Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Ethiopia

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Ethiopia

2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2015, Ethiopia made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government of Ethiopia adopted the Proclamation to Provide for the Prevention and Suppression of Trafficking in Persons and Smuggling of Migrants, which criminalizes all forms of human trafficking and contains provisions to prevent child trafficking and other worst forms of child labor, including separate penalties for child trafficking. The Government also made a number of efforts to improve labor law enforcement and participated in and implemented several programs, including the renewal of the Productive Safety Net Program, which includes the goal of eliminating the worst forms of child labor. However, children in Ethiopia continue to engage in child labor, including in agriculture, and in the worst forms of child labor, including in forced labor in domestic work and textile weaving. The law in Ethiopia does not include free basic education or compulsory age for education, which leaves children vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor. Social programs to combat child labor have not sufficiently targeted sectors with high incidences of child labor.

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Children in Ethiopia are engaged in child labor, including in agriculture, and in the worst forms of child labor, including in forced labor in domestic work and textile weaving.(1-3) Data from the Government’s 2011 Demographic and Health Surveys show that 27 percent of  children age 5-17 in Ethiopia are involved in child labor. In addition, Demographic and Health Surveys data indicate child labor is more common among males and in rural areas.(4) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Ethiopia.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

22.0 (5,545,319)

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

54.0

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

17.0

Primary completion rate (%):

47.4

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2014, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(5)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Demographic and Health Surveys, 2011.(6)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Planting and harvesting apples,* coffee,* cotton,* bananas,* and sugarcane,* (7-15)

Herding cattle (10, 11, 14, 16, 17)

Fishing,*† activities unknown (10-12, 15, 18)

Industry

Mining† gold (9, 14)

Quarrying*† (10, 18)

Construction,† including carrying heavy loads and digging.(10-12, 14, 19, 20)

Making pottery products* (10, 14)

Traditional weaving of (hand-woven) textiles(10, 11, 14, 21)

Services

Domestic work† (1-3, 15, 19, 21, 22)

Unpaid household services, including carrying heavy loads of water* and firewood* (10, 14, 15)

Street work,† including as shoe shiners, assistants to taxi drivers,* vendors, porters,* and beggars (1, 10-12, 17, 22, 23)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2, 3, 17, 22, 24)

Forced labor in domestic work, herding,* street vending,* and traditional weaving of hand-woven textiles, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (3, 10, 25-27)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

In Ethiopia, children work in the traditional weaving industry in Addis Ababa and in the Gamo Gofa and Wolaita Zones.(20)  Sources indicate that children are trafficked from rural areas to Addis Ababa and to other regions of the country for forced labor in the weaving industry.(3, 10) The Confederation of Ethiopian Trade Unions reports an increase in child labor in the construction industry in recent years.(14, 19) During the reporting period, the  Government of Ethiopia conducted a nationwide Child Labor Report.(20)

Although the Government has improved access to education, the lack of adequate schools and trained teachers in rural areas increases children’s risk of entering the workforce at a young age. In addition, the cost of school supplies keeps some children from attending school.(14, 28-30) In 2015 droughts and floods also hindered children’s access to education in Afar; Amhara; Benishangul-Gumuz; Dire Dawa; Gambella; Harar; Oromia; Somali Region; Southern Nations, Nationalities, Peoples Region (SNNPR); and Tigray.(31-33) In SNNPR, sexual abuse and harassment of girls in schools is an additional barrier to education.(29) Although the Vital Events Registration Proclamation requires the registration of all births, many children in Ethiopia are not registered. Unable to prove their citizenship, unregistered children may have difficulty accessing services such as education.(21, 34-36) In addition, the rollout of the Vital Events Registration Proclamation continues to be delayed by the absence of uniform national identification cards.(3, 36)

Ethiopia has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

14

Article 89(2) of the Labour Proclamation (37)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18‡

