Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports
In 2022, Ethiopia made moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The government supported a study of child domestic servitude to learn how to better prevent this form of forced child labor. The Ministry of Justice also worked with the International Organization for Migration to launch new standard operating procedures to identify potential victims of human trafficking and refer them to services. However, children in Ethiopia are subjected to the worst forms of child labor, including in forced labor in domestic work and in commercial sexual exploitation. Children also perform dangerous tasks in traditional weaving. Ethiopian law does not include free basic education or a compulsory age for education, leaving children vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor. Additionally, social programs to address child labor have not sufficiently targeted sectors with high incidences of child labor, including agriculture and domestic work.
Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Ethiopia.
|Working (% and population)||5 to 14||24.3 (6,761,640)|
|Working children by sector||5 to 14|
|Attending School (%)||5 to 14||56.6|
|Combining Work and School (%)||7 to 14||16.3|
|Primary Completion Rate (%)||68.7|
Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2021, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2023. (1)
Source for all other data: International Labor Organization's analysis of statistics from National Labour Force Survey (NLFS), 2021. (2)
These data are not comparable with data presented in last year's report due to changes in survey source, survey questionnaire, or age range surveyed.
Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.
|Agriculture||Planting and harvesting coffee, khat, and sesame (3-9)|
|Herding livestock, including cattle (8,10)|
|Industry||Mining† gold and quarrying† (4,11)|
|Construction,† including carrying heavy loads† and digging (3,4,6,8)|
|Repairing motor vehicles and motorcycles (4)|
|Producing handicrafts, including pottery and traditional handwoven textiles (4)|
|Services||Domestic work (4,8,12)|
|Unpaid household services, including carrying heavy loads† of water and firewood (4,8,12)|
|Street work, including shoe shining, weight measurement, assisting taxi drivers, vending, portering, and begging (4,8,13,14)|
|Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡||Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (8,15-17)|
|Forced labor in domestic work, herding, street vending, construction, and traditional weaving of handwoven textiles (13,17-19)|
|Recruitment of children by non-state armed groups for use in armed conflict (3,11,13,17)|
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.
Ethiopian children voluntarily travel to Amhara to harvest sesame. This sector is allegedly linked to overland smuggling networks, with children earning enough to fund passage to Europe via North Africa. (5,7,20) Many others journey through Djibouti en route to Persian Gulf states, where they are often intercepted, repatriated, and later routed to a transition center in Addis Ababa. (7) Traffickers exploit children from rural areas surrounding Addis Ababa and other regions of the country for forced labor in the weaving industry, street vending, construction, and domestic work. (19,21,22) Moreover, children in Oromia and Amhara reportedly harvest and sell khat, a stimulant to which they may become addicted due to contact with the plants’ excretions during harvest. (3,6,7,23,24) Children who begin as voluntary migrants may be forced into commercial sexual exploitation or become victims of forced labor. (3,16,25) Research on child trafficking survivors from the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples Region (SNNPR) and Oromia indicates that 85 percent were removed from or escaped domestic work. (18) The children surveyed were mostly from families that continue to play a role in financing and coercing their children to go abroad or to urban areas to look for work. (16,26) A large-sample size study of female child domestic workers in Addis Ababa found the average number of hours worked per week by these girls was 55 hours, well beyond the ILO's guidelines of 14 hours per week for light work. Additionally, 52 percent of these girls were victims of human trafficking. (19) Trusted community members, known as manamasas, recruit and groom vulnerable youth on behalf of local and international human trafficking syndicates. (22,27)
The ongoing conflict between government forces and the Tigray People’s Liberation Front (TPLF) continued during the reporting period and halted November 2, 2022, when a Cessation of Hostilities Agreement was signed between the Government of Ethiopia (GOE) and the TPLF in Pretoria, South Africa. (23,28) There were unconfirmed reports that both the TPLF and GOE-aligned forces recruited and used child soldiers during the conflict. (3,22,23,29) Some women and girls have reportedly been forced by military elements to have sex in exchange for basic commodities, though the specific military elements remain unknown. (30,31) In addition, emergency humanitarian aid distribution networks and essential services have been disrupted by conflict in the Tigray, Afar, and Amhara regions. (32,33)
Conditions in Ethiopia are also influenced by an ongoing drought, which is increasing food insecurity and internal displacement. (34) There are an estimated 2.73 million IDPs across the country due to conflict or drought. (32) Internally displaced children are acutely vulnerable to exploitation and abuse, including child labor. (35)
With infrastructure for remote learning non-existent, many children remained out of school for many months during the COVID-19 pandemic, and some have still not returned. (23,36) Armed conflicts and resulting humanitarian crises have also disrupted education in Ethiopia. As a result of violence, some 2.3 million children in Tigray were unable to attend school, while estimates of all Ethiopian children out of school due to conflict or drought ranged between 3.4 and 3.6 million. (34,36,37) Children in rural areas also face additional barriers to education, including the distance they must travel to reach school; a lack of sanitation, which especially affects adolescent girls; sexual harassment; the requirement to pay for uniforms and supplies; and a lack of teachers. (8) These factors increased children's risk of entering the workforce at a young age. (6,38,39)
Ethiopia has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).
