awareness of physical environment through sense of smell, hearing, and touch, and to travel alone, with or without cane, through use of variety of actual or simulated travel situations and exercises. Teaches clients personal and home management skills, and communication skills, such as eating, grooming, dressing, coin and money identification, cooking, and use of telephone and bathroom facilities. Teaches clients to protect body, using hands and arms to detect obstacles. Instructs clients in arts, crafts, and recreational skills, such as macrame, leatherworking, sewing, ceramics, and playing piano to improve sense of touch, coordination, and motor skills. Teaches clients to read and write Braille. Instructs client in use of reading machines and common electrical devices, and in development of effective listening techniques. Instructs clients in group activities, such as swimming, dancing, or playing modified sports activities to encourage and increase capacity for social participation and improve general health. Prepares progress report to allow members of rehabilitation team to evaluate clients' ability to perform varied activities essential to daily living. ay develop and implement individualized orientation and mobility instructional program for blind and visually impaired and be designated Orientation And Mobility Instructor (education).
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 6 DLU: 80


    Conducts physical integration program to improve client's muscular function and flexibility: Determines client's medical history regarding accidents, operations, or chronic health complaints to plan objectives of program, using questionnaire. Photographs client to obtain different views of client's posture to facilitate treatment, using camera. Instructs client to demonstrate arm and leg movement and flexion of spine to evaluate client against established program norms. Determines program treatment procedures and discusses goals of program with client. Applies skin lubricant to section of body specified for treatment and massages muscles to release subclinical adhesions either manually or using hand held tool, utilizing knowledge of anatomy. Demonstrates and directs client's participation in specific exercises designed to fatigue desired muscle groups and release tension. Observes client's progress during program through such factors as increased joint movement, improved posture, or coordination. Records client's treatment, response, and progress.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R3 M1 L2 SVP: 6 DLU: 86

076.361-010 CORRECTIVE THERAPIST (medical ser.)

    Provides medically prescribed program of physical exercises and activities designed to prevent muscular deterioration resulting from long convalescence or inactivity due to chronic illness: Collaborates with other members of rehabilitation team in organizing patients' course of treatment. Establishes rapport with patients to motivate them, choosing exercises and activities in accordance with prescription. Utilizes any or combination of resistive, assistive, or free movement exercises, utilizing bars, or hydrogymnastics. Instructs patients in use, function, and care of prostheses and devices, such as braces, crutches, or canes and in use of manually controlled vehicles. Directs blind persons in foot travel. Prepares progress reports of patient's emotional reactions to and progress in training by observing patient during exercises to provide clinical data for diagnosis and prognosis by rehabilitation team. Directs patients in techniques of personal hygiene to compensate for permanent disabilities.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M2 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

076.361-014 RESPIRATORY THERAPIST (medical ser.)

    Administers respiratory therapy care and life support to patients with deficiencies and abnormalities of cardiopulmonary system, under supervision of physician and by prescription: Reads prescription, measures arterial blood gases, and reviews patient information to assess patient condition and determine requirements for treatment, such as type and duration of therapy, and medication and dosages. Determines most suitable method of administering inhalants, precautions to be observed, and modifications which may be needed that will be compatible with physician's orders. Sets up and operates devices, such as mechanical ventilators, therapeutic gas administration apparatus, environmental control systems, and aerosol generators. Operates equipment to ensure specified parameters of treatment, such as volume, gas concentration, humidity, and temperature, and to administer medicinal gases and aerosol drugs to patients. Monitors patient's physiological responses to therapy, such as vital signs, arterial blood gases, and blood chemistry changes. Performs bronchopulmonary drainage and assists patient in performing breathing exercises. Performs pulmonary function tests to be used by physician in diagnosis of case. Observes equipment function and adjusts equipment to obtain optimum results to therapy. Consults with physician in event of adverse reactions. Maintains patient's chart that contains pertinent identification and therapy information. Inspects and tests respiratory therapy equipment to ensure equipment is functioning safely and efficiently. Orders repairs when needed. Demonstrates respiratory care procedures to trainees and other health care personnel.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M3 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 88

076.364-010 OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY ASSISTANT (medical ser.) alternate titles: educational/development assistant

    Assists OCCUPATIONAL THERAPIST (medical ser.) 076.121-010 in administering occupational therapy program in hospital, related facility, or community setting for physically, developmentally, mentally retarded, or emotionally handicapped clients: Assists in evaluation of clients daily living skills and capacities to determine extent of abilities and limitations. Assists in planning and implementing educational, vocational, and recreational programs and activities established by registered OCCUPATIONAL THERAPIST (medical ser.), designed to restore, reinforce, and enhance task performances, diminish or correct pathology, and to promote and maintain health and self-sufficiency. Designs and adapts equipment and working-living environment. Fabricates splints and other assistant devices. Reports information and observations to supervisor. Carries out general activity program for individuals or groups. Assists in instructing patient and family in home programs as well as care and use of adaptive equipment. Prepares work materials, assists in maintenance of equipment, and orders supplies. May be responsible for maintaining observed information in client records and preparing reports. May teach basic living skills to institutionalized, mentally retarded adults. May assist EDUCATIONAL SPECIALIST (education) 099.167-022 or CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGIST (profess. & kin.) 045.107-022 in administering situational or diagnostic tests to measure client's abilities or progress.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 86


    This group includes occupations concerned with the application of the principles of nutrition to plan and supervise the preparation and serving of meals. Includes planning menus and diets for special nutritional requirements; participating in research; or instructing in the field of nutrition.

077.061-010 DIETITIAN, RESEARCH (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: research nutritionist

    Conducts nutritional research to expand knowledge in one or more phases of dietetics: Plans, organizes, and conducts programs in nutrition, foods, and food service systems, evaluating and utilizing appropriate methodology and tools to carry out program. Studies and analyzes recent scientific discoveries in nutrition for application in current research, for development of tools for future research, and for interpretation to public. Communicates findings through reports and publications.
GOE: 02.02.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

077.117-010 DIETITIAN, CHIEF (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: dietitian, administrative; director, dietetics department

    Directs activities of institution department providing quantity food service and nutritional care: Administers, plans, and directs activities of department providing quantity food service. Establishes policies and procedures, and provides administrative direction for menu formulation, food preparation and service, purchasing, sanitation standards, safety practices, and personnel utilization. Selects professional dietetic staff, and directs departmental educational programs. Coordinates interdepartmental professional activities, and serves as consultant to management on matters pertaining to dietetics.
GOE: 11.05.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

077.124-010 DIETETIC TECHNICIAN (profess. & kin.)

    Provides services in assigned areas of food service management, teaches principles of food and nutrition, and provides dietary consultation, under direction of DIETITIAN, CLINICAL (profess. & kin.) 077.127-014: Plans menus based on established guidelines. Standardizes recipes and tests new products for use in facility. Supervises food production and service. Obtains and evaluates dietary histories of individuals to plan nutritional programs. Guides individuals and families in food selection, preparation, and menu planning, based upon nutritional needs. Assists in referrals for continuity of patient care. May select, schedule, and conduct orientation and in-service education programs. May develop job specifications, job descriptions, and work schedules. May assist in implementing established cost control procedures.
GOE: 05.05.17 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

077.127-010 COMMUNITY DIETITIAN (profess. & kin.)