Articles 89(1) and 89(3) of the Labour Proclamation (37)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Article 89(4) of the Labour Proclamation; Directive on Prohibited Occupations for Young Workers (37-39)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 18(3) of the Constitution; Article 596 of the Criminal Code; Articles 2.4, 3 and 4 of the Proclamation to Provide for the Prevention and Suppression of Trafficking in Persons and Smuggling of Migrants; Part 2 and 4 of Regulation No. 2/2007 Southern Nations, Nationalities, Peoples Region (SNNPR) for Prevention and Control of Child Trafficking and Labour Exploitation in Gamo Gofa Zone; and Part 2 and 4 of Regulation No. 3/2007 for the Prevention and Control of Abusive and Vulnerability Situations Committed Against Children of Wolaita Zone (40-44

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 18(2) of the Constitution; Articles 597, 635, and 637 of the Criminal Code; Article 3.2 of the Proclamation to Provide for the Prevention and Suppression of Trafficking in Persons and Smuggling of Migrants; Part 1 and 4 of Regulation No. 2/2007 SNNPR for Prevention and Control of Child Trafficking and Labour Exploitation in Gamo Gofa Zone (40-43)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 634–636 of the Criminal Code; Article 2.4, 3, and 4 of the Proclamation to Provide for the Prevention and Suppression of Trafficking in Persons and Smuggling of Migrants (41, 42)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 525 of the Criminal Code (41)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

N/A*

 

 

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

18

Article 270 of the Criminal Code (41)

Compulsory Education Age

No

 

 

Free Public Education

No

 

 

* No conscription(41)
‡ Age calculated based on available information (37)

In July 2015, the Government issued the Proclamation to Provide for the Prevention and Suppression of Trafficking in Persons and Smuggling of Migrants, which criminalizes all forms of human trafficking, including the trafficking of children. The law prescribes penalties of up to life imprisonment and a fine of up to approximately $20,000 against those convicted of trafficking children, which is a punishment commensurate with the penalties prescribed for other serious crimes, such as rape.(42, 45, 46) The law also provides for legal protection and social assistance to victims of human trafficking. Under the law, children identified as victims of human trafficking are to receive specialized assistance that addresses the particular needs of minors, including family reintegration service.(42, 45, 46)

In February 2015, two local bylaws were enacted in Ethiopia. The SNNPR enacted Regulation No. 2/2007 for the Prevention and Control of Child Trafficking and Labour Exploitation in Gamo Gofa Zone.(43) The law prohibits child trafficking and calls for the establishment of task forces and a fund to assist with rescuing children as well as preventing and controlling child exploitation and human trafficking.(43) Regulation No. 3/2007 for the Prevention and Control of Abusive and Vulnerability Situations Committed against Children of Wolaita Zone prohibits family members from engaging their  children in forced labor and hazardous work, and calls for the establishment of task forces and a fund to support vulnerable and abused children.(44)

Despite the establishment of these laws, Ethiopian laws related to child labor are not completely in compliance with international standards. Article 89(5) of the Labour Proclamation allows children ages 14 to 16 to engage in certain forms of hazardous work, if the work is performed following a government-approved vocational training course.(37, 47) The minimum age provisions of the law do not apply to children working outside of a contractual employment relationship.(30, 47, 48) In addition, the penalties for violating child labor laws, outlined in Article 185 of the Labour Proclamation, are low and do not generally deter violations.(37, 49)

In Ethiopia, there is no age up to which education is compulsory nor is there free basic education for children. Since children cannot access free basic education and are not legally required to attend school, they may be vulnerable to engaging in the worst forms of child labor.  (19, 30, 47)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs (MOLSA)/Occupational Safety and Health Case Team (OSHCT)

Enforce occupational safety, health, and wage and hour protections, which include child labor laws.(14, 17, 49) Collect and analyze data and make policy recommendations on labor. Located in the MOLSA.(13, 49-51)

Regional Bureaus of Social and Labor Affairs (BOLSA) and City Administration

Conduct labor inspections at the zonal offices and at the regional and city levels.(49) Operate an occupational safety and health laboratory in Addis Ababa to identify workplace hazards.(35)

Ethiopian Federal Police Commission and the Ministry of Justice

Investigate and prosecute criminal violations of laws that protect against the worst forms of child labor.(9, 19) Provide trained child protection officers in regional police stations. Provide Child Protection Unit in 10 Addis Ababa sub-city police stations.(52)

