United States Department of Labor
Office of Administrative Law Judges Law Library


Note: The DOT was created by the Employment and Training Administration, and was last updated in 1991. It has been replaced by the O*NET.


079.151-010 to 153.267-018

    This category includes occupations concerned with the theoretical or practical aspects of such fields of human endeavor as art, science, engineering, education, medicine, law, business relations, and administrative, managerial, and technical work. Most of these occupations require substantial educational preparation (usually at the university, junior college, or technical institute level).

079.151-010 TRANSPLANT COORDINATOR (medical ser.) alternate titles: organ transplant coordinator

    Plans and coordinates in-hospital transplant services, solicits organ donors, and assists medical staff in organ retrieval for patients undergoing organ or tissue transplantation: Communicates with donors, patients, and health team members to ensure comprehensive documentation, including informed consent of potential organ donor and transplant recipient, equitable access to transplantation system, and access to treatment alternatives. Analyzes medical data of potential organ donors and transplant recipients from medical and social records, physical examination, and consultation with health team members to perform preliminary physical assessment and screen potential recipients and donors. Schedules recipient and donor laboratory tests to determine histocompatibility of blood or tissue of recipient and donor. Compares collected data to normal values and correlates and summarizes laboratory reports, x rays, and other tests to assist physician to determine medical suitability of procedure, to identify potential complicating factors, and to evaluate recipient and donor compatibility. Solicits medical and community groups for organ donors and assists medical team in retrieval of organs for transplantation, using medical instruments. Coordinates in-hospital services and counsels recipient and donor to alleviate anxieties and assist recipient and donor throughout procedure. Advises post-operative patients on therapies for managing health after transplant and serves as team member to monitor and assess progress of patient and offer advice and assistance to patient following transplant. May coordinate in-hospital services and be known as Clinical Transplant Coordinator (medical ser.). May coordinate organ and tissue procurement services and be known as Procurement Transplant Coordinator (medical ser.).
GOE: 10.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

079.157-010 HYPNOTHERAPIST (profess. & kin.)

    Induces hypnotic state in client to increase motivation or alter behavior patterns: Consults with client to determine nature of problem. Prepares client to enter hypnotic state by explaining how hypnosis works and what client will experience. Tests subject to determine degree of physical and emotional suggestibility. Induces hypnotic state in client, using individualized methods and techniques of hypnosis based on interpretation of test results and analysis of client's problem. May train client in self-hypnosis conditioning.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

079.161-010 INDUSTRIAL HYGIENIST (profess. & kin.)

    Conducts health program in industrial plant or governmental organization to recognize, eliminate, and control occupational health hazards and diseases: Collects samples of dust, gases, vapors, and other potentially toxic materials for analysis. Investigates adequacy of ventilation, exhaust equipment, lighting, and other conditions which may affect employee health, comfort, or efficiency. Conducts evaluations of exposure to ionizing and nonionizing radiation and to noise, and recommends measures to ensure maximum employee protection. Collaborates with INDUSTRIAL-HEALTH ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) and PHYSICIAN, OCCUPATIONAL (medical ser.) to institute control and remedial measures for hazardous and potentially hazardous conditions and equipment. Prepares reports including observations, analysis of contaminants, and recommendations for control and correction of hazards. Participates in educational meetings to instruct employees in matters pertaining to occupational health and prevention of accidents. May specialize in particular area, such as collection and analysis of samples.
GOE: 11.10.03 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77


    Plans and directs statewide program of public health education and promotes establishment of local health services: Directs workers engaged in preparation and distribution of health information materials, such as brochures, films, weight charts, and first-aid kits. Promotes establishment or expansion of local health services and provides technical assistance to individuals and groups conducting [health conferences, workshops, and training courses. Answers health information requests received by department or reviews correspondence prepared by others. Coordinates special health education campaigns during epidemics, rabies outbreaks, instances of food poisoning, and similar emergencies. May direct health education activities in public schools.
GOE: 11.07.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

079.167-014 MEDICAL-RECORD ADMINISTRATOR (medical ser.)

    Plans, develops, and administers health information system for health care facility consistent with standards of accrediting and regulatory agencies and requirements of health care system: Develops and implements policies and procedures for documenting, storing, and retrieving information, and for processing medical-legal documents, insurance data, and correspondence requests, in conformance with federal, state, and local statutes. Supervises staff, directly or through subordinates, in preparing and analyzing medical documents. Participates in development and design of computer software for computerized health information system. Coordinates medical care evaluation with medical staff and develops criteria and methods for such evaluation. Develops in-service educational materials and conducts instructional programs for health care personnel. Analyzes patient data for reimbursement, facility planning, quality of patient care, risk management, utilization management, and research. ay manage medical records department and be known as Director, Medical Records (medical ser.).
GOE: 11.07.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 88

079.267-010 UTILIZATION-REVIEW COORDINATOR (medical ser.)

    Analyzes patient records to determine legitimacy of admission, treatment, and length of stay in health-care facility to comply with government and insurance company reimbursement policies: Analyzes insurance, governmental, and accrediting agency standards to determine criteria concerning admissions, treatment, and length of stay of patients. Reviews application for patient admission and approves admission or refers case to facility utilization review committee for review and course of action when case fails to meet admission standards. Compares inpatient medical records to established criteria and confers with medical and nursing personnel and other professional staff to determine legitimacy of treatment and length of stay. Abstracts data from records and maintains statistics. Determines patient review dates according to established diagnostic criteria. May assist review committee in planning and holding federally mandated quality assurance reviews. May supervise and coordinate activities of utilization review staff.
GOE: 11.07.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

079.271-010 ACUPUNCTURIST (medical ser.)

    Administers specific therapeutic treatment of symptoms and disorders amenable to acupuncture procedures, as specifically indicated by supervising physician: Reviews patient's medical history, physical findings, and diagnosis made by physician to ascertain symptoms or disorder to be treated. Selects needles of various lengths, according to location of insertion. Inserts needles at locations of body known to be efficacious to certain disorders, utilizing knowledge of acupuncture points and their functions. Leaves needles in patient for specific length of time, according to symptom or disorder treated, and removes needles. Burns bark of mugwort tree in small strainer to administer moxibustion treatment. Covers insertion area with cloth and rubs strainer over cloth to impart heat and assist in relieving patient's symptoms.
GOE: 02.03.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

079.271-014 ACUPRESSURIST (medical ser.)

    Examines clients with pain, stress, or tension, determines acupressure techniques required to relieve problems, and demonstrates techniques to client, according to knowledge of acupressure methods and techniques. Directs client to lie on couch and positions client's arms and legs in relaxed position to facilitate examination and demonstration techniques. Questions clients, examines client's muscular system visually, and feels tissue around muscles, nerves, and blood vessels to locate knots and other blockages which indicate excessive accumulations of blood, fluids, and other substances in tissue. Determines cause of accumulations and acupressure techniques needed to increase circulation, according to knowledge of Asian acupuncture and pressure points and Western medical trigger points, bodywork techniques, such as Jin Shin, Do-In, Shiatsu, Swedish, and Esalen, and experience. Feels tissue around muscles, nerves, and blood vessels to locate points and applies specified pressure at specified pressure points or muscles, using thumbs, fingers, palms, or elbows, to redirect accumulated body fluids into normal channels, according to acupressure knowledge, techniques, and experience. Discusses findings with client and explains diet and methods to prevent recurrence of problem. May be known according to specific method or combination of methods used, such as Gia Ahp, Jin Shin, Do-In, or Shiatsu.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M3 L4 SVP: 5 DLU: 86

079.361-014 VETERINARY TECHNICIAN (medical ser.) alternate titles: animal health technician; animal technician; veterinary assistant

    Performs variety of animal health care duties to assist VETERINARIAN (medical ser.) 073.101-010 in settings such as veterinarians' clinics, zoos, research laboratories, kennels, and commercial facilities: Prepares treatment room for examination of animals, and holds or restrains animals during examination, treatment, or inoculation. Administers injections, performs venipunctures, applies wound dressings, cleans teeth, and takes vital signs of animal, under supervision of veterinarian. Prepares patient, medications, and equipment for surgery, and hands instruments and materials to veterinarian during surgical procedures. Performs routine laboratory tests, cares for and feeds laboratory animals, and assists professional personnel with research projects in commercial, public health, or research laboratories. Inspects products or carcasses when employed in food processing plants to ensure compliance with health standards. May assist veterinarian to artificially inseminate animals. May bathe and groom small animals.
GOE: 02.03.03 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 90

079.361-018 DENTAL ASSISTANT (medical ser.)

    Assists dentist during examination and treatment of patients: Prepares patient, sterilizes and disinfects instruments, sets up instrument trays, prepares materials, and assists dentist during dental procedures. Takes and records medical and dental histories and vital signs of patient. Exposes dental diagnostic x rays. Makes preliminary impressions for study casts and occlusal registrations for mounting study casts. Pours, trims, and polishes study casts, fabricates custom impression trays from preliminary impressions, cleans and polishes removable appliances, and fabricates temporary restorations. Assists dentist in management of medical and dental emergencies. Instructs patients in oral hygiene and plaque control programs. Provides postoperative instructions prescribed by dentist. Records treatment information in patient records. Schedules appointments, prepares bills and receives payment for dental services, completes insurance forms, and maintains clerical records, manually or using computer. May clean teeth, using dental instruments. May apply protective coating of fluoride to teeth.
GOE: 10.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 89

079.362-010 MEDICAL ASSISTANT (medical ser.)

    Performs any combination of following duties under direction of physician to assist in examination and treatment of patients: Interviews patients, measures vital signs, such as pulse rate, temperature, blood pressure, weight, and height, and records information on patients' charts. Prepares treatment rooms for examination of patients. Drapes patients with covering and positions instruments and equipment. Hands instruments and materials to doctor as directed. Cleans and sterilizes instruments. Inventories and orders medical supplies and materials. Operates x ray, electrocardiograph (EKG), and other equipment to administer routine diagnostic test or calls medical facility or department to schedule patients for tests. Gives injections or treatments, and performs routine laboratory tests. Schedules appointments, receives money for bills, keeps x ray and other medical records, performs secretarial tasks, and completes insurance forms. May key data into computer to maintain office and patient records. May keep billing records, enter financial transactions into bookkeeping ledgers, and compute and mail monthly statements to patients.
GOE: 10.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 88

079.362-014 MEDICAL RECORD TECHNICIAN (medical ser.)

    Compiles and maintains medical records of patients of health care delivery system to document patient condition and treatment: Reviews medical records for completeness and to abstract and code clinical data, such as diseases, operations, procedures and therapies, using standard classification systems. Compiles medical care and census data for statistical reports on types of diseases treated, surgery performed, and use of hospital beds, in response to inquiries from law firms, insurance companies, and government agencies. Maintains and utilizes variety of health record indexes and storage and retrieval systems. Operates computer to process, store, and retrieve health information. Assists MEDICAL-RECORD ADMINISTRATOR (medical ser.) 079.167-014 in special studies or research, as needed.
GOE: 07.05.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 88

079.362-018 TUMOR REGISTRAR (medical ser.)

    Compiles and maintains records of hospital patients treated for cancer to provide data for physicians and research studies, utilizing tumor registry data system: Reviews hospital records to identify and compile patient data for use in cancer management program and to comply with government regulations. Reviews patient's medical record, abstracts and codes information, such as demographic characteristics, history and extent of disease, diagnostic procedures and treatment, and enters data into computer. Contacts discharged patients, their families, and physicians to maintain registry with follow-up information, such as quality of life and length of survival of cancer patients. Prepares statistical reports, narrative reports and graphic presentations of tumor registry data for use by hospital staff, researchers, and other users of registry data. May supervise subordinate tumor registry staff and be known as Manager, Tumor Registry (medical ser.).
GOE: 07.05.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

079.364-010 CHIROPRACTOR ASSISTANT (medical ser.)

    Aids CHIROPRACTOR (medical ser.) during physical examination of patients, gives specified office treatments, and keeps patients' records: Writes history of patient's accident or illness, and shows patient to examining room. Aids CHIROPRACTOR (medical ser.) in lifting and turning patient under treatment. Gives physiotherapy treatments, such as diathermy, galvanics, or hydrotherapy, following directions of CHIROPRACTOR (medical ser.). Takes and records patient's temperature and blood pressure, assists in x-ray procedures, and gives first aid. Answers telephone, schedules appointments, records treatment information on patient's chart, and fills out insurance forms. Prepares and mails patient's bills.
GOE: 10.03.02 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

079.364-014 OPTOMETRIC ASSISTANT (medical ser.)

    Performs any combination of following tasks to assist OPTOMETRIST (medical ser) 079.101-018: Obtains and records patient's preliminary case history. Maintains records, schedules appointments, performs bookkeeping, correspondence, and filing. Prepares patient for vision examination; assists in testing for near and far acuity, depth perception, macula integrity, color perception, and visual field, utilizing ocular testing apparatus. Instructs patient in care and use of glasses or contact lenses. Works with patient in vision therapy. Assists patient in frame selection. Adjusts and repairs glasses. Modifies contact lenses. aintains inventory of materials and cleans instruments. Assists in fabrication of eye glasses or contact lenses.
GOE: 10.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

079.364-018 PHYSICIAN ASSISTANT (medical ser.)

    Provides health care services to patients under direction and responsibility of physician: Examines patient, performs comprehensive physical examination, and compiles patient medical data, including health history and results of physical examination. Administers or orders diagnostic tests, such as x ray, electrocardiogram, and laboratory tests, and interprets test results for deviations from normal. Performs therapeutic procedures, such as injections, immunizations, suturing and wound care, and managing infection. Develops and implements patient management plans, records progress notes, and assists in provision of continuity of care. Instructs and counsels patients regarding compliance with prescribed therapeutic regimens, normal growth and development, family planning, emotional problems of daily living, and health maintenance. May have training in particular medical specialty and be designated Anesthesiologist Assistant (medical ser.) or Surgeon Assistant (medical ser.).
GOE: 10.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

079.364-022 PHLEBOTOMIST (medical ser.)

    Draws blood from patients or donors in hospital, blood bank, or similar facility for analysis or other medical purposes: Assembles equipment, such as tourniquet, needles, disposable containers for needles, blood collection devices, gauze, cotton, and alcohol on work tray, according to requirements for specified tests or procedures. Verifies or records identity of patient or donor and converses with patient or donor to allay fear of procedure. Applies tourniquet to arm, locates accessible vein, swabs puncture area with antiseptic, and inserts needle into vein to draw blood into collection tube or bag. Withdraws needle, applies treatment to puncture site, and labels and stores blood container for subsequent processing. May prick finger to draw blood. May conduct interviews, take vital signs, and draw and test blood samples to screen donors at blood bank.
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R3 M2 L3 SVP: 3 DLU: 88

079.364-026 PARAMEDIC (medical ser.) alternate titles: emt-paramedic

    Administers life support care to sick and injured persons in prehospital setting as authorized and directed by physician: Assesses nature and extent of illness or injury to establish and prioritize medical procedures to be followed or need for additional assistance. Restores and stabilizes heart rhythm on pulseless, nonbreathing patient, using defibrillator, or as directed by physician. Monitors cardiac patient, using electrocardiograph. Initiates intravenous fluids to administer medication or drugs, or to replace fluids lacking in body. Performs endotracheal intubation to open airways and ventilate patient. Administers injections of medications and drugs, following established protocols. Inflates pneumatic anti-shock garment on patient to improve blood circulation. Administers initial treatment at emergency scene and takes and records patient's vital signs. Assists in extricating trapped victims and transports sick and injured persons to treatment center. Observes, records, and reports to physician patient's condition and reaction to drugs, treatments, and significant incidents. May drive mobile intensive care unit to emergency scene. May serve as team leader for EMERGENCY MEDICAL TECHNICIANS (medical ser.) 079.374-010. May communicate with physician and other medical personnel via radio-telephone.
GOE: 10.03.02 STRENGTH: V GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 89

079.367-018 MEDICAL-SERVICE TECHNICIAN (military ser.)

    Administers medical aid to personnel aboard submarines, small ships, and isolated areas in absence of or under supervision of medical superior: Examines patients and diagnoses condition. Prescribes medication to treat condition of patient. Inoculates and vaccinates patients to immunize patients from communicable diseases. Treats cuts and burns, performs minor surgery and administers emergency medical care to patients during emergency situations in absence of superior. Inspects food and facilities to determine conformance to sanitary regulations. Recommends necessary measures to ensure sanitary conditions are maintained. Records, transcribes, and files medical case histories. Prepares requisitions for supplies, services, and equipment.
GOE: 07.05.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L3 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

079.371-014 ORTHOPTIST (medical ser.)

    Aids persons with correctable focusing defects to develop and use binocular vision (focusing of both eyes): Measures visual acuity, focusing ability, and eye-motor movement of eyes, separately and jointly. Aids patient to move, focus, and coordinate both eyes to aid in visual development. Develops visual skills, near-visual discrimination, and depth perception, using developmental glasses and prisms. Instructs adult patients or parents of young patients in utilization of corrective methods at home.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

079.374-010 EMERGENCY MEDICAL TECHNICIAN (medical ser.)

    Administers first-aid treatment to and transports sick or injured persons to medical facility, working as member of emergency medical team: Responds to instructions from emergency medical dispatcher and drives specially equipped emergency vehicle to specified location. Monitors communication equipment to maintain contact with dispatcher. Removes or assists in removal of victims from scene of accident or catastrophe. Determines nature and extent of illness or injury, or magnitude of catastrophe, to establish first aid procedures to be followed or need for additional assistance, basing decisions on statements of persons involved, examination of victim or victims, and knowledge of emergency medical practice. Administers prescribed first-aid treatment at site of emergency, or in specially equipped vehicle, performing such activities as application of splints, administration of oxygen or intravenous injections, treatment of minor wounds or abrasions, or administration of artificial resuscitation. Communicates with professional medical personnel at emergency treatment facility to obtain instructions regarding further treatment and to arrange for reception of victims at treatment facility. Assists in removal of victims from vehicle and transfer of victims to treatment center. Assists treatment center admitting personnel to obtain and record information related to victims' vital statistics and circumstances of emergency. Maintains vehicles and medical and communication equipment and replenishes first-aid equipment and supplies. May assist in controlling crowds, protecting valuables, or performing other duties at scene of catastrophe. May assist professional medical personnel in emergency treatment administered at medical facility.
GOE: 10.03.02 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 5 DLU: 77

079.374-014 NURSE, LICENSED PRACTICAL (medical ser.)

    Provides prescribed medical treatment and personal care services to ill, injured, convalescent, and handicapped persons in such settings as hospitals, clinics, private homes, schools, sanitariums, and similar institutions: Takes and records patients' vital signs. Dresses wounds, gives enemas, douches, alcohol rubs, and massages. Applies compresses, ice bags, and hot water bottles. Observes patients and reports adverse reactions to medication or treatment to medical personnel in charge. Administers specified medication, orally or by subcutaneous or intermuscular injection, and notes time and amount on patients' charts. Assembles and uses such equipment as catheters, tracheotomy tubes, and oxygen suppliers. Collects samples, such as urine, blood, and sputum, from patients for testing and performs routine laboratory tests on samples. Sterilizes equipment and supplies, using germicides, sterilizer, or autoclave. Prepares or examines food trays for prescribed diet and feeds patients. Records food and fluid intake and output. Bathes, dresses, and assists patients in walking and turning. Cleans rooms, makes beds, and answers patients' calls. Washes and dresses bodies of deceased persons. Must pass state board examination and be licensed. May assist in delivery, care, and feeding of infants. May inventory and requisition supplies. May provide medical treatment and personal care to patients in private home settings and be designated Home Health Nurse, Licensed Practical (medical ser.).
GOE: 10.02.01 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 87

079.374-018 PODIATRIC ASSISTANT (medical ser.)

    Assists PODIATRIST (medical ser.) in patient care. Prepares patients for treatment, sterilizes instruments, performs general office duties, and assists PODIATRIST (medical ser.) in preparing dressings, administering treatments, and developing x rays.
GOE: 10.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M2 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

079.374-022 SURGICAL TECHNICIAN (medical ser.) alternate titles: operating-room technician

    Performs any combination of following tasks before, during, and after surgery to assist surgical team: Places equipment and supplies in operating room and arranges instruments, according to instructions. Assists team members to place and position patient on table. Scrubs arms and hands and dons gown and gloves. Aids team to don gowns and gloves. Maintains supply of fluids, such as plasma, saline, blood, and glucose for use during operation. Hands instruments and supplies to surgeon, holds retractors, cuts sutures, and performs other tasks as directed by surgeon during operation. Puts dressings on patient following surgery. Counts sponges, needles, and instruments before and after operation. Washes and sterilizes equipment, using germicides and sterilizers. Cleans operating room.
GOE: 10.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 88

079.374-026 PSYCHIATRIC TECHNICIAN (medical ser.)

    Provides nursing care to mentally ill, emotionally disturbed, or mentally retarded patients in psychiatric hospital or mental health clinic and participates in rehabilitation and treatment programs: Helps patients with their personal hygiene, such as bathing and keeping beds, clothing, and living areas clean. Administers oral medications and hypodermic injections, following physician's prescriptions and hospital procedures. Takes and records measures of patient's general physical condition, such as pulse, temperature, and respiration, to provide daily information. Observes patients to detect behavior patterns and reports observations to medical staff. Intervenes to restrain violent or potentially violent or suicidal patients by verbal or physical means as required. Leads prescribed individual or group therapy sessions as part of specific therapeutic procedures. May complete initial admittance forms for new patients. May contact patient's relatives by telephone to arrange family conferences. May issue medications from dispensary and maintain records in accordance with specified procedures. May be required to hold state license.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 86


    This division includes occupations in education concerned with research, administration, and teaching. Includes occupations in the administration of federal, state, and private programs for which a background in education is required. Includes aides who assist classroom teachers by instructing sections of classes, coaching invididual pupils, and grading papers, but excludes aides where educational preparation is not specific and tasks of jobs include various clerical or service tasks. Classroom aide occupations in primary and secondary school are included in Group 249. Occupations concerned with teaching art other than in primary and secondary schools are included in Group 149. Occupations concerned with teaching dramatics, dancing, music, athletics, games of mental skill, e.g., bridge and chess, and sports, other than in primary and secondary schools, are included in appropriate groups under Division 15. Occupations concerned with student and teacher personnel work and vocational guidance are included in Groups 045 and 166. Administrative occupations which do not require a background of education are included in groups under Division 16.


    This group includes occupations concerned with research, administration, and teaching in schools beyond the secondary school level (including junior colleges, technical institutes, and specialized post-secondary vocational schools, such as secretarial, laboratory technology, and aviation-training schools, as well as the graduate and undergraduate facilities and professional schools of colleges and universities). Teachers at this level usually specialize in one academic subject, professional discipline, or technical skill.

090.107-010 FOREIGN-STUDENT ADVISER (education) alternate titles: visiting-student counselor

    Assists foreign students in making academic, personal-social, and environmental adjustment to campus and community life: Evaluates students' qualifications in light of admission requirements and makes recommendations relative to admission. Develops and maintains case histories, noting language, educational, social, religious, or physical problems affecting students' adjustments. Provides informal counseling and orientation regarding recreational and religious outlets, study habits, and personal adjustments. Interprets university regulations and requirements. Assists students in complying with government regulations concerning status, immigration, visas, passports, permission to work, and related matters. Represents students in cases involving conflict with regulations. Cooperates with other personnel service bureaus to assist in adjustment of students. Approves students' proposed budgets and requests release of funds from students' home governments to meet financial obligations. Recommends students for scholarships, grants-in-aid, and waivers of tuition fees on basis of scholarship, character, and financial need. Encourages and coordinates activities of groups which promote understanding of foreign cultures. May assist in curriculum planning.
GOE: 10.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

090.117-010 ACADEMIC DEAN (education) alternate titles: academic vice president; dean of instruction; faculty dean; provost; university dean; vice president for instruction

    Develops academic policies and programs for college or university: Directs and coordinates activities of deans and chairpersons of individual colleges. Advises on personnel matters. Determines scheduling of courses and recommends implementation of additional courses. Coordinates activities of student advisors. Participates in activities of faculty committees, and in development of academic budget. Advises PRESIDENT, EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION (education) on academic matters. Serves as liaison officer with accrediting agencies which evaluate academic programs. May serve as chief administrative officer in absence of PRESIDENT, EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION (education). May provide general direction to LIBRARIAN (library); DIRECTOR OF ADMISSIONS (education); and REGISTRAR, COLLEGE OR UNIVERSITY (education).
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 9 DLU: 77

090.117-014 ALUMNI SECRETARY (education) alternate titles: director, alumni relations

    Directs and coordinates activities of college or university alumni organization: Communicates with alumni and former students. Organizes and directs alumni organizational functions, regional alumni meetings, and production of alumni publications. Coordinates activities of clerical and publications staff. Promotes alumni endorsement of institutional activities and enlists alumni aid in recruiting students and fund raising. Secures publicity for alumni functions. May promote athletic events. May assist in followup studies of graduates. May supervise alumni field officers.
GOE: 11.09.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

090.117-018 DEAN OF STUDENTS (education) alternate titles: dean of student affairs; director of student services; vice president of student affairs

    Directs and coordinates student programs of college or university: Formulates and develops student personnel policies. Advises staff members on problems relating to policy, program, and administration. Directs and assists in planning social, recreational, and curricular programs. Counsels or advises individuals and groups on matters pertaining to personal problems, educational and vocational objectives, social and recreational activities, and financial assistance. Reviews reports of student misconduct cases that require disciplinary action to ensure recommendations conform to university policies. Sponsors and advises student organizations. Reviews budget and directs appropriations of student services unit. Represents university in community on matters pertaining to student personnel program and activities. May teach. May direct admissions, foreign student services, health services, student union, and testing services. May be designated Dean Of Men (education); Dean Of Women (education).
GOE: 10.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

090.117-022 DIRECTOR, ATHLETIC (education)

    Plans, administers, and directs intercollegiate athletic activities in college or university: Interprets and participates in formulating extramural athletic policies. Employs and discharges coaching staff and other department employees on own initiative or at direction of board in charge of athletics. Directs preparation and dissemination of publicity to promote athletic events. Plans and coordinates activities of coaching staff. Prepares budget and authorizes department expenditures. Plans and schedules sports events, and oversees ticket sales activities. Certifies reports of income produced from ticket sales. May direct programs for students of physical education.
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 9 DLU: 77

090.117-026 DIRECTOR, EXTENSION WORK (education)

    Directs college or university extension service to provide educational programs for adults in extended day, evening, and off-campus classes and in special interest seminar and convention courses: Consults staff members to determine community educational needs and to ascertain feasibility of proposed programs. Develops academic objectives for specific programs and for long range extension services. Consults with staff and outside experts and formulates program scope and content. Meets with academic and administrative personnel to disseminate information regarding program objectives and to ensure that program goals are met. Establishes operational policies and procedures. Reviews program progress reports to ensure that objectives are met. Reviews and approves budget. Oversees activities of operational and program departments. Directs activities of administrative staff.
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M3 L5 SVP: 9 DLU: 77

090.117-030 FINANCIAL-AIDS OFFICER (education) alternate titles: director of financial aid and placements; director of student aid

    Directs scholarship, grant-in-aid, and loan programs to provide financial assistance to students in college or university: Selects candidates and determines types and amounts of aid. Organizes and oversees student financial counseling activities. Coordinates activities with other departmental staff engaged in issuing or collecting student payments. May teach. May select financial aid candidates as members of committee and be designated Chairperson, Scholarship And Loan Committee (education).
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

090.117-034 PRESIDENT, EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION (education) alternate titles: chancellor

    Formulates plans and programs for and directs administration of college, school, or university, within authority delegated by governing board: Confers with board of control to plan and initiate programs concerning organizational, operational, and academic functions of campus, and oversees their execution. Administers fiscal and physical planning activities, such as development of budget and building expansion programs, and recommends their adoption. Negotiates with administrative officials and representatives of business, community, and civic groups to promote educational, research, and public service objectives and policies of institution as formulated by board of control. Establishes operational procedures, rules, and standards relating to faculty and staff classification standards, financial disbursements, and accounting requirements. Represents campus on board of control and at formal functions. May be designated according to type of institution presided over as President, Business School (education); President, College Or University (education).
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 9 DLU: 77

090.164-010 LABORATORY MANAGER (education)

    Coordinates activities of university science laboratory to assist faculty in teaching and research programs: Consults with faculty laboratory coordinator to determine equipment purchase priorities based on budget allowances, condition of existing equipment, and scheduled laboratory activities. Prepares and puts in place equipment scheduled for use during laboratory teaching sessions. Demonstrates care and use of equipment to teaching assistants. Builds prototype equipment, applying electromechanical knowledge and using handtools and power tools. Trains teaching staff and students in application and use of new equipment. Diagnoses equipment malfunctions and dismantles and repairs equipment, applying knowledge of shop mechanics and using gauges, meters, handtools, and power tools. Develops methods of laboratory experimentation, applying knowledge of scientific theory and computer capability. Confers with teaching staff periodically to evaluate new equipment and methods. Teaches laboratory sessions in absence of teaching assistant.
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 86

090.167-010 DEPARTMENT HEAD, COLLEGE OR UNIVERSITY (education) alternate titles: department chairperson, college or university

    Administers affairs of college department, such as English, biological sciences, or mathematics department: Arranges schedules of classes and assigns teaching staff to conduct classes. Prepares lists of budgetary and other needs. Interviews applicants for teaching positions. Performs other administrative duties in addition to teaching assignment. May administer department's budget and recruit academic personnel. May head department in two-year college and be designated Department Head, Junior College (education).
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

