Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Democratic Republic of the Congo

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Democratic Republic of the Congo

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Significant Advancement

In 2016, the Democratic Republic of the Congo made a significant advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government adopted a revision to the Labor Code that raised the minimum age of work to 18 and launched a Human Development Systems Strengthening Project that aims to increase access to birth registration and improve school infrastructure. As part of its Child Soldiers Action Plan, the Joint Technical Working Group established new committees in Tanganyika and North Kivu and validated standard operating procedures for age verification in military recruitment. The Government also worked with the UN to investigate individuals accused of forcibly recruiting children and initiated plans for making reparations to former child soldiers. However, children in the Democratic Republic of the Congo continue to engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in the forced mining of gold, tin ore (cassiterite), tantalum ore (coltan), and tungsten ore (wolframite), and are used in armed conflict, sometimes as a result of forcible recruitment or abduction by non-state armed groups. A lack of trained personnel, resources, and poor coordination hampered the Government’s efforts to combat child labor, and laws mandating free primary education are not enforced.

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Children in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in the mining of gold, tin ore (cassiterite), tantalum ore (coltan), and tungsten ore (wolframite), and are used in armed conflict, sometimes as a result of forcible recruitment or abduction by non-state armed groups.(1-5) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in the DRC.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

35.8

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

77.3

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

37.1

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

66.8

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2013, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(6)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Demographic and Health Survey, 2013–2014.(7)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Farming, including tilling fields, planting seeds, watering crops, carrying heavy loads,† weeding, harvesting crops, and use of chemical products and machetes in the production of coffee, peanuts, tea, quinine, eggplant, manioc, sweet potatoes, leafy greens, corn, beans, rice, cassava leaves, and other vegetables (3, 8-13)

Fishing, including maintaining fishing tools, baiting hooks, transporting heavy loads, the use of explosives, and salting, smoking, and packaging fish (8, 9, 13)

Herding and raising livestock such as chickens, goats, and pigs, including cleaning cages or stalls, disposing of waste, and feeding animals (9, 12-14)

Hunting (8, 12)

Industry

Mining,† including sifting, cleaning, washing, sorting, working underground,† transporting, carrying heavy loads,† use of mercury and explosives, and digging in the production of diamonds, copper, cobalt ore (heterogenite), gold, tin ore (cassiterite), tantalum ore (coltan), and tungsten ore (wolframite) (1-3, 8, 9, 15-23)

Working as auto mechanics, on construction sites, and in carpentry workshops, craft workshops, and road construction (8)

Working in quarries,† including breaking stone into gravel (15)

Services

Domestic work (8, 14, 24)

Driving motorcycle taxis (10)

Street work, including vending, garbage scavenging, carrying packages, unloading or parking vehicles, and washing cars (8, 9, 14, 21, 25, 26)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor

Forced mining of gold, cassiterite, coltan, and wolframite, sometimes as a result of debt bondage (1, 4, 27, 28)

Forced domestic work and commercial sexual exploitation, each sometimes as a result of trafficking (1, 4, 8, 9, 15, 17, 18, 20, 25, 29-31)

Use in illicit activities, including for spying, stealing, carrying stolen goods, smuggling minerals, and distributing drugs (4, 18, 32-34)

Forced recruitment of children by non-state armed groups for use in armed conflict, including as bodyguards, messengers, porters, domestic workers, spies, check point monitors, looters, and concubines (4, 29, 35-39)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

In 2016, members of indigenous and foreign non-state armed groups—including the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA), Forces Démocratiques de Libération du Rwanda (FDLR), Nduma Défense du Congo (NDC/Cheka), Force de Résistance Patriotique en Ituri (FRPI), Mayi Mayi groups, and other armed groups—continued to abduct and recruit children to be used in their units.(37-41) Some victims of child trafficking were recruited at refugee camps in neighboring countries and transported through DRC to participate in armed conflict.(27) Child labor in artisanal mining is prevalent in the provinces of Katanga, Eastern and Western Kasai, North and South Kivu, and Orientale, and the commercial sexual exploitation of girls and sometimes boys is prevalent around mining sites.(2, 4, 14) However, a comprehensive, standalone, child labor survey has never been conducted in the DRC.(13, 42)