    Plans, organizes, coordinates, and evaluates nutritional component of health care services for organization: Develops and implements plan of care based on assessment of nutritional needs and available sources and correlates plan with other health care. Evaluates nutritional care and provides followup continuity of care. Instructs individuals and families in nutritional principles, diet, food selection, and economics and adapts teaching plans to individual life style. Provides consultation to and works with community groups. Conducts or participates in in-service education and consultation with professional staff and supporting personnel of own and related organizations. Plans or participates in development of program proposals for funding. Plans, conducts, and evaluates dietary studies and participates in nutritional and epidemiologic studies with nutritional component. Evaluates food service systems and makes recommendation for conformance level that will provide optional nutrition and quality food if associated with group care institutions. May be employed by public health agency and be designated Nutritionist, Public Health (government ser.).
GOE: 11.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

077.127-014 DIETITIAN, CLINICAL (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: dietitian, therapeutic

    Plans therapeutic diets and implements preparation and service of meals for patients in hospital, clinic, or other health care facility: Consults with physician and other health care personnel to determine nutritional needs and diet restrictions, such as low fat or salt free, of patients. Formulates menus for therapeutic diets based on medical and physical condition of patients and integrates patient's menus with basic institutional menus. Inspects meals served for conformance to prescribed diets and for standards of palatability and appearance. Instructs patients and their families in nutritional principles, dietary plans, food selection, and preparation. May supervise activities of workers engaged in food preparation and service. May engage in research [DIETITIAN, RESEARCH (profess. & kin.) 077.061-010]. May teach nutrition and diet therapy to medical students and hospital personnel [DIETITIAN, TEACHING (profess. & kin.) 077.127-022].
GOE: 05.05.17 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 86

077.127-018 DIETITIAN, CONSULTANT (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: institutional-nutrition consultant

    Advises and assists personnel in public and private establishments, such as hospitals, health-related facilities, child-care centers, and schools, in food service systems and nutritional care of clients: Evaluates and monitors all aspects of food service operation, making recommendations for conformance level that will provide nutritionally adequate, quality food. Plans, organizes, and conducts orientation and in-service educational programs for food service personnel. Develops menu patterns. Assesses, develops, implements, and evaluates nutritional-care plans and provides for followup, including written reports. Consults with health care team concerning nutritional care of client. Confers with designers, builders, and equipment personnel in planning for building or remodeling food service units.
GOE: 05.05.17 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

077.127-022 DIETITIAN, TEACHING (profess. & kin.)

    Plans, organizes, and conducts educational programs in dietetics, nutrition, and institution management for DIETETIC INTERNS (profess. & kin.), nursing students, and other medical personnel: Develops curriculum and prepares manuals, visual aids, course outlines, and other material used in teaching. Lectures students on composition and values of foods, principles of nutrition, menu planning, diet therapy, food cost control, marketing, and administration of dietary department. May engage in research.
GOE: 11.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77


    This group includes occupations concerned with the application of technical knowledge in fields of medicine or dentistry for examination and treatment of patients or for research. Occupations occur in a doctor's or dentist's office, hospital, or laboratory.


    Teaches one or more phases of medical technology to students of medicine, medical technology, or nursing arts, or to INTERNS (medical ser.): Organizes and directs medical technology training program. Formulates curriculums, outlines course materials, and establishes criteria in other matters affecting education and welfare of students. Develops educational policies concerning teaching methods. Supervises other instructors. May act as liaison officer between college or university and laboratory or hospital to coordinate academic and clinical training. May specialize in teaching one phase of medical technology.
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

078.131-010 CHIEF TECHNOLOGIST, NUCLEAR MEDICINE (medical ser.) alternate titles: chief, nuclear medicine technologist

    Supervises and coordinates activities of NUCLEAR EDICINE TECHNOLOGISTS (medical ser.) 078.361-018 engaged in preparing, administering, and measuring radioactive isotopes in therapeutic, diagnostic, and tracer studies: Assigns workers to prepare radiopharmaceuticals, perform nuclear medicine studies, and conduct laboratory tests, and monitors activities to ensure efficiency and accuracy of procedures. Writes computer protocols for diagnostic studies. Develops protocols for new and revised procedures and trains department workers in overall operation of department and use of equipment. Administers radiopharmaceuticals under direction of physician or other qualified medical personnel. Implements and supervises radiation safety policies and procedures to ensure safety of personnel and legal requirements are met for handling and disposing of radioactive materials. Assists in coordinating activities with other departments and in resolving operating problems. Performs duties of NUCLEAR MEDICINE TECHNOLOGIST (medical ser.) as needed.
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 89

078.161-010 MEDICAL TECHNOLOGIST, CHIEF (medical ser.) alternate titles: medical laboratory manager

    Directs and coordinates activities of workers engaged in performing chemical, microscopic, and bacteriologic tests to obtain data for use in diagnosis and treatment of diseases: Assigns workers to duties and oversees performance of tests in fields of microbiology, chemistry, histology, hematology, immunohematology, and serology. Purchases or directs purchase of laboratory equipment and supplies. Reviews test results to ensure quality control. Coordinates and conducts education and training programs for medical technology students and personnel.
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 89


    Coordinates activities of CARDIOPULMONARY TECHNOLOGISTS (medical ser.) 078.362-030 engaged in performing diagnostic testing and treatment of patients with heart, lung, and blood vessel disorders: Establishes methods for conducting tests and treatments, applying knowledge of medical requirements and laboratory procedures. Schedules patients for tests and treatment by staff members. Reviews reports to ensure compliance with test and treatment procedures. Develops and modifies training program for assigned personnel. Evaluates worker performances and recommends promotions, transfers, and dismissals.
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 86

078.162-010 RADIOLOGIC TECHNOLOGIST, CHIEF (medical ser.) alternate titles: chief, radiology

    Directs and coordinates activities of radiology or diagnostic imaging department in hospital or other medical facility: Reviews work schedules and assigns duties to workers to maintain patient flow and achieve production goals. Oversees staff in operation of imaging equipment, such as x-ray machine, fluoroscope, CT (computerized tomography) scanner, or MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) equipment, evaluates accuracy and quality of images, and provides technical assistance. Demonstrates new techniques, equipment, and procedures to staff. Implements and monitors radiation safety measures to ensure safety of patients and staff and compliance with government regulatory requirements. Recommends personnel actions, such as performance evaluations, promotions, and disciplinary measures. Coordinates purchase of supplies and equipment and makes recommendations concerning department operating budget.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 89

078.261-010 BIOCHEMISTRY TECHNOLOGIST (medical ser.) alternate titles: medical technologist, chemistry; technologist, biochemistry

    Performs qualitative and quantitative chemical analyses of body fluids and exudates, following instructions, to provide information used in diagnosis and treatment of diseases: Tests specimens, such as urine, blood, spinal fluid, and gastric juices, for presence and quantity of sugar, albumin, drugs, toxins, and blood gases such as oxygen. Prepares solutions used in chemical analysis. Calibrates and maintains manual and computer-controlled analyzers, spectrophotometers, colorimeters, flame photometers, and other equipment used in quantitative and qualitative analysis. May take blood samples.
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

078.261-014 MICROBIOLOGY TECHNOLOGIST (medical ser.) alternate titles: medical technologist, microbiology

    Cultivates, isolates, and assists in identifying bacteria and other microbial organisms, and performs various bacteriological, mycological, virological, mycobacteriological, and parasitological tests: Receives human or animal body materials from autopsy or diagnostic cases, or collects specimens directly from patients, under supervision of laboratory director. Examines materials for evidence of microbial organisms. Makes parasitological tests of specimens. May instruct medical laboratory students and other medical personnel in laboratory procedures. May supervise other technologists and be known as Supervisor, Microbiology Technologists (medical ser.).
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 87

078.261-018 ORTHOTIST (medical ser.)