|ILO C. 138, Minimum Age||✓|
|ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor||✓|
|UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict||✓|
|UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography||✓|
|Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons||✓|
The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Ethiopia's legal framework to adequately protect children from the worst forms of child labor, including the omission of traditional weaving from the country's hazardous work list.
|Standard||Meets International Standards||Age||Legislation|
|Minimum Age for Work||Yes||15||Articles 4.1, 89.1, 89.2, and 185 of the Labor Proclamation 1156/2019 (40)|
|Minimum Age for Hazardous Work||No||15||Article 36.1(d) of the Constitution; Article 89 of the Labor Proclamation 1156/2019 (40,41)|
|Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children||Yes||Articles 89.3, 89.4, and 186.1 of the Labor Proclamation 1156/2019; Directive on the Restating of Activities Prohibited for Young Workers (40,42)|
|Prohibition of Forced Labor||Yes||Article 18.3 of the Constitution; Articles 596, 597, and 637 of the Criminal Code; Articles 2–4 and 6 of the Prevention and Suppression of Trafficking in Persons and Smuggling of Persons Proclamation No. 1178-2020 (41,43,44)|
|Prohibition of Child Trafficking||Yes||Article 18.2 of the Constitution; Articles 597 and 635–637 of the Criminal Code; Articles 3.1–3.5 and 4.1 of the Prevention and Suppression of Trafficking in Persons and Smuggling of Persons Proclamation No. 1178-2020 (41,43-45)|
|Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children||Yes||Articles 634–636 of the Criminal Code; Articles 3.1–3.5 and 4.1 of the Prevention and Suppression of Trafficking in Persons and Smuggling of Persons Proclamation No. 1178-2020 (43,44)|
|Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities||Yes||Article 525 of the Criminal Code; Articles 3.1–3.5 and 4.1 of the Prevention and Suppression of Trafficking in Persons and Smuggling of Persons Proclamation No. 1178-2020 (43,44)|
|Minimum Age for Voluntary State Military Recruitment||Yes||18‡||Article 270 of the Criminal Code (43)|
|Prohibition of Compulsory Recruitment of Children by (State) Military||N/A*|
|Prohibition of Military Recruitment by Non-state Armed Groups||No||Articles 3.1, 3.2, and 4.1–4.3 of the Proclamation to Provide for the Prevention and Suppression of Trafficking in Persons and Smuggling of Migrants (44)|
|Compulsory Education Age||No|
|Free Public Education||No|
* Country has no conscription (43)
‡ Age calculated based on available information (13)
In 2022, Ethiopia published Directive No. 813/2021 on the Restating of Activities Prohibited for Young Workers, which had been signed and entered into force on August 24, 2021, replacing an earlier directive. (23,42) In addition to listing the prohibited categories of work, it provides weight limits for loads carried or transported by young workers and specifies employer responsibilities to verify worker age and ensure workplace awareness of the protections for young workers. (42) However, the types of hazardous work prohibited for children do not cover traditional weaving, an area of work in which there is evidence that children use dangerous machinery, equipment, and tools. (40,42,46,47) Moreover, Article 89.5 of the Labor Proclamation allows children ages 15 to 16 to engage in certain forms of hazardous work during a government-approved and inspected vocational training course. (23,40) This contradicts ILO Convention 138, which prohibits hazardous work for all children under the age of 16. (46,48) The GOE notes that, in practice, children begin apprenticeships after the completion of 10th grade, typically at age 16 or 17. (49) Lastly, while Ethiopia has a policy encouraging public funding of primary education, its laws do not provide for free public education or a compulsory age for education. (13,44,50)
The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the operations of enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.