090.167-014 DIRECTOR OF ADMISSIONS (education) alternate titles: dean of admissions

    Directs and coordinates admissions program of public or private college or university, according to policies developed by governing board: Directs program of admissions counseling and reviews exceptional admissions cases. Confers with staff of other schools to explain admission requirements and student transfer credit policies. Evaluates courses offered by other schools to determine their equivalency to courses offered on campus. Directs preparation of printed materials explaining admission requirements and transfer credit policies for dissemination to other schools. May counsel students having problems relating to admissions or may supervise professionally trained admissions counseling staff. May serve on policy making admissions committee. May participate in or conduct student recruitment programs with other members of faculty and staff. May administer financial aid programs.
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

090.167-018 DIRECTOR OF INSTITUTIONAL RESEARCH (education) alternate titles: administrative analyst; director of institutional studies; vice president for institutional research

    Directs and coordinates activities concerned with research and evaluation of operations and programs of college or university: Identifies problem areas, such as admission patterns, fiscal and management analysis, and sources of financial support in order to develop research procedures. Coordinates research efforts and assists in evaluating research findings. Coordinates activities of research staff. May teach.
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

090.167-022 DIRECTOR OF STUDENT AFFAIRS (education) alternate titles: director, student union; manager, student union; student-activities adviser; student-union consultant

    Plans and arranges social, cultural, and recreational activities of various student groups, according to university policies and regulations: Meets with student and faculty groups to plan activities. Evaluates programs and suggests modifications. Schedules events to prevent overlapping and coordinates activities with sports and other university programs. Contacts caterers, entertainers, decorators, and others to arrange for scheduled events. Conducts orientation program for new students with other members of faculty and staff. Advises student groups on financial status of and methods for improving their organizations. Promotes student participation in social, cultural, and recreational activities. May coordinate preparation and publishing of student affairs calendar. May provide individual or group counseling on selection of social activities and use of leisure time. May be designated according to activity performed as Fraternity Adviser (education); Women's-Activities Adviser (education).
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

090.167-026 DIRECTOR, SUMMER SESSIONS (education)

    Coordinates and directs summer session program of college or university: Analyzes past records and confers with faculty and staff on enrollment trends to anticipate size of enrollment. Estimates budget requirements on basis of expected income and expenditures and requests allotment of funds. Discusses apportionment of funds with heads of departments and approves or alters detailed budgets according to past financial success of proposed course offerings. Issues invitations to and appoints teaching staff upon recommendations of department heads. Directs preparation and distribution of summer session bulletin and publicity releases. Oversees registration of summer session students. May establish tuition fees as member of committee on basis of expected enrollment to provide income equal to expenses.
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 9 DLU: 77

090.167-030 REGISTRAR, COLLEGE OR UNIVERSITY (education) alternate titles: director of admissions

    Directs and coordinates college or university registration activities: Consults with other officials to devise registration schedules and procedures. Analyzes statistical data on registration for administrative use in formulating policies. Exchanges student information with other colleges or universities. Directs preparation of student transcripts. Prepares commencement list. Directs preparation of statistical reports on educational activities for government and educational agencies and interprets registration policies to faculty and students. Directs activities of workers engaged in transcribing and evaluating academic records of students applying for permission to enter college or university. Directs compilation of information, such as class schedules and graduation requirements, for publication in school bulletins and catalogs. Coordinates dissemination of information on courses offered and procedures students are required to follow in order to obtain grade transcripts. Issues official transcripts. Coordinates class schedules with room assignments for optimum use of buildings and equipment. May assign rooms for student activities.
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

090.167-034 DIRECTOR, FIELD SERVICES (education) alternate titles: director of recruitment

    Directs and plans recruitment activities of community college: Plans comprehensive program of marketing services in recruitment of students and outreach activities with business, industry, community organizations, and public agencies to establish educational programs and to identify educational needs of community. Develops and distributes recruiting literature in locations, such as high schools and shopping centers. Plans publicity campaign and contacts target groups directly through visits with school counselors, career day activities, and meetings with industry groups to explain college educational programs and services. Studies federal and state regulations and local demographic and employment trends to determine impact on enrollment. Coordinates recruitment activities with other colleges. Advises administrative staff on need for new programs and courses. Prepares budget and annual reports.
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 86

090.222-010 INSTRUCTOR, BUSINESS EDUCATION (education)

    Instructs students in commercial subjects, such as typing, filing, secretarial procedures, business mathematics, office equipment use, and personality development, in business schools, community colleges, or training programs: Instructs students in subject matter, utilizing various methods, such as lecture and demonstration, and uses audiovisual aids and other materials to supplement presentations. Prepares or follows teaching outline for course of study, assigns lessons, and corrects homework and classroom papers. Administers tests to evaluate students' progress, records results, and issues reports to inform students of their progress. Maintains discipline in classroom.
GOE: 11.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 86


    Conducts college or university courses for undergraduate or graduate students: Teaches one or more subjects, such as economics, chemistry, law, or medicine, within prescribed curriculum. Prepares and delivers lectures to students. Compiles bibliographies of specialized materials for outside reading assignments. Stimulates class discussions. Compiles, administers, and grades examinations, or assigns this work to others. Directs research of other teachers or graduate students working for advanced academic degrees. Conducts research in particular field of knowledge and publishes findings in professional journals. Performs related duties, such as advising students on academic and vocational curricula, and acting as adviser to student organizations. Serves on faculty committee providing professional consulting services to government and industry. May be designated according to faculty rank in traditional hierarchy as determined by institution's estimate of scholarly maturity as Associate Professor (education); Professor (education); or according to rank distinguished by duties assigned or amount of time devoted to academic work as Research Assistant (education); Visiting Professor (education). May teach in two-year college and be designated Teacher, Junior College (education); or in technical institute and be designated Faculty Member, Technical Institute (education). May be designated: Acting Professor (education); Assistant Professor (education); Clinical Instructor (education); Instructor (education); Lecturer (education); Teaching Assistant (education).
GOE: 11.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 81

090.227-014 GRADUATE ASSISTANT (education)

    Assists department chairperson, faculty members or other professional staff members in college or university, by performing any combination of following duties: Assists in library, develops teaching materials, such as syllabi and visual aids, assists in laboratory or field research, prepares and gives examinations, assists in student conferences, grades examinations and papers, and teaches lower-level courses. May be designated by duties performed, or equipment operated.
GOE: 11.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M4 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

090.227-018 INSTRUCTOR, EXTENSION WORK (education)

    Conducts evening classes for extension service of college or university: Prepares course of study designed to meet community, organization, and student needs. Conducts and corrects examinations, and assigns course grades.
GOE: 11.02.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77


    This group includes occupations concerned with research, administration, and teaching at the secondary school level (intermediate grades between primary school and college). Teaching at this level is generally specialized according to one group of related subjects, such as physics, math, history, literature, home economics, industrial arts, or music. Occupations concerned with relieving teachers of duties which do not require academic training, such as clerical tasks or attending to personal needs of students, are included in Group 249.

091.107-010 ASSISTANT PRINCIPAL (education)

    Administers school student personnel program in primary or secondary school, and counsels and disciplines students, performing any combination of following tasks: Formulates student personnel policies, such as code of ethics. Plans and supervises school student activity programs. Gives individual and group guidance for personal problems, educational and vocational objectives, and social and recreational activities. Talks with and disciplines students in cases of attendance and behavior problems. Supervises students in attendance at assemblies and athletic events. Walks about school building and property to monitor safety and security or directs and coordinates teacher supervision of areas such as halls and cafeteria. Observes and evaluates teacher performance. Maintains records of student attendance. Arranges for and oversees substitute teachers. Works with administrators to coordinate and supervise student teachers program. Teaches courses. Assists PRINCIPAL (education) 099.117-018 to interview and hire teachers. Organizes and administers in-service teacher training. Acts as PRINCIPAL (education) in absence of PRINCIPAL (education). May be required to have certification from state.
GOE: 10.01.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 80

091.221-010 TEACHER, INDUSTRIAL ARTS (education) alternate titles: shop teacher

    Teaches students basic techniques and assists in development of manipulative skills in industrial arts courses in secondary schools: Prepares lesson plans for courses and establishes goals. Lectures, illustrates, and demonstrates when teaching use of handtools; machines, such as lathe, planer, power saws, and drill press; safety practices; precision measuring instruments, such as micrometer; and industrial arts techniques. Evaluates student progress. Talks with parents and counselor to resolve behavioral and academic problems. ay teach shop math. May specialize in one or more areas, such as woodworking, metalworking, electricity, graphic arts, automobile repair, or drafting. May teach students with disabilities. May be required to have certification from state.
GOE: 11.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 80

091.227-010 TEACHER, SECONDARY SCHOOL (education) alternate titles: high school teacher

    Teaches one or more subjects to students in public or private secondary schools: Instructs students, using various teaching methods, such as lecture and demonstration, and uses audiovisual aids and other materials to supplement presentations. Prepares course objectives and outline for course of study following curriculum guidelines or requirements of state and school. Assigns lessons and corrects homework. Administers tests to evaluate pupil progress, records results, and issues reports to inform parents of progress. Keeps attendance records. Maintains discipline in classroom. Meets with parents to discuss student progress and problems. Participates in faculty and professional meetings, educational conferences, and teacher training workshops. Performs related duties, such as sponsoring one or more activities or student organizations, assisting pupils in selecting course of study, and counseling student in adjustment and academic problems. May be identified according to subject matter taught. May be required to hold certification from state.
GOE: 11.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 80


    This group includes occupations concerned with research, administration, and teaching below the secondary school level. Teaching at this level is generally not specialized according to subject matter. Some specialization does occur in music, art, science, or physical training. Occupations concerned with relieving teachers of duties which do not require academic training, such as clerical tasks or attending to personal needs of children, are included in Group 249.

092.167-010 DIRECTOR, DAY CARE CENTER (education)

    Directs activities of preschool, day care center, or other child development facility to provide instruction and care for children: Prepares and submits facility budget to board of trustees, administrative agency, or owner for approval. Authorizes purchase of instructional materials and teaching aids, such as books, toys, and games designed to stimulate learning. Interviews and recommends hiring of teaching and service staff. Confers with parents regarding facility activities, policies, and enrollment procedures. Confers with teaching staff regarding child's behavioral or learning problems, and recommends methods of modifying inappropriate behavior and encouraging learning experiences. Reviews and evaluates facility activities to ensure conformance to state and local regulations. Reviews and approves menu plans and food purchases. May arrange medical attention for ill or injured child in accordance with parental instructions. May perform classroom teaching duties during absence of regular teacher. ay be designated Director, Child Development Center (education); Director, Nursery School (education).
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

092.227-010 TEACHER, ELEMENTARY SCHOOL (education)

    Teaches elementary school students academic, social, and motor skills in public or private schools: Prepares course objectives and outline for course of study following curriculum guidelines or requirements of state and school. Lectures, demonstrates, and uses audiovisual teaching aids to present subject matter to class. Prepares, administers, and corrects tests, and records results. Assigns lessons, corrects papers, and hears oral presentations. Teaches rules of conduct. Maintains order in classroom and on playground. Counsels pupils when adjustment and academic problems arise. Discusses pupils' academic and behavioral attitudes and achievements with parents. Keeps attendance and grade records as required by school. May coordinate class field trips. May teach combined grade classes. May specialize by subject taught, such as math, science, or social studies. May be required to hold state certification.
GOE: 11.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 81

092.227-014 TEACHER, KINDERGARTEN (education) alternate titles: instructor, kindergarten

    Teaches elemental natural and social science, personal hygiene, music, art, and literature to children from 4 to 6 years old, to promote their physical, mental, and social development: Supervises activities, such as field visits, group discussions, and dramatic play acting, to stimulate students' interest in and broaden understanding of their physical and social environment. Fosters cooperative social behavior through games and group projects to assist children in forming satisfying relationships with other children and adults. Encourages students in singing, dancing, rhythmic activities, and in use of art materials, to promote self-expression and appreciation of esthetic experience. Instructs children in practices of personal cleanliness and self care. Alternates periods of strenuous activity with periods of rest or light activity to avoid overstimulation and fatigue. Observes children to detect signs of ill health or emotional disturbance, and to evaluate progress. Discusses students' problems and progress with parents.
GOE: 10.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M2 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

092.227-018 TEACHER, PRESCHOOL (education)

    Instructs children in activities designed to promote social, physical, and intellectual growth needed for primary school in preschool, day care center, or other child development facility. Plans individual and group activities to stimulate growth in language, social, and motor skills, such as learning to listen to instructions, playing with others, and using play equipment. May be required to have certification from state. May be designated Teacher, Child Development Center (education); Teacher, Day Care Center (education); Teacher, Early Childhood Development (education); Teacher, Nursery School (education).
GOE: 10.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M2 L3 SVP: 7 DLU: 81


    This group includes occupations concerned with research in the education and training of persons with disabilities; the administration of schools or programs for persons with disabilities; and teaching in such schools and programs which require specialized techniques and procedures. Includes teaching persons with visual impairments to read books imprinted in braille and to develop their sense of touch; instructing persons who are hearing impaired in sign language and lip reading; and instructing persons with mental, neurological, and emotional disabilities.


    Plans and conducts special education work and study program for in-school youth: Establishes contacts with employers and employment agencies and surveys newspapers and other sources to locate work opportunities for students. Confers with potential employers to communicate objectives of work study program and to solicit cooperation in adapting work situations to special needs of students. Evaluates and selects program participants according to specified criteria and counsels and instructs selected students in matters such as vocational choices, job readiness, and job retention skills and behaviors. Assists students in applying for jobs and accompanies students to employment interviews. Confers with employer and visits work site to monitor progress of student and to determine support needed to meet employer requirements and fulfill program goals. Counsels students to foster development of satisfactory job performance. Confers with school and community personnel to impart information about program and to coordinate program functions with related activities.
GOE: 10.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 86

094.117-010 DIRECTOR, COMMISSION FOR THE BLIND (government ser.)

    Directs activities of State Commission for the Blind to facilitate vocational and social adjustment of visually handicapped individuals: Directs, through subordinates, activities of workers engaged in training visually handicapped in vocational and other skills. Plans and organizes training programs and self-employment opportunities for blind persons. Confers with representatives of civic groups and charitable organizations to coordinate programs and services. Recommends changes in legislation affecting visually handicapped individuals. Represents Commission at conventions and addresses public gatherings to promote understanding of problems of blind and partially sighted and activities of Commission. Authorizes purchase of materials and equipment within allocated budget.
GOE: 11.07.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77


    Develops and coordinates implementation of vocational rehabilitation programs: Consults with members of local communities and personnel of rehabilitation facilities, such as sheltered workshops and skills training centers, to identify need for new programs or modification of existing programs. Collects and analyzes data to define problems and develops proposals for programs to provide needed services, utilizing knowledge of vocational rehabilitation theory and practice, program funding sources, and government regulations. Provides staff training, negotiates contracts for equipment and supplies, and performs related functions to implement program changes. Monitors program operations and recommends additional measures to ensure programs meet defined needs.
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 86

094.167-010 SUPERVISOR, SPECIAL EDUCATION (education)

    Directs and coordinates activities of teachers and other staff providing home or school instruction, evaluation services, job placement, or other special education services to physically, mentally, emotionally, or neurologically handicapped children: Reviews referrals and diagnoses and participates in conferences with administrators, staff, parents, children, and other concerned parties to formulate recommendations for student placement and provision of services. Monitors staff activities and gives technical assistance in areas, such as assessment, curriculum development, use of materials and equipment, and management of student behavior. Plans and conducts in-service training. Interviews applicants, recommends hirings, and evaluates staff performance. May write grant proposals. May assist program administrators in preparation of budget and development of program policy and goals. ay address public to elicit support and explain program objectives.
GOE: 10.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 86

094.167-014 DIRECTOR, SPECIAL EDUCATION (education) alternate titles: administrative assistant, special education; assistant superintendent, special education

    Directs and coordinates special education programs in public school systems, public agencies, and state institutions to teach students with mental or physical disabilities: Formulates policies and procedures for new or revised programs or activities, such as screening, placement, education, and training of students. Evaluates special education programs to ensure that objectives for student education are met. Interprets laws, rules, and regulations to students, parents, and staff. Recruits, selects, and evaluates staff. Prepares budget and solicits funds to provide financial support for programs. Prepares reports for federal, state, and local regulatory agencies. May contract with agencies for needed services, such as residential care. ay administer achievement tests to measure student level of performance.
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 81

094.224-010 TEACHER, HEARING IMPAIRED (education)

    Teaches elementary and secondary school subjects to hearing impaired students, using various methods of communication to receive and convey language: Plans curriculum and prepares lessons and other instructional materials according to grade level of students, utilizing visual media, such as computer, films, television, and charts. Confers with committee of parents, administrators, testing specialists, social worker, and others to develop individual educational program. Instructs students in academic subjects. Instructs students in various forms of communication, such as gestures, sign language, finger spelling, and speech cues. Encourages students to participate in verbal communication classroom learning experiences to ensure their comprehension of subject matter, development of social skills, and ability to communicate in situations encountered in daily living. Tests students' hearing aids to ensure hearing aids are functioning. May attend and interpret lectures and instructions for students enrolled in regular classes. May teach parents how to participate in and enhance students' learning experiences. May teach students to use computer. May specialize in teaching lip reading and be designated Teacher, Lip Reading (education). May be required to have certification from state.
GOE: 10.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 86

094.224-014 TEACHER, PHYSICALLY IMPAIRED (education)

    Teaches elementary and secondary school subjects to physically impaired students, adapting teaching techniques and methods of instruction to meet individual needs of students in schools, hospitals, and students' homes: Plans curriculum and prepares lessons and other materials, considering factors, such as individual needs, abilities, learning levels, and physical limitations of students. Confers with parents, administrators, testing specialists, social worker, and others to develop educational program for student. Instructs students with observable orthopedic impairments, as well as those with internal impairment, such as heart condition. Arranges and adjusts tools, work aids, and equipment utilized by students in classroom, such as specially equipped worktables, computers, typewriters, and mechanized page turners. Devises special teaching tools, techniques, and equipment. Instructs students in academic subjects and other activities designed to provide learning experience. Confers with other members of staff to develop programs to maximize students' potentials. May assist members of medical staff in rehabilitation programs for students. May be required to have certification from state.
GOE: 10.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 86

094.224-018 TEACHER, VISUALLY IMPAIRED (education)

    Teaches elementary and secondary school subjects and daily living skills to visually impaired students: Instructs students in reading and writing, using magnification equipment and large print material or braille system. Confers with parents, administrator, testing specialists, social worker, and others to develop individual educational program for students. Plans curriculum and prepares lessons and other instructional materials, according to grade level of students. Transcribes lessons and other materials into braille for blind students or large print for low vision students. Reviews and corrects completed assignments, using such aids as braille writer, slate and stylus, or computer. Arranges for and conducts field trips designed to promote experiential learning. Instructs students in academic subject areas and daily living skills, such as hygiene, safety, and food preparation. Encourages students to participate in verbal and sensory classroom learning experiences to ensure their comprehension of subject matter, development of social skills, and ability to identify objects encountered in daily living. Meets with parents to discuss how parents can encourage student's independence and well-being and to provide guidance in using community resources. May counsel students. ay teach braille to individuals with sight and be designated Instructor, Braille (education).
GOE: 10.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 81

094.227-010 TEACHER, EMOTIONALLY IMPAIRED (education)

    Teaches elementary and secondary school subjects to students with emotional impairments in schools, institutions, or other specialized facilities: Plans curriculum and prepares lessons and other instructional materials to meet individual needs of students, considering such factors as physical, emotional, and educational levels of development. Confers with parents, administrators, testing specialists, social workers, and others to develop individual educational plan for student. Instructs students in academic subjects and social interaction skills. Observes students for signs of disruptive behavior, such as violence, verbal outbursts, and episodes of destructiveness. Teaches socially acceptable behavior employing techniques such as behavior modification and positive reinforcement. Confers with other staff members to plan programs designed to promote educational, physical, and social development of students. May be required to have certification from local, state, and federal government.
GOE: 10.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 86

094.227-022 TEACHER, MENTALLY IMPAIRED (education)

    Teaches basic academic and living skills to mentally impaired students in schools and other institutions: Plans curriculum and prepares lessons and other instructional materials according to achievement levels of students. Confers with parents, administrators, testing specialists, social workers, and others to develop individual educational program for students who are at different learning ability levels, including educable, trainable, and severely impaired. Instructs students in academic subjects, utilizing various teaching techniques, such as phonetics, multisensory learning, and repetition to reinforce learning. Instructs students in daily living skills required for independent maintenance and economic self-sufficiency, such as hygiene, safety, and food preparation. Observes, evaluates, and prepares reports on progress of students. Meets with parents to provide support and guidance in using community resources. May administer and interpret results of ability and achievement tests. May be required to hold state certification.
GOE: 10.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 86

094.227-026 TEACHER, VOCATIONAL TRAINING (education)

    Teaches vocational skills to handicapped students: Confers with students, parents, school personnel, and other individuals to plan vocational training that meets needs, interests, and abilities of students. Instructs students in areas such as personal-social skills and work-related attitudes and behaviors. Develops work opportunities that allow students to experience success in performing tasks of increasing difficulty and that teach work values, such as self-improvement, independence, dependability, productivity, and pride of work. Conducts field trips to enable students to learn about job activities and to explore work environments. May teach academic skills to students. May instruct students in one or more vocational skills, such as woodworking, building maintenance, cosmetology, food preparation, gardening, sewing, or nurse aiding.
GOE: 10.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 86

094.227-030 TEACHER, LEARNING DISABLED (education)

    Teaches elementary and secondary school subjects in schools, institutions, or other specialized facilities to students with neurological problems in learning: Plans curriculum and prepares lessons and other instructional materials to meet individual need of students, considering state and school requirements, physical, emotional, and educational levels of development. Confers with parents, administrators, testing specialists, social worker, and others to develop individual educational program for student. Instructs students in all academic subjects. Creates learning materials geared to each student's ability and interest. Instructs students, using special educational strategies and techniques, to improve sensory-motor and perceptual-motor development, perception, memory, language, cognition, and social and emotional development. Works with students to increase motivation, provide consistent reinforcement to learning, continuous assessment of level of functioning, and continuous feedback to student for all learning activities. Works with parents to accept and develop skills in dealing with student's learning impairment. May work as consultant, teach in self-contained classroom, or teach in resource room. May be required to hold certification from state.
GOE: 10.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 81

094.267-010 EVALUATOR (education)

    Assesses type and degree of disability of handicapped children to aid in determining special programs and services required to meet educational needs: Reviews referrals of children having or suspected of having learning disabilities, mental retardation, behavioral disorders, or physical handicaps to determine evaluation procedure. Confers with school or other personnel and scrutinizes records to obtain additional information on nature and severity of disability. Observes student behavior and rates strength and weakness of factors such as rapport, motivation, cooperativeness, aggression, attention span, and task completion. Selects, administers, and scores variety of preliminary tests to measure individual's aptitudes, educational achievements, perceptual motor skills, vision, and hearing. Reports findings for staff consideration in placement of children in educational programs. May test preschool children to detect learning handicaps and recommend followup activities, consultation, or services. May administer work related tests and review records and other data to assess student vocational interests and abilities. May specialize in evaluating student readiness to transfer from special classes to regular classroom, and in providing supportive services to regular classroom teacher and be designated Mainstreaming Facilitator (education).
GOE: 10.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 86


    This group includes occupations concerned with informing and advising homemakers, farmers, and farm youth in the arts and techniques of homemaking or farming, usually in the home or on the farm, in consultation, or in locally organized groups and meetings.

096.121-010 COUNTY HOME-DEMONSTRATION AGENT (government ser.) alternate titles: home agent; home-demonstration agent; home-extension agent

    Develops, organizes, and conducts programs for individuals in rural communities to improve farm and family life: Lectures and demonstrates techniques in such subjects as nutrition, clothing, home management, home furnishing, and child care. Visits homes to advise families on problems, such as family budgeting and home remodeling. Organizes and advises clubs, and assists in selecting and training leaders to guide group discussions and demonstrations in subjects, such as sewing, food preparation, and home decoration. Writes leaflets and articles and talks over radio and television to disseminate information. Participates in community activities, such as judging at rural fairs and speaking before parent-teachers associations. May direct 4-H Club activities [FOUR-H CLUB AGENT (education)].
GOE: 11.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

096.121-014 HOME ECONOMIST (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: consumer services consultant

    Organizes and conducts consumer education service or research program for equipment, food, textile, or utility company, utilizing principles of home economics: Advises homemakers in selection and utilization of household equipment, food, and clothing, and interprets homemakers' needs to manufacturers of household products. Writes advertising copy and articles of interest to homemakers, tests recipes, equipment, and new household products, conducts radio and television homemakers' programs, and performs other public relations and promotion work for business firms, newspapers, magazines, and radio and television stations. Advises individuals and families on home management practices, such as budget planning, meal preparation, and energy conservation. Teaches improved homemaking practices to homemakers and youths through educational programs, demonstrations, discussions, and home visits. May engage in research in government, private industry, and colleges and universities to explore family relations or child development, develop new products for home, discover facts on food nutrition, and test serviceability of new materials. May specialize in specific area of home economics and be designated Equipment Specialist (profess. & kin.); Fashion Consultant (profess. & kin.); Home Economist, Consumer Service (profess. & kin.); Nutritionist (profess. & kin.); Product Representative (profess. & kin.); Research-Home Economist (profess. & kin.); Test-Kitchen-Home Economist (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 11.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

096.127-010 COUNTY-AGRICULTURAL AGENT (government ser.) alternate titles: agricultural agent; county adviser; county agent; extension agent; extension-service agent; extension worker; farm adviser; farm agent

    Organizes and conducts cooperative extension program to advise and instruct farmers and individuals engaged in agri-business in applications of agricultural research findings: Collects, analyzes, and evaluates agricultural data; plans and develops techniques; and advises farmers to assist in solving problems, such as crop rotation and soil erosion. Delivers lectures and prepares articles concerning subjects, such as farm management and soil conservation. Demonstrates practical procedures used in solving agricultural problems. Discusses extension program with representatives of commercial organizations, county government, and other groups to inform them of program services and to obtain their cooperation in encouraging use of services. Prepares activity, planning, and other reports and maintains program records. Prepares budget requests, or assists in their preparation. ay supervise and coordinate activities of other county extension workers. May direct 4-H Club activities. May be designated by specific program assignment as Agri-Business Agent (government ser.); Farm-Management Agent (government ser.); Horticultural Agent (government ser.); Livestock Agent (government ser.); Resource Agent (government ser.).
GOE: 11.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

096.127-014 EXTENSION SERVICE SPECIALIST (government ser.) alternate titles: cooperative extension advisor specialist

    Instructs extension workers and develops specialized service activities in area of agriculture or home economics: Plans, develops, organizes, and evaluates training programs in subjects, such as home management, horticulture, and consumer information. Prepares leaflets, pamphlets, and other material for use as training aids. Conducts classes to train extension workers in specialized fields and in teaching techniques. Delivers lectures to commercial and community organizations and over radio and television to promote development of agricultural or domestic skills. Analyzes research data and plans activities to coordinate services with those offered by other departments, agencies, and organizations. May be designated according to field of specialization as Agricultural-Extension Specialist (government ser.); Home Economics Specialist (government ser.).
GOE: 11.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

096.127-018 FEED AND FARM MANAGEMENT ADVISER (agriculture; retail trade)

    Instructs farmers and retail grain and feed-store customers in modern and scientific feed and farm management techniques: Discusses feeding problems for fowl, swine, cattle, and other livestock with farmers. Examines poultry or livestock and recommends medication and remedial measures to prevent spread of disease and to maintain healthy poultry or livestock. Advises and assists farmers in securing services of VETERINARIAN (medical ser.) for treating larger animals. Assists farmers in setting up cost and production records to determine most economical method of farm operation. May give lectures and demonstrations to farm groups. May take feed orders.
GOE: 11.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

096.127-022 FOUR-H CLUB AGENT (education)

    Organizes and directs educational projects and activities of 4-H Club: Recruits and trains volunteer leaders to plan and guide 4-H Club program to meet needs and interests of individuals and community. Directs selection of educational projects, such as sewing, woodworking, photography, and livestock raising. Procures, develops, distributes, and presents teaching materials, such as visual aids and literature for educational projects. Arranges for 4-H Clubs to exhibit or participate in events, such as county and state fairs and state 4-H Club events. Develops and maintains recognition and incentive program for members and leaders of 4-H Clubs. May specialize in directing 4-H Club activities for girls and be designated Youth Agent (education).
GOE: 11.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

096.161-010 HOME-SERVICE DIRECTOR (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: director of home economics

    Plans, coordinates, and directs consumer education service or research program for equipment, food, or utility company to promote goodwill and sale of products or services: Studies and interprets data concerning consumer habits and preferences obtained from surveys, letters, and other customer contacts to aid company in product development. Plans and organizes program to educate consumers in use of equipment, product, or service. Develops and plans methods of instruction and techniques of demonstrating principles of home economics, such as food preparation and equipment use, to community and school groups. Directs and coordinates testing of recipes and development of new uses for equipment or product. Instructs dealers, sales personnel, and other employees in home management practices and in operation and care of equipment. Contacts organizations, such as school, professional, and women's groups, to promote company product and services. Writes articles and plans preparation of instruction manuals, booklets on product uses, and other consumer publications. Advises on content and accuracy of sales promotional material, such as newspaper, radio, and television advertising copy.
GOE: 11.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

096.167-010 DISTRICT EXTENSION SERVICE AGENT (government ser.) alternate titles: extension supervisor; regional extension-service specialist

    Directs and coordinates activities of workers engaged in agricultural or home economics services of agricultural extension program within group of counties: Determines methods and procedures or services and assigns tasks to workers according to extension program policies. Examines county methods and procedures to evaluate content and effectiveness of services within district. Delivers lectures to groups, such as commercial and community organizations, and directs county extension workers to deliver lectures to publicize and promote extension services activities. Reviews personnel data and recommends personnel action, such as hiring and discharging workers and adjusting salaries. Prepares, or assists in preparing, activity and planning reports and directs county extension workers to prepare reports. ay formulate or assist in formulating budget requests to obtain operating funds. May be designated according to field of specialization as District Agricultural Agent (government ser.); District Home Economics Agent (government ser.).
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

096.167-014 SPECIALIST-IN-CHARGE, EXTENSION SERVICE (government ser.)