    Provides care to patients with disabling conditions of limbs and spine by fitting and preparing orthopedic braces, under direction of and in consultation with physician: Assists in formulation of specifications for braces. Examines and evaluates patient's needs in relation to disease and functional loss. Formulates design of orthopedic brace. Selects materials, making cast measurements, model modifications, and layouts. Performs fitting, including static and dynamic alignments. Evaluates brace on patient and makes adjustments to assure fit, function, and quality of work. Instructs patient in use of orthopedic brace. Maintains patient records. May supervise ORTHOTICS ASSISTANTS (medical ser.) 078.361-022 and other support personnel. May supervise laboratory activities relating to development of orthopedic braces. May lecture and demonstrate to colleagues and other professionals concerned with orthotics. May participate in research. May perform functions of PROSTHETIST (medical ser.) 078.261-022 and be designated Orthotist-Prosthetist (medical ser.).
GOE: 05.05.11 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

078.261-022 PROSTHETIST (medical ser.)

    Provides care to patients with partial or total absence of limb by planning fabrication of, writing specifications for, and fitting prosthesis under guidance of and in consultation with physician: Assists physician in formulation of prescription. Examines and evaluates patient's prosthetic needs in relation to disease entity and functional loss. Formulates design of prosthesis and selects materials and components. Makes casts, measurements, and model modifications. Performs fitting, including static and dynamic alignments. Evaluates prosthesis on patient and makes adjustments to assure fit, function, comfort, and quality. Instructs patient in prosthesis use. Maintains patient records. May supervise PROSTHETICS ASSISTANTS (medical ser.) 078.361-026 and other personnel. May supervise laboratory activities relating to development of prosthesis. May lecture and demonstrate to colleagues and other professionals concerned with practice of prosthetics. May participate in research. May also perform functions of ORTHOTIST (medical ser.) 078.261-018.
GOE: 05.05.11 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

078.261-026 CYTOGENETIC TECHNOLOGIST (medical ser.)

    Prepares, examines, and analyzes chromosomes found in biological specimens, such as amniotic fluids, bone marrow, and blood, to aid in diagnosis and treatment of genetic diseases: Selects and prepares specimen and media for cell culture, using aseptic technique, knowledge of medium components, and cell nutritional requirements. Harvests cell culture at optimum time sequence based on knowledge of cell cycle differences and culture conditions. Prepares slide of cell culture, selects banding technique, and stains slide to make chromosomes visible under microscope, following standard laboratory procedures. Views slide through photomicroscope to count and identify chromosome number and presence of structural abnormality. Photographs slide and prints picture. Cuts images of chromosomes from photograph, identifies number and types of chromosomes, and arranges and attaches chromosomes in numbered pairs on karyotype chart, using standard genetics laboratory practices and nomenclature to identify normal or abnormal chromosomes. Communicates with physicians, family members, and researchers requesting technical information or test results. May supervise subordinate laboratory personnel and be known as Supervisor, Cytogenetic Laboratory (medical ser.).
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 90

078.261-030 HISTOTECHNOLOGIST (medical ser.) alternate titles: histologic technologist; tissue technologist

    Prepares histologic slides from tissue sections for microscopic examination and diagnosis by PATHOLOGIST (medical ser.) 070.061-010: Prepares sections of human or animal tissue for immediate examination, using rapid tissue processing and frozen section technique to freeze, cut, mount and stain tissue specimen received from surgery. Operates computerized laboratory equipment to fix, dehydrate, and infiltrate with wax, tissue specimens to be preserved for study by PATHOLOGIST (medical ser.). Prepares slides of specimens, using specified stain, to enhance visibility under microscope. Examines slides under microscope to ensure tissue preparation meets laboratory requirements. May study slides under microscope to detect deviations from norm and report abnormalities for further study. May supervise activities of laboratory personnel and be known as Supervisor, Histology (medical ser.).
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 6 DLU: 87

078.261-034 MEDICAL RADIATION DOSIMETRIST (medical ser.) alternate titles: dosimetrist

    Measures and calculates radiation dose and develops optimum arrangement of radiation fields and exposures to treat patient: Studies prescription, x rays showing area to be treated, and requirements for dose calculation. Selects beam energy, optimum multiple beam arrangement, beam modifying devices, and other factors, using computer, manuals, and guides. Develops several possible treatment arrangements that meet physician's criteria and submits arrangements for selection by physician. Measures and calculates prescribed radiation dose based upon field sizes, depth of tumor, treatment unit, beam modifying devices, and other information, using manuals, guides, and computer. Calculates and records daily prescribed radiation dose. Explains treatment plan to RADIATION-THERAPY TECHNOLOGISTS (medical ser.) 078.361-034. May operate x-ray equipment to obtain diagnostic x ray of patient in treatment position. May simulate treatment procedure to assist in planning treatment.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 90

078.261-038 MEDICAL TECHNOLOGIST (medical ser.)

    Performs medical laboratory tests, procedures, experiments, and analyses to provide data for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease: Conducts chemical analyses of body fluids, such as blood, urine, and spinal fluid, to determine presence of normal and abnormal components. Studies blood cells, their numbers, and morphology, using microscopic technique. Performs blood group, type, and compatibility tests for transfusion purposes. Analyzes test results and enters findings in computer. Engages in medical research under direction of MEDICAL TECHNOLOGIST, CHIEF (medical ser.) 078.161-010. May train and supervise students. May specialize in area such as hematology, blood-bank, serology, immunohematology, bacteriology, histology, or chemistry.
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 88

078.261-042 PHERESIS SPECIALIST (medical ser.) alternate titles: hemotherapist

    Collects blood components and provides therapeutic treatments, such as replacement of plasma, or removal of white blood cells or platelets, to patients, using blood cell separator equipment: Compiles and evaluates donor information to ensure that donor meets screening criteria. Connects and installs tubing, transfer pack units, saline solution unit, other solution packs, and collection and separation containers to set up blood cell separator equipment. Explains procedures to donor or patient to reduce anxieties and obtain cooperation of donor or patient. Performs venipuncture on donor or patient to connect donor or patient to tubing of equipment to prepare for procedure. Sets controls and starts equipment that collects specific blood component or adds, reduces, or replaces blood component, and replaces remaining blood in vein of patient or donor. Monitors operation of equipment and observes trouble lights indicating equipment problems. Talks to and observes donor or patient for signs of distress or side effects such as pallor, nausea, fainting, or other problems during procedure. Forwards collection bag to laboratory for testing or further processing. Records information following collection or treatment procedures, such as flow rate, body site at which needle was inserted, anticoagulant rate, amount of fluids used, volume processed, red cells lost, and other information.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

078.261-046 IMMUNOHEMATOLOGIST (medical ser.)