Human Trafficking and Narcotics Section

Collaborate with the prosecutor’s office to investigate human trafficking, prosecute offenders, and report and collect human trafficking data. Located in the Organized Crime Investigation Unit of the Federal Police.(3, 9, 19)

Ministry of Women, Children, and Youth Affairs (MOWYCA)

Develop and implement programs to protect vulnerable children and monitor alleged violations of child protection laws, including those related to the worst forms of child labor.(2, 53)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2015, labor law enforcement agencies in Ethiopia took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$1.29 million (54)

$300,000 (20)

Number of Labor Inspectors

382 (54)

423 (20)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (49)

No (20)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (54)

Yes (20)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Unknown (54)

Unknown

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (54)

Yes (20)

Number of Labor Inspections

35,600 (55)

37,500 (20)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown (54)

Unknown

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown (54)

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown* (54)

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown* (54)

Unknown

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

N/A (54)

N/A

Routine Inspections Conducted

Unknown (54)

Yes (20)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Unknown (54)

Yes (20)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (54)

Unknown

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Unknown

Unknown

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (55)

Yes (20)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Unknown

Yes (20)

* The Government does not make this information publicly available.

In 2015, labor inspectors received training on domestic and international laws pertaining to prohibited work for youth laborers and learned techniques to identify child laborers.(20) Insufficient resources and an inadequate number of staff prevent proper enforcement of child labor laws in Ethiopia.(49) Inspections are particularly lacking in the agricultural sector in rural areas, at construction sites in urban areas, and at sites of domestic work nationwide.(20).During the year, labor inspectors conducted 37 complaint-based inspections.(20) According to the ILO standard of 1 inspector for every 40,000 workers in less developed economies, Ethiopia should employ roughly 812 inspectors to enforce labor laws adequately throughout the country.(20, 56-58)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2015, criminal law enforcement agencies in Ethiopia took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown

Unknown

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (54)

Yes (20

Number of Investigations

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Violations Found

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Convictions

Unknown

Unknown

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Unknown

Yes (20)

 

In 2015, trainings on the worst forms of child labor were reported to be sporadic and focused on human trafficking hotspots in major urban areas.(20) During the reporting period, the International Organization on Migration (IOM) collaborated with the Ministry of Justice and the Ethiopian Federal Police Commission to conduct trainings on Ethiopia’s new human trafficking law and victim-centered investigation techniques for prosecutors and judges in Addis Ababa, Amhara, and Oromia.  In addition, the IOM provided training for 140 police investigators from Amhara, Oromia, SNNPR, and Tigray.(20) The World Vision, Inc.’s  Ethiopians Fighting Against Child Exploitation project, funded by the USDOL, conducted a 4-day training on ILO Conventions and national laws related to child labor and human trafficking for 40 judges from the regions of SNNPR, Amhara, Benishangul Gumuz, Gambela, Oromia, SNNPR, Somali, and Tigray, and the cities of Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa. The UNODC provided anti-trafficking in persons training to 70 Ethiopian judges and prosecutors.(20, 59)

During the reporting period, the Forum on Sustainable Child Empowerment worked closely with local police from different regions and Ministry of Justice officials to reunite 389 child trafficking victims with their families.(20) Sources also reported that police departments and district officials refer victims of the worst forms of child labor to NGO-run shelters and government-run orphanages.(25)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Steering Committee on the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Coordinate activities on the worst forms of child labor. Members  include MOLSA, the MOWYCA, and the Ministry of Education.(19) Research found no evidence that this committee convened during 2015.

MOLSA National Forum to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Combat the worst forms of child labor at the national level. Meet twice a year. Include participants from the Ethiopian Employers’ Federation and Confederation of Ethiopian Trade Unions.(19) Continued consultations with the Confederation of Ethiopian Trade Unions during the reporting period.(60)

MOLSA child labor desk

Coordinate efforts between MOLSA and MOWYCA on child labor issues.(13, 35)

National Steering Committee against Sexual Exploitation of Women and Children

Develop action plans and coordinate activities against the commercial sexual exploitation of children.(28, 53) In 2015, the Committee opened a center at the Gandhi Hospital for child victims of commercial sexual exploitation.(60)