|Organization/Agency||Role & Activities|
|Ministry of Labor and Skills (MOLS)||Conducts labor inspections of formal worksites through its regional Bureaus of Labor and Skills. (8) Through its National Referral Mechanism (NRM), coordinates referrals of survivors to social services providers. (26,51)|
|Ethiopian Federal Police Commission||Enforces criminal laws against the worst forms of child labor, including child trafficking and the commercial sexual exploitation of children. (8) Addresses child trafficking and assists vulnerable children through its Special Child Protection Units in Addis Ababa and other major cities. (8,22,52) Refers cases to the Ministry of Women and Social Affairs (MOWSA), which develops and implements programs to protect vulnerable children, maintains rehabilitation centers, and coordinates foster families for children rescued from the worst forms of child labor. (8,23)|
|Ministry of Justice||Prosecutes criminal violations of child labor laws, including through its Special Investigative Unit for Women and Children. (8)|
Labor Law Enforcement
In 2022, labor law enforcement agencies in Ethiopia took actions to address child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the operations of the Ministry of Labor and Skills (MOLS) that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including insufficient financial and human resource allocation.
|Overview of Labor Law Enforcement||2021||2022|
|Labor Inspectorate Funding||$2,524,544 (3)||Unknown (8)|
|Number of Labor Inspectors||537 (3)||Unknown (8)|
|Mechanism to Assess Civil Penalties||Yes (3,40)||Yes (8,40)|
|Training for Labor Inspectors Provided||Yes (3)||Yes (8)|
|Number of Labor Inspections Conducted at Worksite||40,639 (3)||24,989 (8)|
|Number of Child Labor Violations Found||Unknown (3)||Unknown (8)|
|Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed||Unknown (3)||Unknown (8)|
|Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that Were Collected||Unknown (3)||Unknown (8)|
|Routine Inspections Conducted||Yes (3)||Yes (8)|
|Routine Inspections Targeted||Yes (3)||Yes (8)|
|Unannounced Inspections Permitted||Yes (40)||Yes (8,40)|
|Unannounced Inspections Conducted||Yes (3)||Yes (8)|
|Complaint Mechanism Exists||Yes (3)||Yes (8)|
|Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services||Yes (3)||Yes (8)|
The government did not provide information concerning labor inspectorate funding in 2022. Data on child labor violations are not aggregated at the national level, and the government did not publish the number of child labor violations identified as a result of its labor inspections. (8) Labor inspectors refer child labor violations to judicial authorities, who are able to assess penalties. (8,40) While the official number of labor inspectors was unreported, local NGOs and civil society organizations estimate there to be between 550 and 700 inspectors. (8,23) This suggests that Ethiopia does not have an adequate number of labor inspectors to carry out their mandated duties. (8,53,54) MOLS and other stakeholders report that a lack of resources and poor coordination among agencies hampered their ability to enforce child labor laws. (3,8)
Criminal Law Enforcement
In 2022, criminal law enforcement agencies in Ethiopia took actions to address child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including a lack of published information about penalties for child labor violations.
|Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement||2021||2022|
|Training for Criminal Investigators Provided||Unknown (3)||Yes (8)|
|Number of Investigations||Unknown (3)||11 (8)|
|Number of Prosecutions Initiated||Unknown (3)||9 (8)|
|Number of Convictions||Unknown (3)||Unknown (8)|
|Imposed Penalties for Violations Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor||Unknown (3)||Unknown (55)|
|Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services||Yes (3)||Yes (8)|
The government provided some criminal law enforcement data for inclusion in this report that had not been reported in recent years. In the 11 cases of suspected child labor crimes reported to have been investigated, the government identified 13 alleged violations of child labor laws and initiated 9 prosecutions. (8) However, the number of convictions achieved, and penalties imposed, remains unknown. (8) The government continued to disproportionately focus on transnational trafficking crimes and did not take adequate action to address internal trafficking crimes, including child domestic servitude and child sex trafficking, despite the scale of the problem. (22,23)
Ethiopian immigration and border patrol authorities refer human trafficking survivors to NGO-run shelters, where they are given first aid and assistance to return home. NGOs reported that many of those receiving services were younger than age 18. (21,26) In 2022, the Ministry of Justice worked with the IOM to improve mechanisms for referring victims to services. (8) In November 2022, the government updated its Standard Operating Procedures for victim identification and validated and launched its new National Referral Mechanism, which includes a directory of service providers. (23,51)
The government has established a key mechanism to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including overlapping mandates, limited budgets, and ineffective coordination among key agencies.
|Coordinating Body||Role & Activities|
|National Steering Committees||The National Steering Committee on the Worst Forms of Child Labor coordinates activities on the worst forms of child labor. Members include MOLS, MOWSA, and the Ministry of Education. (3,8,16,56) The National Steering Committee Against Sexual Abuse and Exploitation of Children develops action plans and coordinates activities to address the commercial sexual exploitation of children. (16) Research was unable to determine whether coordination activities were undertaken during the reporting period. (8)|
Limited committee budgets, overlapping mandates, and poor coordination between the committees and relevant agencies hindered coordination efforts to address child labor at the national and regional levels. (3,8)
The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including implementation of policies to address child labor.
|Policy||Description & Activities|
|National Action Plan to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2021–2025)||Includes guidelines on child labor identification, withdrawal, reintegration, and education. Overseen by the National Steering Committee on the Worst Forms of Child Labor. (56) The National Action Plan (NAP) was created in 2021 with input from government ministries, ILO, the Confederation of Ethiopian Trade Unions (CETU), the Confederation of Ethiopian Employers Federation, and other NGOs. (3) In 2022, although there was no update on the status of the NAP, MOLS and CARE Ethiopia prepared a joint action plan dedicated to the prevention and reduction of child labor that was funded by the USDOL's She Thrives project. (8,57) In addition, with assistance from ILO, CETU launched guidance on reducing child labor, human trafficking, and forced labor. (8,55)|
|Five-Year Strategic Plan (2021–2025) for Migration Management||Aims to prevent and suppress trafficking in persons and smuggling of migrants; supports safe, humane, and orderly migration; and supports efforts to reduce child labor as it occurs in the context of human trafficking and migration. (8,55) The government implemented several activities under the plan during the reporting period, including working group meetings, awareness raising, law enforcement efforts, victim identification and referral to services, and validating the NRM. (21,23)|
|National Education and Children's Policies||Promote children's rights and aim to improve access to education. The National Children's Policy facilitates access to quality primary and secondary education for out-of-school youth, including in rural areas, and provides measures against exploitation and human trafficking. (58) The Ethiopian Education Development Roadmap (2018–2030) aims to make education free and compulsory, while the Education and Training Policy prioritizes government support for education through grade 10. (39,50) The Pastoralist Area Education Strategy provides for alternative education in pastoralist communities, while the National Technical & Vocational Education & Training Strategy aims to improve access to vocational education for girls and out-of-school children. (59,60) The government has not included child labor elimination and prevention strategies in the Education Sector Development Roadmap, the National Technical & Vocational Education & Training Strategy, or the National Youth Policy. (59-61) The Ethiopian government did not provide an update on progress of these policies. (8)|
‡ The government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor. (61,62)
In 2022, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including adequacy of programs to address the full scope of the problem.