Although the Government has mandated free primary education, these laws were not implemented throughout the country and some families are required to pay for school uniforms, tuition, and additional fees, which may be prohibitive.(2, 8, 9, 13, 19, 21, 25, 40, 43-45) Many schools throughout the DRC are oversubscribed, understaffed, poorly maintained, or require students to travel long distances.(2, 8, 12, 45, 46) Schools in eastern DRC may be closed due to the conflict, or occupied by armed groups or internally displaced persons.(5, 8, 29, 37, 39-41, 47) There are also reports that children may be forcibly recruited or sexually abused on their way to school or subject to physical or sexual abuse at school.(27, 29, 40, 47) Children may sometimes join armed groups or engage in child labor in artisanal mines hoping to earn money, and internally displaced children often have difficulty accessing education.(2, 9, 15, 17, 19, 22, 46, 48) Low rates of birth registration leave many children vulnerable to child labor.(9, 40, 46, 49)

The DRC has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). However, gaps exist in the DRC’s legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

18

Article 6.3 of the Labor Code; Article 50 of the Child Protection Code (50-52)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 10 of the Decree Establishing the Conditions for Children’s Work (53)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Articles 28-35 of Decree on Working Conditions for Women and Children; Articles 10-15 of the Decree Establishing the Conditions for Children’s Work; Articles 23 and 26 of the Mining Code; Article 8b of the Decree on Validation Procedures for Artisanal Mines; Article 125 of the Labor Code (52-56)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 2 and 3 of the Labor Code; Articles 53 and 187 of the Child Protection Code; Articles 16 and 61 of the Constitution; Article 8 of the Decree Establishing the Conditions for Children’s Work (44, 50, 51, 53)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 3 of the Labor Code; Articles 53 and 162 of the Child Protection Code; Article 174j of the Penal Code; Article 8 of the Decree Establishing the Conditions for Children’s Work (50, 51, 53, 57)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 3 of the Labor Code; Articles 53, 61, 169, 173, 179-180, 182, 183, and 187 of the Child Protection Code; Article 174 b, 174 j, 174 m, and 174 n of the Penal Code; Article 8 of the Decree Establishing the Conditions for Children’s Work (50, 51, 53, 57)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 3 of the Labor Code; Article 8 of the Decree Establishing the Conditions for Children’s Work; Articles 53 and 187 of the Child Protection Code (50, 51, 53)

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

Yes*

18

 Article 7 of the Law on Armed Forces; Article 27 of the Law on the Military Status of the Congolese Armed Forces; Articles 53 and 187 of the Child Protection Code (50, 58, 59)

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Article 27 of the Law on Armed Forces; Articles 53, 71, and 187 of the Child Protection Code (50, 58)

Non-State Compulsory

Yes

18

Articles 53 and 187 of the Child Protection Code; Article 190 of the Constitution (44, 50, 58)

Compulsory Education Age

No

12

Articles 7.21, 12, and 72 of the Law on National Education; Article 43 of the Constitution (44, 60)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 43 of the Constitution; Article 38 of the Child Protection Code; Articles 12 and 72 of the Law on National Education (44, 50, 60)

* No conscription (3)
‡ Age calculated based on available information (43, 50, 60)

In July 2016, the Government adopted revisions to the Labor Code that raise the minimum working age to 18, prohibit children from working at night in either public or private enterprises, and permit children ages 16 and 17 to engage in light work as determined by the Ministry of Labor. However, the fine for violating the minimum age law is $16, and penalties for forced child labor are not commensurate with penalties imposed for other worst forms of child labor.(50, 52) Other laws awaiting adoption include a law to establish specialized mixed chambers to try war crimes, including the recruitment and use of child soldiers; the implementing decree for the Child Protection Code; and a Mining Code revision that punishes forced child labor on mining sites.(20, 29, 31, 61-63)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor law and criminal law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Employment, Labor, and Social Welfare (MOL)

Investigate cases related to child labor, including its worst forms.(9, 40) Refer cases of child labor to the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights (MOJ) for prosecution.(64)

Ministry of Justice and Human Rights (MOJ)

Enforce criminal laws related to child labor.(9, 27) Oversee four juvenile courts in Kinshasa, 18 UNICEF-funded child protection courts throughout the country, and assist the International Criminal Court in conducting investigations and prosecutions against individuals who allegedly used children in armed conflict.(64, 65)

Ministry of the Interior

Through its Congolese National Police Unit for the Protection of Women and Children, enforce laws related to the worst forms of child labor.(62, 66) Through its Police for Child Protection and Combating Sexual Violence (PEVS), combat conflict-related sexual and gender-based violence against women and children, protect children and women who are victims of physical abuse, and ensure demobilization of children. MOI refers all cases to the MOJ for prosecution, and assists victims in seeking justice.(62, 65, 67-70)

Ministry of Gender, Children, and Family (MOGCF)