National Committee to Combat Trafficking in Persons

Address international exploitation, including the worst forms of child labor. Chaired by the Deputy Prime Minister, with representatives from the Ministries of Justice, Foreign Affairs, MOLSA, MOWYCA, and Education and regional presidents. Meet twice a year.(42, 61) Convened seminars to help regions establish their own anti-human trafficking bodies and disseminate the new anti-trafficking proclamation during 2015.(62

National Anti-Human Trafficking and Smuggling of Migrants Task Force

Develop action plans quarterly and coordinate activities against trafficking in persons and migrant smuggling.(25, 42) Led by the Ministry of Justice, with representatives from the Ministries of Foreign Affairs, MOLSA, MOWYCA, Education, National Security and Intelligence Service, and Ethiopian Federal Police Commission. Include representation by deputy state ministers.(42)

Regional Technical Working Groups on Human Trafficking

Identify trends and areas that need public awareness campaigns on human trafficking. Meet weekly. Include officials from regional Federal ministries and agencies.(25, 52)

Child Protection Committees, Child Rights Clubs, and Orphans and Vulnerable Children Task Forces

Promote children’s rights, provide children with food and school supplies, and train members on child labor issues, case management, international child labor standards, and Ethiopian child labor laws. Include children, police, health workers, and teachers.(3, 11, 13, 53)

 

Budgets for these committees remained limited during the reporting period and impacted their ability to operate and coordinate efforts to address child labor.(20)

The Government of Ethiopia has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Action Plan to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2013–2017)

Includes guidelines on child labor identification, withdrawal, reintegration, and educational policies. Available in Amharic. Overseen by the National Steering Committee on the Worst Forms of Child Labor.(13, 35) In 2015, MOLSA and BOLSA staff attended multiple trainings on child labor inspections, monitoring systems and implementation of the National Action Plan.(63)

National Occupational Safety and Health Policy and Strategy

Seeks to abolish child labor and improve working conditions for youth, women, and disabled workers. Adopted in 2014 and led by the National Occupational Safety and Health Council.(54, 64)

Social Protection Policy

Aims to improve the quality of, and access to, basic education and health services, including child labor concerns. Adopted in 2014 and overseen by the Federal Social Protection Council.(65, 66) In 2015, enabled withdrawal of over 36,000 street children from exploitative situations.(53)

National Plan of Action to Combat Trafficking in Persons (2015–2020)†

Examines legal and institutional frameworks and responses related to existing human trafficking. Aims to provide guiding principles based on international best practices for human anti-trafficking action and the institutional structures and inputs needed to effectively combat human trafficking.(67)

National Youth Policy

Addresses the worst forms of child labor, including commercial sexual exploitation and illicit work.(68) Adopted in 2005 and overseen by the Ministry of Youth, Sports, and Culture.(65)

National Employment Policy and Strategy of Ethiopia

Describes the root causes of child labor in Ethiopia and lists interventions that may be used to combat child labor, including income-generating activities and awareness raising.(69)

UNDAF (2012–2015)

Promotes improved access to education and livelihood services for vulnerable children; seeks to protect children from abuse, violence, and exploitation; and seeks to withdraw children from child labor and rehabilitate them.(70)

National Human Rights Action Plan (2013–2015)

Aims to strengthen the implementation of human rights in Ethiopia, including by making efforts to eliminate exploitative child labor.(22, 71, 72)

Growth and Transformation Plan 2 (2015/16–2019/20)†

Aims to address youth unemployment by increasing access to livelihood programs and improving the quality of technical and vocational training programs to better align with the job market. Integrates strategies to strengthen and enforce child labor laws.(20, 53, 63, 73, 74)

Education Sector Development Program (2010–2015)*

Focuses on improving the quality of education and increasing access to educational opportunities through enhanced equity, equality, and relevance. Led by the Ministry of Education.(75, 76)

National Technical Vocational Education and Training Strategy*

Aims to increase employment opportunities for school dropouts and youth without formal education through technology and skills training. Adopted in 2008 and led by the Ministry of Education.(77, 78)

* Child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy.
† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

The National Youth Policy has no budget or detailed action plan related to the worst forms of child labor.(68)

In 2015, the Government of Ethiopia funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Ethiopians Fighting Against Child Exploitation
(2011–2015)