    Directs and coordinates activities of extension service specialists and develops educational programs in agriculture and home economics: Plans procedures and analyzes data for use by extension service specialists. Meets with specialists, volunteers, and other staff to discuss program problems and to disseminate information pertaining to practical applications of research findings in specific program areas. Coordinates activities of specialists to ensure program goals are met. Recruits and hires workers for specialized extension program services, and plans, organizes, and conducts training programs for new employees. Prepares activity, planning, and other reports, and maintains service records. Prepares or assists in preparation of budget requests.
GOE: 11.02.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77


    This group includes occupations concerned with research, administration, and teaching in vocational education.

097.167-010 DIRECTOR, VOCATIONAL TRAINING (education)

    Directs and coordinates vocational training programs for public school system, according to board of education policies and state education code: Confers with members of industrial and business communities to determine human resource training needs for apprenticeable and nonapprenticeable occupations. Reviews and interprets federal and state vocational education codes to ensure that program conforms to legislation. Prepares budget and funding allocations for vocational programs. Reviews and approves new programs. Evaluates apprenticeable and nonapprenticeable programs, considering factors, such as selection, training, and placement of enrollees. Plans and develops joint programs in conjunction with other members of education staff. Organizes committees to provide technical and advisory assistance to programs. Coordinates on-the-job training programs with employers, and evaluates progress of enrollees in conjunction with program contract goals.
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

097.221-010 INSTRUCTOR, VOCATIONAL TRAINING (education) alternate titles: teacher, vocational training

    Teaches vocational training subjects to students in public or private schools or in industrial plants: Organizes program of practical and technical instruction, including demonstrations of skills required in trade, and lectures on theory, techniques, and terminology. Instructs students in subject areas, such as mathematics, science, drawing, use and maintenance of tools and equipment, codes or regulations related to trade, and safety precautions. Plans and supervises work of students, individually or in small groups, in shop or laboratory. Tests and evaluates achievement of student in technical knowledge and trade skills. May be identified according to trade or theory taught or type of establishment in which training is conducted, such as plumbing, electronics, or dental assistance. May place students in job training. May teach students with disabilities. May be required to have certification from state.
GOE: 11.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 81

097.227-010 INSTRUCTOR, FLYING II (education)

    Instructs student pilots in flight procedures and techniques and in ground school courses: Develops and prepares course outlines, study materials, and instructional procedures for students enrolled in basic, advanced, or instrument ground school. Lectures on various subjects, such as aircraft construction, federal aviation regulations, and radio navigation. Demonstrates operation of various aircraft components and instruments, and techniques for controlling aircraft during maneuvers, such as taxiing, takeoff, and landing, using synthetic instrument trainers. Observes student's actions during training flights to ensure assimilation of classroom instruction and to comply with federal aviation regulations. Tests and evaluates students' progress, using written and performance tests and oral interviews. May teach advanced, basic, or instrument courses and be designated Ground Instructor, Advanced (education); Ground Instructor, Basic (education); Ground Instructor, Instrument (education). ust be certified by Federal Aviation Administration.
GOE: 05.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 77


    This group includes occupations in education, not elsewhere classified, concerned with research, administration, and teaching.

099.117-010 DIRECTOR, EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM (education)

    Plans, develops, and administers programs to provide educational opportunities for students: Cooperates with business, civic, and other organizations to develop curriculums to meet needs and interests of students and community. Interviews and selects staff members and provides in-service training for teachers. Prepares budget and determines allocation of funds for staff, supplies and equipment, and facilities. Analyzes data from questionnaires, interviews, and group discussions to evaluate curriculums, teaching methods, and community participation in educational and other programs. May direct preparation of publicity to promote activities, such as personnel recruitment, educational programs or other services. May specialize in elementary, secondary, adult, or junior college education.
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77


    Plans and administers program of correlated academic, vocational, and social education in federal, state, or local correctional institution: Prepares courses of study and training materials designed to aid in rehabilitation process. Observes and advises instructors on improvements of methods and techniques. Institutes and directs vocational training programs for development of work habits, skills, and abilities. Conducts followup studies to evaluate effectiveness of academic and vocational training programs. Correlates educational programs with recreation program and other activities of institution and with parole program. Prepares budget requests for education programs, orders school supplies, and prepares records and reports. May supervise preparation of institutional publications. May be designated according to type of correctional facility as Education Supervisor, Penal Institution (education); Education Supervisor, Youth Authority (education).
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

099.117-018 PRINCIPAL (education)

    Directs and coordinates educational, administrative, and counseling activities of primary or secondary school: Develops and evaluates educational program to ensure conformance to state and school board standards. Develops and coordinates educational programs through meetings with staff, review of teachers' activities, and issuance of directives. Confers with teachers, students, and parents concerning educational and behavioral problems in school. Establishes and maintains relationships with colleges, community organizations, and other schools to coordinate educational services. Requisitions and allocates supplies, equipment, and instructional material as needed. Directs preparation of class schedules, cumulative records, and attendance reports. Observes and evaluates teacher performance. Interviews and hires teachers. Walks about school building and property to monitor safety and security. Plans and monitors school budget. May plan and direct building maintenance. May develop and administer educational programs for students with mental or physical handicaps. ay be required to have certification from state.
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 81

099.117-022 SUPERINTENDENT, SCHOOLS (education)

    Directs and coordinates activities concerned with administration of city, county, or other school system in accordance with board of education standards: Formulates plans and policies for educational program and submits them to school board for approval. Administers program for selection of school sites, construction of buildings, and provision of equipment and supplies. Directs preparation and presentation of school budget and determines amount of school bond issues required to finance educational program. Addresses community and civic groups to enlist their support. Interprets program and policies of school system to school personnel, to individuals and community groups, and to governmental agencies. Coordinates work of school system with related activities of other school districts and agencies. May ensure that laws applying to attendance of children at school are enforced. May supervise examining, appointing, training, and promotion of teaching personnel. May specialize in areas, such as personnel services, curriculum development, or business administration.
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 9 DLU: 77

099.117-026 SUPERVISOR, EDUCATION (education)

    Develops program curriculum and directs teaching personnel of school system: Confers with teaching and administrative staff to plan and develop curriculum designed to meet needs of students. Visits classrooms to observe effectiveness of instructional methods and material. Evaluates teaching techniques and recommends changes for improving them. Provides teachers with supplies, equipment, and visual and other instructional aids. Conducts workshops and conferences for teachers to study new classroom procedures, new instructional materials, and other aids to teaching. Assists in recruitment and in-service training of teachers. May be designated according to subject matter field or department administered as Supervisor, Adult Education (education); Supervisor, Agricultural Education (education); Supervisor, Elementary Education (education); Supervisor, Home Economics (education); Supervisor, Industrial Arts Education (education); Supervisor, Modern Languages (education); Supervisor, Trade And Industrial Education (education).
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

099.117-030 DIRECTOR, EDUCATION (museums)

    Plans, develops, and administers educational program of museum, zoo, or similar institution: Confers with administrative personnel to decide scope of program to be offered. Prepares schedules of classes and rough drafts of course content to determine number and background of instructors needed. Interviews, hires, trains, and evaluates work performance of education department staff. Contacts and arranges for services of guest lecturers from academic institutions, industry, and other establishments to augment education staff members in presentation of classes. Assists instructors in preparation of course descriptions and informational materials for publicity or distribution to class members. Prepares budget for education programs and directs maintenance of records of expenditures, receipts, and public and school participation in programs. Works with other staff members to plan and present lecture series, film programs, field trips, and other special activities. May teach classes. May speak before school and community groups and appear on radio or television to promote institution programs. May coordinate institution educational activities with those of other area organizations to maximize utilization of resources. May train establishment volunteers to assist in presentation of classes or tours. May develop and submit program and activity grant proposals and applications and implement programs funded as result of successful applications.
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 86


    Interviews, examines, and evaluates qualifications of applicants for teaching positions in public school system, using guidelines established by school district and state education licensing codes: Reviews and evaluates construction of written examinations to ensure that questions meet district's testing standards. Confers with other members of staff in order to coordinate district's teacher recruiting efforts. Reviews transcripts and interviews candidates to ascertain qualifications for positions within district. Corrects and scores essay portions of examinations, utilizing knowledge of teaching methods. Authorizes preparation of paper work assigning teaching candidates to positions. Analyzes reports and statistical data on criteria used to select, examine, and recruit teaching staff to ensure that methods conform to predetermined policies, standards, and codes, and recommends procedure revisions as needed. Informs candidates of employment possibilities within district. May evaluate qualifications of candidates applying for other certificated positions within district.
GOE: 11.03.04 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

099.167-014 CONSULTANT, EDUCATION (education)

    Plans and coordinates educational policies for specific subject area or grade level: Develops programs for in-service education of teaching personnel. Confers with federal, state, and local school officials to develop curricula and establish guidelines for educational programs. Confers with lay and professional groups to disseminate and receive input on teaching methods. Reviews and evaluates curricula for use in schools and assists in adaptation to local needs. Interprets and enforces provisions of state education codes and rules and regulations of State Board of Education. Conducts or participates in workshops, committees, and conferences designed to promote intellectual, social, and physical welfare of students. Studies and prepares recommendations on instructional materials, teaching aids, and related equipment. Prepares or approves manuals, guidelines, and reports on state educational policies and practices for distribution to school districts. Advises school officials on implementation of state and federal programs and procedures. Conducts research into areas, such as teaching methods and techniques. May perform tasks at local school district level or as independent consultant in area of expertise. May be designated as consultant in specific area, such as reading, elementary education, or audio-visual education.
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M6 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77


    Directs and coordinates preparation, development, and use of educational material in public school system: Confers with members of various educational committees and advisory groups to obtain knowledge of subject teaching areas, and to relate curriculum materials to specific subjects, individual student needs, and occupational areas. Coordinates activities of workers engaged in cataloging, distributing, and maintaining educational materials and equipment in curriculum library and laboratory. Reviews educational materials, such as video tapes, slides, and programmed texts, for educational content, and recommends acquisition of materials that meet district's standards. Advises staff members in techniques and methods of developing and evaluating specialized materials and instructional units. Organizes and implements use of new instructional systems. May train teachers and other staff in use of materials and equipment.
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

099.167-022 EDUCATIONAL SPECIALIST (education) alternate titles: director, evaluation and research

    Directs research activities concerned with educational programs and services in school system: Formulates and designs procedures to determine if program objectives are being met. Develops tests to measure effectiveness of curriculum or services and to interpret pupil intellectual and social development and group and school progress. Develops questionnaires and interviews school staff and administrators to obtain information about curriculum. Evaluates data obtained from study and prepares narrative and statistical reports for dissemination to school administrators. Formulates recommendations and procedures for current and proposed units of instruction. Develops in-service training program for staff. May devise questionnaire to evaluate training program. May specialize in research activities concerned with elementary, secondary, college, or other specialized educational programs. May evaluate staff performance. May plan budget.
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 81

099.167-026 MUSIC SUPERVISOR (education)

    Directs and coordinates activities of teaching personnel engaged in instructing students in vocal and instrumental music in school system: Consults with teaching and administrative staff to plan and develop music education curriculum. Observes, evaluates, and recommends changes in work of teaching staff to strengthen teaching skills in classroom. Analyzes music education program to evaluate instructional methods and materials. Orders instructional materials, supplies, equipment, and visual aids designed to meet training needs of students. Authorizes purchase of musical instruments for school system. Inspects and authorizes repair of instruments. Establishes interschool orchestra, band, and choral group to represent schools at civic and community events.
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77


    Directs operation of educational resource center of museum, zoo, or similar establishment: Maintains collections of slides, video tapes, programmed texts, and other educational materials related to institution specialty, storing or filing materials according to subject matter, geographic or ethnic association, or historical period. Composes or directs others in composition of descriptions of materials, and prepares catalog listing materials for use of museum staff members, area school teachers, and others. Compiles list of books, periodicals, and other materials designed to augment items available in resource center. Explains storage and cataloging systems to teachers and others who visit center and suggests materials for various projects, such as preparing school classes for tour of institution or presentation of lecture for community group. Issues loan materials to teachers or lecturer, or schedules and coordinates delivery of materials to designated locations. Maintains records of loans and prepares circulation reports for review by administrative personnel. Conducts workshops to acquaint educators with use of institution's facilities and materials. Attends teacher meetings and conventions to promote use of institution services.
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 86


    Directs pupil information data system program in support of educational services, in accordance with governmental laws and regulations for school district: Develops and maintains compliance program to meet legal requirements concerning students rights to privacy and due process of law in accordance to applicable laws and regulations. Directs and coordinates activities of clerical staff engaged in compiling, maintaining, and releasing pupil records and information. Confers with staff and reviews records management system to recommend changes to improve system, utilizing knowledge of filing methods and coding system, equipment, legal problems, and Board of Education requirements. Provides in-service training on topics, such as legal requirements concerning pupil records and information and to improve quality of report writing. Prepares departmental budget, records, and reports.
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 86

099.223-010 INSTRUCTOR, DRIVING (education)

    Instructs individuals and groups in theory and application of automobile driving skills: Demonstrates and explains handling of automobile in emergencies, driving techniques, and mechanical operation of automobile, using blackboard diagrams, audiovisual aids, and driving simulators. Observes individual's driving habits and reactions under various driving conditions to ensure conformance with vehicle operational standards and state vehicle code. May test hearing and vision of individuals, using lettered charts and colored lights. ay teach motor vehicle regulations and insurance laws. May teach operation of vehicles other than automobile and be identified according to type of vehicle.
GOE: 09.03.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M2 L3 SVP: 4 DLU: 77

099.224-010 INSTRUCTOR, PHYSICAL EDUCATION (education) alternate titles: teacher, physical education

    Instructs students in physical education activities in educational institution: Plans physical education program to promote development of student's physical attributes and social skills. Teaches individual and team sports to students, utilizing knowledge of sports techniques and of physical capabilities of students. Organizes, leads, instructs, and referees indoor and outdoor games, such as volleyball, baseball, and basketball. Instructs individuals or groups in beginning or advanced calisthenics, gymnastics, or corrective exercises, determining type and level of difficulty of exercises, corrections needed, and prescribed movements, applying knowledge of sports, physiology, and corrective techniques. Teaches and demonstrates use of gymnastic and training apparatus, such as trampolines and weights. Confers with students, parents, and school counselor to resolve student problem. May select, store, order, issue, and inventory equipment, materials, and supplies used in physical education program. May specialize in instructing specific sport, such as tennis, swimming, or basketball. May teach students with disabilities. May be required to have certification from state.
GOE: 11.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 81

099.224-014 TEACHER, ADVENTURE EDUCATION (education)

    Instructs and leads students in variety of stressful and challenging activities, such as rock climbing, canoeing, spelunking, and skiing to build student confidence and promote physical, mental, and social development: Appraises students' tolerance to stress and selects and structures learning environment that provides for success in activities appropriate to maturity, interests, and abilities of students. Demonstrates basic skills, safety precautions, and other techniques to prepare students for activities. Arranges for provisions, such as transportation, food, and equipment. Teaches camping and related outdoor skills to students, staff, and volunteers.
GOE: 10.02.03 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 86

099.227-010 CHILDREN'S TUTOR (domestic ser.)

    Cares for children in private home, overseeing their recreation, diet, health, and deportment: Teaches children foreign languages, and good health and personal habits. Arranges parties, outings, and picnics for children. Takes disciplinary measures to control children's behavior. Ascertains cause of behavior problems of children and devises means for solving them. When duties are confined to care of young children may be designated Children's Tutor, Nursery (domestic ser.).
GOE: 10.03.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M2 L4 SVP: 5 DLU: 77


    Plans course of study for students enrolled in correspondence courses to obtain high school, college, or other specialized subject area instruction: Reviews enrollment applications and oversees mailing of course materials to students. Corrects, grades, and comments on lesson assignments submitted by students. Corresponds with students to answer questions pertaining to course.
GOE: 11.02.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

099.227-018 INSTRUCTOR, GROUND SERVICES (air trans.)

    Conducts classroom instruction, on-the-job training, and orientation sessions for new and experienced ground personnel on various subjects, such as aircraft and station familiarization, company policies and procedures, and specific job duties: Develops and prepares course outlines, instructional procedures, and study materials for nontechnical occupations in such areas as airfreight, customer services load planning, ramp services, reservations, and ticketing. Presents course material through use of audiovisual aids, classroom lectures, on-the-job training, and printed handouts. Tests student's progress, using oral interviews, written examinations, and performance tests to ascertain comprehension of subject matter. Prepares reports of attendance, grades, and training activities. Keeps records of training accomplishments and confers with supervisory personnel regarding training needs. Conducts recurrent on-the-job training or classroom instruction to acquaint experienced workers with changing procedures or with use of new equipment. Coordinates training activities with local station manager. May conduct special training programs in company and industry procedures, regulations, rules, and techniques relating to passenger travel for workers employed by travel agencies.
GOE: 11.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

099.227-022 INSTRUCTOR, MILITARY SCIENCE (education)

    Teaches military subjects, such as employment and deployment of weapons systems, military aspects of geopolitics, and defense concepts in public and private secondary schools and colleges and universities offering Reserve Officers' Training program. Specializes in teaching subjects concerned with particular branch of military tactics, such as aerospace science, naval science, or military science.
GOE: 11.02.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 9 DLU: 77

099.227-026 INSTRUCTOR, MODELING (education)

    Instructs individuals and groups in techniques and methods of self-improvement, utilizing principles of modeling, such as visual poise, wardrobe coordination, and cosmetic application: Analyzes appearance of individual to determine self-improvement considering factors, such as figure, complexion, and body posture. Explains and demonstrates methods and techniques of self-improvement. Observes student, such as ascending and descending stairs, walking, and in cosmetic application sessions to ensure conformance to classroom instruction. Instructs students in selecting and coordinating wardrobe.
GOE: 01.08.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M2 L4 SVP: 4 DLU: 77

099.227-030 TEACHER, ADULT EDUCATION (education)

    Instructs out-of-school youths and adults in academic and nonacademic courses in public or private schools or other organizations: Prepares outline of instructional program and studies and assembles material to be presented. Presents lectures and discussions to group to increase students' knowledge or vocational competence. Tests and grades students on achievement in class. Teaches courses, such as citizenship, fine arts, and homemaking, to enrich students' cultural and academic backgrounds. Conducts workshops and demonstrations to teach such skills as driving, sports, and dancing, or to provide training for parenthood. May teach basic courses in American history, principles, ideas, and customs and in English to foreign-born and be designated Teacher, Citizenship (education).
GOE: 11.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M2 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

099.227-034 TUTOR (education)

    Teaches academic subjects, such as English, mathematics, and foreign languages to pupils requiring private instruction, adapting curriculum to meet individual's needs. May teach in pupil's home.
GOE: 11.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

099.227-038 TEACHER (museums)

    Teaches classes, presents lectures, conducts workshops, and participates in other activities to further educational program of museum, zoo, or similar institution: Plans course content and method of presentation, and prepares outline of material to be covered and submits it for approval. Selects and assembles materials to be used in teaching assignment, such as pieces of pottery or samples of plant life, and arranges use of audiovisual equipment or other teaching aids. Conducts classes for children in various scientific, history, or art subjects, utilizing museum displays to augment standard teaching methods and adapting course content and complexity to ages and interests of students. Teaches adult classes in such subjects as art, history, astronomy, or horticulture, using audiovisual aids, demonstration, or laboratory techniques appropriate to subject matter. Presents series of lectures on subjects related to institution collections, often incorporating films or slides into presentation. Conducts seminars or workshops for school system teachers or lay persons to demonstrate methods of using institution facilities and collections to enhance school programs or to enrich other activities. Conducts workshops or field trips for students or community groups and plans and directs activities associated with projects. Plans and presents vacation or weekend programs for elementary or preschool children, combining recreational activities with teaching methods geared to age groups. Conducts classes for academic credit in cooperation with area schools or universities. Teaches courses in museum work to participants in work-study programs. Works with adult leaders of youth groups to assist youths to earn merit badges or fulfill other group requirements. Maintains records of attendance. Evaluates success of courses, basing evaluation on number and enthusiasm of persons participating and recommends retaining or dropping course in future plans. When course is offered for academic credit, evaluates class member performances, administers tests, and issues grades in accordance with methods used by cooperating educational institution.
GOE: 11.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 86

099.227-042 TEACHER, RESOURCE (education)

    Teaches basic academic subjects to students requiring remedial work, using special help programs to improve scholastic level: Teaches basic subjects, such as reading and math, applying lesson techniques designed for short attention spans. Administers achievement tests and evaluates test results to discover level of language and math skills. Selects and teaches reading material and math problems related to everyday life of individual student. Confers with school counselors and teaching staff to obtain additional testing information and to gain insight on student behavioral disorders affecting learning process. Designs special help programs for low achievers and encourages parent-teacher cooperation. Attends professional meetings, writes reports, and maintains records.
GOE: 11.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 86

099.327-010 TEACHER AIDE I (education) alternate titles: teacher assistant

    Performs any combination of following instructional tasks in classroom to assist teaching staff of public or private elementary or secondary school: Discusses assigned teaching area with classroom teacher to coordinate instructional efforts. Prepares lesson outline and plan in assigned area and submits outline to teacher for review. Plans, prepares, and develops various teaching aids, such as bibliographies, charts, and graphs. Presents subject matter to students, utilizing variety of methods and techniques, such as lecture, discussion, and supervised role playing. Prepares, administers, and grades examinations. Assists students, individually or in groups, with lesson assignments to present or reinforce learning concepts. Confers with parents on progress of students. May specialize in single subject area. May be required to have completed specified number of college education credits.
GOE: 11.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 86


    This division includes occupations concerned with library and archival sciences, including public and private libraries and archives, and with maintaining museums, galleries, and related exhibits.


    This group includes occupations concerned with administering libraries and performing related library services. Includes selecting, acquiring, cataloging, classifying, circulating, and maintaining library materials; furnishing reference, bibliographical, and reader's advisory services.

100.117-010 LIBRARY DIRECTOR (library) alternate titles: librarian, head

    Plans and administers program of library services: Submits recommendations on library policies and services to governing body, such as board of directors or board of trustees, and implements policy decisions. Analyzes, selects, and executes recommendations of personnel, such as department chiefs or branch supervisors. Coordinates activities of branch or departmental libraries. Analyzes and coordinates departmental budget estimates and controls expenditures to administer approved budget. Reviews and evaluates orders for books and audiovisual materials. Examines trade publications and materials, interviews publishers' representatives, and consults with others to select materials. Administers personnel regulations, interviews and appoints job applicants, rates staff performance, and promotes and discharges employees. Plans and conducts staff meetings and participates in community and professional meetings to discuss and act on library problems. Delivers book reviews and lectures to publicize library activities and services. Provides library public relations services. May examine and select materials to be discarded, repaired, or replaced. May be designated according to governmental subdivision served as City-Library Director (library); County-Library Director (library).
GOE: 11.07.04 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 81

100.117-014 LIBRARY CONSULTANT (library)

    Advises administrators of public libraries: Analyzes administrative policies, observes work procedures, and reviews data relative to book collections to determine effectiveness of library service to public. Compares allocations for building funds, salaries, and book collections with statewide and national standards, to determine effectiveness of fiscal operations. Gathers statistical data, such as population and community growth rates, and analyzes building plans to determine adequacy of programs for expansion. Prepares evaluation of library systems based on observations and surveys, and recommends measures to improve organization and administration of systems.
GOE: 11.07.04 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M4 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 86

100.127-010 CHIEF LIBRARIAN, BRANCH OR DEPARTMENT (library) alternate titles: principal librarian; senior librarian; supervising librarian

    Coordinates activities of library branch or department, and assists patrons in selection and location of books, audiovisual materials, and other materials: Trains and directs workers in performance of such tasks as receiving, shelving, and locating materials. Examines book reviews, publishers' catalogs, and other information sources to recommend material acquisition. Searches catalog files, biographical dictionaries, and indexes, and examines content of reference materials to assist patrons in locating and selecting materials. ay assemble and arrange materials for display. May prepare replies to mail requests for information. May be designated according to type of library as Chief Librarian, Branch (library); or according to department as Chief Librarian, Circulation Department (library); Chief Librarian, Extension Department (library); Chief Librarian, General Reference Department (library); Chief Librarian, Music Department (library); Chief Librarian, Periodical Reading Room (library); Chief Librarian, Readers' Advisory Service (library); Chief Librarian, Work With Blind (library).
GOE: 11.07.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

100.127-014 LIBRARIAN (library)

    Maintains library collections of books, serial publications, documents, audiovisual, and other materials, and assists groups and individuals in locating and obtaining materials: Furnishes information on library activities, facilities, rules, and services. Explains and assists in use of reference sources, such as card or book catalog or book and periodical indexes to locate information. Describes or demonstrates procedures for searching catalog files. Searches catalog files and shelves to locate information. Issues and receives materials for circulation or for use in library. Assembles and arranges displays of books and other library materials. Maintains reference and circulation materials. Answers correspondence on special reference subjects. May compile list of library materials according to subject or interests, using computer. May select, order, catalog, and classify materials . May prepare or assist in preparation of budget. May plan and direct or carry out special projects involving library promotion and outreach activity and be designated Outreach Librarian (library). May be designated according to specialized function as Circulation Librarian (library); Readers'-Advisory-Service Librarian (library); or Reference Librarian (library).
GOE: 11.02.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 81

100.167-010 AUDIOVISUAL LIBRARIAN (library) alternate titles: film librarian; recordings librarian

    Plans audiovisual programs and administers library of film and other audiovisual materials: Assists patrons in selection of materials, utilizing knowledge of collections. Advises other library personnel on audiovisual materials and appropriate selection for particular needs and uses. Establishes and maintains contact with major film distributors and resources for procurement of tapes and cassettes. Evaluates materials, considering their technical, informational, and aesthetic qualities, and selects materials for library collections. Prepares summaries of acquisitions for catalog. Prepares and arranges audiovisual programs for presentation to groups and may lead discussions after film showings. Advises those planning audiovisual programs on technical problems, such as acoustics, lighting, and program content. Evaluates audiovisual equipment and gives advice in selection of equipment, considering factors, such as intended use, quality, and price. May advise in planning and layout of physical facilities for audiovisual services. May operate film projectors, splicers, rewinders, film inspection equipment, and tape and record playing equipment. May train personnel in operation and maintenance of audiovisual equipment. May select, procure, and maintain framed art prints collection.
GOE: 11.02.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L3 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

100.167-014 BOOKMOBILE LIBRARIAN (library)

    Provides library services from mobile library within given geographical area: Surveys needs and selects books and materials for library. Publicizes visits to area to stimulate reading interest. May prepare special collections for schools and other groups. ay arrange bookmobile schedule. May drive bookmobile.
GOE: 11.02.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

100.167-018 CHILDREN'S LIBRARIAN (library)

    Manages library program for children: Selects books and audiovisual materials of interest to children to be acquired by library. Assists children in selecting and locating library materials. Plans and conducts programs for children to encourage reading, viewing, and listening and use of library materials and facilities. Confers with teachers, parents, and community groups to assist in developing programs to encourage and improve children's communication skills. Compiles lists of materials of interest to children. Activities may include story telling, book talks, puppet shows, and film and multimedia programs.
GOE: 11.02.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

100.167-022 INSTITUTION LIBRARIAN (library) alternate titles: hospital librarian; patient's librarian; prison librarian

    Plans and directs library program for residents and staff of extended care facilities, such as mental institutions, correctional institutions, or institutions for physically handicapped or mentally retarded: Develops library policies and programs and prepares operational budgets. Selects, acquires, and organizes library materials for convenient access. Provides readers' advisory services on basis of knowledge of current reviews and bibliographies. Reviews requests, and selects books and other library materials according to mental state, educational background, and special needs of residents. Assembles book reviews for institution's bulletins or newspapers, and circulates reviews among residents. Provides handicapped or bedridden residents with reading aids, such as prism glasses, page turners, bookstands, or talking books, and with phonograph records.
GOE: 11.02.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 80

100.167-026 LIBRARIAN, SPECIAL LIBRARY (library)

    Manages library or section containing specialized materials for industrial, commercial, or governmental organizations, or for such institutions as schools and hospitals: Selects, orders, catalogs, and classifies special collections of technical books, manufacturers' catalogs and specifications, periodicals, magazines, newspapers, audio-visual material, microforms, journal reprints, and other materials. Searches literature, compiles accession lists, and annotates or abstracts materials. Assists patrons in research problems. May key information into computer to store or search for selected material. May translate or order translation of materials from foreign languages into English. May train other workers engaged in cataloguing, locating, filing, or copying selected material. May be designated according to subject matter, specialty or library, or department as Art Librarian (library); Business Librarian (library); Engineering Librarian (library); Law Librarian (library); Map Librarian (library); edical Librarian (library).
GOE: 11.02.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 81

100.167-030 MEDIA SPECIALIST, SCHOOL LIBRARY (library) alternate titles: librarian, school; media center director, school

    Assesses and meets needs of students and faculty for information, and develops programs to stimulate students' interests in reading and use of types of resources: Selects and organizes books, films, tapes, records, and other materials and equipment. Suggests appropriate books to students for classroom assignments and personal readings. Plans and carries out program of instruction in use by school library media center. Prepares and administers budget for media center. Confers with faculty to provide materials for classroom instruction. Confers with parents, faculty, public librarians, and community organizations to develop programs to enrich students' communications skills. Reviews records to compile lists of overdue materials and notifies borrowers to arrange for their return.
GOE: 11.02.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 80

100.167-034 YOUNG-ADULT LIBRARIAN (library)

    Plans and conducts library program to provide special services for young adults: Selects books and audiovisual materials of interest to young adults to be acquired by library. Assists young adults in selecting materials. Plans and organizes young adult activities, such as film programs, chess clubs, creative writing clubs, and photography contests. Delivers talks on books to stimulate reading. Compiles lists of library materials of interest to young adults. Confers with parents, teachers, and community organizations to assist in developing programs to stimulate reading and develop communication skills.
GOE: 11.02.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

100.167-038 NEWS LIBRARIAN (library) alternate titles: news information resource manager; news library director; newspaper library manager

    Manages information resources library stored in files, on tape or microfilm, or in computers for use by news and editorial staff in publishing establishments, such as newspaper and magazine publishers, and in broadcasting establishments, such as radio and television stations: Directs activities of workers engaged in clipping, classifying, cataloging, indexing, storing, editing, and retrieving library information, or performs these activities as needed. Researches, retrieves, and disseminates information in resource library or commercial data bases in response to requests from news or editorial staff, using knowledge of classification system or computer data base. Maintains records and statistics on use of data bases and information services provided. May manage in-house data base of news information, assign classification terms to news articles, input news articles into data base, and research news information in in-house data base. May develop data bases for data storage and retrieval, according to needs of news staff. May hire, train, schedule, and evaluate library staff. May prepare library budgets. May promote and market library products and services to public. May coordinate activities of library with activities of other departments. May select and purchase reference books for library collection. May manage graphics library, assign classification terms to graphics, and research graphics and be designated Photo-Graphics Librarian (library).
GOE: 11.02.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 90

100.267-010 ACQUISITIONS LIBRARIAN (library)

    Selects and orders books, periodicals, films, and other materials for library: Reviews publishers' announcements and catalogs, and compiles list of publications to be purchased. Compares selections with card catalog and orders-in-process to avoid duplication. Circulates selection lists to branches and departments for comments. Selects vendors on basis of such factors as discount allowance and delivery dates. Compiles statistics on purchases, such as total purchases, average price, and fund allocations. May recommend acquisition of materials from individuals or organizations or by exchange with other libraries.
GOE: 11.02.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 77


    Collects and organizes books, pamphlets, manuscripts, and other materials on select subjects to be used for research: Organizes collections according to field of interest. Examines reference works and consults specialists preparatory to selecting materials for collections. Compiles bibliographies. Appraises books, using references, such as bibliographies, book auction records, and special catalogs on incunabula (printing prior to 1500). Publishes papers and bibliographies on special collections to notify scholars of available materials. Lectures on booklore, such as history of printing, bindings, and illuminations. May plan and arrange displays for library exhibits. May index and reproduce materials for sale to other libraries.
GOE: 11.02.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

100.367-010 BIBLIOGRAPHER (profess. & kin.)