Oversee and investigate cases related to the commercial sexual exploitation of children.(9, 27)

Ministry of Social Affairs, Solidarity, and Humanitarian Action (MINASA)

Monitor humanitarian programs and coordinate with UNICEF, USAID, and NGOs to provide social services to vulnerable groups, including street children, trafficking victims, and child soldiers.(27, 71, 72)

Ministry of Defense (MOD)

Investigate and use military courts to prosecute military officials suspected of recruitment and use of child soldiers or forced labor of civilians. Lead the implementation of the Child Soldiers Action Plan.(27, 49) Through its Department of Child Protection (DISPE), coordinate actions with UNICEF.(66)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, labor law enforcement agencies in the DRC took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

 Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown* (73)

$0 (3, 40)

Number of Labor Inspectors

243 (70)

200 (3)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (51)

Unknown (3, 51)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown* (3)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A

No (3)

Refresher Courses Provided

No (49, 70)

No (3)

Number of Labor Inspections

Unknown

0 (3, 40)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown

N/A

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown

N/A

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown (49)

0 (3)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown

N/A

Number of Child Penalties Imposed that Were Collected

Unknown

N/A

Routine Inspections Conducted

Unknown

No (3)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Unknown

N/A

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (51)

Yes (3)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Unknown

No (3)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Unknown

Yes (3)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (70)

Yes (3)

* The Government does not publish this information.

The number of labor inspectors is insufficient for the size of DRC’s workforce, which includes over 3.1 million workers.(74) According to the ILO’s recommendation of 1 inspector for every 40,000 workers in less developed economies, the DRC should employ 777 inspectors.(74-76) The Inspector General has requested the permission and resources to hire new inspectors for the past three years without success, and acknowledges inadequate human and financial resources hinder the inspectorate’s ability to conduct investigations throughout the country.(3, 4, 21, 70) In addition, research found conflicting information on whether inspectors are authorized to assess penalties.(3, 51)

By the end of 2016, Government officials, in cooperation with IOM and USAID, validated over 200 artisanal mines as free of child labor.(27, 65, 77, 78) However, labor laws are rarely enforced in the informal and artisanal mining sectors, where the majority of child labor is found.(9, 40) Although child labor violations may be reported to the Children’s Court, research indicates this mechanism is not effective.(3)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in the DRC took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown (49)

No (3)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

No (3)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (49)

Yes (27)

Number of Investigations

7 (35, 62)

0 (3)

Number of Violations Found

2,549 (41)

1,846(27)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

1 (49)

Unknown (3)

Number of Convictions

1 (49)

0 (3)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (49)

Yes (3)

 

In 2016, the Presidential Adviser on Sexual Violence and Child Recruitment began exploring a data collection project on forced prostitution and sexual slavery, including the use of girls as concubines.(27, 65) During the reporting period, the Government also significantly increased its prosecution efforts related to the worst forms of child labor, worked with the UN to investigate individuals accused of forcibly recruiting children, and initiated plans for making reparations to former child soldiers formerly associated with Thomas Lubanga, who was convicted in March 2012 for the forced recruitment of children in armed conflict.(27, 40, 79, 80) In addition, the Armed Forces of the DRC (FARDC) engaged in military operations against armed groups that used child soldiers, which led to the surrender and escape of some children.(27) Research indicates that some law enforcement officials and members of the judiciary may lack the knowledge, capacity, or resources to investigate and prosecute child labor violations effectively.(27, 49) The justice system also lacks independence, funding, capacity, and legitimacy, which weakens its ability to enforce laws and prosecute violators.(27, 31, 35, 81)

There were reports that some children associated with armed groups were detained, held in cells with adults, interrogated, and beaten, despite the enactment of a 2012 directive that requires that all children separated from armed groups be immediately transferred to the UN.(4, 31, 40, 41, 48, 82-85) The UN Organization Stabilization Mission in the DRC (MONUSCO) and FARDC officials conducted a joint mission to a military prison in March 2016 and identified 22 children who had been unlawfully detained; they began working with the Government to have the children transferred.(83)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Committee to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor (NCCL)

Oversee the National Action Plan to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor (NAP) and build the capacity of partner organizations.(86-88) Led by the MOL and includes representatives from 12 other ministries, local NGOs, and civil society.(3, 71, 87, 88)

Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration Commission (UEPN-DDR)

Led by the MOD, coordinate the identification, verification, and release of child soldiers by collaborating with the UN Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO), UNICEF, and NGOs.(27, 89) Through its Children Associated with Armed Forces and Armed Groups unit, coordinate the identification, verification, and release of children associated with armed groups and refer them to social service providers for family reunification and reinsertion.(3, 89)