USDOL-funded $10 million, 4-year project implemented by World Vision, Inc. to reduce the number of children ages 14 to 17 years who are engaged in or at-risk of child labor in the weaving, agricultural, and other sectors in 14 districts in Addis Ababa, Gamo Gofa, and Wolaita.(11) Provided vocational or educational services to 20,639 children engaged in or at-risk of child labor and 7,859 households with livelihood services.(59) Provided school supplies to 15,604 children enrolled in school and reintegrated 407 child trafficking victims with their families.(63){World Vision,  #137;World Vision, February 29`, 2016 #310} Collaborated with MOLSA to coordinate services and provide occupational safety and health training for labor inspectors.(11) With the Addis Ababa Bureau of Labor and Social Affairs, developed a voluntary code of conduct for business owners in the traditional weaving sector to use child safe certification and seal on products.(59) Supported zonal bylaws that address gaps in national laws to combat and prevent child labor and human trafficking in Gamo Gofa and Wolaita Zones.(43, 59)

Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues Project (2011–2017)

USDOL-funded project implemented by the ILO in approximately 40 countries to support the priorities of the Roadmap for Achieving the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor by 2016, established by the Hague Global Child Labor Conference in 2010. Aims to build the capacity of the national government and develop strategic policies to address the elimination of child labor in Ethiopia.(79) In 2015, the program conducted a training of trainers on labor inspections and child labor monitoring systems.(80)

Global Research on Child Labor Measurement and Policy Development  (2013–2017)

USDOL-funded research project implemented by the ILO in 10 countries, including Ethiopia, to increase the knowledge base for child labor by collecting new data, analyzing existing data, and building capacity to conduct research in this area. Aims to conduct a national child labor survey in Ethiopia.(81, 82) Trained over 500 participants on improved data collection techniques on child labor in 2015.(82)

Engaged, Educated, Empowered, Ethiopian Youth Project (2014–2018)

USDOL-funded $10 million, 4-year project implemented by World Vision, Inc. that targets 12,000 in-and out-of-school youth ages 14 to 17 who are engaged in, or at-risk of entering, exploitative child labor.(83) Assists 7,500 households of targeted youth to promote sustainable livelihoods and to increase access to education and decent work opportunities. Operates primarily in the Amhara and SNNPR Regions.(83) Provided educational services to 2,344 children in 2015.(73)

Child Labor Free Zones (2012–2015)

Stop Child Labor Partners-funded $600,000 program, in collaboration with the Forum on Sustainable Child Empowerment, to pilot child-labor-free zones in Adama and Addis Ababa.(84) Supported by child protection officers, labor inspectors, police officers, and other stakeholders on the prevention and withdrawal of child laborers. Since 2012, has withdrawn 1,853 children from exploitative labor situations.(84)

Child Labor Awareness Raising†

Under the MOLSA, raises awareness of child labor issues through a quarterly media forum on national television broadcasts, regional and local encouragement for community members to report child labor violations to authorities, and raising awareness of human trafficking from rural to urban areas.(63, 71)

Afar Region and Mille Town Emergency Migration Response Centers

Operates centers under the Ethiopian Federal Police Commission. In collaboration with the International Organization on Migration (IOM), assists human trafficking victims by providing shelter and transportation. In 2015, trained 31 government officials on identification, protection, and referrals of human trafficking victims.(3, 85)

Social Cash Transfer Program
(2011–2017)

In partnership with UNICEF, provides vulnerable populations, including child laborers, with cash transfers in the Oromia and SNNPR regions and in two sections in the Tigray Region.(86, 87) Aims to improve school attendance and enrollment and to support children’s health in targeted districts.(87)

Productive Safety Net Program Phase IV † (2014-2020)

$2616 million, 6-year project co-funded with the World Bank that includes several components, including cash and in-kind transfers to orphans and vulnerable children and households without able-bodied adults who can work reducing the amount of time children spend doing household work and increasing the amount of time children spend in school. As of 2015 assisted approximately 7.9 million beneficiaries, including 3.3 million children.(60, 87-90) Considered Africa’s second largest social protection program.(87-90)

Decent Work Country Program (2013–2015)