    Compiles lists of books, periodical articles, and audiovisual materials, on specialized subjects. Annotates bibliographies with physical description and analysis of subject content of materials. Recommends acquisition of materials in specialized subject.
GOE: 11.02.04 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M2 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

100.367-014 CLASSIFIER (library)

    Classifies library materials, such as books, audiovisual materials, and periodicals, according to subject matter: Reviews materials to be classified and searches information sources, such as book reviews, encyclopedias, and technical publications to determine subject matter of materials. Selects classification numbers and descriptive headings according to Dewey Decimal, Library of Congress, or other classification systems. Makes sample cards containing author, title, and classification number to guide CATALOG LIBRARIAN (library) in preparing catalog cards for books and periodicals. Assigns classification numbers, descriptive headings, and explanatory summaries to book and catalog cards to facilitate locating and obtaining materials. Composes annotations (explanatory summaries) of material content.
GOE: 11.02.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

100.367-018 LIBRARY TECHNICAL ASSISTANT (library) alternate titles: library assistant; library technician

    Provides information service, such as answering questions regarding card catalogs, and assists public in use of bibliographic tools, such as Library of Congress catalog: Performs routine descriptive cataloging, such as fiction and children's literature. Files cards in catalog drawers according to system used. Answers routine inquiries, and refers persons requiring professional assistance to LIBRARIAN (library). Verifies bibliographic information on order requests. Directs activities of workers in maintenance of stacks or in section of department or division, such as ordering or receiving section of acquisitions department, card preparation activities in catalog department, or limited loan or reserve desk operation of circulation department.
GOE: 11.02.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L3 SVP: 5 DLU: 77

100.367-022 MUSIC LIBRARIAN (radio-tv broad.) alternate titles: librarian; music director

    Classifies and files musical recordings, sheet music, original arrangements, and scores for individual instruments. Selects music for subject matter of program or for specific visual or spoken action. Suggests musical selections to DIRECTOR, MUSIC (motion picture; radio-tv broad.) 152.047-018 or DIRECTOR, PROGRAM (radio-tv broad.) 184.167-030 or DISK JOCKEY (radio-tv broad.) 159.147-014. May issue required music to CONDUCTOR, ORCHESTRA (profess. & kin.) 152.047-014, or other studio personnel. May track musical selections broadcasted, using computer. May listen to music, using playback equipment, to verify quality of recordings meet broadcast standards.
GOE: 11.02.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M2 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 89


    Maintains script archive and music library used for preparing programs for foreign broadcast, utilizing knowledge of foreign languages and of listening tastes of people of foreign countries. Compiles statistical and financial library reports.
GOE: 11.02.04 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

100.387-010 CATALOG LIBRARIAN (library) alternate titles: cataloger; descriptive catalog librarian

    Compiles information on library materials, such as books and periodicals, and prepares catalog cards to identify materials and to integrate information into library catalog: Verifies author, title, and classification number on sample catalog card received from CLASSIFIER (library) against corresponding data on title page. Fills in additional information, such as publisher, date of publication, and edition. Examines material and notes additional information, such as bibliographies, illustrations, maps, and appendices. Copies classification number from sample card into library material for identification. Files cards into assigned sections of catalog. Tabulates number of sample cards according to quantity of material and catalog subject headings to determine amount of new cards to be ordered or reproduced. Prepares inventory card to record purchase information and location of library material. Requisitions additional cards. Records new information, such as death date of author and revised edition date, to amend cataloged cards. May supervise activities of other workers in unit.
GOE: 11.02.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M2 L4 SVP: 5 DLU: 77


    This group includes occupations concerned with collecting, evaluating, systemizing, preserving, and making available for reference public records and documents of historical significance.

101.167-010 ARCHIVIST (profess. & kin.)

    Appraises and edits permanent records and historically valuable documents, participates in research activities based on archival materials, and directs safekeeping of archival documents and materials: Analyzes documents, such as government records, minutes of corporate board meetings, letters from famous persons, and charters of nonprofit foundations, by ascertaining date of writing, author, or original recipient of letter, to appraise value to posterity or to employing organization. Directs activities of workers engaged in cataloging and safekeeping of valuable materials and directs disposition of worthless materials. Prepares or directs preparation of document descriptions and reference aids for use of archives, such as accession lists, indexes, guides, bibliographies, abstracts, and microfilmed copies of documents. Directs filing and cross indexing of selected documents in alphabetical and chronological order. Advises government agencies, scholars, journalists, and others conducting research by supplying available materials and information according to familiarity with archives and with political, economic, military, and social history of period. Requests or recommends pertinent materials available in libraries, private collections, or other archives. Selects and edits documents for publication and display, according to knowledge of subject, literary or journalistic expression, and techniques for presentation and display. May be designated according to subject matter specialty as Archivist, Economic History (profess. & kin.); Archivist, Military History (profess. & kin.); Archivist, Political History (profess. & kin.); or according to nature of employing institution as Archivist, Nonprofit Foundation (nonprofit organ.). In smaller organizations, may direct activities of libraries.
GOE: 11.03.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77


    This group includes occupations concerned with administering museums, art galleries, arboreta, historical sites, and botanical and zoological gardens, and performing related services. Includes activities in collecting, authenticating, preserving, maintaining, exhibiting, researching, and furnishing information on collections of historical, artistic, scientific, or technological significance or of general public interest.

102.017-010 CURATOR (museums)

    Directs and coordinates activities of workers engaged in operating exhibiting institution, such as museum, botanical garden, arboretum, art gallery, herbarium, or zoo: Directs activities concerned with instructional, acquisition, exhibitory, safekeeping, research, and public service objectives of institution. Assists in formulating and interpreting administrative policies of institution. Formulates plans for special research projects. Oversees curatorial, personnel, fiscal, technical, research, and clerical staff. Administers affairs of institution by corresponding and negotiating with administrators of other institutions to obtain exchange of loan collections or to exchange information or data, maintaining inventories, preparing budget, representing institution at scientific or association conferences, soliciting support for institution, and interviewing and hiring personnel. Obtains, develops, and organizes new collections to expand and improve educational and research facilities. Writes articles for publication in scientific journals. Consults with board of directors and professional personnel to plan and implement acquisitional, research, display and public service activities of institution. ay participate in research activities. May be designated according to field of specialization as Curator, Art Gallery (museums); Curator, Herbarium (museums); Curator, Horticultural Museum (museums); Curator, Medical Museum (museums); Curator, Natural History Museum (museums); Curator, Zoological Museum (museums); Director, Industrial Museum (museums).
GOE: 11.07.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 9 DLU: 77

102.117-010 SUPERVISOR, HISTORIC SITES (government ser.)

    Directs and coordinates activities of personnel engaged in investigating, acquiring, marking, improving, and preserving historic sites and natural phenomena in conformity with state policy. Authorizes acquisition and improvement of sites, such as historic homes and battlefields, within allocated budget. Recommends appropriation of additional funds where necessary to purchase or restore landmarks. Negotiates with representatives of local governments, philanthropic organizations, and other interested groups to acquire properties. Provides information and encouragement to private individuals or civic groups attempting to acquire and maintain landmarks not considered feasible for state acquisition. Directs or participates in archeological research efforts in state parks. Directs design, preparation, and installation of museum exhibits and historical markers. Directs workers engaged in preparation of brochures, exhibits, maps, photographs, and similar materials to stimulate public interest in visiting sites. Serves as custodian of historic documents acquired during research efforts.
GOE: 11.05.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

102.117-014 DIRECTOR, MUSEUM-OR-ZOO (museums)

    Administers affairs of museum, zoo, or similar establishment: Confers with institution's board of directors to formulate policies and plan overall operations. Directs acquisition, education, research, public service, and development activities of institution, consulting with curatorial, administrative, and maintenance staff members to implement policies and initiate programs. Works with members of curatorial and administrative staffs to acquire additions to collections. Confers with administrative staff members to determine budget requirements, plan fund raising drives, prepare applications for grants from government agencies or private foundations, and solicit financial support for institution. Establishes and maintains contact with administrators of other institutions to exchange information concerning operations and plan, coordinate, or consolidate community service and education programs. Represents institution at professional and civic social events, conventions, and other gatherings to strengthen relationships with cultural and civic leaders, present lectures or participate in seminars, or explain institution's functions and seek financial support for projects. Reviews materials prepared by staff members, such as articles for journals, requests for grants, and reports on institution programs, and approves materials or suggests changes. Instructs classes in institution's education program or as guest lecturer at university. Writes articles for technical journals or other publications.
GOE: 11.02.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M4 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 86

102.167-010 ART CONSERVATOR (museums)

    Coordinates activities of subordinates engaged in examination, repair, and conservation of art objects: Examines art objects to determine condition, need for repair, method of preservation, and authenticity, using x rays, radiographs, and special lights. Directs curatorial and technical staffs on handling, mounting, care, and storage of art objects. Estimates cost of restoration work.
GOE: 01.06.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77


    Manages operation of historic structure or site: Discusses house or site operation with governing body representatives to form or change policies. Oversees activities of building and grounds maintenance staff and other employees. Maintains roster of volunteer guides, and contacts volunteers to conduct tours of premises according to schedule. Conducts tours, explaining points of interest and answers visitors' questions. Studies documents, books, and other materials to obtain information concerning history of site or structure. Conducts classes in tour presentation methods for volunteer guides. Accepts group reservations for house tours and special social events. Arranges for refreshments, entertainment, and decorations for special events. Collects admission and special event fees, and maintains records of receipts, expenses, and numbers of persons served. Assists in planning publicity, and arranges for printing of brochures or placement of information in media. Inspects premises for evidence of deterioration and need for repair, and notifies governing body of such need.
GOE: 11.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 5 DLU: 86

102.167-018 REGISTRAR, MUSEUM (museums)

    Maintains records of accession, condition, and location of objects in museum collection, and oversees movement, packing, and shipping of objects to conform to insurance regulations: Observes unpacking of objects acquired by museum through gift, purchase, or loan to determine that damage or deterioration to objects has not occurred. Registers and assigns accession and catalog numbers to all objects in collection, according to established registration system. Composes concise description of objects, and records descriptions on file cards and in collection catalogs. Oversees handling, packing, movement, and inspection of all objects entering or leaving establishment, including traveling exhibits, and confers with other personnel to develop and initiate most practical methods of packing and shipping fragile or valuable objects. Maintains records of storage, exhibit, and loan locations of all objects in collection for use of establishment personnel, insurance representatives, and other persons utilizing facilities. Prepares acquisition reports for review of curatorial and administrative staff. Periodically reviews and evaluates registration and catalog system to maintain applicability, consistency, and operation. Recommends changes in recordkeeping procedures to achieve maximum accessibility to and efficient retrieval of collection objects. Arranges for insurance of objects on loan or special exhibition, or recommends insurance coverage on parts of or entire collection.
GOE: 07.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 6 DLU: 86

102.261-010 CONSERVATION TECHNICIAN (museums)

    Repairs and cleans art objects, such as pottery, statuary, etchings, or tapestries, to restore art objects' natural appearance: Studies descriptive information on object or conducts standard chemical and physical tests to determine such factors as age, composition, and original appearance, and plans methods or procedures for restoring object. Cleans object or broken pieces, using such methods as scraping and applying solvents to metal objects; washing statuary, using soap solutions; or cleaning and polishing furniture and silver objects. Repairs objects, using glue or solder, to assemble broken pieces, buffing assembled object where repaired, or repainting faded or incomplete designs with paint of same chemical composition and color in order to restore original appearance. Notifies superior when problem of restoration requires outside experts. Fabricates or repairs picture frames for paintings, using handtools and power tools and machines. Mounts pictures in frames.
GOE: 01.06.02 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

102.261-014 PAINTINGS RESTORER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: paintings conservator

    Restores damaged and faded paintings and preserves paintings, using techniques based on knowledge of art and art materials: Examines surfaces of painting, using magnifying device, and performs tests to determine factors, such as age, structure, pigment stability, and probable reaction to various cleaning agents and solvents. Removes painting from frame. Applies select solvents and cleaning agents and uses predetermined method to clean surface of painting and remove accretions, discolorations, and deteriorated varnish. Stretches new linen backing, applies paste material to back of painting, and laminates parts together, using laminating press. Dries laminated painting under controlled conditions to prevent shrinkage. Applies beeswax or other substance to damaged or faded areas where restoration is needed. Studies style, techniques, colors, textures, and materials used by artist to maintain consistency in reconstruction or retouching procedures. Reconstructs or retouches damaged areas and blends area into adjacent areas to restore painting to original condition. Applies varnish or other preservative to surface of painting and dries under controlled conditions. May remove paint layer from backing and remount on canvas, wood, or metal support using pressure and special adhesives. May apply neutral color powder to damaged areas to restore areas.
GOE: 01.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

102.361-010 RESTORER, LACE AND TEXTILES (museums)

    Restores and prepares ancient textile and lace materials for display in textile museum: Cleans fabric, using cleaning compounds and techniques based on historical knowledge of fabric manufacture and effect of cleaning upon fabric. Develops new cleaning compounds and methods when available means are inadequate or tend to harm fabric. Repairs and reweaves worn, torn, and decayed fabrics, using techniques based on knowledge of weaving and lace methods. Mounts fabric in frame or other suitable background.
GOE: 01.06.02 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

102.361-014 RESTORER, CERAMIC (museums)

    Cleans, preserves, restores, and repairs objects made of glass, porcelain, china, fired clay, and other ceramic materials: Coats excavated objects with surface-active agents to loosen adhering mud or clay and washes objects with clear water. Places cleaned objects in dilute hydrochloric acid or other solution to remove remaining deposits of lime or chalk, basing choice of solution on knowledge of physical and chemical structure of objects and destructive qualities of solvents. Cleans glass, porcelain, or similar objects by such methods as soaking objects in lukewarm water with ammonia added, wiping gilded or enameled objects with solvent-saturated swab, or rubbing objects with paste cleanser. Rubs objects with jewelers' rouge or other mild cleanser, soaks objects in distilled water with bleach or solvent added, or applies paste or liquid solvent, such as magnesium silicate or acetone, basing choice of method and material on age, condition, and chemical structure of objects, to remove stains from objects. Recommends preservation measures, such as control of temperature, humidity, and exposure to light, to curatorial and building maintenance staff to prevent damage to or deterioration of object. Impregnates surfaces with diluted synthetic lacquers to reduce porosity of material to increase durability of ancient earthenware. Restores or simulates original appearance of objects by such methods as polishing surfaces to restore translucency, removing crackled glaze and applying soluble synthetic coating, grinding or cutting out chipped edges and repolishing surfaces, or applying matt paints, gold leaf, or other coating to object, basing methods and materials used on knowledge of original craft and condition of objects. Repairs broken objects, employing such techniques as bonding edges together with adhesive, inserting dowel pins in sections and cementing together, or affixing adhesive coated strips to inner portions of broken objects. Replaces missing sections of objects by constructing wire frames of missing sections, shaping plasticene or other materials over frames, affixing modeled sections to objects with dowels or adhesive, and painting attached sections to reproduce original appearance. Constructs replicas of archaeological artifacts or historically significant ceramic ware, basing construction design on size, curvature, and thickness of excavated shards or pieces of objects available and knowledge of techniques and designs characteristic of period.
GOE: 01.06.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 86

102.367-010 FINE ARTS PACKER (museums) alternate titles: art preparator

    Specifies types of packing materials, crating, containerization, and special handling procedures for shipping or storing art objects, scientific specimens, and historical artifacts to minimize damage and deterioration: Confers with curatorial personnel regarding status of museum projects and proposed shipping or transfer dates of exhibitions. Develops methods and procedures for packing or containerization of art objects, according to weight and characteristics of shipment. Selects protective or preservative materials, such as excelsior, chemical agents, or moistureproof wrapping, to protect shipment against vibration, moisture, impact, or other hazards. Designs special crates, modules, brackets, and traveling frames to meet insurance and museum shipping specifications. Shapes and contours internal support modules, based on size and type of paintings, sculptures, bronzes, glass, and other art objects. Directs workers engaged in moving art objects from receiving or storage areas to galleries of museum, in packing shipments, or in rigging sculptures for installation of exhibition. Inspects incoming shipment to detect damages for insurance purposes. Keeps records and documents of incoming and outgoing shipments, or location of traveling exhibitions and loan materials. Prepares and attaches written or pictorial instructions for unpacking, storage, or for exhibition of contents of shipment. May specify type of carrier, such as barge, train, or messenger according to cost considerations and nature of shipment.
GOE: 05.03.09 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M3 L3 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

102.381-010 MUSEUM TECHNICIAN (museums) alternate titles: museum preparator

    Prepares specimens for museum collections and exhibits: Cleans rock matrix from fossil specimens, using electric drills, awls, dental tools, chisels, and mallets. Brushes preservatives, such as plaster, resin, hardeners, and shellac on specimens. Molds and restores skeletal parts of fossil animals, using modeling clays and special molding and casting techniques. Constructs skeletal mounts of fossil animals, using tools, such as drill presses, pipe threaders, welding and soldering apparatus, and carpenter's tools. Constructs duplicate specimens, using plaster, glue, latex, and plastiflex-molding techniques. Reassembles fragmented artifacts, and fabricates substitute pieces. Maintains museum files. Cleans, catalogs, labels, and stores specimens. May install, arrange, and exhibit materials.
GOE: 01.06.02 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77


    This group includes occupations, not elsewhere classified, concerned with museum, library, and archival science.

109.067-010 INFORMATION SCIENTIST (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: chief information officer; information broker; information manager; information resources director; information resources manager

    Designs information system to provide management or clients with specific data from computer storage, utilizing knowledge of electronic data processing principles, mathematics, and computer capabilities: Develops and designs methods and procedures for collecting, organizing, interpreting, and classifying information for input into computer and retrieval of specific information from computer, utilizing knowledge of symbolic language and optical or pattern recognition principles. Develops alternate designs to resolve problems in input, storage, and retrieval of information. May specialize in specific field of information science, such as scientific or engineering research, or in specific discipline, such as business, medicine, education, aerospace, or library science.
GOE: 11.01.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

109.067-014 RESEARCH ASSOCIATE (museums)

    Plans, organizes, and conducts research in scientific, cultural, historical, or artistic field for use in own work or in project of sponsoring institution: Develops plans for project or studies guidelines for project prepared by professional staff member to outline research procedures to be followed. Plans schedule according to variety of methods to be used, availability and quantity of resources, and number of subordinate personnel assigned to participate in project. Conducts research, utilizing institution library, archives, and collections, and other sources of information, to collect, record, analyze, and evaluate facts. Discusses findings with other personnel to evaluate validity of findings. Prepares reports of completed projects for publication in technical journals, for presentation to agency requesting project, or for use in further applied or theoretical research activities.
GOE: 11.03.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M6 L6 SVP: 7 DLU: 86

109.137-010 SHELVING SUPERVISOR (library)

    Supervises and coordinates activities of library workers engaged in replacing books and other materials on shelves according to library classification system: Assigns duties to workers. Trains and directs workers in performance of shelving tasks. Examines materials on shelves to verify accuracy of placement. Counts number of materials placed on shelves to record shelving activity. Marks designated classification number on material, using pen and ink, to facilitate placement on shelves. May sort material, according to author, classification number, subject matter, or title, to arrange material for shelving.
GOE: 11.02.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M2 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

109.267-010 RESEARCH ASSISTANT I (profess. & kin.)

    Conducts research on historic monuments, buildings, and scenes to reconstruct exhibits to scale in dioramas for use of fine-arts students or other purposes. Collects information from libraries, museums, and art institutes. Monitors construction of dioramas to ensure authenticity of proportions, color, and costumes in diorama.
GOE: 11.03.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

109.267-014 RESEARCH WORKER, ENCYCLOPEDIA (profess. & kin.)

    Analyzes information on specified subjects to answer inquiries from encyclopedia owners, referring to library reference sources or consulting with experts in field of knowledge involved. Prepares written summary of research findings for mailing to inquirers.
GOE: 11.08.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

109.281-010 ARMORER TECHNICIAN (museums)

    Specializes in restoring and preparing exhibits of medieval arms and armor: Assembles parts of armor, helmets, guns, swords, and similar items. Designs and fabricates missing or broken parts. Conducts research to determine authenticity and classifies and catalogs articles. Prepares articles for exhibition.
GOE: 01.06.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

109.361-010 RESTORER, PAPER-AND-PRINTS (library; museums)

    Cleans, preserves, restores, and repairs books, documents, maps, prints, photographs, and other paper objects of historic or artistic significance: Examines or tests objects to determine physical condition and chemical structure of paper, ink, paint, or other coating, in order to identify problem and plan safest and most effective method of treating material. Cleans objects by such methods as sprinkling crumbled art gum or draft powder over surface and rotating soft cloth over cleaning agent to absorb soil (dry cleaning), immersing objects in circulating bath of water or mild chemical solution (wet cleaning), or applying solvent to remove rust, fly specks, mildew, or other stains, basing choice of method on knowledge of physical and chemical structure of objects and effects of various kinds of treatment. Preserves or directs preservation of objects by such methods as immersing paper in deacidification baths to remove acidity from papers and ink to prevent deterioration, sealing documents or other papers in cellulose cases and passing sealed objects through heated rollers to laminate them, spraying objects, storage containers, or areas with fungicides, insecticides, or pesticides, and controlling temperature, humidity, and exposure to natural or artificial light in areas where objects are displayed or stored. Restores objects to original appearance by such methods as immersing papers in mild bleach solution to brighten faded backgrounds, removing old varnish from such art works as engravings and mezzotints, or strengthening papers by resizing in bath of gelatin solution. Repairs objects by such methods as mending tears with adhesive and tissue, patching and filling worm holes, torn corners, or large tears by chamfering, inserting, affixing, and staining paper of similar weight and weave to simulate original appearance, or retouching stained, faded, or blurred watercolors, prints, or documents, using colors and strokes to reproduce those of original artist or writer.
GOE: 01.06.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 86

109.364-010 CRAFT DEMONSTRATOR (museums)

    Demonstrates and explains techniques and purposes of handicraft or other activity, such as candle dipping, horseshoeing, or soap making, as part of display in history or folk museum, or restored or refurbished farm, village, or neighborhood: Studies historical and technical literature to acquire information about time period and lifestyle depicted in display and craft techniques associated with time and area, to devise plan for authentic presentation of craft. Drafts outline of talk, assisted by research personnel, to acquaint visitors with customs and crafts associated with folk life depicted. Practices techniques involved in handicraft to ensure accurate and skillful demonstrations. Molds candles, shoes horses, operates looms, or engages in other crafts or activities, working in appropriate period setting, to demonstrate craft to visitors. Explains techniques of craft, and points out relationship of craft to lifestyle depicted to assist visitors to comprehend traditional techniques of work and play peculiar to time and area. Answers visitor questions or refers visitor to other sources for information.
GOE: 09.01.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M2 L4 SVP: 4 DLU: 86

109.367-010 MUSEUM ATTENDANT (museums)

    Conducts operation of museum and provides information about regulations, facilities, and exhibits to visitors: Opens museum at designated hours, greets visitors, and invites visitors to sign guest register. Monitors visitors viewing exhibits, cautions persons not complying with museum regulations, distributes promotional materials, and answers questions concerning exhibits, regulations, and facilities. Arranges tours of facility for schools or other groups, and schedules volunteers or other staff members to conduct tours. Examines exhibit facilities and collection objects periodically and notifies museum professional personnel or governing body when need for repair or replacement is observed.
GOE: 07.04.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 3 DLU: 86


    This division includes occupations concerned with the application of principles relating to statute law and its administration.


    This group includes occupations concerned with the practice of one or more phases of law. Includes representing individuals, organizations, or government; and the preparation of legal documents.

110.107-010 LAWYER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: advocate; attorney; counselor; counselor-at-law

    Conducts criminal and civil lawsuits, draws up legal documents, advises clients as to legal rights, and practices other phases of law: Gathers evidence in divorce, civil, criminal, and other cases to formulate defense or to initiate legal action. Conducts research, interviews clients and witnesses, and handles other details in preparation for trial. Prepares legal briefs, develops strategy, arguments, and testimony in preparation for presentation of case. Files brief with court clerk. Represents client in court and before quasi-judicial or administrative agencies of government. Interprets laws, rulings, and regulations for individuals and businesses. May confer with colleagues with specialty in area of lawsuit to establish and verify basis for legal proceedings. May act as trustee, guardian, or executor. May draft wills, trusts, transfer of assets, gifts, and other documents. May advise corporate clients concerning transactions of business involving internal affairs, stockholders, directors, officers, and corporate relations with general public. May supervise and coordinate activities of subordinate legal personnel. May prepare business contracts, pay taxes, settle labor disputes, and administer other legal matters. May teach college courses in law. May specialize in specific phase of law.
GOE: 11.04.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M4 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 87

110.107-014 LAWYER, CRIMINAL (profess. & kin.)

    Specializes in law cases dealing with offenses against society or state, such as theft, murder, and arson: Interviews clients and witnesses to ascertain facts of case. Correlates findings and prepares case. Prosecutes, or defends defendant against charges. Conducts case, examining and cross examining witnesses. Summarizes case to jury.
GOE: 11.04.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M4 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

110.117-010 DISTRICT ATTORNEY (government ser.) alternate titles: prosecuting attorney; prosecutor; solicitor, city or state; state's attorney; united states attorney

    Conducts prosecution in court proceedings in behalf of city, county, state, or federal government: Gathers and analyzes evidence in case and reviews pertinent decisions, policies, regulations, and other legal matters pertaining to case. Presents evidence against accused to grand jury for indictment or release of accused. Appears against accused in court of law and presents evidence before JUDGE (government ser.) or other judiciary and jury.
GOE: 11.04.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M4 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

110.117-014 INSURANCE ATTORNEY (insurance) alternate titles: claim attorney; insurance counsel

    Advises management of insurance company on legality of insurance transactions: Studies court decisions, and recommends changes in wording of insurance policies to conform with law or to protect company from unwarranted claims. Advises claims department personnel of legality of claims filed on company to ensure against undue payments. Advises personnel engaged in drawing up of legal documents, such as insurance contracts and release papers. May specialize in one phase of legal work, such as claims or contracts.
GOE: 11.04.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M4 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

110.117-018 LAWYER, ADMIRALTY (profess. & kin.)