Joint Technical Working Group (JTWG)

Coordinate implementation of the Child Soldiers Action Plan. Led by the MOGCF and includes representatives from four other ministries and the UN.(49) Through its Provincial JTWGs, coordinate implementation at the provincial level in North Kivu, South Kivu, and Orientale provinces.(49, 81) In 2016, met regularly and established a new Provincial JTWG in Tanganyika and a sub-regional JTWG in North Kivu.(27)

Working Group on Trafficking in Persons*

Analyzes human trafficking trends and discuss strategies to lobby for comprehensive trafficking legislation and an interministerial coordinating body. Led by IOM and the U.S. Embassy; includes representatives from three ministries, civil society organizations, and other government officials.(27)

* Mechanism to coordinate efforts to address child labor was created during the reporting period.

Rapid decentralization left some new leadership positions vacant without adequately trained staff to fill them. A lack of resources, trained personnel, poor coordination among relevant ministries, and competing priorities have impeded the Government’s efforts to combat the worst forms of child labor.(27, 49) Although the UEPN-DDR is meant to take the lead on child soldier issues, research indicates this did not always happen in practice.(27) The National Committee to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor did not carry out any activities in 2016 due to a lack of funding and a proposed committee to combat human trafficking remains stalled for the third consecutive year.(3, 27)

The Government has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Action Plan to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor (NAP) (2012–2020)

Developed by the NCCL in consultation with UNICEF to eliminate the worst forms of child labor in the DRC by 2020.(8, 90, 91) Promotes the enforcement of legislation on the worst forms of child labor; awareness raising and empowering communities to stop child labor practices; universal primary education; prevention and reintegration services; improved monitoring and evaluation efforts; and improved coordination of stakeholders.(8, 91)

Action Plan to End the Recruitment and Use of Child Soldiers (Child Soldiers Action Plan)

UN-backed plan which aims to prevent and end the use of children in armed forces, provide support and reintegration services, pursue accountability for perpetrators, and create a partnership framework for the UN and the Government.(92, 93) In April 2016, the JTWG, UNICEF, and MONUSCO validated standard operating procedures for age verification to help the Armed Forces of the DRC (FARDC) avoid underage recruitment, which successfully prevented over 191 children from enlisting.(27, 38) In October 2016, hosted a conference with civil society and the military to evaluate implementation of the Child Soldiers Action Plan and create a roadmap for continued work through 2019.(27)

UEPN-DDR’s National Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration Plan (PNDDR) DDR III

Aims to significantly improve the security situation in Eastern Congo by eradicating armed groups and providing rehabilitation and reintegration services to 12,205 demobilized combatants, including children.(65, 94-96) Implemented with the support of the UN and international partners in support of the 2013 Framework Agreement for Peace, Security and Cooperation for the DRC and the Great Lakes Region.(95, 97, 98) Includes a 2013 directive that requires the immediate transfer of all demobilized or detained children to humanitarian organizations.(49) In 2016, cooperated fully and collaborated closely with the UN to identify and remove children from the FARDC, allowing frequent and often unfettered access to its bases.(27, 49, 85)

National Action Plan Against Sexual Violence in Conflict

MOGCF policy in support of UN resolution 1325 on women, peace, and security, that aims to combat sexual violence against girls as part of armed conflict and ensure prosecution of perpetrators.(99)

‡The Government had other policies that may have an impact on child labor.(18, 31, 66, 100)

The Government has not integrated child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the UN Development Assistance Framework (2013–2017). The National Action Plan to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor has been awaiting approval from the National Labor Council since 2015.(65)

In 2016, the Government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

World Bank-funded Projects

Projects in support of re-establishing peace and stability. Includes Reinsertion and Reintegration Project (2015–2019), a $21 million project that aims to assist with social reintegration for the child combatants identified as part of DDR III; Support to Basic Education Program (2013–2017), a $100 million project implemented by the Ministry of Primary, Secondary, and Vocational Education that aims to increase access to education; and the Human Development Systems Strengthening (2016–2020),* a $41.1 million project which aims to increase birth registration and improve school infrastructure through an information management system.(46, 98, 101-105)

Program to Support Vulnerable Children

$4 million Government of Japan-funded program that aims to provide education, vocational training, reintegration kits, and school feeding programs to 13,000 children and construct a training center for youth in North Kivu Province.(106)

Decent Work Country Program (2013–2016)

$44.5 million ILO-implemented program to contribute to the consolidation of peace and reconstruction in the DRC by promoting social protection and decent work for youth, as well as ensuring that child protection agencies use the NAP.(107)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.