A tripartite (Government, Workers and Employers) partners initiated program framework, designed to address country priorities identified by the constituents in collaboration with ILO Country Office funded by the Governments of the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. The framework is aimed at facilitating the delivery of ILO's support to the country toward ensuring sustainable poverty reduction through the integration of decent work priorities with the national development agenda as set out in the Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP, 2010/11-2014/15) and UNDAF. Includes targets to eliminate child labor, such as establishing child labor units at the city administration level. Guided by a National Steering Committee (NSC) comprised of key representatives from MoLSA, CETU (President), Employers Federation (President), the ILO CO (Director) and other relevant stakeholders. The NSC convenes a meeting quarterly to monitor and review implementation of the DWCP. (91)

General Education Quality Improvement Project II
(2014–2018)

World Bank-funded $50 million project, with other donors, aims to improve learning conditions in Ethiopia through curriculum development, textbook assessment, teacher training, and school construction.(92)

Children on the Move Program (2015 – 2020)

Forum for Sustainable Child Empowerment program, $652,000 funded by the EU and Save the Children, aims to create a strong child protection network by creating referral systems and strengthening existing community organizations. Uses a multi-sectoral approach to raise awareness and build links among the local government, police officers, law and justice administrators, the transport industry, community-based organizations, the private sector, and mass media channels. Since 2012, has reunite 3,713 children with their parents or guardians; provided business skills training and seed funds to 1,566 older children who were unwilling to reunite with their families; and gave educational materials and learning support to 5,664 highly vulnerable children.(20)

† Program is funded by the Government of Ethiopia.

Although the Government participates in and implements several programs to combat child labor, these programs do not sufficiently target sectors with high incidences of child labor, such as agriculture and domestic work.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Ethiopia (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Raise the minimum age at which children may enter hazardous work following vocational training from 14 to 16, in line with ILO C. 138.

2009 – 2015

Ensure that all children are protected by child labor laws, including children working in non-contractual employment.

2009 – 2015

Ensure that penalties are high enough to deter child labor law violations.

2013 – 2015

Establish by law free basic education and an age up to which education is compulsory that is consistent with the minimum age of employment.

2012 – 2015

Enforcement

Ensure that the OSHCT and BOLSA inspectors have adequate resources to conduct systematic inspections in all labor sectors.

2009 – 2015

Increase the ratio of labor inspectors to workers according to the ILO benchmark standards.

2015

Gather and publish information on the numbers of child labor law violations found, citations issued, and penalties applied; and whether unannounced inspections are conducted and permitted.

2009 – 2015

Enforce the Labour Proclamation by authorizing the inspectorate to determine and assess penalties when child labor law violations are found.

2013 – 2015

Make information publicly available on the training of investigators, number of criminal investigations, violations found, prosecutions initiated, and convictions related to the worst forms of child labor.

2015

Institutionalize training for police investigators working to combat labor-related child trafficking investigations. 

2015

Coordination

Ensure the established coordinating mechanisms to combat child labor have adequate funding to operate effectively.

2015

 

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies in the Education Sector Development Program and the National Technical Vocational Education and Training Strategy.

2013 – 2015

Include a budget and action plan on the worst forms of child labor for the National Youth Policy.

2009 – 2015

Social Programs

Conduct research to determine the types of activities carried out by children working in fishing to inform policies and programs.

2015

Increase access to education by:

  • Increasing school infrastructure, especially in rural areas
  • Eliminating school-related costs
  • Implementing programs that protect communities from droughts and floods
  • Addressing sexual abuse and harassment of girls in schools
  • Providing teacher training
  • Ensuring school administrators and teachers allow children without birth certificates to attend school

2010 – 2015

Develop social protection programs to prevent or withdraw children from agriculture and domestic work.

2009 – 2015

1.         ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Ethiopia (ratification: 2003) Published: 2015; accessed November 18, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3189777:NO.

2.         UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Consideration of reports of States parties: Summary Record: Ethiopia; May 28, 2015. Report No. CRC/C/SR.1997. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fSR.1997&Lang=en.

3.         U.S. Department of State. "Ethiopia," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015. Washington, DC; July 27, 2015; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2015/243436.htm.