    Performs immunohematology tests, recommends blood problem solutions to doctors, and serves as consultant to blood bank and community: Visually inspects blood in specimen tubes for hemolysis. Centrifuges blood specimen to separate red cells from serum and tests separated serum to detect presence of antibodies. Interprets reactions observed to devise experiments and suggest techniques that will resolve patient's blood problems. Combines known and unknown cells with serum in test tubes and selects reagents, such as albumin, protolytic enzymes, and anti-human globutin, for individual tests to enhance and make visible reactions of agglutination and hemolysis. Processes various combinations in centrifuge and examines resulting samples under microscope to identify evidence of agglutination or hemolysis. Repeats and varies tests until normal suspension of reagents, serum, and red cells is attained. Interprets results obtained and identifies specific antibodies. Writes blood specifications to meet patient's need, on basis of test results, and applies knowledge of blood classification system to locate donor's blood. Performs immunohematology tests on donor's blood to confirm matching blood types. Requisitions and sends blood to supply patient's need, and prepares written report to inform physician of test results and of required volume of blood to administer. Evaluates completeness of immunohematology tests. May advise MEDICAL TECHNOLOGISTS (medical ser.) 078.261-038 in techniques of microscopic identification of precipitation, agglutination, or hemolysis in blood that leads to resolution of problems.
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 89

078.262-010 PULMONARY-FUNCTION TECHNICIAN (medical ser.) alternate titles: pulmonary-function technologist

    Performs pulmonary-function, lung-capacity, diffusion capacity, and blood-and-oxygen tests to gather data for use by physician in diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary disorders: Confers with patient in treatment room to explain test procedures. Explains specified methods of breathing to patient and conducts pulmonary-function tests, such as helium dilution and pulmonary mechanics (flow of air rate in lungs), arterial blood gas analyses, and lung-capacity tests, such as vital capacity and maximum breathing capacity tests, using spirometer or other equipment. Measures expired air, using various analyzers. Observes and records readings on metering devices of analysis equipment, and conveys findings of tests and analyses to physician for interpretation. May perform blood analysis tests to measure such factors as oxygen and carbon dioxide tensions, hemoglobin saturation and levels, and pH of blood, using blood gas analyzer. May measure sweat chloride to test for cystic fibrosis, using computerized analyzer. May assist physician in special procedures such as bronchoscopy.
GOE: 10.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 89

078.264-010 HOLTER SCANNING TECHNICIAN (medical ser.) alternate titles: holter technician

    Analyzes data from cardiac-function monitoring device (Holter monitor) worn by patient for use in diagnosis of cardiovascular disorders: Places magnetic tape or cassette from Holter monitor worn by patient in scanner and starts scanner that produces audio and visual representation of heart activity. Adjusts scanner controls that regulate taped sounds associated with heart activity and focus video representation of sounds on scanner screen. Observes scanner screen to identify irregularities in patient cardiac patterns, utilizing knowledge of regular and irregular cardiac-function patterns, or verifies data provided by computer program that automatically scans, analyzes, identifies, and prints irregular heart patterns. Prints sections of abnormal heart patterns or full disclosure tape for physician. Analyzes information in patient diary to identify incidents that correspond to heart pattern irregularities detected on heart monitor. Records findings on report form and forwards tapes, form, patient diary, and printouts of heart patterns to interpreting physician. May attach electrodes to patient's chest and connect electrodes to heart monitor, following standard procedure. May measure distances between peaks and valleys of heart activity patterns, using calipers, to obtain data for further analysis. May perform other diagnostic procedures, such as electrocardiography and stress testing, to aid in medical evaluation of patient.
GOE: 10.03.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R3 M3 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 88

078.281-010 CYTOTECHNOLOGIST (medical ser.)

    Stains, mounts, and studies cells of human body to detect evidence of cancer, hormonal abnormalities, and other pathological conditions, following established standards and practices: Prepares microscopic slides from specimens of blood, scrappings, or other bodily exudates, and fixes and stains slide to preserve specimen and enhance visibility of cells under microscope. Examines slide under microscope to identify abnormalities in cell structure. Reports abnormalities to PATHOLOGIST (medical ser.) 070.061-010. May supervise and coordinate activities of staff of cytology laboratory and be known as Supervisor, Cytology (medical ser.).
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 6 DLU: 88

078.361-010 DENTAL HYGIENIST (medical ser.)

    Performs dental prophylaxis: Cleans calcareous deposits, accretions, and stains from teeth and beneath margins of gums, using dental instruments. Feels lymph nodes under patient's chin to detect swelling or tenderness that could indicate presence of oral cancer. Feels and visually examines gums for sores and signs of disease. Examines gums, using probes, to locate periodontal recessed gums and signs of gum disease. Applies fluorides and other cavity preventing agents to arrest dental decay. Charts conditions of decay and disease for diagnosis and treatment by dentist. Exposes and develops x-ray film. Makes impressions for study casts. May remove sutures and dressings. May administer local anesthetic agents. May place and remove rubber dams, matrices, and temporary restorations. May place, carve, and finish amalgam restorations. May remove excess cement from coronal surfaces of teeth. May provide clinical services and health education to improve and maintain oral health of school children. May conduct dental health clinics for community groups to augment services of dentist.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 89

078.361-018 NUCLEAR MEDICINE TECHNOLOGIST (medical ser.)

    Prepares, measures, and administers radiopharmaceuticals in diagnostic and therapeutic studies, utilizing variety of equipment and following prescribed procedures: Prepares stock solutions of radiopharmaceutical materials, calculates doses, and administers doses, under direction of physician. Calibrates equipment. Performs diagnostic studies on patients as prescribed by physician, using scanners or scintillation cameras to detect radiation emitted and to produce image of organ on photographic film. Measures radioactivity, using Geiger counters, scalers, and scintillation detectors. Administers therapeutic doses of radiopharmaceuticals under direction of physician. Follows radiation safety techniques in use and disposal of radioactive materials.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

078.361-022 ORTHOTICS ASSISTANT (medical ser.)

    Assists ORTHOTIST (medical ser.) 078.261-018 in providing care and fabricating and fitting orthopedic braces to patients with disabling conditions of limbs and spine: Under guidance of and in consultation with ORTHOTIST (medical ser.), makes assigned casts, measurements, model modifications, and layouts. Performs fitting, including static and dynamic alignments. Evaluates orthopedic braces on patient to ensure fit, function, and quality. Repairs and maintains orthopedic braces. May be responsible for performance of other personnel. May also perform functions of PROSTHETICS ASSISTANT (medical ser.) 078.361-026 and be designated Orthotics-Prosthetics Assistant (medical ser.).
GOE: 05.05.11 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

078.361-026 PROSTHETICS ASSISTANT (medical ser.)

    Assists PROSTHETIST (medical ser.) 078.261-022 in providing care to and fabricating and fitting prostheses for patients with partial or total absence of limb: Under direction of PROSTHETIST (medical ser.), makes assigned casts, measurements, and model modifications. Performs fitting, including static and dynamic alignments. Evaluates prosthesis on patient to ensure fit, function, and quality of work. Repairs and maintains prostheses. May be responsible for performance of other personnel. May also perform functions of ORTHOTICS ASSISTANT (medical ser.) 078.361-022.
GOE: 05.05.11 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

078.361-034 RADIATION-THERAPY TECHNOLOGIST (medical ser.)

    Provides radiation therapy to patients as prescribed by RADIOLOGIST (medical ser.) 070.101-090, according to established practices and standards: Reviews prescription, diagnosis, patient chart, and identification. Acts as liaison with physicist and supportive care personnel. Prepares equipment, such as immobilization, treatment, and protection devices, and positions patient according to prescription. Enters data into computer and sets controls to operate and adjust equipment and regulate dosage. Observes and reassures patient during treatment and reports unusual reactions to physician. Photographs treated area of patient and processes film. Maintains records, reports, and files as required. Follows principles of radiation protection for patient, self, and others. May assist in dosimetry procedures and tumor localization. May train therapy students.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

078.361-038 OPHTHALMIC TECHNICIAN (medical ser.)