The scope of existing child DDR programs is insufficient and tensions with FLDR ex-combatants impede successful implementation. In addition, the process is slow, collaboration between partners is weak, and reintegrated child soldiers remain vulnerable to re-recruitment and stigmatization.(27, 31, 33, 36, 48, 85, 108) Outreach campaigns targeting girls resulted in an increase in girls separated from armed groups, but more attention still needs to be given to girls in the DDR process; girls make up an estimated 30 to 40 percent of children associated with armed groups, but only 8 percent have been demobilized.(32, 42, 48, 82, 108-110) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement the Program to Support Vulnerable Children or the Decent Work Country Program (2013–2016) during the reporting period.(66) Research also indicates the Government needs to strengthen its efforts to assist street children, integrate child labor issues into existing agricultural programs, and implement programs specifically designed to assist children engaged in mining, forced labor in domestic work, and commercial sexual exploitation.(29-31)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in the DRC (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Establish by law a compulsory education age that extends to the minimum age for employment.

2013 – 2016

Raise penalties for the use of underage child labor and forced or compulsory labor to be commensurate with other serious crimes.

2013 – 2016

Issue appropriate decrees to ensure that enacted laws are implemented.

2013 – 2016

Enforcement

Implement existing laws, including those that provide for free education and require demobilized children to be handed over to child protection actors for social services and reintegration assistance. Cease the practice of beating children and/or detaining children with adults for engaging in the worst forms of child labor.

2009 – 2016

Significantly increase the number of labor inspectors in accordance with the ILO recommendation and ensure that they receive adequate resources and training to carry out their duties throughout the country.

2011 – 2016

Ensure that judges, prosecutors, and investigators are knowledgeable about child labor issues and can investigate and prosecute violations through the judiciary.

2011 – 2016

Strengthen the labor inspectorate by authorizing inspectors to assess penalties, conducting routine and unannounced inspections, including in the informal sector, and ensuring a functional complaint mechanism.

2015 – 2016

Publish information on enforcement data, including the number of prosecutions initiated.

2009 – 2016

Coordination

Improve coordination among relevant ministries and ensure that they receive adequate resources to combat the worst forms of child labor, including child trafficking.

2015 – 2016

Ensure that UEPN-DDR is able to coordinate the Government's DDR III program as intended.

2015 – 2016

Ensure that the NCCL receives a dedicated budget and is able to carry out activities in support of its mandate.

2014 – 2016

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into existing policies.

2014 – 2016

Ensure action plans to combat the worst forms of child labor have adequate resources and are fully implemented.

2011 – 2016

Social Programs

Conduct a standalone child labor survey.

2013 – 2016

Improve access to education for all children, including those who are internally displaced, by eliminating school-related fees, regulating classroom size, training additional teachers, building additional schools, and ensuring that schools are safe and students are not subjected to sexual abuse while at school.

2012 – 2016

Ensure that all children are registered at birth or have identification documents.

2012 – 2016

Expand efforts to address the needs of demobilized children and integrate stigmatization, gender, and re-recruitment concerns into programs to reintegrate such children.

2009 – 2016

Ensure existing social programs are implemented as intended and establish or expand efforts to address exploitative child labor.

2009 – 2016

1.         Jocelyn Kelly, Natasha Greenberg, Daniel Sabet, Jordan Fulp. Assessment of Human Trafficking in Artisanal Mining Towns in Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. Washington, DC, USAID; August 2014. http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PA00K5R1.pdf.

2.         Sjöström, T. Childhood lost: Diamond mining in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and weaknesses of the Kimberley Process. Stockholm; December 21, 2016. http://www.swedwatch.org/sites/default/files/tmp/83_swedwatch_drc_diamonds.pdf.

3.         U.S. Embassy- Kinshasa. Reporting, February 1, 2017.

4.         U.S Department of State. "Congo, Democratic Republic of the," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016. Washington, DC; June 2016; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2016/index.htm.

5.         UN Security Council. Report of the Secretary-General on Children and Armed Conflict. New York, United Nations; June 5, 2015. Report No. A/69/926 - S/2015/409. http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/69/926&Lang=E&Area=UNDOC.

6.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed December 16, 2016; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary education. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. The calculation includes all new entrants to the last grade (regardless of age). Therefore, the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

7.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Survey OdfDaH, 2013-2014. Analysis received April 13, 2017. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information,  please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

8.         Ministere de l'Emploi du Travail et de la Prevoyance Sociale (METPS). Plan d'Action National (PAN) de Lutte Contre les Pires Formes de Travail des Enfants en Republique Democratique du Congo (2012 - 2020). Kinshasa, Comité National de Lutte Contre les Pires Formes de Travail des Enfants (CN-PFTE); December 2011. [source on file].