|Program||Description & Activities|
|The Freedom Fund||Works to reduce prevalence of child domestic servitude with support from the Government of Ethiopia and the USDOS Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons. (8,19) The Freedom Fund conducted a study of child domestic workers in Addis Ababa published in October 2022 that concluded that over half of the girls studied are victims of human trafficking. (19)|
|World Vision Programs||Included Effective Approaches to Ending the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2019–2022), an international program designed to test and measure innovative approaches to reduce the worst forms of child labor, and which targeted approximately 500,000 at-risk youth in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Central African Republic, and Ethiopia, including victims of child commercial sexual exploitation and child soldiering, and children engaged in hazardous work. The program’s efforts were coordinated by World Vision, with funding by a consortium of NGOs and multilaterals, including UN Global Compact, the Global Compact UK, War Child UK, Thompson Reuters, and the private sector. (7,63,64) This program supported children engaged in the worst forms of child labor in Dera, Libo Kemekem, and Gondar Zuria districts of Amhara. (3) World Vision has remained active during the conflict in Northern Ethiopia, addressing food insecurity and gender-based violence. (65)|
|Multilateral Projects†||The Ethiopia General Education Quality Improvement Program for Equity (GEQIP-E) (2017–2025)† is a $583 million World Bank-funded program implemented by the Ministry of Education and development partners to improve education quality and access. Originally slated to end in 2022, GEQIP-E has been extended to 2025 to better address issues compounded by the pandemic and recent conflict. (66,67) Despite challenges due to the conflict, the project reported achieving results in several project indicators, including the improvement of girls-to-boys ratio in grade 8 in marginalized regions such as Afar, Somali, and Benishangul-Gumuz, from 63 percent in 2016 to 71.2 percent in 2022, and increased grades 1 and 2 enrollment rates from 76 percent in 2016 to 88.6 percent in 2022. (23,68) UNICEF-funded programs include Child-to-Child and Accelerated School Readiness programs, which extend educational opportunities to internally displaced children, and the Integrated Safety Nets Program (2017–2023). (6) UNICEF, the Swedish International Development Agency, and MOLS also jointly fund the Urban Productive Safety Net Program, which aims to build upon efforts to address nutritional and educational outcomes in Amhara and Addis Ababa through cash transfers and linking participants to basic social services. (6,69) During the reporting period, UNICEF reached over 295,000 children through formal or non-formal education across drought- and conflict-afflicted regions. (70)|
For information about USDOL’s projects to address child labor around the world, visit https://www.dol.gov/agencies/ilab/ilab-project-page-search
† Program is co-funded by the Government of Ethiopia. (11)
‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. (3,71,72)
Although the government participates in and implements several programs to address child labor, programs do not sufficiently target sectors with high incidences of child labor, such as agriculture and domestic work. (56) There is also a lack throughout the country of rehabilitation and reintegration centers for victims of child trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation. (15,16)
Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Ethiopia (Table 11).