    Specializes in law applicable to matters occurring on inland navigable waters or on high seas: Conducts lawsuits in matters involving ship personnel, collisions, matters of cargo, and damage to objects by vessels. Draws legal documents, including charter parties, applications for registry of vessels under flags of a particular country, and bills of sale for vessels. Determines law applicable by study of the Constitution, statutes, previous decisions, and regulations. Advises clients as to advisability of prosecuting and defending law suits, or as to legal rights and obligations in other matters.
GOE: 11.04.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M4 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

110.117-022 LAWYER, CORPORATION (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: business and financial counsel; corporate counsel

    Advises corporation concerning legal rights, obligations, and privileges: Studies Constitution, statutes, decisions, and ordinances of quasi-judicial bodies. Examines legal data to determine advisability of defending or prosecuting lawsuit. May act as agent of corporation in various transactions.
GOE: 11.04.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M4 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

110.117-026 LAWYER, PATENT (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: patent attorney; solicitor, patent

    Specializes in patent law: Advises clients, such as inventors, investors, and manufacturers, concerning patentability of inventions, infringement of patents, validity of patents, and similar items. Prepares applications for patents and presents applications to U.S. Patent Office. Prosecutes or defends clients in patent infringement litigations. May specialize in protecting American trademarks and copyrights in foreign countries.
GOE: 11.04.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M4 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

110.117-030 LAWYER, PROBATE (profess. & kin.)

    Specializes in settlement and planning of estates: Drafts wills, deeds of trusts, and similar documents to carry out estate planning of clients. Probates wills and represents and advises executors and administrators of estates.
GOE: 11.04.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M4 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

110.117-034 LAWYER, REAL ESTATE (profess. & kin.)

    Specializes in sale and transfer of real property: Institutes title search to establish ownership. Draws up documents, such as deeds, mortgages, and leases. May act as trustee of property and hold funds for investment or issuance. May act as agent in real estate transactions.
GOE: 11.04.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M4 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

110.117-038 TAX ATTORNEY (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: tax agent; tax representative

    Advises individuals, business concerns, and other organizations concerning income, estate, gift, excise, property, and other federal, state, local, and foreign taxes. Prepares opinions on tax liability resulting from prospective and past transactions. Represents clients in tax litigation.
GOE: 11.04.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M4 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

110.117-042 TITLE ATTORNEY (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: title examiner

    Examines abstracts of titles, leases, contracts, and other legal documents to determine ownership of land, and gas, oil, and mineral rights: Draws up legal documents covering purchase and sale of land, and oil, gas, and mineral rights, drafts deeds and affidavits, and presents other evidence to meet legal requirements of documents. Examines instruments and opinions prepared by other attorneys and advises officials of organization as to legal requirements in connection with titles. Searches for and examines public records and writes opinions on titles. Prepares cases for trial and tries or assists in trial of lawsuits involving titles to land, and gas, oil, and mineral rights.
GOE: 11.04.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M4 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 90

110.167-010 BAR EXAMINER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: law examiner

    Determines qualifications of candidates seeking admission to practice of law: Prepares written examinations dealing with law subjects, such as contracts, property, and criminal law based on legal code of examining jurisdiction. Corrects and marks papers. Announces names of candidates earning passing grades. Submits each candidate to oral examination concerning qualifications. Recommends candidates meeting prescribed standards be admitted to practice.
GOE: 11.04.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M4 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77


    This group includes occupations concerned with presiding as arbitrator, advisor, and administrator of the judicial system in a court of law.

111.107-010 JUDGE (government ser.) alternate titles: justice

    Arbitrates disputes, advises counsel, jury, litigants, or court personnel, and administers judicial system: Establishes rules of procedure on questions for which standard procedures have not been established by law or by superior court. Reads or listens to allegations made by plaintiff in civil suits to determine their sufficiency. Examines evidence in criminal cases to determine if evidence will support charges. Listens to presentation of case, rules on admissibility of evidence and methods of conducting testimony, and settles disputes between opposing attorneys. Instructs jury on applicable law and directs jury to deduce facts from evidence presented. Sentences defendant in criminal cases, on conviction by jury, according to statutes of state or federal government, or awards judicial relief to litigants in civil cases in relation to findings by jury or by court. May be designated according to level of court in judicial hierarchy as Appellate-Court Judge (government ser.); District-Court Judge (government ser.); unicipal-Court Judge (government ser.); Superior-Court Judge (government ser.); Supreme-Court Justice (government ser.). May preside over particular court department and be designated Conciliation-Court Judge (government ser.); Criminal-Court Judge (government ser.); Juvenile-Court Judge (government ser.); Probate Judge (government ser.).
GOE: 11.04.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M4 L6 SVP: 9 DLU: 77

111.107-014 MAGISTRATE (government ser.) alternate titles: justice-court judge; justice of the peace; police judge; police justice; police magistrate

    Adjudicates civil cases in which damages do not exceed prescribed maximum established by state law, and minor misdemeanor cases not involving penitentiary sentences or fines in excess of maximum amount allowed to be levied under state law. Conducts preliminary hearings in felony cases to determine whether there is reasonable and probable cause to hold defendant for further proceedings or trial by superior court. May perform wedding ceremonies. May perform duties at night and be designated Night-Court Magistrate (government ser.). May adjudicate cases involving motor vehicle laws and be designated Traffic-Court Magistrate (government ser.).
GOE: 11.04.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M4 L6 SVP: 9 DLU: 77


    This group includes occupations, not elsewhere classified, concerned with law and jurisprudence.

119.107-010 HEARING OFFICER (government ser.) alternate titles: appeals board referee; referee

    Reviews previously adjudicated social welfare tax or eligibility issues, as member of appeals board, utilizing knowledge of regulations, policy, and precedent decisions: Researches laws, regulations, policies, and precedent decisions to prepare for appeal hearings. Schedules hearing, issues subpoenas, counsels parties, and administers oaths to prepare for formal hearing. Conducts hearing to obtain information and evidence relative to disposition of appeal. Questions witnesses and rules on exceptions, motions, and admissibility of evidence. Analyzes evidence and applicable law, regulations, policy, and precedent decisions to determine appropriate and permissible conclusions. Prepares written decision. May hear disability insurance appeals and be designated Disability-Insurance-Hearing Officer (government ser.). May hear unemployment insurance appeals and be designated Unemployment-Insurance-Hearing Officer (government ser.).
GOE: 11.04.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M3 L6 SVP: 9 DLU: 77

119.117-010 APPEALS REVIEWER, VETERAN (government ser.)

    Adjudicates military service veterans' claims for allowances: Conducts hearings and determines validity of claim in accordance with federal and state laws and precedents. Renders decision and writes opinion on questions appealed. Prepares interpretations and advisory opinions on points of law requested by state or federal agencies engaged in administration of veterans' programs. Conducts studies of appeals procedures in field agencies to ensure adherence to legal requirements and facilitate determination of cases.
GOE: 11.04.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M5 L5 SVP: 9 DLU: 77

119.167-010 ADJUDICATOR (government ser.)

    Adjudicates claims filed by government against individuals or organizations: Determines existence and amount of liability, according to law, administrative and judicial precedents and other evidence. Recommends acceptance or rejection of compromise settlement offers.
GOE: 11.04.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

119.167-014 PATENT AGENT (profess. & kin.)

    Prepares and presents patent application to U.S. Patent Office and in patent courts, according to familiarity with patent law and filing procedures. Must be registered by U.S. Patent Office. Cannot practice law or appear in other courts.
GOE: 11.04.04 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M5 L6 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

119.167-018 TITLE SUPERVISOR (profess. & kin.)

    Directs and coordinates activities of subordinates engaged in searching public records and examining titles to determine legal condition of property title.
GOE: 07.01.05 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

119.267-010 ABSTRACTOR (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: abstract clerk; abstract maker; abstract searcher; abstract writer; court abstractor; title abstractor

    Analyzes pertinent legal or insurance details or section of statute or case law to summarize for purposes of examination, proof, or ready reference. May search out titles to determine if title deed is correct [TITLE EXAMINER (profess. & kin.)].
GOE: 11.04.04 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

119.267-014 APPEALS REFEREE (government ser.)

    Adjudicates social welfare tax or benefit eligibility issues filed by disabled or unemployed claimants or employers: Arranges and conducts hearings to discover pertinent facts bearing on claim in accord with federal and state laws and procedures. Renders decisions affirming or denying previous ruling, based on testimony, claim records, applicable provisions of law, and established precedents. Writes decision explaining ruling and informs interested parties of results. Confers with personnel of employer or agency involved to obtain additional information bearing on appeal, and to clarify future implications of decisions. ay participate in court proceedings against claimants attempting to obtain benefits through fraud. May render informal opinions on points of law in questionable cases to facilitate initial determination of benefit eligibility or imposition of penalties. May be required to hold law degree or license to practice law.
GOE: 11.04.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M3 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

119.267-018 CONTRACT CLERK (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: contract consultant; contract technician

    Reviews agreements or proposed agreements for conformity to company rates, rules, and regulations: Analyzes contracts and confers with various department heads to detect ambiguities, inaccurate statements, omissions of essential terms, and conflicts with possible legal prohibitions. Recommends modifications. Converts agreements into contract form or prepares amended agreement for approval by legal department. May initiate changes in standard form contracts.
GOE: 07.01.05 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

119.267-022 LEGAL INVESTIGATOR (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: legal assistant

    Researches and prepares cases relating to administrative appeals of civil service members: Examines state government, personnel, college, or university rules and regulations. Answers members' questions regarding rights and benefits and advises on how rules apply to individual situations. Presents arguments and evidence to support appeal at appeal hearing. Calls upon witnesses to testify at hearing.
GOE: 11.04.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

119.267-026 PARALEGAL (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: law clerk; legal aid; legal assistant

    Researches law, investigates facts, and prepares documents to assist LAWYER (profess. & kin.) 110.107-010: Researches and analyzes law sources such as statutes, recorded judicial decisions, legal articles, treaties, constitutions, and legal codes to prepare legal documents, such as briefs, pleadings, appeals, wills, contracts, initial and amended articles of incorporation, stock certificates and other securities, buy-sell agreements, closing papers and binders, deeds, and trust instruments for review, approval, and use by attorney. Appraises and inventories real and personal property for estate planning. Investigates facts and law of case to determine causes of action and to prepare case accordingly. Files pleadings with court clerk. Prepares affidavits of documents and maintains document file. Delivers or directs delivery of subpoenas to witnesses and parties to action. May direct and coordinate activities of law office employees. May prepare office accounts and tax returns. May specialize in litigation, probate, real estate, or corporation law. May prepare real estate closing statement and assist in closing process. May act as arbitrator and liaison between disputing parties. May act as law librarian, keeping and monitoring legal volumes and ensuring legal volumes are up-to-date. May search patent files to ascertain originality of patent application and be designated Patent Clerk (government ser.).
GOE: 11.04.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 87

119.287-010 TITLE EXAMINER (profess. & kin.)

    Searches public records and examines titles to determine legal condition of property title: Examines copies of records, such as mortgages, liens, judgments, easements, vital statistics, and plat and map books to determine ownership and legal restrictions and to verify legal description of property. Copies or summarizes (abstracts) recorded documents, such as mortgages, trust deeds, and contracts affecting condition of title to property. Analyzes restrictions and prepares report outlining restrictions and actions required to clear title. When working in title-insurance company, prepares and issues policy that guarantees legality of title.
GOE: 07.01.05 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

119.367-010 ESCROW OFFICER (profess. & kin.)

    Holds in escrow, funds, legal papers, and other collateral posted by contracting parties to ensure fulfillment of contracts or trust agreements: Prepares escrow agreement. Executes terms of contract or trust agreement, such as holding money or legal papers, paying off mortgages, or paying sums to designated parties. Files and delivers deeds and other legal papers. May assist buyer to secure financing.
GOE: 07.01.04 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M3 L3 SVP: 8 DLU: 77


    This division includes occupations concerned with religious worship and observance, and with theological research and history of religion.


    This group includes occupations concerned with serving spiritual needs of congregation members, usually as minister, priest, or rabbi. Includes delivering sermons, conducting services, administering religious rites, instructing prospective congregation members, and counseling members in need of spiritual advice.

120.107-010 CLERGY MEMBER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: minister; preacher; priest; rabbi

    Conducts religious worship and performs other spiritual functions associated with beliefs and practices of religious faith or denomination as authorized, and provides spiritual and moral guidance and assistance to members: Leads congregation in worship services. Prepares and delivers sermons and other talks. Interprets doctrine of religion. Instructs people who seek conversion to faith. Conducts wedding and funeral services. Administers religious rites or ordinances. Visits sick and shut-ins, and helps poor. Counsels those in spiritual need and comforts bereaved. Oversees religious education programs. May write articles for publication and engage in interfaith, community, civic, educational, and recreational activities sponsored by or related to interest of denomination. May teach in seminaries and universities. May serve in armed forces, institutions, or industry and be designated Chaplain (profess. & kin.). When in charge of Christian church, congregation, or parish, may be designated Pastor (profess. & kin.) or Rector (profess. & kin.). May carry religious message and medical or educational aid to nonchristian lands and people to obtain converts and establish native church and be designated Missionary (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 10.01.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M4 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77


    This group includes occupations, not elsewhere classified, concerned with religion and theology.

129.027-010 CANTOR (profess. & kin.)

    Chants and reads portions of ritual during religious services, and directs congregants in musical activities: Arranges musical portion of religious services in consultation with leader of congregation. Chants or recites religious texts during worship services or other observances and trains and leads congregants in musical responses. May create variations of traditional music or compose music for services. May train and direct choir or teach vocal music to youth or other groups of congregants.
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M1 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 86

129.107-010 CHRISTIAN SCIENCE NURSE (profess. & kin.)

    Provides support and nonmedical physical care, through practical knowledge of Christian Science, to patients receiving treatment from CHRISTIAN SCIENCE PRACTITIONERS (profess. & kin.). May work on staff of Christian Science sanatorium or Christian Science visiting nurse service. May contract independently, usually with one patient, to provide individual care in Christian Science sanatorium or private home.
GOE: 10.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

129.107-014 CHRISTIAN SCIENCE PRACTITIONER (profess. & kin.)

    Practices spiritual healing through prayer alone in accordance with religious teaching of Christian Science.
GOE: 10.01.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M2 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

129.107-018 DIRECTOR OF RELIGIOUS ACTIVITIES (education) alternate titles: dean of chapel; director of religious life

    Directs and coordinates activities of various denominational groups to meet religious needs of students: Meets with religious advisers and councils to coordinate overall religious program. Assists and advises groups in promoting interfaith understanding. Interprets policies of university to community religious workers and confers with administrative officials concerning suggestions and requests for religious activities. Provides counseling and guidance relative to marital, health, financial, and religious problems. Plans and conducts conferences and courses to assist in interpretation of religion to various academic groups and to promote understanding of individual faiths and convictions of other groups.
GOE: 10.01.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

129.107-022 DIRECTOR, RELIGIOUS EDUCATION (nonprofit org.)

    Plans, organizes, and directs religious education program designed to promote religious education among congregation membership and counsels members concerning personal problems: Analyzes revenue and program cost data to determine budget priorities. Analyzes member participation, and changes in congregation emphasis to determine needs for religious education. Develops study courses and supervises instructional staff. Counsels students. Plans congregational activities and projects to attract attention to, and encourage active participation in programs. Promotes student participation in extracurricular congregational activities. Visits homes of congregation members and confers with CLERGY EMBER (profess. & kin.) 120.107-010, congregation officials, and congregation organizations to solicit support and participation, and to stimulate interest in religious and educational programs. Participates in such denominational activities as giving help to new congregations and small congregations. Interprets work of school to public through speaking or discussion-leading in related fields, and contributes articles to local and national publications. Orders and distributes school supplies.
GOE: 11.07.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

129.107-026 PASTORAL ASSISTANT (nonprofit org.)

    Assists ordained clergy in conducting worship services; provides spiritual guidance to church members; and plans and arranges educational, social, and recreational programs for congregation: Assists CLERGY MEMBER (profess. & kin.) 120.107-010 in conducting worship, wedding, funeral, and other services and in coordinating activities of lay participants, such as organist, choir, and ushers. Visits church members in hospitals and convalescent facilities or at home to offer spiritual guidance and assistance, such as emergency financial aid or referral to community support services. Assists CLERGY MEMBER (profess. & kin.) and lay teachers in selecting books and reference materials for religious education classes and in adapting content to meet needs of different age groups. May write and deliver sermons. May teach history and doctrine of church to church members. May assist CLERGY MEMBER (profess. & kin.) in coordinating committees that oversee social and recreational programs.
GOE: 10.01.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 6 DLU: 86

129.271-010 MOHEL (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: ritual circumciser

    Circumcises Jewish male infants in accordance with tenets of faith: Reviews infant's family medical history to determine possibility of hemorrhage. Examines infant for infection and other conditions to determine best operational time and procedure. Disinfects surgical instruments, hands, and operative area. Affixes lyre-shaped shield to penis and excises foreskin and membrane along line of shield, using scalpel. Removes blood from wound, using suction, and applies sterile dressing. Recites prescribed benedictions and announces Hebrew name of child.
GOE: 10.01.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M2 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 77


    This division includes occupations concerned with reporting, editing, promoting, and interpreting ideas and facts in written form. Occupations concerned with translating and interpreting written and spoken words from one language to another are also included in this division.


    This group includes occupations primarily concerned with researching and writing material for performance, publication, or broadcast. Includes reporting, analyzing, and interpreting facts, events, and personalities; developing fiction or nonfiction ideas, using various literary techniques to produce plays, novels, poems, or other related works; critically evaluating art, music, drama, and other artistic presentations; and persuading the general public to favor personalities, goods, and services. Writers often rewrite material developed by others and perform editorial duties but are distinguished from editors because they are primarily responsible for originating written material. Technical writers are also included in this group. Occupations which include writing but are primarily involved with other disciplines, such as economics, psychology, and history, are grouped according to primary involvement.

131.067-010 COLUMNIST/COMMENTATOR (print. & pub.; radio-tv broad.)

    Analyzes news and writes column or commentary, based on personal knowledge and experience with subject matter, for publication or broadcast: Gathers information and develops subject perspective through research, interview, experience, and attendance at functions, such as political conventions, news meetings, sports events, and social activities. Analyzes and interprets information to formulate and outline story idea. Selects material most pertinent to presentation, organizes material into acceptable media form and format, and writes column or commentary. Records commentary or presents commentary live when working in broadcast medium. May be required to develop material to fit media time or space requirements. May analyze current news items and be designated News Analyst (radio-tv broad.). May be designated according to medium worked in as Columnist (print. & pub.); Commentator (radio-tv broad.). May specialize in particular field, such as sports, fashion, society, or politics. May analyze topics chosen by publication or broadcast facility editorial board. May enter information into computer to prepare commentaries.
GOE: 11.08.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M3 L6 SVP: 7 DLU: 88

131.067-014 COPY WRITER (profess. & kin.)

    Writes advertising copy for use by publication or broadcast media to promote sale of goods and services: Consults with sales media, and marketing representatives to obtain information on product or service and discuss style and length of advertising copy. Obtains additional background and current development information through research and interview. Reviews advertising trends, consumer surveys, and other data regarding marketing of specific and related goods and services to formulate presentation approach. Writes preliminary draft of copy and sends to supervisor for approval. Corrects and revises copy as necessary. May write articles, bulletins, sales letters, speeches, and other related informative and promotional material. May enter information into computer to prepare advertising copy.
GOE: 01.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

131.067-018 CRITIC (print. & pub.; radio-tv broad.)

    Writes critical reviews of literary, musical, or artistic works and performances for broadcast and publication: Attends art exhibitions, musical or dramatic performances, reads books, or previews motion picture or television presentations. Analyzes factors such as theme, expression, and technique, and makes comparisons to other works and standards. Forms critical opinions based on personal knowledge, judgment, and experience. Organizes material to emphasize prominent features, and writes review. Presents oral review in live or recorded form when working in broadcasting medium. May enter information into computer to prepare reviews. May be designated according to field of specialization as Art Critic (print. & pub.; radio-tv broad.); Book Critic (print. & pub.; radio-tv broad.); Drama Critic (print. & pub.; radio-tv broad.); Movie Critic (print. & pub.; radio-tv broad.); Music Critic (print. & pub.; radio-tv broad.).
GOE: 01.01.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M2 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 88

131.067-022 EDITORIAL WRITER (print. & pub.)

    Writes comments on topics of reader interest to stimulate or mold public opinion, in accordance with viewpoints and policies of publication: Prepares assigned or unassigned articles from knowledge of topic and editorial position of publication, supplemented by additional study and research. Submits and discusses copy with editor for approval. May specialize in one or more fields, such as international affairs, fiscal matters, or national or local politics. May participate in conferences of editorial policy committee to recommend topics and position to be taken by publication on specific public issues.
GOE: 01.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

131.067-026 HUMORIST (profess. & kin.)

    Writes humorous material for publication or performance: Selects topic according to personal preference or assignment. Writes and makes changes and revisions to material until it meets personal standards. Submits material for approval and confers with client regarding additional changes or revisions. May conduct research to obtain factual information regarding subject matter. May specialize in writing comedy routines, gags, or special material for entertainers and be designated Gag Writer (profess. & kin.). May write comedy shows for presentation on radio or television and be designated Comedy Writer (profess. & kin.). ay work as a member of writing team and be assigned to develop segment of comedy show.
GOE: 01.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M2 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

131.067-030 LIBRETTIST (profess. & kin.)

    Composes text for opera, musical play, or extended choral work, fitting words to music composed by another. Adapts text to accommodate musical requirements of COMPOSER (profess. & kin.) and SINGER (amuse. & rec.; motion picture; radio-tv broad.).
GOE: 01.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M2 L6 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

131.067-034 LYRICIST (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: lyric writer; song writer

    Writes words to be sung or spoken to accompaniment of music. Expresses sentiment, ideas, or narration, usually in verse, to fit music.
GOE: 01.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M2 L6 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

131.067-038 PLAYWRIGHT (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: dramatist

    Writes original plays, such as tragedies, comedies, or dramas, or adapts themes from fictional, historical, or narrative sources, for dramatic presentation: Writes plays, usually involving action, conflict, purpose, and resolution, to depict series of events from imaginary or real life. Writes dialogue and describes action to be followed during enactment of play. Revises script during rehearsals and preparation for initial showing.
GOE: 01.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M2 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

131.067-042 POET (profess. & kin.)

    Writes narrative, dramatic, or lyric poetry for magazines, books, and other publications: Chooses subject matter and suitable form to express personal feeling and individual experience, or to narrate story or event. May write doggerel or other type verse.
GOE: 01.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M2 L6 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

131.067-046 WRITER, PROSE, FICTION AND NONFICTION (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: writer

    Writes original prose material for publication: Selects subject matter based on personal interest or receives specific assignment from publisher. Conducts research and makes notes to retain ideas, develop factual information, and obtain authentic detail. Organizes material and plans arrangement or outline. Develops factors, such as theme, plot, order, characterization, and story line. Writes draft of manuscript. Reviews, revises, and corrects it and submits material for publication. Confers with publisher's representative regarding manuscript changes. May specialize in one or more styles or types of writing, such as descriptive or critical interpretations or analyses, essays, magazine articles, short stories, novels, and biographies.
GOE: 01.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M3 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

131.067-050 SCREEN WRITER (motion picture; radio-tv broad.) alternate titles: scenario writer; script writer

    Writes scripts for motion pictures or television: Selects subject and theme for script based on personal interests or assignment. Conducts research to obtain accurate factual background information and authentic detail. Writes plot outline, narrative synopsis, or treatment and submits for approval. Confers with PRODUCER (motion picture) 187.167-174 or PRODUCER (radio-tv broad.) 159.117-010 and DIRECTOR, MOTION PICTURE (motion picture) 159.067-010 or DIRECTOR, TELEVISION (radio-tv broad.) 159.067-014 regarding script development, revisions, and other changes. Writes one or more drafts of script. May work in collaboration with other writers. May adapt books or plays into scripts for use in television or motion picture production. May write continuity or comedy routines. May specialize in particular type of script or writing.
GOE: 01.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M2 L6 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

131.087-010 CONTINUITY WRITER (radio-tv broad.)

    Originates and prepares material that is read by ANNOUNCER (radio-tv broad.) 159.147-010 to introduce and connect various parts of musical, news, and sports programs.
GOE: 01.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

131.087-014 READER (motion picture; radio-tv broad.) alternate titles: script reader; story analyst

    Reads novels, stories, and plays and prepares synopses for review by editorial department or PRODUCER (motion picture) or PRODUCER (radio-tv broad.). Suggests possible treatment of selected materials. May read foreign story material in original language.
GOE: 01.01.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

131.262-010 NEWSCASTER (radio-tv broad.) alternate titles: newsperson

    Analyzes and broadcasts news received from various sources: Examines news items of local, national, and international significance to determine selection or is assigned news items for broadcast by editorial staff. Prepares or assists in preparation of script [NEWSWRITER (print. & pub.; radio-tv broad.) 131.262-014]. Presents news over radio or television. May specialize in particular field of news broadcasting, such as political, economic, or military. May gather information about newsworthy events [REPORTER (print. & pub.; radio-tv broad.) 131.262-018]. May introduce broadcasters who specialize in particular fields, such as sports or weather, and be designated Anchorperson (radio-tv broad.) or News Anchor (radio-tv broad.).
GOE: 11.08.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

131.262-014 NEWSWRITER (print. & pub.; radio-tv broad.) alternate titles: rewriter

    Writes news stories for publication or broadcast from written or recorded notes supplied by reporting staff, using computer or typewriter: Reviews and evaluates written or recorded notes obtained from reporting staff to isolate pertinent facts and details. Verifies accuracy of questionable facts and obtains supplemental material and additional details from files, reference libraries, and interviews with knowledgeable sources. Organizes material and writes story conforming to specified length, style, and format requirements. May discuss story length and format with EDITOR, CITY (print. & pub.) 132.037-014 or with PRODUCER (radio-tv broad.) 159.117-010 and FILM OR VIDEOTAPE EDITOR (motion picture; radio-tv broad.) 962.262-010. May write news stories in foreign language.
GOE: 11.08.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

131.262-018 REPORTER (print. & pub.; radio-tv broad.) alternate titles: newsperson

    Collects and analyzes information about newsworthy events to write news stories for publication or broadcast: Receives assignment or evaluates news leads and news tips to develop story idea. Gathers and verifies factual information regarding story through interview, observation, and research. Organizes material, determines slant or emphasis, and writes story according to prescribed editorial style and format standards. May monitor police and fire department radio communications to obtain story leads. May take photographs or shoot video to illustrate stories. May edit, or assist in editing, videos for broadcast. May appear on television program when conducting taped or filmed interviews or narration. May give live reports from site of event or mobile broadcast unit. May transmit information to NEWSWRITER (print. & pub.; radio-tv broad.) 131.262-014 for story writing. May specialize in one type of reporting, such as sports, fires, accidents, political affairs, court trials, or police activities. May be assigned to outlying areas or foreign countries and be designated Correspondent (print. & pub.; radio-tv broad.) or Foreign Correspondent (print. & pub.; radio-tv broad.).
GOE: 11.08.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

131.267-022 SCRIPT READER (radio-tv broad.) alternate titles: copy reader; editor

    Reads book or script of radio and television programs and commercials or views and listens to video and sound tapes to detect and recommend deletion of vulgar, immoral, libelous, or misleading statements, applying knowledge of FCC and station standards and regulations: Types recommended editorial revisions in script. Confers with sales or advertising agency personnel to report on revised or disallowed commercials. When reading continuity, may be designated Continuity Reader (radio-tv broad.).
GOE: 07.05.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M2 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

131.267-026 WRITER, TECHNICAL PUBLICATIONS (profess. & kin.)

    Develops, writes, and edits material for reports, manuals, briefs, proposals, instruction books, catalogs, and related technical and administrative publications concerned with work methods and procedures, and installation, operation, and maintenance of machinery and other equipment: Receives assignment from supervisor. Observes production, developmental, and experimental activities to determine operating procedure and detail. Interviews production and engineering personnel and reads journals, reports, and other material to become familiar with product technologies and production methods. Reviews manufacturer's and trade catalogs, drawings and other data relative to operation, maintenance, and service of equipment. Studies blueprints, sketches, drawings, parts lists, specifications, mock ups, and product samples to integrate and delineate technology, operating procedure, and production sequence and detail. Organizes material and completes writing assignment according to set standards regarding order, clarity, conciseness, style, and terminology. Reviews published materials and recommends revisions or changes in scope, format, content, and methods of reproduction and binding. May maintain records and files of work and revisions. May select photographs, drawings, sketches, diagrams, and charts to illustrate material. May assist in laying out material for publication. May arrange for typing, duplication, and distribution of material. ay write speeches, articles, and public or employee relations releases. May edit, standardize, or make changes to material prepared by other writers or plant personnel and be designated Standard-Practice Analyst (profess. & kin.). May specialize in writing material regarding work methods and procedures and be designated Process-Description Writer (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 11.08.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 81


    This group includes occupations concerned with assigning, selecting, and preparing written materials for publication, broadcast, or motion picture production. This includes planning arrangement of material, rewriting, verifying, compiling, and abstracting according to standards of consistency, organization, development or specified viewpoint. Editors coordinate the work of authors, designers, production personnel, and printers. Editors of specialized types of written material are also included.