    Tests and measures eye function to assist OPHTHALMOLOGIST (medical ser.) 070.101-058 to diagnose and treat eye disorders and disease: Tests patient's far acuity, near acuity, peripheral vision, depth perception, and color perception to assist OPHTHALMOLOGIST (medical ser.) to diagnose and treat eye disorders and disease. Examines eye, using slit lamp, for abnormalities of cornea, and anterior and posterior chambers. Applies drops to anesthetize, dilate, or medicate eyes. Measures intraocular pressure of eyes (glaucoma test). Tests patient's field of vision, including central and peripheral vision, for defects, and charts test results on graph paper. Measures axial length of eye, using ultrasound equipment. Performs other tests and measurements as requested by physician. Gives instructions to patients concerning eye care. May supervise other technicians and be known as Chief Ophthalmic Technician (medical ser.).
GOE: 10.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 89

078.362-010 AUDIOMETRIST (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: audiometric technician; hearing-test technician

    Administers audiometric screening and threshold tests, generally pure-tone air conduction, to individuals or groups, under supervision of AUDIOLOGIST (medical ser.) or OTOLARYNGOLOGIST (medical ser.). Fits earphones on subject and provides instruction on procedures to be followed. Adjusts audiometer to control sound emitted and records subjects' responses. Refers individuals to AUDIOLOGIST (medical ser.) for interpretation of test results and need for more definitive hearing examination or to physician for medical examination.
GOE: 10.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

078.362-014 DIALYSIS TECHNICIAN (medical ser.) alternate titles: hemodialysis technician

    Sets up and operates hemodialysis machine to provide dialysis treatment for patients with kidney failure: Attaches dialyzer and tubing to machine to assemble for use. Mixes dialysate, according to formula. Primes dialyzer with saline or heparinized solution to prepare machine for use. Transports patient to dialysis room and positions patient on lounge chair at hemodialysis machine. Takes and records patient's predialysis weight, temperature, blood pressure, pulse rate, and respiration rate. Explains dialysis procedure and operation of hemodialysis machine to patient before treatment to allay anxieties. Cleans area of access (fistula, graft, or catheter), using antiseptic solution. Connects hemodialysis machine to access in patient's forearm or catheter site to start blood circulating through dialyzer. Inspects equipment settings, including pressures, conductivity (proportion of chemicals to water), and temperature to ensure conformance to safety standards. Starts blood flow pump at prescribed rate. Inspects venous and arterial pressures as registered on equipment to ensure pressures are within established limits. Calculates fluid removal or replacement to be achieved during dialysis procedure. Monitors patient for adverse reaction and hemodialysis machine for malfunction. Takes and records patient's postdialysis weight, temperature, blood pressure, pulse rate, and respiration rate. May fabricate parts, such as cannulas, tubing, catheters, connectors, and fittings, using handtools.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 89

078.362-018 ELECTROCARDIOGRAPH TECHNICIAN (medical ser.) alternate titles: ecg technician; ekg technician

    Produces recordings of electromotive variations in patient's heart muscle, using electrocardiograph (ECG), to provide data for diagnosis of heart ailments: Attaches electrodes to chest, arms, and legs of patient. Connects electrode leads to electrocardiograph and starts machine. Moves electrodes along specified area of chest to produce electrocardiogram that records electromotive variations occurring in different areas of heart muscle. Monitors electrocardiogram for abnormal patterns. Keys information into machine or marks tracing to indicate positions of chest electrodes. Replenishes supply of paper and ink in machine and reports malfunctions. Edits and forwards final test results to attending physician for analysis and interpretation. May attach electrodes of Holter monitor (electrocardiograph) to patient to record data over extended period of time.
GOE: 10.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R3 M3 L3 SVP: 4 DLU: 87

078.362-022 ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHIC TECHNOLOGIST (medical ser.) alternate titles: eeg technologist

    Measures electrical activity of brain waves, using electroencephalograph (EEG) instrument, and conducts evoked potential response tests for use in diagnosis of brain and nervous system disorders: Measures patient's head and other body parts, using tape measure, and marks points where electrodes are to be placed. Attaches electrodes to predetermined locations, and verifies functioning of electrodes and recording instrument. Operates recording instruments (EEG and evoked potentials) and supplemental equipment and chooses settings for optimal viewing of nervous system. Records montage (electrode combination) and instrument settings, and observes and notes patient's behavior during test. Conducts visual, auditory, and somatosensory evoked potential response tests to measure latency of response to stimuli. Writes technical reports summarizing test results to assist physician in diagnosis of brain disorders. May perform other physiological tests, such as electrocardiogram, electrooculogram, and ambulatory electroencephalogram. May perform video monitoring of patient's actions during test. May monitor patient during surgery, using EEG or evoked potential instrument. May supervise other technologists and be known as Chief Electroencephalographic Technologist (medical ser.).
GOE: 10.03.01 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 89

078.362-026 RADIOLOGIC TECHNOLOGIST (medical ser.) alternate titles: radiographer; x-ray technologist

    Operates radiologic equipment to produce radiographs (x rays) of body for diagnostic purposes, as directed by RADIOLOGIST (medical ser.) 070.101-090: Positions patient on examining table and adjusts immobilization devices to obtain optimum views of specified area of body requested by physician. Explains procedures to patient to reduce anxieties and obtain patient cooperation. Moves x-ray equipment into specified position and adjusts equipment controls to set exposure factors, such as time and distance, based on knowledge of radiographic exposure techniques and protocols. Practices radiation protection techniques, using beam restrictive devices, patient shielding skills, and knowledge of applicable exposure factors, to minimize radiation to patient and staff. May operate mobile x-ray equipment in operating room, emergency room, or at patient's bedside. May specialize in production of screening and diagnostic x rays for detection of breast tumors and be known as Radiologic Technologist, Mammogram (medical ser.).
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

078.362-030 CARDIOPULMONARY TECHNOLOGIST (medical ser.) alternate titles: cardiovascular technologist

    Performs diagnostic tests of cardiovascular and pulmonary systems of patients to aid physician in diagnosis and treatment of heart, lung, and blood vessel disorders: Prepares patient for test and explains procedures to obtain cooperation and reassure patient. Conducts electrocardiogram, phonocardiogram, echocardiogram, stress testing, and other tests to aid in diagnosis of cardiovascular system, using variety of specialized electronic test equipment, recording devices, and laboratory instruments. Conducts tests of pulmonary system to aid physician in diagnosis of pulmonary disorders, using spirometer and other respiratory testing equipment. Operates multichannel physiologic monitor, as part of cardiac catheterization team, to measure and record functions of cardiovascular and pulmonary systems of patient during cardiac catheterization. Alerts physician to instrument readings outside normal ranges during cardiac catheterization procedures. Provides test results to physician.
GOE: 10.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

078.362-034 PERFUSIONIST (medical ser.)