|Area||Suggested Action||Year(s) Suggested|
|Legal Framework||Raise the minimum age at which children may perform dangerous tasks during vocational training from age 15 to age 16, in line with ILO Convention 138.||2009 – 2022|
|Ensure that the types of hazardous work prohibited for children are comprehensive, including hazardous tasks in traditional weaving.||2016 – 2022|
|Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under age 18 by non-state armed groups.||2020 – 2022|
|Establish by law free basic education.||2012 – 2022|
|Establish by law a compulsory education age that extends to the minimum age for employment of 15 years.||2012 – 2022|
|Enforcement||Gather and publish information related to labor inspectorate funding, number of labor inspectors, child labor violations found, and penalties imposed.||2022|
|Employ at least 964 labor inspectors to ensure adequate coverage of the labor force of approximately 38.6 million people.||2015 – 2022|
|Ensure that labor inspectors have sufficient resources to conduct inspections in all sectors and are able to coordinate adequately with other agencies.||2009 – 2022|
|Ensure that both domestic and transnational child trafficking cases are investigated and punished.||2013 – 2022|
|Gather, disaggregate, and publish information on penalties applied and collected, trainings conducted, and convictions obtained related to child labor violations.||2009 – 2022|
|Prosecute perpetrators of the worst forms of child labor, including recruitment of children into armed conflict, according to the law.||2021 – 2022|
|Coordination||Clarify individual mandates for coordinating mechanisms charged with addressing child labor, and enhance inter-committee communication, coordination, and collaboration.||2015 – 2022|
|Provide adequate funding to coordinating bodies so that they may effectively coordinate activities related to the worst forms of child labor.||2020 – 2022|
|Government Policies||Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the Education Sector Development Program, the National Technical & Vocational Education & Training Strategy, and the National Youth Policy.||2013 – 2022|
|Publish activities undertaken to implement key policies related to child labor to address child labor on an annual basis.||2018 – 2022|
|Social Programs||Increase access to education for all children by decreasing the distance to schools in rural areas, hiring additional teachers, constructing sanitation facilities, and eliminating school-related costs.||2010 – 2022|
|Develop or expand social protection programs to address child labor, including in agriculture and domestic work.||2009 – 2022|
|Ensure that social services necessary to prevent child labor, such as rehabilitation and reintegration centers, are available throughout the country.||2009 – 2022|
|Ensure student safety while at school, including by ensuring environments free from sexual harassment and preventing schools from being attacked by armed actors.||2021 – 2022|
- UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed March 15, 2023. For more information, please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.
- ILO. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from National Labour Force Survey (NLFS), 2021 Analysis received March 2023. Please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.
- U.S. Embassy- Addis Ababa. Reporting. February 7, 2022.
- International Labour Organization and Central Statistical Agency (CSA) of Ethiopia. 2015 Ethiopia National Child Labour Survey. Geneva: ILO, 2018.
- World Vision Ethiopia. Sesame Supply Chains and Value Chains Assessment in Ethiopia: The Case of Child Labour in Sesame Production–Northwest Ethiopia. September 2020. Source on file.
- U.S. Embassy- Addis Ababa. Reporting. January 24, 2020.
- World Vision official. Interview with USDOL official. December 2019.
- U.S. Embassy- Addis Ababa. Reporting. January 23, 2023.
- Ango, T.G., et al. Coffee, child labour, and education: Examining a triple social–ecological trade-off in an Afromontane forest landscape. International Journal of Educational Development. November 2022.
- Shumetie, A., and Mamo, K. Effect of cropland and livestock ownership on child labour in eastern Ethiopia: empirical examination of the Wealth Paradox. ICEP 13, 5. August 26, 2019.
- U.S. Embassy- Addis Ababa official. E-mail to USDOL official. January 28, 2021.
- O’Kane, Claire; Barros, Ornella; Meslaoui, Nicolas. Il est Temps de Parler: Points de vue des enfants sur le travail des enfants. Allemagne: Fédération Internationale Terre des Hommes. May 2018.
- U.S. Embassy- Addis Ababa. Reporting. January 15, 2021.
- Legesse, Getahun. Feature: Systematically Smuggled and Abused: Victims of Child Trafficking Crowd Streets of Addis Abeba. Addis Standard. January 10, 2023.
- ILO Committee of Experts. Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Ethiopia (ratification: 2003). Published: 2018.
- ECPAT International and Defence for Children. Sexual Exploitation of Children in Ethiopia. Submission for the Universal Periodic Review of the human rights situation in Ethiopia. ECPAT Nederland, October 4, 2018.
- U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2022: Ethiopia. Washington, D.C., July 1, 2022.
- U.S. Embassy- Addis Ababa. Reporting. February 26, 2021.
- The Freedom Fund. The prevalence of domestic servitude among child domestic workers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Research Findings. October 2022.
- U.S. Embassy- Addis Ababa. TIP Reporting. March 18, 2022.
- U.S. Embassy- Addis Ababa. Reporting. February 22, 2023.
- U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2023: Ethiopia. June 9, 2023.
- USDOS official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 22, 2023.
- Bihonegn, Abinet. Deprivation of childhood: Khat picking children in and around Bahir Dar. July 22, 2022.
- U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2020: Ethiopia. Washington, D.C., June 20, 2020.