132.017-010 EDITOR, MANAGING, NEWSPAPER (print. & pub.) alternate titles: managing editor

    Negotiates with newspaper owner's representative to establish publication policies, and directs editorial activities of newspaper departments: Confers with executive staff to discuss editorial policy, makeup plans, changes in staff organization, news coverage of special events, and similar decisions. Relays information to department heads. Coordinates work of editorial departments in accordance with newspaper policy. Directs general page makeup of publication. Inspects final makeup of editions and rearranges makeup to meet emergency news situations. Originates plans for special features or projects and assigns department heads to implement them. May write leading or policy editorials. In smaller establishments may perform duties of EDITOR, NEWS (print. & pub.) 132.067-026; and EDITOR, CITY (print. & pub.) 132.037-014.
GOE: 11.05.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M3 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

132.017-014 EDITOR, NEWSPAPER (print. & pub.) alternate titles: editor-in-chief, newspaper

    Formulates editorial policy and directs operation of newspaper: Confers with editorial policy committee and heads of production, advertising, and circulation departments to develop editorial and operating procedures and negotiate decisions affecting publication. Appoints editorial heads and supervises work of their departments in accordance with newspaper policy. Writes leading or policy editorials or notifies editorial department head of position to be taken on specific public issues. Reviews financial reports and takes appropriate action with respect to costs and revenues. Represents publication at professional and community functions. In smaller establishments may perform duties of one or more subordinate editors and direct activities of advertising, circulation, or production personnel.
GOE: 11.08.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M3 L6 SVP: 9 DLU: 77

132.017-018 EDITOR, TECHNICAL AND SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: manager, technical and scientific publications; supervisor, publications

    Directs and coordinates activities of writers engaged in preparing technical, scientific, medical, or other material for publication in conjunction with or independent from manufacturing, research, and related activities: Analyzes developments in specific field to determine need for revisions, corrections, and changes in previously published materials, and development of new material. Confers with customer representatives, vendors, plant executives, or publisher to establish technical specifications, determine specific or general subject material to be developed for publication, and resolve problems concerned with developing and publishing subject material. Assigns staff writer or contracts with specialist in subject area to produce draft of manuscript. Supervises staff writers and delineates standard procedures for gathering data and writing. Reviews draft of manuscript and makes recommendations for changes. May edit and correct final draft to prepare for typesetting. May perform similar duties to those supervised. May select or recommend graphics, such as drawings, diagrams, pictures, and charts to illustrate manuscript. May specialize in particular type of publication, such as manuals, handbooks, articles, or proposals.
GOE: 11.08.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M3 L6 SVP: 9 DLU: 77

132.037-010 CONTINUITY DIRECTOR (radio-tv broad.) alternate titles: editor, continuity and script

    Coordinates activities of continuity department of radio or television station: Assigns duties to staff and freelance writers. Supervises staff writers preparing program continuity and scripts for broadcasting, and edits material to ensure conformance with company policy, laws, and regulations. May be responsible for nonmusical copyright material. ay read book or script of television programs and commercials or view and listen to videotapes to detect and recommend deletion of vulgar, immoral, libelous, or misleading statements, applying knowledge of Federal Communications Commission and station standards and regulations. May supervise administrative research workers and employees receiving and examining program ideas and scripts suggested by public for station or network presentation.
GOE: 01.01.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 88

132.037-014 EDITOR, CITY (print. & pub.) alternate titles: city editor; metropolitan editor

    Directs and supervises personnel engaged in selecting, gathering, and editing local news and news photographs for edition of newspaper: Receives information regarding developing news events or originates story ideas and assigns coverage to members of reporting and photography staff. Reviews news copy and confers with executive staff members regarding allocation of news space. Sends copy to copy desk for editing. Reviews edited copy and sends to EDITOR, NEWS (print. & pub.) or composing room. May write or direct writing of headlines. May hire and discharge members of reporting staff. May perform other editorial duties as required. Designated State Editor (print. & pub.) when working with State news and National Editor (print. & pub.) when working with National news.
GOE: 11.08.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M3 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

132.037-018 EDITOR, DEPARTMENT (print. & pub.)

    Supervises personnel engaged in selecting, gathering, and editing news and news photographs for one or more specialized news departments of newspaper: ay select submitted material such as letters or articles for publication. May assign cartoons or editorials to staff members. May perform duties of REPORTER (print. & pub.; radio-tv broad.). ay edit copy and perform related duties as required. Usually identified according to individual specialty or specialties.
GOE: 11.08.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

132.037-022 EDITOR, PUBLICATIONS (print. & pub.)

    Formulates policy; plans, coordinates, and directs editorial activities; and supervises workers who assist in selecting and preparing material for publication in magazines, trade journals, house organs, and related publications: Confers with executives, department heads, and editorial staff to formulate policy, coordinate department activities, establish production schedules, solve publication problems, and discuss makeup plans and organizational changes. Determines theme of issue and gathers related material. Writes or assigns staff members or freelance writers to write articles, reports, editorials, reviews, and other material. Reads and evaluates material submitted for publication consideration. Secures graphic material from picture sources and assigns artists and photographers to produce pictures and illustrations. Assigns staff member, or personally interviews individuals and attends gatherings, to obtain items for publication, verify facts, and clarify information. Assigns research and other editorial duties to assistants. Organizes material, plans overall and individual page layouts, and selects type. Marks dummy pages to indicate position and size of printed and graphic material. Reviews final proofs and approves or makes changes. Reviews and evaluates work of staff members and makes recommendations and changes. May perform related editorial duties listed under EDITORIAL ASSISTANT (print. & pub.). May direct activities of production, circulation, or promotion personnel. May prepare news or public relations releases, special brochures, and similar materials. May be designated according to type of publication worked on as Communications Manager (print. & pub.); Editor, Farm Journal (print. & pub.); Editor, House Organ (print. & pub.); Editor, Magazine (print. & pub.); Editor, Trade Journal (print. & pub.); Industrial Editor (print. & pub.).
GOE: 01.01.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M3 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

132.037-026 STORY EDITOR (motion picture; radio-tv broad.)

    Selects and secures written material and supervises staff writers who prepare scripts to be used for television or motion picture productions: Reviews and evaluates writers' work developed during previous associations, samples presented by agents, and material received from other sources to select writers and subject material compatible with established styles, concepts, and formats. Recommends purchase of material judged to be suitable in developing scripts. Confers with production head regarding selection of writers and material. Hires, assigns, and supervises writers who prepare scripts for production. Reviews writers' work and gives instruction and direction regarding changes, additions, and corrections. Rewrites, combines, and polishes draft scripts, as necessary, to prepare scripts for production. Reads stories and other material obtained from various sources and evaluates potential for development into scripts. May assign staff members to write synopses, treatments, adaptations, scripts, and continuity when working on motion pictures.
GOE: 01.01.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M2 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

132.067-010 BUREAU CHIEF (print. & pub.)

    Directs and coordinates activities of personnel engaged in selecting, gathering, and editing news and news pictures in remote location or foreign country and transmitting to home office of newspaper or press syndicate: May translate dispatches into English or cable language. May perform duties of REPORTER (print. & pub.; radio-tv broad.).
GOE: 11.08.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

132.067-014 EDITOR, BOOK (print. & pub.)

    Secures, selects, and coordinates publication of manuscripts in book form: Reviews submitted manuscript, determines demand based on consumer trends and personal knowledge, and makes recommendations regarding procurement and revision. Confers with author and publisher to arrange purchase and details, such as publication date, royalties, and number of copies to be printed. Coordinates design and production activities. May assign and supervise editorial staff. May contract design and production or personally design and produce book.
GOE: 01.01.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M3 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

132.067-018 EDITOR, DICTIONARY (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: lexicographer

    Researches information about words that make up language and writes and reviews definitions for publication in dictionary: Conducts or directs research to discover origin, spelling, syllabication, pronunciation, meaning, and usage of words. Organizes research material and writes dictionary definition. May study or conduct surveys to determine factors, such as frequency of use for a specific word, or word use by particular segment of population in order to select words for inclusion in dictionary. May perform related editorial duties. May select drawings or other graphic material to illustrate word meaning. May specialize in particular type of dictionary, such as medical, electronic, or industrial.
GOE: 11.08.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M3 L6 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

132.067-022 EDITOR, GREETING CARD (print. & pub.)

    Selects and edits original sentiments for use on greeting cards: Reads material submitted by freelance and staff writers and determines suitability based on knowledge of market trends, company standards, and personal tastes. Edits material to meet greeting card requirements. Maintains file of sentiments for future use. May write greeting card verses. May supervise writing staff. May design cards. May coordinate activities of art, photographic, and printing staff.
GOE: 01.01.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

132.067-026 EDITOR, NEWS (print. & pub.) alternate titles: makeup editor

    Plans layout of newspaper edition: Receives news copy, photographs, and dummy page layouts marked to indicate columns occupied by advertising. Confers with management and editorial staff members regarding placement of developing news stories. Determines placement of stories based on relative significance, available space, and knowledge of layout principles. Marks layout sheets to indicate position of each story and accompanying photographs. Approves proofs submitted by composing room. May write or revise headlines. May edit copy. May perform related editorial duties as required.
GOE: 11.08.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

132.067-030 PROGRAM PROPOSALS COORDINATOR (radio-tv broad.) alternate titles: coordinator, program planning

    Develops, writes, and edits proposals for new radio or television programs: Reviews program proposals submitted by staff, station and independent producers, and other sources to determine proposal feasibility, based on knowledge of station's programming needs, policy and budgetary considerations, and potential underwriting (funding) sources. Edits proposals, or writes proposals for original program concepts, and submits proposals for review of programming, financial, and other departmental personnel. Participates in selection of researchers, consultants, producers, and on-air personalities to facilitate development of program ideas. Authorizes preparation of budget for final proposals. Maintains liaison between program production department and proposal originators to inform originators of status of accepted projects.
GOE: 11.05.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 86

132.132-010 ASSIGNMENT EDITOR (radio-tv broad.) alternate titles: managing editor

    Supervises and coordinates activities of radio or television news gathering staff: Maintains contact with outside news agencies, police and fire departments, and other news sources to obtain information regarding developing news items. Determines priority and assigns coverage to news units. Originates or approves ideas for news features. Confers with DIRECTOR, NEWS (radio-tv broad.) 184.167-014 and department heads to coordinate production activities. Reads and edits news copy to ensure that slanderous, libelous, and profane statements are avoided or deleted. Prepares rundown of news stories and assignment sheets, using computer. Communicates with reporters on assignments, using two-way radio. May direct or participate in writing and editing activities.
GOE: 11.08.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 89

132.267-010 EDITOR, TELEGRAPH (print. & pub.; radio-tv broad.) alternate titles: editor, wire

    Selects and edits state, national, and international news items received by wire from press associations: Corrects errors of spelling and punctuation in telegraph copy. Deletes less important paragraphs, according to importance and amount of space available for story. Issues selected items to EDITOR, NEWS (print. & pub.), with notations of desired length of story in accordance with predetermined space allotment. Monitors teleprinter machines for new leads on important news items received before press time of edition, and reserves space for copy on such items. May select news of local events of national or international interest, and prepare copy to be forwarded to central news associations by wire. May rewrite stories to include information of special interest to subscribers of publication.
GOE: 11.08.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

132.267-014 EDITORIAL ASSISTANT (print. & pub.) alternate titles: assistant editor; associate editor

    Prepares written material for publication, performing any combination of following duties: Reads copy to detect errors in spelling, punctuation, and syntax. Verifies facts, dates, and statistics, using standard reference sources. Rewrites or modifies copy to conform to publication's style and editorial policy and marks copy for typesetter, using standard symbols to indicate how type should be set. Reads galley and page proofs to detect errors and indicates corrections, using standard proofreading symbols. May confer with authors regarding changes made to manuscript. May select and crop photographs and illustrative materials to conform to space and subject matter requirements. May prepare page layouts to position and space articles and illustrations. May write or rewrite headlines, captions, columns, articles, and stories according to publication requirements. May initiate or reply to correspondence regarding material published or being considered for publication. May read and evaluate submitted manuscripts and be designated Manuscript Reader (print. & pub.). May be designated according to type of publication worked on as Copy Reader (print. & pub.) when working on newspaper; Copy Reader, Book (print. & pub.) when working on books.
GOE: 11.08.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

132.367-010 EDITOR, INDEX (print. & pub.) alternate titles: indexer

    Prepares indices for books and other publications: Reads material to determine which items should be in index. Arranges topical or alphabetical list of index items, according to page or chapter, indicating location of item in text. Classifies items of topical interest, and inserts cross references in index to refer reader to related subjects appearing elsewhere in text. Directs activities of clerical staff engaged in typing index, filing subject-cards, and performing related duties. May prepare related items, such as glossaries, bibliographies, and explanatory footnotes, following literary style of manuscript author.
GOE: 11.08.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77


    This group includes occupations concerned with translating spoken or written words from one language into another, and translating spoken language into sign language.

137.137-010 DIRECTOR, TRANSLATION (profess. & kin.)

    Directs and coordinates activities of INTERPRETERS (profess. & kin.) and TRANSLATORS (profess. & kin.) engaged in translating spoken passages, documents, and other material from one language to another for business establishments, government agencies, and academic institutions: Studies material, using knowledge of language and linguistics, to determine best qualified personnel for specific projects. Assigns projects to personnel and reviews work for quality. Attends meetings of groups and organizations engaged in international relations to promote translation service. Prepares budget for department and determines allocation of funds. Interviews and selects personnel for staff positions.
GOE: 11.08.04 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

137.267-010 INTERPRETER (profess. & kin.)

    Translates spoken passages from one language into another: Provides consecutive or simultaneous translation between languages. In consecutive interpreting listens to complete statements in one language, translates to second, and translates responses from second into first language. Expresses either approximate or exact translation, depending on nature of occasion. In simultaneous interpreting renders oral translation of material at time it is being spoken, usually hearing material over electronic audio system and broadcasting translation to listeners. Usually receives briefing on subject discussed prior to interpreting session. May be designated according to language or languages interpreted. May specialize in specific subject area.
GOE: 11.08.04 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

137.267-014 INTERPRETER, DEAF (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: translator, deaf

    Provides translation between spoken and manual (sign language) communication: Translates spoken material into sign language for understanding of deaf. Interprets sign language of deaf into oral or written language for hearing individuals or others not conversant in sign language. May translate television news and other broadcasts for deaf viewers.
GOE: 01.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 5 DLU: 77

137.267-018 TRANSLATOR (profess. & kin.)

    Translates documents and other material from one language to another: Reads material and rewrites material in specified language or languages, following established rules pertaining to factors, such as word meanings, sentence structure, grammar, punctuation, and mechanics. May specialize in particular type of material, such as news, legal documents, or scientific reports and be designated accordingly. May be identified according to language translated. May represent or spell characters of another alphabet and be designated Transliterator (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 11.08.04 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M3 L6 SVP: 7 DLU: 77


    This group includes occupations, not elsewhere classified, concerned with writing.

139.087-010 CROSSWORD-PUZZLE MAKER (print. & pub.)

    Devises and creates crossword puzzles: Draws form setting up numbered blank squares for insertion of words and black squares to complete design. Fits words, whose spelling coincides vertically and horizontally, into blank areas and composes short definitions numbered correspondingly with matching series of blank squares. Sets up filled puzzle as key to solution. May originate puzzles for specific purposes, such as advertisements or holiday specialities.
GOE: 01.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

139.167-010 PROGRAM COORDINATOR (amuse. & rec.)

    Coordinates activities of amusement park educational department to present educational scripts during animal performances: Reviews educational materials to gather information for scripts. Confers with animal trainer to verify format of performance, and writes script to coincide with performance, or reviews scripts prepared by department researchers for suggested changes in format. Prepares brochures containing information, such as time of performances, theme of performances, and map of park facilities. Reads reservation log to determine information, such as name of visiting groups, size of groups, and time of arrival. Greets visitors, passes out brochures, answers questions, and escorts visitors to site of performance. May introduce trainer to audience and present memorized script during performance over speaker system and be designated Narrator (amuse. & rec.).
GOE: 01.03.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M2 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 86


    This division includes occupations concerned with integrating personal expression, knowledge of subject matter, and art concepts, techniques, and processes to develop ideas and create environments, products, and art works which elicit an emotional or esthetic response. Occupations concerned with teaching are included in Groups 091, 092, and 097. Occupations in performing arts are included in Groups 150, 151, and 152. Occupations in art museums are included in Group 102.


    This group includes occupations concerned with designing and executing artwork to promote public consumption of materials, products, or services; influence others in their opinions of individuals or organizations; or illustrate and adorn subject matter. Includes preparing animated cartoons.

141.031-010 ART DIRECTOR (profess. & kin.)

    Formulates concepts and supervises workers engaged in executing layout designs for art work and copy to be presented by visual communications media, such as magazines, books, newspapers, television, posters, and packaging: Reviews illustrative material and confers with client or individual responsible for presentation regarding budget, background information, objectives, presentation approaches, styles, techniques, and related production factors. Formulates basic layout design concept and conducts research to select and secure suitable illustrative material, or conceives and assigns production of material and detail to artists and photographers. Assigns and directs staff members to develop design concepts into art layouts and prepare layouts for printing. Reviews, approves, and presents final layouts to client or department head for approval. May perform duties of GRAPHIC DESIGNER (profess. & kin.) to design art layouts. May mark up, paste up, and finish layouts to prepare layouts for printing. May draw illustrations. May prepare detailed story board showing sequence and timing of story development when producing material for television. May specialize in particular field, media, or type of layout.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

141.051-010 COLOR EXPERT (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: color consultant; colorist; color specialist

    Advises clients relative to fashionable shades and color combinations in paper, paint, draperies, floor coverings, and other permanent installations for furnishing interiors of homes, offices, and other commercial establishments.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M2 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

141.061-010 CARTOONIST (print. & pub.)

    Draws cartoons for publications to amuse readers and interpret or illustrate news highlights, advertising, stories, or articles: Develops personal ideas or reads written material to develop ideas from context. Discusses ideas with editor or publisher's representative or sketches cartoon drawing and submits drawing for approval. Makes changes and corrections as necessary and finishes drawing. May develop and draw comic strips. May be designated according to type of cartoons drawn as Editorial Cartoonist (print. & pub.); Sports Cartoonist (print. & pub.).
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M2 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

141.061-014 FASHION ARTIST (retail trade)

    Draws or paints apparel and accessory illustrations for newspaper or related advertisements: Positions garment, accessory, or model to accentuate desired sales features. Renders drawing of garment or accessory, complementary articles, and background, using various art media and materials. May use models, props, and settings to accentuate subject materials. May draw lettering.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M2 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

141.061-018 GRAPHIC DESIGNER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: layout artist

    Designs art and copy layouts for material to be presented by visual communications media such as books, magazines, newspapers, television, and packaging: Studies illustrations and photographs to plan presentation of material, product, or service. Determines size and arrangement of illustrative material and copy, selects style and size of type, and arranges layout based upon available space, knowledge of layout principles, and esthetic design concepts. Draws sample of finished layout and presents sample to ART DIRECTOR (profess. & kin.) 141.031-010 for approval. Prepares notes and instructions for workers who assemble and prepare final layouts for printing. Reviews final layout and suggests improvements as needed. May prepare illustrations or rough sketches of material according to instructions of client or supervisor. May prepare series of drawings to illustrate sequence and timing of story development for television production. May mark up, paste, and assemble final layouts to prepare layouts for printer. May specialize in particular field, medium, or type of layout. May produce still and animated graphic formats for on-air and taped portions of television news broadcasts, using electronic video equipment. May photograph layouts, using camera, to make layout prints for supervisor or client. May develop negatives and prints, using negative and print developing equipment, tools and work aids to produce layout photographs for client or supervisor. May key information into computer equipment to create layouts for client or supervisor.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

141.061-022 ILLUSTRATOR (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: artist; commercial artist; graphic artist

    Draws or paints illustrations for use by various media to explain or adorn printed or spoken word: Studies layouts, sketches of proposed illustrations, and related materials to become familiar with assignment. Determines style, technique, and medium best suited to produce desired effects and conform with reproduction requirements, or receives specific instructions regarding these variables. Formulates concept and renders illustration and detail from models, sketches, memory, and imagination. Discusses illustration at various stages of completion and makes changes as necessary. May select type, draw lettering, lay out material, or perform related duties. May be identified according to specific style, technique, medium, subject material or combination of variables. May draw or paint graphic material and lettering to be used for title, background, screen advertising, commercial logo, and other visual layouts for motion picture production and television programming and be designated Title Artist (motion picture; radio-tv broad.).
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M2 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

141.061-026 ILLUSTRATOR, MEDICAL AND SCIENTIFIC (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: artist, scientific

    Creates illustrations, graphics, and three dimensional models to demonstrate medical or biological subjects, using variety of artistic techniques: Develops drawings, paintings, diagrams, and models of medical or biological subjects in fields such as anatomy, physiology, histology, pathology, or in surgical procedures, for use in publications, exhibits, consultations, research, and teaching activities. Completes illustrations in pen and ink, oil, monochromatic wash, watercolor, carbon dust, and mixed media. Constructs or advises in construction of models in plaster, wax, plastics, and other materials. Devises visual aids, such as films, video tapes, charts, and computer graphics, to assist in teaching and research programs.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 89

141.061-030 ILLUSTRATOR, SET (motion picture; radio-tv broad.) alternate titles: sketch maker

    Plans, develops, and prepares illustrations of scenes and backgrounds against which action is filmed for use in motion picture or television production: Reads script, reviews working drawings, conducts research and consults with ART DIRECTOR (motion picture; radio-tv broad.) to develop illustration ideas. Performs duties of ILLUSTRATOR (profess. & kin.) to render illustrations.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

141.061-034 POLICE ARTIST (government ser.) alternate titles: forensic artist

    Sketches likenesses of criminal suspects, according to descriptions of victims and witnesses, and prepares schematic drawings depicting scenes of crimes: Interviews crime victims and witnesses to obtain descriptive information concerning physical build, sex, nationality, facial features, and related characteristics of unidentified suspect. Prepares series of simple line drawings conforming to description of suspect and presents drawings to informant for selection of sketch that most resembles suspect. Questions informant to obtain additional descriptive information and draws and verifies details of features to improve resemblance of conception to recollection of informant. Measures distances and sketches layout of crime scene, or develops sketches from photographs and measurements taken at scene of crime by other police personnel to prepare schematic drawing of scene of crime.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 86

141.061-038 COMMERCIAL DESIGNER (profess. & kin.)

    Creates and designs graphic material for use as ornamentation, illustration, advertising, or cosmetic on manufactured materials and packaging: Receives assignment from customer or supervisor. Studies traditional, period, and contemporary design styles and motifs to obtain perspective. Reviews marketing trends and preferences of target and related markets. Integrates findings with personal interests, knowledge of design, and limitations presented by methods and materials. Creates, draws, modifies, and changes design to achieve desired effect. Confers with customer or supervisor regarding approval or desired changes to design. May be required to have specialized knowledge of material designed. May prepare original artwork and design model. May perform related duties, such as fabricating silk screens, drawing full size patterns, or cutting stencils. May work with specific items, such as signs, packaging, wallpaper, ceramics, tile, glassware, monograms, crests, emblems, or embroidery. See INDUSTRIAL DESIGNER (profess. & kin.) 142.061-026 for workers who design both product form and associated graphic materials.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 81

141.067-010 CREATIVE DIRECTOR (profess. & kin.)

    Develops basic presentation approaches and directs layout design and copy writing for promotional material, such as books, magazines, newspapers, television, posters, and packaging: Reviews materials and information presented by client and discusses various production factors to determine most desirable presentation concept. Confers with heads of art, copy writing, and production departments to discuss client requirements and scheduling, outline basic presentation concepts, and coordinate creative activities. Reviews and approves art and copy materials developed by staff and presents final layouts to client for approval.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

141.081-010 CARTOONIST, MOTION PICTURES (motion picture; radio-tv broad.) alternate titles: animated-cartoon artist; animator

    Draws animated cartoons for use in motion pictures or television: Renders series of sequential drawings of characters or other subject material which when photographed and projected at specific speed becomes animated. May label each section with designated colors when colors are used. May create and prepare sketches and model drawings of characters. May prepare successive drawings to portray wind, rain, fire, and similar effects and be designated Cartoonist, Special Effects (motion picture; radio-tv broad.). May develop color patterns and moods and paint background layouts to dramatize action for animated cartoon scenes and be designated Cartoon-Background Artist (motion picture; radio-tv broad.).
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M2 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

141.137-010 PRODUCTION MANAGER, ADVERTISING (profess. & kin.)

    Coordinates activities of design, illustration, photography, pasteup, and typography personnel to prepare advertisements for publication, and supervises workers engaged in pasting up advertising layouts in art department or studio: Determines arrangement of art work and photographs and selects style and size of type, considering factors such as size of advertisement, design, layout, sketches, and method or printing specified. Submits copy and typography instructions to printing firm or department for typesetting. Reviews proofs of printed copy for conformance to specifications. Assigns personnel to mount printed copy and illustration on final layouts, coordinating assignments with completion of art work to ensure that schedules are maintained. Writes instructions for final margin widths and type sizes, and submits layout for printing. Examines layout proofs for quality of printing and conformance to layout.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 86


    This group includes occupations concerned with designing or arranging objects and materials to achieve aesthetically pleasing and functional effect for apparel, interiors, and other commercial items.

142.031-014 MANAGER, DISPLAY (retail trade)

    Develops advertising displays for window or interior use and supervises and coordinates activities of workers engaged in laying out and assembling displays: Consults with advertising and sales officials to ascertain type of merchandise to be featured and time and place for each display. Develops layout and selects theme, colors, and props to be used. Oversees requisitioning and construction of decorative props from such materials as wood, plastics, paper, and glass. Plans lighting arrangement and selects coloring medium. May design store fixtures. May prepare sketches or floor plans of proposed displays. May develop merchandise displays at special exhibits, such as trade shows.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

142.051-010 DISPLAY DESIGNER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: display and banner designer; flag decorator and designer

    Designs displays, using paper, cloth, plastic, and other material to decorate streets, fairgrounds, buildings, and other places for celebrations, fairs, and special occasions: Confers with client regarding budget, theme, materials, colors, emblem styles, and related factors. Plans display and sketches rough design for client's approval. Selects stock decorations or directs construction according to design concepts. May construct decorations. ay direct and supervise workers who put up decorations. May design, draw, paint, or sketch backgrounds and fixtures made of wood, cardboard, paper, plaster, canvas, or other material for use in windows or interior displays and be designated Display Artist (profess. & kin.). May specialize in designing outdoor displays and be designated Display Designer, Outside (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

142.051-014 INTERIOR DESIGNER (profess. & kin.)

    Plans, designs, and furnishes interior environments of residential, commercial, and industrial buildings: Confers with client to determine architectural preferences, purpose and function of environment, budget, types of construction, equipment to be installed, and other factors which affect planning interior environments. Integrates findings with knowledge of interior design and formulates environmental plan to be practical, esthetic, and conducive to intended purposes, such as raising productivity, selling merchandise, or improving life style of occupants. Advises client on interior design factors, such as space planning, layout and utilization of furnishings and equipment, color schemes, and color coordination. Renders design ideas in form of paste ups, drawings, or illustrations, estimates material requirements and costs, and presents design to client for approval. Selects or designs and purchases furnishings, art works, and accessories. Subcontracts fabrication, installation, and arrangement of carpeting, fixtures, accessories, draperies, paint and wall coverings, art work, furniture, and related items. ay plan and design interior environments for boats, planes, buses, trains, and other enclosed spaces. May specialize in particular field, style, or phase of interior design. May specialize in decorative aspects of interior design and be designated Interior Decorator (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 85

142.061-010 BANK-NOTE DESIGNER (government ser.)