    Sets up and operates heart-lung machine in hospital to take over functions of patient's heart and lungs during surgery or respiratory failure: Reviews patient medical history and chart, and consults with surgeon or physician to obtain patient information needed to set up heart-lung machine and associated equipment. Selects, assembles, sets up, and tests heart-lung machine to ensure that machine and associated equipment function according to specifications. Operates heart-lung machine to regulate blood circulation and composition, to administer drugs and anesthetic agents, and to control body temperature during surgery or respiratory failure of patient. Monitors and observes operation of heart-lung machine and patient's physiologic variables such as blood temperature, blood composition, and flow rate, and adjusts equipment to maintain normal body functions. Cleans and adjusts parts of heart-lung machine.
GOE: 10.03.02 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 88

078.362-038 ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC TECHNICIAN (medical ser.) alternate titles: emg technician

    Measures electrical activity in peripheral nerves, using electromyograph (EMG) instrument, for use by physician in diagnosing neuromuscular disorders: Explains procedures to patient to obtain cooperation and relieve anxieties during test. Rubs electrode paste on patient's skin to ensure contact of electrodes. Attaches surface recording electrodes to extremity in which activity is being measured to detect electrical impulse. Attaches electrodes to electrode cables or leads connected to EMG instrument and selects nerve conduction mode on EMG. Operates EMG instrument to record electrical activity in peripheral nerves. Presses button on manually held surface stimulator electrode to deliver pulse and send electrical charge along peripheral nerve. Monitors response on oscilloscope and presses button to record nerve conduction velocity. Measures and records time and distance between stimulus and response, manually or using computer, and calculates velocity of electrical impulse in peripheral nerve. Removes electrodes from patient upon conclusion of test and cleans electrode paste from skin, using alcohol and cotton.
GOE: 10.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 5 DLU: 90

078.362-042 POLYSOMNOGRAPHIC TECHNICIAN (medical ser.) alternate titles: polysomnographic technologist

    Measures electrical activity of patient's brain waves and other physiological variables, using $T3polysomnograph$T1, to aid physician in diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders: Applies surface electrodes to patient's head, using adhesive paste or tape, to obtain electroencephalogram (EEG) measurement and applies other combinations of sensors and electrodes to patient to obtain measurements such as electromyogram (EMG), electrooculogram (EOG), electrocardiogram (EKG), air flow respiratory effort, and oxygen saturation, as requested by physician and following established procedures. Operates closed circuit television camera to observe patient during test and to record patient's sleep activities. Operates polysomnograph equipment to record electrical activity of brain waves and other physiological variables and records notes on graph to eliminate from consideration physiological measurements caused by such activities as patient opening eyes, turning head, or turning body. Studies polysomnogram to recognize arrhythmias and abnormal respiratory patterns and calls physician or other emergency personnel if needed. Measures durations of brain waves recorded on polysomnograms, using millimeter ruler. Studies characteristics of completed polysomnogram tracings and summarizes data showing stages of sleep, abnormal breathing events, periodic leg movements, arrhythmias, and other information, applying knowledge of polysomnograph testing principles. Enters data into computer and writes report incorporating patient's medical history, completed patient questionnaires, previous and current polysomnogram information, presence and type of abnormality, and other information for analysis by physician or other health professional. May apply electrodes to patient's head, using pins. May supervise and coordinate activities of other technicians and be known as Chief Polysomnographic Technician (medical ser.).
GOE: 10.03.01 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 4 DLU: 89

078.362-046 SPECIAL PROCEDURES TECHNOLOGIST, ANGIOGRAM (medical ser.) alternate titles: angiographer; radiographer, angiogram

    Operates diagnostic imaging equipment to produce contrast enhanced radiographs of blood vessels to aid physician in diagnosis and treatment of disease: Positions patient in examining position, using immobilization devices, such as head or shoulder braces. Operates fluoroscope to aid physician to view and guide wire or catheter through blood vessel to area of interest. Fills automatic injector with contrast media, sets flow rate, and activates injection of contrast media into blood vessels of patient, as directed by physician. onitors video display of area of interest and adjusts density and contrast to obtain optimum exposure. Starts filming sequence. Delivers film to dark room to be developed and reviews developed x rays for accuracy of positioning and quality of exposure techniques.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

078.362-050 SPECIAL PROCEDURES TECHNOLOGIST, CARDIAC CATHETERIZATION (medical ser.) alternate titles: radiographer, cardiac catheterization; special vascular imaging technologist

    Operates diagnostic imaging equipment to produce contrast enhanced radiographs of heart and cardiovascular system (angiocardiograms), during cardiac catheterization, to aid physician in diagnostic evaluation and treatment: Positions and immobilizes patient on examining table, using head and shoulder braces and following specified protocols. Enters technical factors determined by protocol such as amount and quality of radiation beam, and specified filming sequence, into computer. Raises and lowers examining table and manipulates and positions x-ray tube in response to instructions from physician. Starts automatic injection of contrast medium into blood vessels of patient. Activates fluoroscope and 35 mm motion picture camera (cinefluorography) to produce images that assist physician in guiding catheter through cardiovascular system of patient. Observes gauges, recorder, and video screens of multichannel data analysis system that indicates blood pressure, cardiac output, and respiration, during imaging of cardiovascular system. Alerts physician to changes in patient responses. May assist physician in interventional procedures, such as instilling enzymes or inserting balloon in blood vessels to remove plaque or other blockage.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

078.362-054 SPECIAL PROCEDURES TECHNOLOGIST, CT SCAN (medical ser.) alternate titles: ct technologist

    Operates computed tomography (CT) scanner to produce cross-sectional radiographs of patient's body for diagnostic purposes: Positions and immobilizes patient on examining table, using supportive devices to obtain precise patient position and following protocols specified by RADIOLOGIST (medical ser.) 070.101-090. Administers contrast media orally or assists physician in intravenous administration. Enters data, such as type of scan requested, slice thickness, scan time, and other technical data into computer, using knowledge of radiologic technology and computed tomography. Starts CT scanner to scan designated anatomical area of patient. Talks to patient over intercom system and observes patient through window of control room to monitor patient safety and comfort. Views images of organs or tissue on video display screen to ensure quality of pictures. Starts camera to produce radiographs. Evaluates radiographs, video tape, and computer generated information for technical quality.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

078.362-058 SPECIAL PROCEDURES TECHNOLOGIST, MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI) (medical ser.) alternate titles: magnetic resonance imaging technologist

    Operates magnetic resonance imaging equipment to produce cross-sectional images (photographs) of patient's body for diagnostic purposes: Interviews patient to explain magnetic resonance imaging procedures and to request removal of metal objects which are hazardous to patient and equipment when magnet is activated. Positions patient on examining table and places specified coil (receiver) such as head coil or knee coil, close to area of interest, following protocols requested by RADIOLOGIST (medical ser.) 070.101-090. Demonstrates use of microphone that allows patient and technologist to communicate during examination. Enters data, such as patient history, anatomical area to be scanned, orientation specified, and position of entry into aperture of magnetic resonance imaging equipment (head or feet first), into computer. Keys commands to specify scan sequences, and adjust transmitters and receivers, into computer. Observes patient through window of control room and on closed circuit TV screen to monitor patient safety and comfort. Views images of area being scanned on video display screen to ensure quality of pictures. Keys in data on keyboard of camera to photograph images. Alerts staff entering magnet room to danger of wearing or carrying metal around magnet.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 90

078.362-062 STRESS TEST TECHNICIAN (medical ser.) alternate titles: stress technician

    Produces recordings of electromotive variations in action of heart muscle, using electrocardiograph, while patient walks on treadmill, under direction of physician, to provide data for diagnosis of heart ailments: Attaches electrodes to patient's arms, legs, and chest area, according to specified pattern, and connects electrode leads to electrocardiograph, to obtain electrocardiogram. Explains testing procedures to patient and obtains consent form. Starts treadmill at speed directed by physician. Starts electrocardiograph and records data, such as angle and speed of treadmill, patient's indications of pain, and measurements of blood pressure. Informs physician of wave abnormalities on electrocardiogram. Stands alongside patient during test to lend support if necessary. Removes recorder strip printout from machine upon conclusion of test to obtain permanent record of test. Edits and mounts representative samples of tracings for patient's record, indicating time of test measurement and bodily factors that could have affected recording. May conduct electrocardiograph test of resting patient.
GOE: 10.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 88