4.         Central Statistical Agency, Government of Ethiopia, and ICF International. Ethiopia: Demographic and Health Survey. Addis Ababa and Calverton, MD, Central Statistic Agency and ICF International; March 2012. https://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR255/FR255.pdf.

5.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed January 16, 2015]; http://www.uis.unesco.org/Pages/default.aspx?SPSLanguage=EN. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

6.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Demographic and Health Survey, 2011. Analysis received January 16, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

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29.       Ministry of Education. Social Assessment of the General Education Quality Improvement Program PHASE 2. Addis Ababa; July 2013.

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37.       Government of Ethiopia. Labour Proclamation, 377/2003, enacted February 26, 2004. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/travail/docs/327/Proclamation%20No%20377_2003%20-%20Labour%20Proclamation.pdf.  .

38.       Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs. List of Hazardous Occupations for Children in Ethiopia. Addis Ababa, International Labour Organization; July 2011.

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41.       Government of Ethiopia. The Criminal Code of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, 414, enacted 2004. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/70993/75092/F1429731028/ETH70993.pdf.

42.       Government of Ethiopia. Proclamation to provide for the Prevention and Suppression of Trafficking in Persons and Smuggling of Migrants 909/2015, enacted August 17, 2015. https://www.unodc.org/documents/brussels/909-2015_TIP_Proclamation.pdf.

43.       Government of Ethiopia. Southern Nations, Nationalities and People's Regional State Regulation Provided for Prevention and Control of Child Trafficking and Labour Exploitation in Gamo Gofa Zone, Regulation No 2/2007, enacted February 08, 2015.

44.       Government of Ethiopia. A Regulation Enacted for the Prevention and Control of Abusive and Vulnerability Situations Committed Against Children of Wolayta Zone, Regulation No. 3/2007, enacted February 2015.

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46.       U.S. Embassy- Addis Ababa. reporting, October 16, 2015.

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48.       U.S. Department of State. "Ethiopia," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2015. Washington, DC; June 25, 2016; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/252893.pdf.

49.       Jeff Wheeler, and Keith Goddard. Assessement of Ethiopia's Labor Inspection System. Washington, DC, U.S. Department of Labor; March, 2013. http://www.dol.gov/ilab/reports/pdf/2013AssessmentEthiopiaLaborInspection.pdf.

50.       Labour Administration and Inspection Programme (LAB/ADMIN). Labour Inspection Structure and Organization:  Ethiopia. Geneva; June 1, 2009. http://www.ilo.org/labadmin/info/WCMS_112937/lang--en/index.htm.

51.       ILO. Technical Memorandum:  Ethiopian Labour Inspection Audit. Geneva; October 29, 2009. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_dialogue/---lab_admin/documents/publication/wcms_119248.pdf.

52.       U.S. Embassy- Addis Ababa. reporting, February 21, 2014.

53.       Government of Ethiopia. Statement by H.E. Mrs. Zenebu Tadesse, Minister of Women, Children, and Youth Affairs at the Fourth and Fifth Review of Ethiopia before the Commitee on the Rights of the Child. Geneva; May 22, 2015. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/Treaties/CRC/Shared%20Documents/ETH/INT_CRC_STA_ETH_20534_E.pdf.

54.       U.S. Embassy- Addis Ababa. reporting, January 15, 2015.

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57.       ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. Report No. GB.297/ESP/3. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf.

58.       UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex. New York; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf.

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60.       U.S. Embassy- Addis Ababa official. E-mail communication USDOL official. February 10, 2016.

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64.       Government of Ethiopia. National Occupational Safety and Health Policy and Strategy. Addis Ababa; July 2014. [source on file].

65.       U.S. Embassy- Addis Ababa official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 23, 2015.

66.       Government of Ethiopia. Social Protection Policy. Addis Ababa; November 2014.

67.       The Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, Government of Ethiopia. National Plan of Action to Combat Trafficking in Persons 2015/6-2020/1. Addis Ababa; March 2015. [source on file].

68.       Government of Ethiopia. National Youth Policy. Addis Ababa; July 2005. http://www.mysc.gov.et/youth.html.

69.       Getachew Adem, and Kinde Getnet. National Employment Policy & Strategy of Ethiopia. Addis Ababa, Government of Ethiopia; December 2009.