9.         U.S. Embassy-Kinshasa official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. July 31, 2015.

10.       Mission de l’Organisation des Nations Unies pour la Stabilisation en République Démocratique du Congo (MONUSCO) official. Interview with USDOL official. July 29, 2015.

11.       UNICEF official. Interview with USDOL official. July 29, 2015.

12.       Ministry of Agriculture official. Interview with USDOL official. July 29, 2015.

13.       Dieuboue, J. Etat de la Securite et Sante dans l’Agriculture en Republique Democratique du Congo (RDC) Année 2015. Geneva, ILO; 2015. [Source on file].

14.       U.S. Embassy-Kinshasa. reporting, February 5, 2015.

15.       Free the Slaves. Congo's Mining Slaves: Enslavement at South Kivu Mining Sites. Washington, DC; June 2013. https://www.freetheslaves.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/Congos-Mining-Slaves-web-130622.pdf.

16.       Hannah Poole Hahn, Karen Hayes, and Azra Kacapor. Breaking the Chain: Ending the supply of child-mined minerals. Washington, DC, Pact International; October 2013. http://www.pactworld.org/sites/default/files/PACT%20Child%20Labor%20Report%20English%202013.pdf.

17.       Marrion, M. "In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, helping children of the mines find a way out." UNICEF.org [online] February 26, 2013 [cited January 10, 2014]; http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/drcongo_67998.html.

18.       World Vision. Plan d'Action Provincial de Lutte Contre le Pires Formes de Travail des Enfants. Kinshasa; 2015. [Source on file].

19.       Amnesty International. “This is what we die for:” Human rights abuses in the Democratic Republic of the Congo power the global trade in cobalt. London; January 19, 2016. https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/afr62/3183/2016/en/.

20.       UNICEF. Mining & Corporate Social Responsibility: Katanga / Democratic Republic of the Congo; 2015. [Source on file].

21.       Child Miners Speak: Key Findings on Children and Artisanal Mining in Kambove DRC. Kinshasa, World Vision; May 2013. [Source on file].

22.       Frankel, TC. "The Cobalt Pipeline: Tracing the Path from Deadly Hand-dug Mines in Congo to Consumers' Phones and Laptops." WashingtonPost.com [online] September 30, 2016 [cited October 4, 2016]; https://www.washingtonpost.com/graphics/business/batteries/congo-cobalt-mining-for-lithium-ion-battery/.

23.       World Vision. Les enfants travaillant dans les mines s’expriment: Recherche sur les enfants dans les mines artisanales à Kambove, en RDC. Kinshasa; May 2013. http://www.visiondumonde.fr/sites/default/files/etc/Visiondumonde_Enfantsdesmines_2013.pdf.

24.       Taty, C. ""Les Moineaux" enfants exploités pour les travaux ménagers aux homes de l’Université de Kinshasa." speakjhr.com [online] September 18, 2013 [cited January 10, 2014]; http://speakjhr.com/2013/09/les-moineaux-enfants-exploites-pour-les-travaux-menager-aux-homes-de-luniversite-de-kinshasa/.

25.       Street Children and Street Gangs in D.R. Congo: The Case Study of the City of Kinshasa. Kinshasa, World Vision 2012. [Source on file].

26.       Save the Children official. Interview with USDOL official. July 30, 2015.

27.       U.S. Embassy-Kinshasa. reporting, February 22, 2017.

28.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation Concerning Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29) Democratic Republic of the Congo (Ratification: 1960) Published: 2015; accessed November 13, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3189960.

29.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request Concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Democratic Republic of the Congo (Ratification: 2001) Published: 2016; accessed February 16, 2017; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3251682.

30.       World Bank. Implementation Completion and Results Report (IDA-H5780) on a Grant in the Amount Of SDR 6.6 Million (US$10 million equivalent) to the Democratic Republic of Congo for a Street Children Project. Washington, DC,  February 29, 2016. http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2016/03/02/090224b0841c82e1/1_0/Rendered/PDF/Democratic0Rep0eet0Children0Project.pdf.