078.364-010 ULTRASOUND TECHNOLOGIST (medical ser.) alternate titles: diagnostic medical sonographer

    Produces two-dimensional ultrasonic recordings of internal organs, using ultrasound equipment, for use by physician in diagnosis of disease and study of malfunction of organs: Selects equipment for use in ultrasound setup according to specifications of examination. Explains process to patient, and instructs and assists patient in assuming physical position for examination. Selects transducer and adjusts equipment controls according to organ to be examined, depth of field, and other specifications of test. Keys test data and patient information into computer of ultrasound equipment to maintain record of test results. Moves transducer, by hand, over specified area of body and observes sound wave display screen to monitor quality of ultrasonic pattern produced. Starts equipment which produces images of internal organs and records diagnostic data on magnetic tape, computer disk, strip printout, or film. Photographs images of organs shown on display module, or removes strip printout from equipment, to obtain permanent record of internal examination. Discusses test results with supervisor or attending physician.
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

078.364-014 ECHOCARDIOGRAPH TECHNICIAN (medical ser.) alternate titles: diagnostic cardiac sonographer

    Produces two-dimensional ultrasonic recordings and Doppler flow analyses of heart and related structures, using ultrasound equipment, for use by physician in diagnosis of heart disease and study of heart: Explains procedures to patient to obtain cooperation and reduce anxieties of patient. Attaches electrodes to patient's chest to monitor heart rhythm and connects electrodes to electrode leads of ultrasound equipment. Adjusts equipment controls according to physician's orders and areas of heart to be examined. Keys patient information into computer keyboard on equipment to record information on video cassette and strip printout of test. Starts ultrasound equipment that produces images of real time tomographic cardiac anatomy, and adjusts equipment to obtain quality images. Moves transducer, by hand, over patient's heart areas, observes ultrasound display screen, and listens to Doppler signals to acquire data for measurement of blood flow velocities. Prints pictures of graphic analysis recordings and removes video cassette for permanent record of internal examination. Measures heart wall thicknesses and chamber sizes recorded on strip printout, using calipers and ruler, or keys commands into computer to measure thicknesses and chamber sizes of heart on video tape, and compares measurement to standard norms to identify abnormalities in heart. Measures blood flow velocities and calculates data, such as cardiac physiology and valve areas for evaluation of cardiac function by physician. Reviews test results with interpreting physician.
GOE: 10.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 88

078.367-010 CARDIAC MONITOR TECHNICIAN (medical ser.) alternate titles: telemetry technician

    Monitors heart rhythm pattern of patients in special care unit of hospital to detect abnormal pattern variances, using telemetry equipment: Reviews patient information to determine normal heart rhythm pattern, current pattern, and prior variances. Observes screen of cardiac monitor and listens for alarm to identify abnormal variation in heart rhythm. Informs supervisor or NURSE, GENERAL DUTY (medical ser.) 075.364-010 of variances to initiate examination of patient. Measures length and height of patient's heart rhythm pattern on graphic tape readout, using calipers, and posts information on patient records. Answers calls for assistance from patients and inquiries concerning patients from medical staff, using intercom and call director. May perform duties as described under ELECTROCARDIOGRAPH TECHNICIAN (medical ser.) 078.362-018.
GOE: 10.03.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R3 M2 L2 SVP: 5 DLU: 86

078.381-014 MEDICAL-LABORATORY TECHNICIAN (medical ser.) alternate titles: laboratory assistant; medical technician

    Performs routine tests in medical laboratory to provide data for use in diagnosis and treatment of disease: Conducts quantitative and qualitative chemical analyses of body fluids, such as blood, urine, and spinal fluid, under supervision of MEDICAL TECHNOLOGIST (medical ser.) 078.261-038. Performs blood counts, using microscope. Conducts blood tests for transfusion purposes. May draw blood from patient's finger, ear lobe, or vein, observing principles of asepsis to obtain blood samples. May specialize in hematology, blood bank, cytology, histology, or chemistry.
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 5 DLU: 89

078.384-010 CEPHALOMETRIC ANALYST (medical ser.) alternate titles: cephalometric technician; cephalometric tracer; tracer

    Traces head x rays and illustrates cosmetic result of proposed orthodontic treatment: Traces frontal and lateral head x rays onto transparent paper, using template, compass, protractor, and knowledge of cranial-facial skeletal structure. Traces lower teeth from occlusal x ray or photograph to locate key points defining true curve of lower dental arch. Records cephalometric measurements to prepare data for computer analysis, using electronic data recording equipment. Compiles data from tracings and computer plot sheets to illustrate results of proposed surgery or other orthodontic treatment.
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

078.664-010 ORTHOPEDIC ASSISTANT (medical ser.) alternate titles: orthopedic cast specialist

    Applies, adjusts, and removes casts, assembles traction apparatus, and fits strappings and splints for orthopedic patients according to medical staff instructions, using handtools: Covers injured areas with specified protective materials, such as stockinette bandages, gauze, or rubber pads, preparatory to cast application. Wets, wraps, and molds plaster bandages around area of fracture. Trims plaster, using electric cutter. Removes whole and broken casts and alters position of cast to change setting of patient's limb or body part as directed. Assembles wooden, metal, plastic, or plaster material to make orthopedic splints, using handtools. Rigs pulleys, ropes, and frames to assemble fracture beds, using handtools. Attaches traction supports to patient's limb and adjusts support to specified tension. Assembles exercise frames, using handtools. Adjusts crutches and canes to fit patient. Instructs patients in care of and assists patients in walking with casts, braces, and crutches.
GOE: 10.03.02 STRENGTH: M GED: R3 M2 L3 SVP: 4 DLU: 77

078.687-010 LABORATORY ASSISTANT, BLOOD AND PLASMA (medical ser.; pharmaceut.)

    Performs routine laboratory tasks related to processing whole blood and blood components: Centrifuges whole blood to produce various components including packed red cells, platelet concentrate, washed red cells, and plasma. Examines blood stock at designated intervals to confirm that all units are in satisfactory condition. Observes thermostats on storage units to confirm that temperature remains constant at designated temperature. Inspects blood units returned from hospitals to determine whether plasma can be salvaged and if so refers to plasma salvage unit. Confirms that sedimentation has occurred, that color is normal, and that containers are in satisfactory condition. Cleans and maintains laboratory equipment, supplies, and laboratory. Performs related clerical duties including updating statistical records, labeling tubes, and scheduling processing runs.
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R3 M3 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 77


    This group includes occupations, not elsewhere classified, concerned with the health care of humans or animals.

079.021-014 MEDICAL PHYSICIST (profess. & kin.)

    Applies knowledge and methodology of science of physics to all aspects of medicine, to address problems related to diagnosis and treatment of human disease: Advises and consults with physicians in such applications as use of ionizing radiation in diagnosis, therapy, treatment planning with externally delivered radiation as well as use of internally implanted radioactive sources; complete subject of x-ray equipment, calibration, and dosimetry; medical uses of ultrasound and infrared; bioelectrical investigation of brain and heart; mathematical analysis and applications of computers in medicine; formulation of radiation protection guides and procedures specific to hospital environment; development of instrumentation for improved patient care and clinical service. Plans, directs, conducts, and participates in supporting programs to ensure effective and safe use of radiation and radionuclides in human beings by physician specialist. Teaches principles of medical physics to physicians, residents, graduate students, medical students, and technologists by means of lectures, problem solving, and laboratory sessions. Directs and participates in investigations of biophysical techniques associated with any branch of medicine. Conducts research in development of diagnostic and remedial procedures and develops instrumentation for specific medical applications. Acts as consultant to education, medical research, and other professional groups and organizations.
GOE: 02.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

079.101-010 CHIROPRACTOR (medical ser.) alternate titles: chiropractic; doctor, chiropractic

    Diagnoses and treats musculoskeletal conditions of spinal column and extremities to prevent disease and correct abnormalities of body believed to be caused by interference with nervous system: Examines patient to determine nature and extent of disorder. Performs diagnostic procedures including physical, neurologic, and orthopedic examinations, laboratory tests, and other procedures, using x-ray machine, proctoscope, electrocardiograph, otoscope, and other instruments and equipment. Manipulates spinal column and other extremities to adjust, align, or correct abnormalities caused by neurologic and kinetic articular dysfunction. Utilizes supplementary measures, such as exercise, rest, water, light, heat, and nutritional therapy.
GOE: 02.03.04 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 89

079.101-014 DOCTOR, NATUROPATHIC (medical ser.)