    Designs engraving plate for printing government securities, such as currency, stamps, and bonds, according to preliminary drawings and knowledge of engraving and printing techniques: Examines preliminary sketch of design from government agency desiring to issue new or modified design. Modifies design to conform with technical characteristics and limitations of reproduction, engraving, and printing equipment and to introduce design elements to discourage counterfeiting, using drawing instruments. Selects or suggests colored inks pleasing to eye, consistent with dignity of security and need to discourage counterfeiting. Confers with representatives of issuing agency to obtain design approval. May originate designs and design suggestions for securities.
GOE: 01.06.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

142.061-014 CLOTH DESIGNER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: cloth pattern maker; pattern designer; textile stylist

    Originates designs for fabrication of cloth, specifying weave pattern, color, and gauge of thread, to create new fabrics according to functional requirements and fashion preferences of consumers: Develops new ideas for fabrics, utilizing knowledge of textiles and fashion trends. Consults with technical and merchandising staff to obtain design ideas, and to estimate consumer acceptance of new types of fabrics. Sketches designs for patterns on graph paper, using water colors, brushes, pens, and rulers, or prepares written instructions to specify details, such as finish, color, and construction of fabric. Examines fabricated sample on loom and modifies design as required. May be designated according to product designed as Rug Designer (carpet & rug); Woven-Label Designer (narrow fabrics).
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

142.061-018 FASHION DESIGNER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: clothes designer

    Designs men's, women's, and children's clothing and accessories: Analyzes fashion trends and predictions, confers with sales and management executives, compares leather, fabrics, and other apparel materials, and integrates findings with personal interests, tastes, and knowledge of design to create new designs for clothing, shoes, handbags, and other accessories. Sketches rough and detailed drawings of apparel and writes specifications describing factors, such as color scheme, construction, and type of material to be used. Confers with and coordinates activities of workers who draw and cut patterns and construct garments to fabricate sample garment. Examines sample garment on and off model and modifies design as necessary to achieve desired effect. May draw pattern for article designed, using measuring and drawing instruments. May cut patterns. May construct sample, using sewing equipment. May arrange for showing of sample garments at sales meetings or fashion shows. ay attend fashion and fabric shows to observe new fashions and materials. May be identified according to specific group designed for, such as men, women, or children or areas of specialization, such as sportswear, coats, dresses, suits, lingerie, or swimwear. May design custom garments for clients and be designated Custom Garment Designer (retail trade). May conduct research and design authentic period, country, or social class costumes to be worn by film, television, concert, stage, and other performers and be designated Costume Designer (profess. & kin.). May design, fabricate, repair, and sell leather articles and be designated Leather Crafter (leather prod.). May design, copy, or modify clothing accessories and be designated according to article designed as Handbag Designer (leather prod.); Hat Designer (hat & cap); or Shoe Designer (boot & shoe).
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 78

142.061-022 FURNITURE DESIGNER (furniture)

    Designs furniture for manufacture, according to knowledge of design trends, offerings of competition, production costs, capability of production facilities, and characteristics of company's market: Confers with production, design, and sales personnel to obtain design suggestions and customer orders. Evaluates orders and proposals to determine feasibility of producing item. Sketches freehand design of article. Obtains approval from customer, design committee, or authorized company officials, and originates scale or full size drawing, using drawing instruments. Prepares itemized production requirements to produce item. Traces drawing on material for use in production of blueprints, using drawing instruments. Prepares or directs preparation of blueprints containing manufacturing specifications, such as dimensions, kind of wood, and upholstery fabrics to be used in manufacturing article. Attends staff conference with plant personnel to explain and resolve production requirements. May design and prepare detailed drawings of jigs, fixtures, forms, or tools required to be used in production. May plan modifications for completed furniture to conform to changes in design trends and increase customer acceptance. May design custom pieces or styles according to specific period or country. May build or oversee construction of models or prototypes. May design fixtures and equipment, such as counters and display cases, and be designated Fixture Designer (furniture).
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

142.061-026 INDUSTRIAL DESIGNER (profess. & kin.)

    Originates and develops ideas to design the form of manufactured products: Reads publications, attends showings, and consults with engineering, marketing, production, and sales representatives to establish design concepts. Evaluates design ideas based on factors such as appealing appearance, design-function relationships, serviceability, materials and methods engineering, application, budget, price, production costs, methods of production, market characteristics, and client specifications. Integrates findings and concepts and sketches design ideas. Presents design to client or design committee and discusses need for modification and change. May design product packaging and graphics for advertising. ay build simulated model, using hand and power tools and various materials. May prepare illustrations. May prepare or coordinate preparation of working drawings from sketches and design specifications. May design products for custom applications. May be required to have specialized product knowledge. Usually specializes in specific product or type of product including, but not limited to hardware, motor vehicle exteriors and interiors, scientific instruments, industrial equipment, luggage, jewelry, housewares, toys, or novelties and is designated accordingly.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

142.061-030 MEMORIAL DESIGNER (stonework)

    Designs and builds plaster models of monuments, statues, and memorials: Interviews customer to obtain information regarding size, style, and motif of memorial. Draws sketches and detailed plans of memorial according to customer's suggestions. Casts plaster block and carves design in block, using chisels, mallets, knives, and files to form model of memorial. Routes finished model and work order specifications to STONE CARVER (stonework). May draw detailed sketches or plans of family burial plots. May build models of cemeteries used as displays.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L3 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

142.061-034 ORNAMENTAL-METALWORK DESIGNER (struct. metal) alternate titles: art-metal designer

    Designs ornamental metal items, such as grills, lattice work, statuary, railings, displays, plaques, and light fixtures, and tooling for fabrication, utilizing knowledge of properties of metal, fabrication techniques, principles of design, and artistic talent: Analyzes sketches or observes and measures physical surroundings prior to installation. Selects designs from pattern book, alters or originates designs according to customer specifications. Draws detail sketches and prescribes fabricating techniques. Forges tools, such as peening hammers, bending jigs, and scroll forms, using forge, machine tools, welding equipment, and hand forming tools. May sculpture plastic patterns to form molding castings. Builds products from original design or working models [ORNAMENTAL-METAL WORKER (metal prod., nec)]. May prescribe colors for painted parts.
GOE: 01.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

142.061-038 SAFETY-CLOTHING-AND-EQUIPMENT DEVELOPER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: protective-clothing-and-equipment specialist

    Designs safety clothing and equipment to protect personnel against hazards, such as fire and toxic fumes: Consults with employers and technical personnel to determine safety problem involved. Designs clothing and equipment, such as suits, helmets, and gloves, incorporating such devices as mechanical breathing apparatus and communication systems to meet specific hazards. Drafts pattern of garment parts on pattern paper in full scale, using ruler, drawing instruments, and pattern blocks, and cuts material to make first pattern. Gives instructions to workers engaged in cutting material and assembling sample garment. May estimate cost of production.
GOE: 05.01.07 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

142.061-042 SET DECORATOR (motion picture; radio-tv broad.)

    Selects decorations and coordinates activities of workers who decorate sets for motion picture or television production: Reads script to determine decoration requirements. Selects furniture, draperies, pictures, lamps, and rugs for decorative quality and appearance on film. Gives directions to GRIP (motion picture; radio-tv broad.) in placing items on set. Examines dressed sets to ensure props and scenery do not interfere with movements of cast or view of camera.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M2 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

142.061-046 SET DESIGNER (motion picture; radio-tv broad.)

    Designs motion picture or television production sets, signs, props, or scenic effects, and prepares scale drawings for use in construction, modification, or alteration: Confers with ART DIRECTOR (motion picture; radio-tv broad.) 142.061-062 and reviews illustrations to determine set requirements and discuss preliminary design ideas. Integrates requirements and concepts to conceive set design. Prepares rough draft and scale working drawings of set [DRAFTER (profess. & kin.) Master Title]. Presents drawings for approval and makes changes and corrections as directed. May design miniature motion picture or television production sets used in filming backgrounds, titles, and special effects and be designated Miniature Set Designer (motion picture; radio-tv broad.). May purchase construction materials and ready made props to ensure availability for use by freelance workers. May schedule times television production sets and props are to be used, and coordinate setup and storage of television production sets and props.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 88

142.061-050 SET DESIGNER (amuse. & rec.) alternate titles: scenic designer; theatrical-scenic designer

    Designs sets for theatrical productions: Confers with play's director regarding interpretation and set requirements. Conducts research to determine appropriate architectural and furnishing styles. Integrates requirements, interpretation, research, design concepts, and practical considerations regarding factors, such as mobility, interchangeability, and budget to plan sets. Renders drawing or illustration of design concept, estimates costs, and presents drawing for approval. Prepares working drawings of floor plan, front elevation, scenery, and properties to be constructed. Prepares charts to indicate where items, such as curtains and borders are to be hung. Oversees building of sets, furniture, and properties. ay build scale models from cardboard, plaster, or sponge. May design stage lighting to achieve dramatic or decorative effects.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

142.061-054 STAINED GLASS ARTIST (profess. & kin.)

    Creates original stained glass designs and artwork, draws cartoons (full size working drawings), and prepares glass for fabrication into windows, art objects, and other decorative articles: Consults client regarding theme and subject to be portrayed. Studies style of building architecture and shape of windows to plan conforming design. Integrates knowledge of glass cutting, stresses, portraiture, symbolism, heraldry, ornamental styles, and related factors with functional requirements to conceptualize design idea. Renders illustration of design and detail, estimates costs, and presents to client for approval. Prepares full size, detailed color cartoon indicating size, shape, shading, and detail of individual glass pieces. Transfers cartoon into pattern, selects colored glass, and cuts glass according to pattern. Assembles cut pieces into design pattern and waxes pieces in place to secure glass for painting. Paints artwork and detail on glass, using artist's brushes and ground glass mixed with enamel, and copper or iron oxide. Stains back of glass pieces prior to or after firing. Fires glass to fuse and stabilize colors. May assemble, lead, and solder finished glass to fabricate designed article. May install finished window in window frame or door. May restore damaged or broken stained glass objects. May only design, paint, or draw cartoons.
GOE: 01.02.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

142.061-058 EXHIBIT DESIGNER (museums)

    Plans, designs, and oversees construction and installation of permanent and temporary exhibits and displays: Confers with administrative, curatorial, and exhibit staff members to determine theme, content, interpretative or informational purpose, and planned location of exhibit, to discuss budget, promotion, and time limitations, and to plan production schedule for fabrication and installation of exhibit components. Prepares preliminary drawings of proposed exhibit, including detailed construction, layout, and special effect diagrams and material specifications, for final drawing rendition by other personnel, basing design and specifications on knowledge of artistic and technical concepts, principles, and techniques. Submits plan for approval, and adapts plan as needed to serve intended purpose or to conform to budget or fabrication restrictions. Oversees preparation of artwork and construction of exhibit components to ensure intended interpretation of concepts and conformance to structural and material specifications. Arranges for acquisition of specimens or graphics or building of exhibit structures by outside contractors as needed to complete exhibit. Inspects installed exhibit for conformance to specifications and satisfactory operation of special effects components. Oversees placement of collection objects or informational materials in exhibit framework.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 86

142.061-062 ART DIRECTOR (motion picture; radio-tv broad.)

    Formulates design concepts, selects locations and settings, and directs and coordinates set design, construction, and erection activities to produce sets for motion picture and television productions: Reads script and confers with heads of production and direction to establish budget, schedules, and determine setting requirement. Conducts research and consults experts to establish architectural styles which accurately depict given periods and locations. Conducts search for suitable locations and constructed sets. Assigns assistants and staff members to complete design ideas and prepare sketches, illustrations, and detailed drawings of sets. Directs design and production of graphics or animation to produce graphics or animation for on-air programs. Estimates construction costs and presents plans and estimates for approval. Directs and coordinates set construction, erection, and decoration activities to ensure that they conform to design, budget, and schedule requirements. Reviews budget and expenditures reports to monitor costs. May make rough drawings of design concepts. May formulate design concepts for costumes, makeup, photographic effects, titles, and related production items.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 89

142.081-010 FLORAL DESIGNER (retail trade) alternate titles: florist

    Designs and fashions live, cut, dried, and artificial floral and foliar arrangements for events, such as holidays, anniversaries, weddings, balls, and funerals: Confers with client regarding price and type of arrangement desired. Plans arrangement according to client's requirements and costs, utilizing knowledge of design and properties of materials, or selects appropriate standard design pattern. Selects flora and foliage necessary for arrangement. Trims material and arranges bouquets, sprays, wreaths, dish gardens, terrariums, and other items, using wire, pins, floral tape, foam, trimmers, cutters, shapers, and other materials and tools. May decorate buildings, halls, churches, or other facilities where events are planned. May pack and wrap completed arrangements. May estimate costs and price arrangements. May conduct classes or demonstrations. May instruct and direct other workers. ay arrange according to standard designs or under instruction of designer and be designated Floral Arranger (retail trade).
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

142.081-014 FUR DESIGNER (fur goods)

    Designs or redesigns custom and commercial fur garments: Analyzes fashion trends and predictions and confers with client or sales and management executives regarding design ideas. Sketches design on paper to make or restyle garment, utilizing knowledge of various kinds of fur, techniques for handling fur, and fashion trends. Obtains customer measurements, using tape measure. Draws pattern on paper according to customer measurements and cuts out pattern. Lays pattern on canvas and cuts out material, using scissors. Sews together sections of canvas to form mockup of garment. Fits mockup on customer and makes necessary alterations. Directs workers engaged in cutting and sewing garment. Examines completed garments for defects. May estimate cost of restyling or of making new garment.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M2 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

142.081-018 PACKAGE DESIGNER (profess. & kin.)

    Designs containers for products, such as foods, beverages, toiletries, cigarettes, and medicines: Confers with representatives of engineering, marketing, management, and other departments to determine packaging requirements and type of product market. Sketches design of container for specific product, considering factors, such as convenience in handling and storing, distinctiveness for identification by consumer, and simplicity to minimize production costs. Renders design, including exterior markings and labels, using paints and brushes. Typically fabricates model in paper, wood, glass, plastic, or metal, depending on material to be used in package. Makes changes or modifications required by approving authority.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

142.281-010 COPYIST (garment)

    Gathers information on current trends in garment styling and sketches representations of competitors' garments, such as dresses, coats, and trousers: Attends garment fashion shows, concerts, and other public activities and reviews garment magazines and manuals to obtain information concerning style trends, consumer preferences, and price ranges. Sketches garments in pencil, crayon, or other medium to illustrate such details as garment style and type of fabric. May design original garments, incorporating features of observed garments.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M2 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 77


    This group includes occupations concerned with photographing people, events, fictionalized scenes, materials, and products with still or motion-picture cameras. Includes conceiving artistic photographic effects and arranging and preparing subject matter.

143.062-010 DIRECTOR OF PHOTOGRAPHY (motion picture; radio-tv broad.) alternate titles: camera operator, first; camera operator, head; cinematographer

    Plans, directs, and coordinates motion picture filming: Confers with DIRECTOR, MOTION PICTURE (motion picture) regarding interpretation of scene and desired effects. Observes set or location and reviews drawings and other information relating to natural or artificial conditions to determine filming and lighting requirements. Reads charts and computes ratios to determine required lighting, film, shutter angles, filter factors, camera distance, depth of field and focus, angles of view, and other variables to produce desired effects. Confers with ELECTRICIAN, CHIEF (motion picture) to establish lighting requirements. Selects cameras, accessories, equipment, and film stock, utilizing knowledge of filming techniques, filming requirements, and computations. Instructs camera operators regarding camera setup, angles, distances, movement, and other variables and signals cues for starting and stopping filming. Surveys set or location for potential problems, observes effects of lighting, measures lighting levels, and coordinates necessary changes prior to filming. Views film after processing and makes adjustments, as necessary, to achieve desired effects. May direct television productions which utilize electronic cameras. May specialize in special effects and be designated Director Of Photography, Special Effects (motion picture; radio-tv broad.).
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

143.062-014 PHOTOGRAPHER, AERIAL (profess. & kin.)

    Photographs segments of earth and other subject material from aircraft to produce pictures used in surveying, mapping, volumetric surveying, or related purposes, such as recording effects of pollution or natural disasters, determining condition of crops and timberland, and planning cities or other large scale projects: Sets up and mounts camera in aircraft. Confers with pilot regarding plotted course, speed, altitude, and area to be photographed. Communicates with pilot during flight to ensure adherence to flight plan or make adjustments to equipment to compensate for changes. Calculates number of exposures and time lapse between them, using standard formulas to determine requirements for adequate area coverage. Adjusts camera shutter speed, lens aperture opening, and focus. Adjusts automatic exposure interval on camera equipped with time lapse control or times intervals with stopwatch and manually trips shutter. Maintains camera in level position and oriented to flight path when making photographs for mapping or surveying. May match individual photographs to form terrain map of photographed area.
GOE: 01.06.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L3 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

143.062-018 PHOTOGRAPHER, APPRENTICE (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: commercial photographer apprentice; portrait photographer apprentice

    Performs duties as described under APPRENTICE (any industry) Master Title.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

143.062-022 CAMERA OPERATOR (motion picture; radio-tv broad.)

    Photographs various subjects and subject material, using motion picture, television broadcasting, or video recording cameras and equipment, utilizing knowledge of motion picture, television broadcasting, or video recording techniques, limitations, and advantages to photograph scenes: Resolves problems presented by exposure control, subject and camera movement, changes in subject distance during filming, and related variables. May receive directives from PRODUCER (radio-tv broad.) 159.117-010 or DIRECTOR, TELEVISION (radio-tv broad.) 159.067-014 over headset. May set up and operate dollies, cranes, camera mounting heads, power zooms, and related motion picture, television broadcasting, or video recording equipment and accessories. May maintain or repair equipment and accessories. May specialize in particular subject material or field, such as medical, scientific, news, or commercial. May photograph action on motion picture or television sets and locations, using shoulder held camera, and be designated Camera Operator, Second (motion picture; radio-tv broad.) or photograph special effects and be designated Camera Operator, Special Effects (motion picture; radio-tv broad.). May specialize in operation of television cameras and be designated Camera Operator, Television (radio-tv broad.). May specialize in operation of motion picture cameras and be designated Photographer, Motion Picture (motion picture).
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 88

143.062-026 PHOTOGRAPHER, SCIENTIFIC (profess. & kin.)

    Photographs variety of subject material to illustrate or record scientific data or phenomena, utilizing knowledge of scientific procedures and photographic technology and techniques: Plans methods and procedures for photographing subject material and setup of equipment required, such as microscopes, telescopes, infrared or ultraviolet lighting, and x ray. Sets up and positions camera for photographing material or subject. Trips shutter to expose film. May prepare microscope slides. May make photographic copies of fragile documents and other material. May engage in research to develop new photographic procedures, methods, and materials. May process film and photographic paper to produce transparencies, prints, slides, and motion picture film. Usually specializes in specific field, such as chemistry, biology, medicine, metallurgy, physiology, astronomy, aerodynamics, ballistics, or engineering and is designated accordingly.
GOE: 02.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

143.062-030 PHOTOGRAPHER, STILL (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: commercial photographer

    Photographs subjects, using still cameras, color or black-and-white film, and variety of photographic accessories: Selects and assembles equipment according to subject material, anticipated conditions, and knowledge of function and limitations of various types of cameras, lenses, films, and accessories. Views subject and setting and plans composition, camera position, and camera angle to produce desired effect. Arranges subject material, poses subject, or maneuvers into position to take candid photo. Estimates or measures light level, using light meter or creates artificial lighting with flash units, lights, and lighting equipment. Adjusts lens aperture and shutter speed based on combination of factors, such as lighting, depth of field, subject motion, and film speed. Determines subject-to-lens distance, using tape measure, range finder, ground glass, or reflex viewing system to adjust focus. Positions camera and trips shutter to expose film. May calculate variables, such as exposure time, exposure interval, filter effect, and color temperature using tables, standard formulas, and mechanical or electronic measuring instruments. May make adjustments to camera, lens, or equipment to compensate for factors, such as distorted perspective and parallax. May design, build, arrange, or secure properties and settings to be used as background for subject material. ay direct activities of other workers. May mix chemicals, process film and photographic paper, and make contact and enlarged prints. May spot and retouch prints and negatives. May conceive and plan photographic sequence for effective presentation. May specialize in particular type of photography, such as illustrative, fashion, architectural, or portrait. May be required to have detailed knowledge of use and characteristics of various types of film, including specialty films, such as infrared.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 88

143.062-034 PHOTOJOURNALIST (print. & pub.; radio-tv broad.) alternate titles: photographer, news

    Photographs newsworthy events, locations, people, or other illustrative or educational material for use in publications or telecasts, using still cameras: Travels to assigned location and takes pictures. Develops negatives and prints film. Submits negatives and pictures to editorial personnel. Usually specializes in one phase of photography, as news, sports, special features, or as freelance photographer.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M2 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

143.260-010 OPTICAL-EFFECTS-CAMERA OPERATOR (motion picture)

    Sets up and operates optical printers and related equipment to produce fades, dissolves, superimpositions, and other optical effects required in motion pictures, applying knowledge of optical effects printing and photography: Reads work order and count sheet to ascertain optical effects specifications and location of subject material on original photography film. Analyzes specifications to determine work procedures, sequence of operations, and machine setup, using knowledge of optical effects techniques and procedures. Loads camera of optical effects printer with magazine of unexposed film stock. Mounts original photography film in transport and masking mechanism of optical-printer projector and moves film into designated position for optical effect, using counter and film markings to determine placement. Adjusts camera position, lens position, mask opening, lens aperture, focus, shutter angle, film transport speed, and related controls, using precision measuring instruments and knowledge of optical effects techniques to determine settings. Selects designated color and neutral density filters and mounts in filter holder to control light and intensity. Sets controls in automatic or manual mode, moves control to start camera, and observes printer operation and footage counter during filming. Adjusts controls during filming operation when operating in manual mode, and stops camera when designated counter reading is observed. Moves controls to rewind camera film and original photography film and repeats select portions or entire operation number of times necessary to produce designated effect. Sets up and operates animation and matte cameras and related equipment to photograph artwork, such as titles and painted mattes. Sets up and operates single pass optical printers when enlarging or reducing film or performing related operations. Sets up and operates subtitle camera and related equipment to photograph film subtitles. Examines frames of film exposed with different combinations of color filters (wedges) to select optimum color balance based on experience and judgment.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L3 SVP: 7 DLU: 86

143.362-010 BIOLOGICAL PHOTOGRAPHER (profess. & kin.)

    Photographs medical, biological, and allied phenomena to provide illustrations for scientific publications, records, and research and teaching activities: akes still and motion picture reproductions of patients, anatomical structures, gross and microscopic specimens, plant and animal tissues, and physiological and pathological processes. akes copies of x rays and similar materials, utilizing photographic techniques, such as time-lapse and ultraspeed pictures, and ultraviolet or infrared light to produce visible record of normally invisible phenomena. Processes photosensitive materials to make transparencies, lantern slides, photomontages, and color prints. Engages in research activities related to biological photography and presentation of scientific data. May design special equipment and processing formulas. May specialize in a particular technique, such as cinematography, color photography, or photomicrography. May specialize in a particular field, such as medicine, and be designated Medical Photographer (medical ser.).
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

143.362-014 OPHTHALMIC PHOTOGRAPHER (medical ser.)

    Photographs medical phenomena of eye to document diseases, surgeries, treatments, and congenital problems, to aid OPHTHALMOLOGIST (medical ser.) 070.101-058 in diagnosis and treatment of eye disorders: Focuses specialized microscope and cameras to take two- and three-dimensional photographs of external, anterior, and posterior segments of eye. Monitors patient's gaze through lens of microscope and camera to ensure that patient complies with instructions to obtain desired results. Selects filters to modify light. Injects contrast medium into vein of patient and photographs fluorescent dye as it flows through retina or iris vessels to obtain angiogram of eye. Develops exposed film, and mounts and labels slides for inclusion on patient's medical chart. May photograph eye to document research studies.
GOE: 02.04.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 89

143.382-010 CAMERA OPERATOR, ANIMATION (motion picture)

    Operates special camera to make animated cartoon motion picture films: Places background drawing on horizontal easel over which camera is suspended. Positions transparent celluloid slide on which animation has been drawn over background and covers it with glass plate. Exposes frame of motion picture film and repeats process, using next drawing in animation sequence. Regulates exposure and aperture to obtain special effects, such as fade out or fade-ins.
GOE: 05.10.05 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

143.382-014 PHOTOGRAPHER, FINISH (amuse. & rec.) alternate titles: photo-finish photographer

    Operates photographic equipment to photograph finish of horse race: Loads film into camera and advances to picture taking position. Sights camera on finish line and adjusts exposure controls and focus. Observes race and starts camera as horses approach finish line. Stops camera after last horse has crossed finish line. Removes exposed film from camera and places it into film-developing machine that automatically develops film. Prints and enlarges photographs used to determine winner of race when finish is close.
GOE: 05.10.05 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M2 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

143.457-010 PHOTOGRAPHER (amuse. & rec.)

    Persuades nightclub and restaurant patrons to pose for pictures and operates camera to photograph them: Carries camera and flashbulb equipment to tables and solicits customers' patronage. Adjusts camera and photographs customers. Takes exposed film to darkroom on premises for immediate processing by DEVELOPER (photofinishing). Returns to customers with finished photographs or proofs and writes orders for additional prints selected. Receives payment for photographs. May use camera which produces instant picture.
GOE: 08.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R3 M1 L3 SVP: 3 DLU: 77


    This group includes occupations concerned with creating fine arts works whose primary purpose is to be viewed for esthetic content. The major factor distinguishing occupations in this group from those in commercial art is the retention of responsibility for selection of theme, subject matter, medium, and manner of execution.

144.061-010 PAINTER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: artist

    Paints variety of original subject material, such as landscapes, portraits, still lifes, and abstracts, using watercolors, oils, acrylics, tempera, or other paint medium: Conceives and develops ideas for painting, based on assignment, personality, interests, and knowledge of painting methods and techniques. Applies color medium to canvas or other surface, using brushes, pallet knives, and various other artist's tools and equipment. Integrates and develops visual elements, such as line, space, mass, color, and perspective to produce desired effect. May make preliminary sketch of painting. May coat finished painting with varnish or other preservative. May paint in particular style, such as realism, impressionism, naturalism, or regionalism. May specialize in particular media, or subject material. May teach painting [TEACHER, ART (education)]. May work in other art mediums, such as etching, drawing, or sculpture. May be identified according to specialization, style, media, technique, or subject matter. May paint scenic backgrounds, murals, portraiture, and other items for use on motion picture and television production sets and be designated Scenic Artist (motion picture; radio-tv broad.).
GOE: 01.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M2 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

144.061-014 PRINTMAKER (profess. & kin.)

    Conceives and develops drawings and other art work and prepares printmaking medium used to print fine arts graphics: Determines printmaking method, such as recessed (intaglio), raised (relief), or flat (lithograph), which will be most effective to reproduce conceived art work. Renders art work on stone, metal, wood, linoleum, or other material, using various tools, procedures, and processes to etch, engrave, carve, paint, draw, or perform some similar operation, utilizing knowledge of art and printing to prepare image capable of being transferred. Inks surface of medium and transfers image to paper, using hand or machine press. Examines proofs and makes corrections to art work, if necessary. Approves and signs final proof. May prepare preliminary sketches. May use photographic or silk screen process to produce image. May use any suitable textured surface for printmaking medium. May use more than one process on single graphic. May print entire edition or instruct other workers to print it. May teach printmaking.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M2 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

144.061-018 SCULPTOR (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: statue maker

    Designs and constructs three-dimensional art works, utilizing any combination of mediums, methods, and techniques: Carves objects from stone, concrete, plaster, wood, or other material, using abrasives, chisels, gouges, mallets, and other handtools and power tools. Models plastic substance, such as clay or wax, using fingers and small handtools to form objects which may be cast in bronze or concrete, or fired to harden objects. Constructs artistic forms from metal or stone, using metalworking, welding, or masonry tools and equipment. Cuts, bends, laminates, arranges, and fastens individual or mixed raw and manufactured materials and products to form art works. Usually works under contract or commission. May teach sculpturing [TEACHER, ART (education)]. May specialize in one technique or medium and be identified accordingly.
GOE: 01.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77


    This group includes occupations, not elsewhere classified, concerned with art.

149.021-010 TEACHER, ART (education) alternate titles: art instructor

    Instructs pupils in art, such as painting, sketching, designing, and sculpturing: Prepares lesson plans and establishes course goals. Selects books and art supplies for courses. Demonstrates method and procedure to pupils. Observes and evaluates pupils' work to determine student progress or to make suggestions for improvement. Confers with student, parent, and counselor to resolve student problem. Accompanies students on field trips to museums or art galleries. May specialize in teaching one or more areas of art, such as illustration, art history, or commercial art. May direct planning and supervision of student contests and arranging of art exhibits. May teach students with disabilities. May be required to have certification from state. May be designated according to subject taught as Instructor, Illustration (education); Instructor, Industrial Design (education).
GOE: 01.02.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 80

149.031-010 SUPERVISOR, SCENIC ARTS (motion picture; radio-tv broad.)

    Creates layouts of scenery and backdrops for motion picture and television sets according to instructions, and supervises and coordinates activities of artists who paint them: Confers with ART DIRECTOR (motion picture; radio-tv broad.) 142.061-062 regarding details of background against which action is to be photographed. Directs preparation of sketches and designs or assigns work based on illustrations received from ART DIRECTOR (motion picture; radio-tv broad.). Computes amount of surface to be covered by specific color scheme in proportion to its application in scene. Requisitions paint and materials. Estimates costs of paints and other materials, using price lists and records of previous productions, to prepare budget. Estimates number of workers and time required to complete project. May prepare sketches or work drawings, including coloring details of scenery.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

149.041-010 QUICK SKETCH ARTIST (amuse. & rec.)

    Sketches likeness of customers: Poses subject to accentuate most pleasing features and draws likeness, using pencil, charcoal, pastels, or other medium. May draw sketch from photograph. May only draw exaggerated likenesses and be designated Caricaturist (amuse. & rec.). May be identified according to medium worked in.
GOE: 01.02.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M1 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

149.051-010 SILHOUETTE ARTIST (amuse. & rec.)