31.       Bureau International Catholique de l’Enfance, Bureau National Catholique de l’Enfance en RDC, Programme d’Encadrement des Enfants de la Rue, et Groupe des Hommes Voués au Développement Intercommunautaire. 74ème Groupe de travail pré-sessionnel du Comité des droits de l’enfant 6-10 juin 2016 - 74ème session du Comité des droits de l’enfant 9-27 janvier 2017 sur la République Démocratique du Congo; May 2016. https://bice.org/app/uploads/2016/06/CRC74_RapportAlternatifConjoint_BICE_BNCE-RDC_PEDER_GHOVODI.pdf.

32.       Mission de l’Organisation des Nations Unies pour la Stabilisation en République Démocratique du Congo (MONUSCO). Child Recruitment by Armed Groups in DRC From January 2012 to August 2013. Kinshasa; October 24, 2013. https://monusco.unmissions.org/sites/default/files/131024_monusco_cps_public_report_on_armed_group_recruitment_2012-2013.pdf.

33.       Group of Experts on the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Final Report of the Group of Experts on the Democratic Republic of the Congo.UN Security Council. January 12, 2015. Report No. S/2015/19. http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/2015/19.

34.       RFI. "RDC: près de 600 enfants-soldats libérés depuis janvier 2015." rfi.fr [online] August 6, 2015 [cited November 13, 2015]; http://www.rfi.fr/afrique/20150806-rdc-pres-600-enfants-soldats-liberes-depuis-janvier-2015.

35.       Amnesty International Report 2015/16: The State of the World's Human Rights. London, Amnesty International; February 23, 2016. https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/pol10/2552/2016/en/.

36.       Democratic Republic of Congo, Child Soldiers International, [online] [cited October 17, 2016]; https://www.child-soldiers.org/democratic-republic-of-congo.

37.       UN. Global Horizontal Notes July-September. New York, United Nations; 2017. [source on file].

38.       UN Security Council. Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. New York; June 28, 2016. http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/2016/579.

39.       U.S. Embassy-Kinshasa official. E-mail communication to U.S. Department of State official. February 1, 2017.

40.       U.S. Department of State. "Congo, Democratic Republic of the," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2016. Washington, DC; March 3, 2017; https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265454.pdf.

41.       UN General Assembly Security Council. Report of the Secretary-General on Children and Armed Conflict (A/70/836–S/2016/360); April 20, 2016. http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/2016/360.

42.       UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 8, Paragraph 1, of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict: Democratic Republic of the Congo. Geneva; March 7, 2012. Report No. CRC/C/OPAC/COD/CO/1. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2FC%2FOPAC%2FCOD%2FCO%2F1&.

43.       World Bank Group. Democratic Republic of Congo: Education Sector Public Expenditure Review - An Efficiency, Effectiveness, and Equity Analysis. Washington, DC; October 2015. Report No. ACS14542. http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2015/10/22/090224b08316094e/1_0/Rendered/PDF/Public0expendi00and0equity0analysis.pdf.

44.       Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Constitution de la Republique Democratique du Congo, enacted February 18, 2006. http://democratie.francophonie.org/IMG/pdf/Constitution_de_la_RDC.pdf.

45.       Tom De Herdt, and Kristof Titeca. "The United Nations set an ambitious education goal. Why did it fail in Congo?" WashingtonPost.com [online] June 8, 2016 [cited June 8, 2016]; https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/monkey-cage/wp/2016/06/08/164-countries-pledged-education-for-all-by-2015-heres-why-this-goal-failed-in-congo/?utm_term=.8efdff14da0b.

46.       UNICEF. Annual Report 2014 - Democratic Republic of Congo. New York; June 1, 2015. http://www.unicef.org/about/annualreport/files/Democratic_Republic_of_Congo_Annual_Report_2014.pdf.

47.       Human Rights Watch. “Our School Became the Battlefield” Using Schools for Child Recruitment and Military Purposes in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo; October 2015. https://www.hrw.org/report/2015/10/27/our-school-became-battlefield/using-schools-child-recruitment-and-military.

48.       Child Soldiers International. Submission to the CRC on child recruitment and the reintegration of girls in DRC. London; June 2016. https://www.child-soldiers.org/shop/submission-to-the-committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-on-child-recruitment-and-the-reintegration-of.

49.       U.S. Embassy-Kinshasa. reporting, February 8, 2016.

50.       Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Portant Protection de L'Enfant, N° 09/001, enacted January, 2009. http://www.leganet.cd/Legislation/JO/2009/L.09.001.10.01.09.htm.

51.       Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Code du Travail, N° 015/2002, enacted October 16, 2002 http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/SERIAL/62645/52447/F1638018233/COD-62645.pdf.