70.       United Nations. United Nations Development Assistance Framework Ethiopia (2012-15). Addis Ababa; 2012. http://www.unicef.org/about/execboard/files/ETH_CPD_-_FINAL_-_UNDAF_Draft_Results_Matrix_2012-2015.pdf.

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72.       Government of Ethiopia. National Human Rights Action Plan 2013-2015. Addis Ababa; June 2013.

73.       World Vision. Engaged, Educated, Empowered, Ethiopian Youth (E4Y). Technical Progress Report. Washington, DC; October, 2015.

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75.       Government of Ethiopia. Education Sector Development Program IV-Program Action Plan. Addis Ababa, Ministry of Education; August 2010. http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Ethiopia/Ethiopia_ESDP_IV.pdf.

76.       UNESCO. Education for All 2015 National Review- Ethiopia; 2015. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002317/231724e.pdf.

77.       Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs official. Interview with USDOL official. July 19, 2011.

78.       Government of Ethiopia. National Technical & Vocational Education & Training (TVET) Strategy. Addis Ababa; August 2008. http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/upload/Ethiopia/Ethiopia_National_TVET_Strategy.pdf.

79.       USDOL. Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues (GAP), Project Summary. Washington, DC; 2011. http://www.dol.gov/ilab/projects/summaries/GAP_FY11.pdf.

80.       ILO-IPEC. Global Action Program on Child Labour Issues. Technical Progress Report. Geneva; November 05, 2015.

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82.       ILO-IPEC. Global Research on Child Labor Measurement and Policy Development (MAP). Technical Progress Report. Geneva; October 30, 2015.

83.       USDOL. Engaged, Educated, Empowered, Ethiopian Youth Project, Project Summary. Washington, DC; 2014.

84.       Andante- Tools for Thinking. Is the End of Child Labour in Sight? A Critical Review of a Vision and Journey Stop Child Labour; September 30, 2015. http://www.stopchildlabour.eu/assets/151022-CLFZ-Synthesis-Report-FINAL.pdf.

85.       International Organization for Migration (IOM). "IOM trains police and government officials on identification, protection and referral of vulnerable migrants." [online] February 18, 2015 [cited December 9, 2015]; https://ethiopia.iom.int/iom-trains-police-and-government-officials-identification-protection-and-referral-vulnerable.

86.       Integrated Regional Information Networks. "Ethiopia: New cash transfer programme to reach vulnerable communities." IRINnews.org [online] September 2, 2011 [cited January 9, 2014]; http://www.irinnews.org/Report/93641/ETHIOPIA-New-cash-transfer-programme-to-reach-vulnerable-communities.

87.       UNICEF. 2014 UNICEF Annual Report -Ethiopia. Addis Ababa; 2014. http://www.unicef.org/about/annualreport/files/Ethiopia_Annual_Report_2014.pdf.

88.       Guush Berhane, John Hoddinott, Neha Kumar, Alemayehu Seyoum Taffesse, Michael Tedla Diressie, Yisehac Yohannes, et al. Evaluation of Ethiopia’s Food Security Program: Documenting Progress in the Implementation of the Productive Safety Nets Programme and the Household Asset Building Programme. Washington, DC; October 19, 2011. [source on file].

89.       Babatunde Omilola, Sheshangai Kaniki. Social Protection in Africa: A Review of Potential Contribution and Impact on Poverty Reduction; March, 2014. http://www.za.undp.org/content/dam/south_africa/docs/mdgs/Social%20Protection%20in%20%20Africa-A%20Review%20of%20Potential%20Contribution%20and%20Impact%20on%20Poverty%20Reduction1.pdf.

90.       World Bank. Ethiopia - ET Productive Safety Nets Project 4 (PSNP 4)- Implementation Status Results Report. Washington, DC; 2015. http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/AFR/2015/09/13/090224b0830d72fb/1_0/Rendered/PDF/Ethiopia000ET00Report000Sequence002.pdf.

91.       Government of Ethiopia. Decent Work Country Programme (DWCP) 2013-2015. Addis Ababa, International Labor Organization; November, 2013.

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