    Cuts silhouettes of customers: Poses subject to present pleasing profile and cuts freehand outline of profile from paper (silhouette). Glues silhouette on paper of contrasting color or mounts silhouette in frame or folder. May draw profile prior to cutting it. May cut profile from photograph. May use strong lights adjusted to cast subject's shadow on backdrop as aid in viewing subject's profile.
GOE: 01.02.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M1 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

149.061-010 AUDIOVISUAL PRODUCTION SPECIALIST (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: instructional technology specialist

    Plans and produces audio, visual, and audiovisual material for communication and learning: Develops production ideas based on assignment or generates own ideas based on objectives and personal interest. Conducts research or utilizes knowledge and training to determine format, approach, content, level, and medium which will be most effective, meet objectives, and remain within budget. Plans and develops, or directs assistants to develop, preproduction ideas into outlines, scripts, continuity, story boards, and graphics. Executes, or directs assistants to execute, rough and finished graphics and graphic designs. Locates and secures settings, properties, effects, and other production necessities. Directs and coordinates activities of assistants and other personnel during production. May review, evaluate, and direct modifications to material produced independently by other personnel. May set up, adjust, and operate equipment, such as cameras, sound mixers, and recorders during production. May perform narration or present announcements. May construct and place in position properties, sets, lighting equipment, and other equipment. May develop manuals, texts, workbooks, or related materials for use in conjunction with production materials. May conduct training sessions on selection, use, and design of audiovisual materials, and operation of presentation equipment. ay perform duties listed under DIRECTOR, INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL (education) 099.167-018.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 80

149.261-010 EXHIBIT ARTIST (museums)

    Produces artwork for use in permanent or temporary exhibit settings of museum, zoo, or similar establishment, performing any combination of following duties to prepare exhibit setting and accessories for installation: Confers with professional museum personnel to discuss objectives of exhibits and type of artwork needed. Makes scale drawing of exhibit design, indicating size, position, and general outlines of artwork needed for use of installation and other fabrication personnel. Paints scenic, panoramic, or abstract composition on canvas, board, burlap, or other material to be used as background or component of exhibit, following layout prepared by designer. Paints or stencils exhibit titles and legends on boards, or cuts letters from plastic or plywood to form title and legend copy, and mounts letters on panel or board, using adhesives or handtools. Photographs persons, artifacts, scenes, plants, or other objects, and develops negatives to obtain prints to be used in exhibits. Enlarges, intensifies, or otherwise modifies prints, according to exhibit design specifications. Fashions exhibit accessories, such as human figures, tree parts, or relief maps, from clay, plastic, wood, fiberglass, papier mache, or other materials, using hands, handtools, or molding equipment to cut, carve, scrape, mold, or otherwise shape material to specified dimensions. Brushes or sprays protective or decorative finish on completed background panels, informational legends, and exhibit accessories. Maintains files of photographs, paintings, and accessories for use in exhibits.
GOE: 01.02.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 86

149.281-010 FURNITURE REPRODUCER (furniture)

    Prepares working drawings and templates of antique or custom furniture to facilitate reproduction: Draws sketches of piece, freehand or with drawing instruments. Measures piece with rule and calipers and notes dimensions on drawing. Makes detailed drawing of joints, carvings, and milled sections for shop use [DRAFTER (profess. & kin.)]. Traces or draws outlines of parts on plywood or cardboard and cuts out part along outline to make template. Marks templates to indicate name of part, type of construction, variety of wood, and finish. May make drawings from pictures when models are not available.
GOE: 05.03.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77


    This division includes occupations concerned with amusing, diverting, or informing others by such means as sound or physical movement. Includes teaching these skills (except occupations in primary, secondary, and vocational schools which are included in Groups 091, 092, and 097).


    This group includes occupations concerned with interpreting roles to audiences in dramatic productions or readings.

150.027-010 DRAMATIC COACH (profess. & kin.)

    Coaches performers in acting techniques: Conducts reading to evaluate performer's acting ability. Adapts training methods to improve and develop performer's competence. Coaches performers in camera or stage techniques, script analysis, voice projection, and character interpretation, to prepare them for stage, motion picture, or television production. Advises clients regarding wardrobe, grooming, and audition methods, to prepare them for professional contacts. May be designated according to area of specialization as Screen Coach (profess. & kin.); Theater Coach (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 01.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

150.027-014 TEACHER, DRAMA (education) alternate titles: instructor, dramatic arts; teacher, dramatics; teacher, theater arts

    Teaches acting principles and techniques to individuals or groups: Conducts readings to evaluate student's talent. Adapts course of study and training methods to meet student's need and ability. Teaches enunciation, diction, voice development, and dialects, using voice exercises, speech drills, explanation, lectures, and improvisation. Discusses and demonstrates vocal and body expression to teach acting styles, character development, and personality projection. Produces and directs plays for school and public performances. Auditions students to select cast and assign parts. Rehearses and drills students to ensure they master parts. Assigns nonperforming students to backstage production tasks, such as constructing, painting, moving scenery, operating stage light, and sound equipment. May direct activities of students involved in constructing, painting, and lighting scenery. May teach elements of stagecraft, stage makeup, costume craft, play writing, or play direction.
GOE: 01.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

150.047-010 ACTOR (amuse. & rec.)

    Portrays role in dramatic production to interpret character or present characterization to audience: Rehearses part to learn lines and cues as directed. Interprets serious or comic role by speech, gesture, and body movement to entertain or inform audience for stage, motion picture, television, radio, or other media production. May write or adapt own material. May dance and sing. May direct self and others in production [DIRECTOR, MOTION PICTURE (motion picture); DIRECTOR, STAGE (amuse. & rec.)]. May read from script or book, utilizing minimum number of stage properties and relying mainly on changes of voice and inflection to hold audience's attention and be designated Dramatic Reader (amuse. & rec.). May be designated according to gender of worker or type of role portrayed as Actress (amuse. & rec.); Character Actor (amuse. & rec.); Character Actress (amuse. & rec.); Ingenue (amuse. & rec.); Juvenile (amuse. & rec.).
GOE: 01.03.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

150.067-010 DIRECTOR, STAGE (amuse. & rec.)

    Interprets script, directs technicians, and conducts rehearsals to create stage presentation: Confers with PLAYWRIGHT (profess. & kin.) and PRODUCER (amuse. & rec.) to discuss script changes. Confers with MANAGER, STAGE (amuse. & rec.) to coordinate production plans. Rehearses cast in individual roles to elicit best possible performance. Suggests changes, such as voice and movement, to develop performance based on script interpretation and using knowledge of acting techniques. Approves scenic and costume designs, sound, special effects, and choreography. May select cast. May select SET DESIGNER (amuse. & rec.).
GOE: 01.03.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

150.147-010 NARRATOR (motion picture) alternate titles: motion-picture commentator

    Makes explanatory comments to accompany action parts of motion picture: Reads from script and speaks into microphone as film is being projected, timing comments to fit action portrayed. May write script.
GOE: 01.03.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 5 DLU: 77


    This group includes occupations concerned with the interpretation of ideas through rhythmic expression.

151.027-010 CHOREOGRAPHER (amuse. & rec.) alternate titles: director, dance

    Creates and teaches original dances for ballet, musical, or revue to be performed for stage, television, motion picture, or nightclub production: Composes dance designed to suggest story, interpret emotion, or enliven show, coordinating dance with music. Instructs performers at rehearsals to achieve desired effect. May audition performers for specific parts. May direct and stage presentation.
GOE: 01.05.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

151.027-014 INSTRUCTOR, DANCING (education) alternate titles: professor, dance; teacher, dancing

    Instructs pupils in ballet, ballroom, tap, and other forms of dancing: Observes students to determine physical and artistic qualifications and limitations and plans programs to meet students' needs and aspirations. Explains and demonstrates techniques and methods of regulating movements of body to musical or rhythmic accompaniment. Drills pupils in execution of dance steps. May teach history of dance. May teach theory and practice of dance notation. May choreograph and direct dance performance. May be designated according to style of dancing taught as Instructor, Ballroom Dancing (education); Instructor, Tap Dancing (education); Teacher, Ballet (education). May be employed by ballet company to train corps de ballet and be designated Ballet Master/Mistress (education).
GOE: 01.05.01 STRENGTH: H GED: R5 M2 L5 SVP: 6 DLU: 80

151.047-010 DANCER (amuse. & rec.)

    Dances alone, with partner, or in group to entertain audience: Performs classical, modern, or acrobatic dances, coordinating body movements to musical accompaniment. Rehearses dance movements developed by CHOREOGRAPHER (amuse. & rec.). May choreograph own dance. May sing and provide other forms of entertainment. May specialize in particular style of dancing and be designated according to specialty as Acrobatic Dancer (amuse. & rec.); Ballet Dancer (amuse. & rec.); Ballroom Dancer (amuse. & rec.); Belly Dancer (amuse. & rec.); Chorus Dancer (amuse. & rec.); Interpretative Dancer (amuse. & rec.); Strip-Tease Dancer (amuse. & rec.); Tap Dancer (amuse. & rec.).
GOE: 01.05.02 STRENGTH: H GED: R4 M2 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77


    This group includes occupations concerned with the composition, arrangement, rendition, or direction of instrumental or vocal music.

152.021-010 TEACHER, MUSIC (education) alternate titles: music instructor

    Teaches individuals or groups instrumental or vocal music in public or private school: Plans daily classroom work based on teaching outline prepared for course of study to meet curriculum requirements. Evaluates students' interests, aptitudes, temperament, and individual characteristics to determine suitable instrument for beginner. Sings or plays instrument to demonstrate musical scales, tones, and rhythm. Instructs students in music theory, harmony, score and sight reading, composition, music appreciation, and provides individual or group vocal and instrumental lessons using technical knowledge, aesthetic appreciation, and prescribed teaching techniques. Conducts group rehearsals and instructs and coaches members in their individual parts, in fundamentals of musicianship, and ensemble performance. Critiques performance to identify errors and reinforce correct techniques. Leads orchestra and choral groups in regular and special performances for school program, community activities, concerts, and festivals. Meets with parents of student to resolve student problem. May accompany students on field trips to musical performances. May order, store, and inventory musical instruments, music, and supplies. May teach students with disabilities. May be required to have certification from state. May be designated Teacher, Instrumental (education); Teacher, Vocal (education).
GOE: 01.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 81

152.041-010 MUSICIAN, INSTRUMENTAL (amuse. & rec.)

    Plays musical instrument as soloist or as member of musical group, such as orchestra or band, to entertain audience: Studies and rehearses music to learn and interpret score. Plays from memory or by following score. May transpose music to play in alternate key. May improvise. May compose. May play instrument to signal activity, such as flag raising, post time, or arrival of dignitaries at sporting or other events. May be designated according to instrument played as Calliope Player (amuse. & rec.); Drummer (amuse. & rec.); Harpist (amuse. & rec.); Organist (amuse. & rec.); Pianist (amuse. & rec.); Violinist (amuse. & rec.). May accompany soloist or another MUSICIAN, INSTRUMENTAL (amuse. & rec.) and be designated Accompanist (amuse. & rec.).
GOE: 01.04.04 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L3 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

152.047-010 CHORAL DIRECTOR (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: choir leader;

    Conducts vocal music groups, such as choirs and glee clubs: Auditions and selects members of group. Selects music to suit performance requirements and accommodate talent and ability of group. Directs group at rehearsals and performance to achieve desired effects, such as tonal and harmonic balance, dynamics, rhythm, tempo, and shading, utilizing knowledge of conducting techniques and music theory. May schedule tours and performances and arrange for transportation and lodging. May transcribe musical compositions and melodic lines to adapt them to or create particular style for group [ARRANGER (profess. & kin.)]. May conduct group with instrumental accompaniment [CONDUCTOR, ORCHESTRA (profess. & kin.)].
GOE: 01.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

152.047-014 CONDUCTOR, ORCHESTRA (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: band leader; director, music; orchestra leader

    Conducts instrumental music groups, such as orchestras and dance bands: Auditions and selects members of group. Selects music to accommodate talents and abilities of group and to suit type of performance to be given. Positions members within group to obtain balance among instrumental sections. Directs group at rehearsals and performances to achieve desired effects, such as tonal and harmonic balance, dynamics, rhythms, tempos, and shadings, utilizing knowledge of conducting techniques, music theory and harmony, range and characteristics of instruments, and talents of individual performers. May transcribe musical compositions and melodic lines to adapt them to or create particular style for group [ARRANGER (profess. & kin.)]. May schedule tours and performances and arrange for transportation and lodging. May be designated according to specialization as Conductor, Dance Band (profess. & kin.); Conductor, Symphonic-Orchestra (profess. & kin.).
GOE: 01.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M3 L3 SVP: 9 DLU: 77

152.047-018 DIRECTOR, MUSIC (motion picture; radio-tv broad.) alternate titles: musical director; music department head

    Plans and directs activities of personnel in studio music department and conducts studio orchestra: Selects vocal, instrumental, and recorded music suitable to type of program or motion picture and to entertainers who are to render selections. Engages services of COMPOSER (profess. & kin.) 152.067-014, as required, to write score for motion picture or television program. Issues assignments and reviews work of staff in such areas as scoring, arranging, and copying music, lyric writing, and vocal coaching. Auditions and selects vocal and instrumental talent for musical shows. Auditions and hires studio orchestra personnel. Conducts orchestra in recording or broadcast of music [CONDUCTOR, ORCHESTRA (profess. & kin.) 152.047-014].
GOE: 01.04.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 9 DLU: 77

152.047-022 SINGER (amuse. & rec.; motion picture; radio-tv broad.)

    Sings as soloist or member of vocal ensemble: Interprets music, using knowledge of harmony, melody, rhythm, and voice production, to present characterization or to achieve individual style of vocal delivery. Sings, following printed text and musical notation, or memorizes score. May sing a cappella or with musical accompaniment. May watch CHORAL DIRECTOR (profess. & kin.) or CONDUCTOR, ORCHESTRA (profess. & kin.) for directions and cues. May be known according to voice range as soprano, contralto, tenor, baritone, or bass. May specialize in one type of music, such as opera, lieder, choral, gospel, folk, or country and western and be identified according to specialty.
GOE: 01.04.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

152.067-010 ARRANGER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: adapter; transcriber; transcripter

    Transcribes musical composition for orchestra, band, choral group, or individual to adapt composition to particular style for which it was not originally written: Determines voice, instrument, harmonic structure, rhythm, tempo, and tone balance to achieve desired effect. Writes score, utilizing knowledge of music theory and instrumental and vocal capabilities [ORCHESTRATOR (profess. & kin.)]. May copy parts from score for individual performers within group [COPYIST (any industry)].
GOE: 01.04.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

152.067-014 COMPOSER (profess. & kin.)

    Writes musical compositions: Creates musical ideas, using knowledge of harmonic, rhythmic, melodic, and tonal structure and other elements of music theory, such as instrumental and vocal capabilities. Creates original musical form or writes within circumscribed musical form, such as sonata, symphony, or opera. Transcribes ideas into musical notation.
GOE: 01.04.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M4 L6 SVP: 9 DLU: 77

152.067-018 CUE SELECTOR (radio-tv broad.)

    Integrates prerecorded theme, background, and bridge music with story line and film sequence to arrange musical score for episode of television series, using knowledge of film scoring: Reads script of episode to become familiar with story line. Confers with DIRECTOR, TELEVISION (radio-tv broad.) to coordinate interpretation of script, including mood to be conveyed or quality of character stressed. Listens to tape recording of theme, background, and bridge music to become familiar with them. Notes key of music, length of passage, and identification number. Selects passages which match story line of script to form tentative score. Views episode to align selections with action on screen. Gives directions to technical personnel during electronic recording of score from tapes, making changes as needed.
GOE: 01.04.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R6 M4 L5 SVP: 9 DLU: 77

152.067-022 ORCHESTRATOR (profess. & kin.)

    Writes score for orchestra, band, choral group, or individual instrumentalist or vocalist: Transposes music from one voice or instrument to another to accommodate particular musician or musical group. Scores composition consistent with instrumental and vocal capabilities, such as range and key, using knowledge of music theory. ay transcribe composition to adapt it to particular style [ARRANGER (profess. & kin.)]. May copy parts from score for individual performers [COPYIST (any industry)].
GOE: 01.04.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R6 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

152.267-010 COPYIST (any industry)

    Transcribes musical parts onto staff paper from score written by ARRANGER (profess. & kin.) or ORCHESTRATOR (profess. & kin.) for each instrument or voice, utilizing knowledge of music notation and experience and background in music. May transpose score to different key.
GOE: 01.04.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R5 M3 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

152.367-010 PROMPTER (amuse. & rec.)

    Prompts performers in operatic productions: Marks copy of vocal score to note cues. Observes CONDUCTOR, ORCHESTRA (profess. & kin.) and follows vocal score to time cues accurately. Speaks or sings in language required by opera to prompt performers.
GOE: 01.04.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 77


    This group includes occupations concerned with application of the theoretical or practical aspects of athletics and sports. Includes teaching physical education at speciality schools or health clubs; scouting for professional athletes; coaching nonschool athletes; and giving instructions in golf, skiing, and similar activities.

153.117-010 HEAD COACH (amuse. & rec.) alternate titles: manager, athletic team

    Plans and directs training and recommends acquisition or trade of players for professional athletic team: Directs conditioning of players to achieve maximum athletic performance. Assesses player's skills and assigns team positions. Evaluates own and opposition team capabilities to determine game strategy. Coaches or directs COACH, PROFESSIONAL ATHLETES (amuse. & rec.) to instruct players in techniques of game. Participates in discussions with other clubs to sell or trade players. May participate on team managed and be designated Coach-Player (amuse. & rec.); Player-Manager (amuse. & rec.).
GOE: 12.01.01 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 9 DLU: 77

153.117-014 MANAGER, ATHLETE (amuse. & rec.)

    Manages affairs of PROFESSIONAL ATHLETE (amuse. & rec.) by negotiating with promoters or others to settle contracts and business matters and directs training: Negotiates with team management and promoters to obtain favorable contracts for client [BUSINESS MANAGER (amuse. & rec.)]. May prescribe exercises, rest periods, and diet to be followed by PROFESSIONAL ATHLETE (amuse. & rec.). May direct ATHLETIC TRAINER (amuse. & rec.; education) in conditioning PROFESSIONAL ATHLETE (amuse. & rec.). May give directions to protege in athletic techniques. May determine strategy to be followed by PROFESSIONAL ATHLETE (amuse. & rec.) in competition with others. May be designated according to type of PROFESSIONAL ATHLETE (amuse. & rec.) managed as Manager, Boxer (amuse. & rec.); Manager, Wrestler (amuse. & rec.).
GOE: 11.12.03 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M5 L5 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

153.117-018 SCOUT, PROFESSIONAL SPORTS (amuse. & rec.)

    Evaluates athletic skills of PROFESSIONAL ATHLETES (amuse. & rec.) to determine fitness and potentiality for professional sports and negotiates with them to obtain services: Reviews prospects' exhibitions and past performance records. Negotiates with PROFESSIONAL ATHLETES (amuse. & rec.) to arrange contracts. Reports to team management results of scouting assignments, such as selection or rejection of PROFESSIONAL ATHLETES (amuse. & rec.) scouted and persons and areas sighted for future recruitment. May be designated according to type of sport in which engaged as Baseball Scout (amuse. & rec.); Basketball Scout (amuse. & rec.); Football Scout (amuse. & rec.).
GOE: 12.01.01 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

153.117-022 STEWARD, RACETRACK (amuse. & rec.)

    Coordinates and directs racing activities at racetrack: Confers with track management and studies prior racing and attendance records to plan types of races to schedule. Confers with officials of other tracks to plan racing dates to coincide with number of days allotted by state racing commission. Assigns workers to duties, such as inspecting entrants, starting, and judging races to comply with racing commission regulations. Observes workers performing duties to ensure compliance with commission rules and track policy. Approves or disapproves requests of handlers to change equipment on horses. Confers with veterinary personnel regarding horses unfit to race. Serves as member of judiciary board that exercises control over racing participants and makes decisions in accordance with state racing commission rules on such matters as validity of complaints and order of finishes. Writes reports to comply with state racing commission rules, such as recording and reporting all complaints, actions taken, penalties imposed, and voting record of board members.
GOE: 12.01.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R5 M4 L5 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

153.137-010 MANAGER, POOL (amuse. & rec.)

    Supervises and coordinates activities of swimming pool staff to prevent accidents and provide assistance to swimmers, and conducts swimming classes: Assigns duties to lifeguards, locker room attendants, and clerical staff. Schedules swimming classes for basic and specialty techniques, according to enrollment, age, and number of instructors. Meets with employees to discuss and resolve work related problems. Completes staff evaluation forms reflecting information such as work habits, effectiveness in interpersonal relations, and acceptance of responsibility. Instructs individuals or groups in swimming classes, principles of water confidence, and lifesaving. Administers first aid, according to prescribed procedures, or calls emergency medical facility, when necessary. Determines chlorine content, pH value, and color of pool water at periodic intervals during day, using testing kit. Completes forms indicating time, date, and pool water test results. Routes forms to supervisor for evaluation and filing. Maintains required forms, such as time and attendance, inventory list, and program of facility activities.
GOE: 11.11.02 STRENGTH: H GED: R3 M3 L3 SVP: 4 DLU: 86

153.167-010 PADDOCK JUDGE (amuse. & rec.)

    Inspects equipment of horses and riders in paddock at racetrack before each race to determine that equipment meets track and state racing commission specifications: Reads racing programs to schedule arrival of horses and riders in paddock area. Examines horse's equipment and rider's attire to assure compliance with racing specifications. Orders equipment changes to conform to racing rules. Refers requests for equipment changes to racing officials. Tells riders to mount and dismount. Signals winning horse and rider to winner's circle. Reports delays in paddock area and equipment changes to racing officials. Examines credentials to prevent unauthorized persons from entering paddock area.
GOE: 12.01.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M2 L3 SVP: 7 DLU: 77

153.167-014 PIT STEWARD (amuse. & rec.) alternate titles: pit boss; referee

    Directs activities at automobile or motorcycle racetrack: Determines qualifying order of vehicles for each race based on trial event results or by drawing numbers. Assigns STARTERS (amuse. & rec.) to position on track. Controls traffic to ensure only authorized number of vehicles are in pit. Directs vehicles to assigned places in pit. Ascertains legality of pit stops according to rules set by sanctioning body authorizing race. Consults with SCORERS (amuse. & rec.) to resolve scoring disputes. Determines penalties to be assessed for rules violation. May inspect vehicles and drivers for safety equipment, such as seat belts, harnesses, and helmets.
GOE: 12.01.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

153.167-018 RACING SECRETARY AND HANDICAPPER (amuse. & rec.)

    Plans and arranges racing schedules and assigns handicapped weights to horses at racetrack: Analyzes official workout and past performance records to arrange races between horses of equal experience and ability. Handicaps horse in each race by assigning weight it will carry, using knowledge of handicapping and based on data, such as age, sex, total winnings of horse, and distances of races won. Confers with track management personnel to plan types of races to schedule and to determine purse for each race. Reviews application requesting permission to enter and train horse for competition. Accepts application and entrance fee from owner. Registers names of persons having financial interest in horse. Reviews racing information to be published in newspaper, racing form, and daily racing program. Directs activities of workers engaged in duties, such as compiling racing information and assigning stable space. Records information regarding official racing result to keep file on each horse's ability. Records changes of ownership and submits report to track officials. May observe race to study ability and form of horse, verify selection of entries, and assignment of handicap weights.
GOE: 12.01.02 STRENGTH: S GED: R4 M4 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

153.224-010 ATHLETIC TRAINER (amuse. & rec.; education)

    Evaluates physical condition and advises and treats professional and amateur athletes to maintain maximum physical fitness for participation in athletic competition: Prescribes routine and corrective exercises to strengthen muscles. Recommends special diets to build up health and reduce overweight athletes. Massages parts of players' bodies to relieve soreness, strains, and bruises. Renders first aid to injured players, such as giving artificial respiration, cleaning and bandaging wounds, and applying heat and cold to promote healing. Calls physician for injured persons as required. Wraps ankles, fingers, or wrists of athletes in synthetic skin, protecting gauze, and adhesive tape to support muscles and ligaments. Treats chronic minor injuries and related disabilities to maintain athletes' performance. May give heat and diathermy treatments as prescribed by health service. Workers are identified according to type of sport.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: M GED: R5 M4 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

153.227-010 COACH, PROFESSIONAL ATHLETES (amuse. & rec.) alternate titles: coach

    Analyzes performance and instructs PROFESSIONAL ATHLETES (amuse. & rec.) in game strategies and techniques to prepare them for athletic competition: Observes players while they perform to determine need for individual or team improvement. Coaches players individually or in groups, demonstrating techniques of sport coached. Oversees daily practice of players to instruct them in areas of deficiency. Determines strategy during game, independently or in conference with other COACH, PROFESSIONAL ATHLETES (amuse. & rec.) or HEAD COACH (amuse. & rec.) based on factors as weakness in opposing team. May be designated according to phase of game coached as Defensive-Line Coach (amuse. & rec.); Pitching Coach (amuse. & rec.). May be designated according to game coached as Basketball Coach (amuse. & rec.); Football Coach (amuse. & rec.); Swimming Coach (amuse. & rec.); Tennis Coach (amuse. & rec.).
GOE: 12.01.01 STRENGTH: H GED: R5 M3 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

153.227-014 INSTRUCTOR, PHYSICAL (amuse. & rec.; education)

    Teaches individuals or groups beginning or advanced calisthenics, gymnastics, and reducing or corrective exercises, in private health club or gymnasium, evaluating abilities of individual to determine suitable training program: Teaches and demonstrates use of gymnastic apparatus, such as trampolines, corrective weights, and mechanical exercisers. Demonstrates and teaches body movements and skills used in sports. Advises clients in use of heat or ultraviolet treatments and hot baths. Lubricates mechanical equipment and reports malfunctioning equipment to maintenance personnel.
GOE: 10.02.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R3 M3 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

153.227-018 INSTRUCTOR, SPORTS (amuse. & rec.; education) alternate titles: athletic coach

    Teaches sport activity to individual or groups at private or public recreational facility or school: Explains and demonstrates use of apparatus and equipment. Explains and demonstrates principles, techniques, and methods of regulating movement of body, hands, or feet to achieve proficiency in activity. Observes students during practice to detect and correct mistakes. Explains and enforces safety rules and regulations. Explains method of keeping score. May organize and conduct competition and tournaments. May participate in competition to demonstrate skill. May purchase, display, sell, maintain, or repair equipment. May keep record of receipts and expenditures. May lecture on history and purpose of sport. Workers are identified according to sport instructed, such as golf, fencing, or tennis.
GOE: 12.01.01 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 7 DLU: 81

153.243-010 AUTOMOBILE RACER (amuse. & rec.)

    Drives automobile racing car in competition road races: Drives car over track where race is to be run to familiarize self with course. Participates in speed and elimination trial races to qualify car for race. Drives car in race and analyzes speed and position of other cars to determine when and where to drive car so as to be in favorable position to win. Observes fuel, oil, and compression gauges on dashboard of car to ensure that car is operating efficiently. Watches for warning signs, such as flags or flares, that indicate an accident is present and drives car accordingly. May perform maintenance work on car.
GOE: 12.01.03 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M3 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

153.243-014 MOTORCYCLE RACER (amuse. & rec.)

    Rides motorcycle over track, course, or natural terrain in competitive races: Operates motorcycle, using hands and feet to manipulate controls. Evaluates power, speed, maneuverability, and position of own and other motorcycles in race to determine strategy. Listens to engine and reads tachometer to determine gear change and maximum speed which obstacles, such as turns and jumps can be taken. Maneuvers motorcycles to avoid track accident, unexpected barrier, or other emergency situation. Watches for warning flags, and other signals to follow instructions given by track officials. May perform maintenance work on motorcycle. May specialize in one type of competition, such as road, dirt track, motocross, off road, or speedway racing.
GOE: 12.01.03 STRENGTH: H GED: R3 M2 L3 SVP: 5 DLU: 77

153.244-010 JOCKEY (amuse. & rec.)

    Rides racehorse at racetrack: Confers with training personnel to plan strategy for race, based on ability and peculiarities of own and other horses in competition. Mounts horse in paddock after weighing-in, and rides horse to specified numbered stall of starting gate. Races from starting gate to finish line. Talks to training personnel after race to analyze horse's performance.
GOE: 12.01.03 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M2 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

153.244-014 SULKY DRIVER (amuse. & rec.) alternate titles: harness racer

    Drives horse-drawn, two-wheel sulky in harness race: Studies performance record of competing horses to plan race strategy. Controls speed of horse in specific sections of racetrack, applying knowledge of harness racing to determine when to challenge for lead of race. May train own harness racing horses. May direct activities of workers involved in grooming, training, feeding, stabling, handling and transporting harness race horses.
GOE: 12.01.03 STRENGTH: M GED: R4 M2 L3 SVP: 6 DLU: 77

153.267-010 HORSE-RACE STARTER (amuse. & rec.) alternate titles: starter

    Determines entry sequence into starting gate and gives directions to riders and other track personnel to get horses into position for horse race: Evaluates performance and training record and observes horse's behavior to determine entry sequence. Directs entry of horse and rider into starting gate according to planned sequence and stall number. Gives directions to track personnel to assist rider when horse refuses to enter starting gate. Reports undue starting delay to racing officials. Presses button to open gate automatically when horses are correctly aligned. May recommend removal of horse unfit to start race. May schedule morning workouts for horses requiring familiarization with starting gate procedures.
GOE: 12.01.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R3 M3 L3 SVP: 4 DLU: 77

153.267-014 PATROL JUDGE (amuse. & rec.)

    Observes horse race at racetrack to detect infractions of racing rules and resolve claims of fouls committed: Watches race from elevated stand at one of several locations around track, using binoculars to detect infractions of rules, such as action of JOCKEY (amuse. & rec.) causing another horse to change stride. Reports name and number of horse and rider guilty of foul to racing officials for disciplinary action. Confers with racing officials and watches motion picture of race to verify infractions and to determine validity of complaints lodged by participants. Submits report to racing officials concerning infractions of rules and disciplinary action taken. When flashing numbers of first three horses as race progresses or observing horses in stretch in order to post first four horses crossing finish line, is designated Placing Judge (amuse. & rec.).
GOE: 12.01.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

153.267-018 UMPIRE (amuse. & rec.) alternate titles: field captain; judge; referee

    Officiates at sporting events: Observes actions of participants to detect infractions of rules. Decides disputable matters according to established regulations. When concerned only with determining validity of goals, finish line order, or out-of-bound plays, may be designated Finish Judge (amuse. & rec.); Goal Umpire (amuse. & rec.); Line Umpire (amuse. & rec.).
GOE: 12.01.02 STRENGTH: L GED: R4 M3 L4 SVP: 8 DLU: 77

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