    Diagnoses, treats, and cares for patients, using system of practice that bases treatment of physiological functions and abnormal conditions on natural laws governing human body: Utilizes physiological, psychological, and mechanical methods, such as air, water, light, heat, earth, phytotherapy, food and herb therapy, psychotherapy, electrotherapy, physiotherapy, minor and orificial surgery, mechanotherapy, naturopathic corrections and manipulation, and natural methods or modalities, together with natural medicines, natural processed foods, and herbs and nature's remedies. Excludes major surgery, therapeutic use of x ray and radium, and use of drugs, except those assimilable substances containing elements or compounds which are components of body tissues and are physiologically compatible to body processes for maintenance of life.
GOE: 02.03.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

079.101-018 OPTOMETRIST (medical ser.)

    Examines eyes to determine nature and degree of vision problem or eye disease and prescribes corrective lenses or procedures: Examines eyes and performs various tests to determine visual acuity and perception and to diagnose diseases and other abnormalities, such as glaucoma and color blindness. Prescribes eyeglasses, contact lenses, and other vision aids or therapeutic procedures to correct or conserve vision. Consults with and refers patients to OPHTHALMOLOGIST (medical ser.) 070.101-058 or other health care practitioner if additional medical treatment is determined necessary. May prescribe medications to treat eye diseases if state laws permit. May specialize in type of services provided, such as contact lenses, low vision aids or vision therapy, or in treatment of specific groups, such as children or elderly patients. May conduct research, instruct in college or university, act as consultant, or work in public health field.
GOE: 02.03.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 80

079.101-022 PODIATRIST (medical ser.)

    Diagnoses and treats diseases and deformities of human foot: Diagnoses foot ailments, such as tumors, ulcers, fractures, skin or nail diseases, and congenital or acquired deformities, utilizing diagnostic aids, such as urinalysis, blood tests, and x-ray analysis. Treats deformities, such as flat or weak feet and foot imbalance, by mechanical and electrical methods, such as whirlpool or paraffin baths and short wave and low voltage currents. Treats conditions, such as corns, calluses, ingrowing nails, tumors, shortened tendons, bunions, cysts, and abscesses by surgical methods, including suturing, medications, and administration of local anesthetics. Prescribes drugs. Does not perform foot amputations. Corrects deformities by means of plaster casts and strappings. Makes and fits prosthetic appliances. Prescribes corrective footwear. Advises patients concerning continued treatment of disorders and proper foot care to prevent recurrence. Refers patients to physician when symptoms observed in feet and legs indicate systemic disorders, such as arthritis, heart disease, diabetes, or kidney trouble. May treat bone, muscle, and joint disorders and be designated Podiatrist, Orthopedic (medical ser.); children's foot diseases and be designated Podopediatrician (medical ser.). May perform surgery and be designated Podiatric Surgeon (medical ser.).
GOE: 02.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77


    Directs medical emergency service program: Coordinates activities of persons involved in rescue, transportation, and care of accident or catastrophe victims, and others requiring emergency medical assistance. Arranges for establishment of emergency medical facilities, staffing of facilities by emergency-trained medical and auxiliary personnel, installation of telecommunication network components, and acquisition of emergency vehicles. Maintains records of facilities and personnel, and periodically inspects facilities to ensure capability of meeting area's emergency needs. Maintains telecommunication contact with mobile and stationary units comprising emergency service network to coordinate activities of personnel, enlist services of other protective agencies, or provide alternate directions to onscene emergency personnel when planned procedures are not feasible. Develops, plans, and participates in training programs for ambulance and rescue personnel. Cooperates with schools and community organizations to encourage public interest in and knowledge of basic and advanced first aid training, and assists groups in development and presentation of classes. Maintains records of emergency medical service activities, for coordination with records prepared by cooperating institutions, to provide data for evaluation of program. Prepares reports stating progress, problems, and plans for future implementation of emergency service for community or area, for review by officials of sponsoring agency. Confers with coordinators of emergency programs in other areas to discuss problems, coordinate activities, and cooperate in area or statewide plans.
GOE: 11.07.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

079.117-014 PUBLIC HEALTH EDUCATOR (profess. & kin.)

    Plans, organizes, and directs health education programs for group and community needs: Conducts community surveys and collaborates with other health specialists and civic groups to ascertain health needs, develop desirable health goals, and determine availability of professional health services. Develops and maintains cooperation between public, civic, professional, and voluntary agencies. Prepares and disseminates educational and informational materials. Promotes health discussions in schools, industry, and community agencies. May plan for and provide educational opportunities for health personnel.
GOE: 11.07.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

079.117-018 SANITARIAN (profess. & kin.)

    Plans, develops, and executes environmental health program: Organizes and conducts training program in environmental health practices for schools and other groups. Determines and sets health and sanitation standards and enforces regulations concerned with food processing and serving, collection and disposal of solid wastes, sewage treatment and disposal, plumbing, vector control, recreational areas, hospitals and other institutions, noise, ventilation, air pollution, radiation, and other areas. Confers with government, community, industrial, civil defense, and private organizations to interpret and promote environmental health programs. Collaborates with other health personnel in epidemiological investigations and control. Advises civic and other officials in development of environmental health laws and regulations.
GOE: 11.10.03 STRENGTH: M GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77


    Plans and conducts orientation and training program for nonprofessional nursing personnel: Organizes and writes nursing procedure manuals and guides for use by auxiliary nursing personnel. Schedules classes, and teaches routine nursing procedures to auxiliary personnel. Explains policies, rules, employee benefits, and organizational structure of institution. Discusses functions of various hospital departments and arranges for tour of physical plant. Assists nursing service supervisory personnel in solving problems of in-service training, promotions, transfers, and discipline of auxiliary personnel.
GOE: 10.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

079.131-010 DIRECTOR, SPEECH-AND-HEARING (medical ser.)

    Directs and coordinates activities of personnel in hospital speech and hearing department engaged in research and in testing and treating patients according to established policies: Organizes and establishes personnel procedures, including hiring and training, counsels employees, and evaluates work performance. Confers with ADMINISTRATOR, HEALTH CARE FACILITY (medical ser.) 187.117-010 and committee members to request expenditures for equipment, supplies, and personnel. Meets with ADMINISTRATOR, HEALTH CARE FACILITY (medical ser.), department officials, and staff members to explain new techniques and procedures or to demonstrate new and innovative equipment. Plans and directs research and treatment programs to provide direction and assistance to staff members. Conducts workshops and seminars to develop staff expertise and knowledge. Analyzes data and maintains records of research and treatment programs.
GOE: 11.07.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 86

Continue Browsing to Next Occupational Title .