- U.S. Embassy- Addis Ababa. Reporting. February 19, 2019.
- U.S. Embassy- Addis Ababa. Reporting. February 14, 2020.
- Government of Ethiopia and the Tigray People's Liberation Front. Agreement for Lasting Peace Through a Permanent Cessation of Hostilities. November 2, 2022.
- Addis Standard. Analysis: Eastern Oromia residents agonize from fresh mass detention, forced conscription; zonal officials deny multiple accounts. October 13, 2022.
- BBC. Ethiopia's Tigray crisis: 'I lost my hand when a soldier tried to rape me.' February 15, 2021.
- AP News. UN warns of 'serious' rape charges in Ethiopia's Tigray. AP News, January 22, 2021.
- UN CHR. Ethiopia: Response to Internal Displacement, January¬December 2022. January 21, 2023.
- Addis Standard. News: Over half a million people newly displaced in Tigray, Afar and Amhara since militarized conflict resumed in August: UN. October 31, 2022.
- UN OCHA. Ethiopia: Situation Report. December 15, 2022.
- Wuilbercq, Emeline. Fleeing Tigray war, Ethiopian children seen at risk of trafficking in Sudan. Thomson Reuters Foundation. December 3, 2020.
- Save the Children. More than 23 Million Children Out of School in Northern Ethiopia Despite Peace Agreement. April 12, 2023.
- Education Cannot Wait. Increasing Number of Children Pushed Out of Education in Ethiopia Due to Severe Drought, Conflict and Forced Displacement. December 7, 2022.
- UNICEF. Ethiopia Country Office Humanitarian Situation Report. Reporting Period: January–December 2020.
https://www.unicef.org/media/92181/file/Ethiopia SitRep 31 December 2020.pdf
- Ministry of Education, Education Strategy Center (ESC). Ethiopian Education Development Roadmap (2018–2030): An integrated Executive Summary. Addis Ababa, July 2018.
- Government of Ethiopia. Labour Proclamation No. 1156-2019. September 5, 2019.
- Government of Ethiopia. The Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. Enacted: December 8, 1994.
- Government of Ethiopia. Directive No. 813/2021 on the Restating of Activities Prohibited for Young Workers. August 24, 2021. Source on file.
- Government of Ethiopia. The Criminal Code of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, No. 414/2004. Enacted: 2004.
- Government of Ethiopia. Prevention and Suppression of Trafficking in Persons and Smuggling of Persons Proclamation No. 1178-2020. April 13, 2020.
- Government of Ethiopia. Proclamation to Provide for the Prevention and Suppression of Trafficking in Persons and Smuggling of Migrants, No. 909/2015. Enacted: 2015.
- Wuilbercq, Emeline, and Tsegaye. Yared. The children who run away to work: Ethiopia's hidden weavers. Reuters, August 16, 2021.
- UNICEF Ethiopia and Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia. Child Labour Analysis in Ethiopia. December 2020.
- ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Ethiopia (ratification: 1999). Published: 2019.
- ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Ethiopia (ratification: 1999). Published: 2019.
- Government of Ethiopia. Education and Training Policy. 1994. Source on file.
- Government of Ethiopia. National Referral Mechanism Standard Operating Procedures for the Protection of Victims of Trafficking and Other Migrants in Vulnerable Situations. April 2022. Source on file.
- Government of Ethiopia. Labour Proclamation, No. 377/2003. Enacted: February 26, 2004.
- UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2023 Statistical Annex. New York, 2023. Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.
- ILOSTAT. ILO Labor Force Statistics (LFS) – Population and labour force. Accessed January 31, 2023. Labor force data is government-reported data collected by the ILO. Please see "Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.
- U.S. Embassy- Addis Ababa. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 7, 2023.
- U.S. Embassy- Addis Ababa. Reporting. January 22, 2019.
- USDOL. She Thrives: Reducing Child Labor in Ethiopia’s Agricultural Sector using a Gender-Focused Approach. December 2020.
- Government of Ethiopia. National Children's Policy. 2009. Source on file.
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