52.       Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Loi Modifiant et Complétant la Loi N° 015-2002 Portant Code du Travail, N° 16/010, enacted July 15, 2016. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex4.detail?p_lang=en&p_isn=102953&p_count=14&p_classification=01.

53.       Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Arrêté Ministériel Fixant les Conditions de Travail des Enfants, N° 12/CAB.MIN/TPSI/045/08, enacted August 8, 2008.

54.       Law  Relating to the Mining Code, N° 007/2002, enacted July 11, 2002 http://www.resourcegovernance.org/sites/default/files/Mining%20Code.pdf.

55.       Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Arrêté Ministériel relatif aux conditions de travail des femmes et enfants, N° 68/13, enacted May 17, 1968. http://www.leganet.cd/Legislation/DroitSocial/AM.68.13.17.05.1968.htm.

56.       Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Arrêté Ministériel Fixant les procedures de qualification et de validation des sites miniers des fiueres aurifere et stannifere dans les provinces du Katanga, du  Maniema, du Nord Kivu, du Sud Kivu et de la Province Orientale, N° 0058/CAB.MIN/MINES/01/2012, enacted February 23, 2012. http://mines-rdc.cd/fr/documents/Arrete_0058_2012.pdf.

57.       Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Code Penal Congolais, N° 06/018, enacted July 20, 2006. http://www.leganet.cd/Legislation/DroitPenal/Loi.06.018.20.07.3006.htm.

58.       Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Loi Portant Statut du Militaire des Forces Armees de la Republique Democratique du Congo, N° 00120/01/2013, enacted January 23, 2013. http://desc-wondo.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/Loi-portant-statut-du-militaire-des-FARDC-promulgu%C3%A9e-le-15012013.pdf.

59.       Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Loi Portant Organisation Generale de la Defense et des Forces Armees, N° 04/023, enacted November 12, 2004. http://desc-wondo.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/Loi-Organique-sur-les-FARDC.pdf.

60.       Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Loi Cadre de l'Enseignement National, N° 86/0005, enacted September 22, 1986. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/9498/111653/F1265273741/COD-9498.pdf.

61.       Human Rights Watch. World Report 2015: Democratic Republic of the Congo. January 2015. http://www.hrw.org/world-report/2015/country-chapters/democratic-republic-of-congo.

62.       U.S. Embassy-Kinshasa official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 10, 2016.

63.       UNICEF. Tableau comparatif des amendements de la Société civile au Code minier; 2015. [Source on file].

64.       Ministry of Justice official. Interview with USDOL official. July 29, 2015.

65.       U.S. Embassy-Kinshasa official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 8, 2017.

66.       U.S. Embassy-Kinshasa official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 8, 2017.

67.       UN Human Rights Council. National report submitted in accordance with paragraph 5 of the annex to Human Rights Council resolution 16/21: Democratic Republic of the Congo. New York; January 30, 2014. Report No. A/HRC/WG.6/19/COD/1. http://www.refworld.org/pdfid/53e0df324.pdf.

68.       European Union. "EU Police Mission for the DRC (EUPOL RD Congo)." EU [online] February 2014 [cited April 1, 2016]; http://www.eeas.europa.eu/archives/csdp/missions-and-operations/eupol-rd-congo/pdf/factsheet_eupol_rd_congo_en.pdf.

69.       "L’école de police de Mugunga a diplômé des officiers de police judiciaire spécialisés dans la lutte contre les violences sexuelles." UNDP.org [online] February 18, 2015 [cited April 1, 2016]; http://www.cd.undp.org/content/rdc/fr/home/presscenter/articles/2015/02/18/l-cole-de-police-de-mugunga-a-dipl-m-des-officiers-de-la-police-judiciaire-sp-cialis-s-dans-la-lutte-contres-violences-sexuelles.html.

70.       Ministry of Labor official. Interview with USDOL official. July 29, 2015.

71.       National Committee to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor (NCCL) official. Interview with USDOL official. July 29, 2015.

72.       Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Ministere des Affaires Sociales, Action Humanitaire, et Solidarite Nationale, [online] October 24, 2014 [cited March 15, 2016]; [Source on file].

73.       U.S. Embassy-Kinshasa. reporting, January 22, 2016.

74.       CIA. The World Factbook, [online] [cited January 19, 2017]; https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors based on the country’s level of development as determined by the UN.

75.       ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a “sufficient number” of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a “sufficient” number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

76.       UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex. New York; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies; “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies, and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

77.       German Federal institute for Geosciences and National Resources (BGR), Ministry of Mines. Summary of the Mine Site Validation Missions in the DRC from 06-2011 to 04-2016; 2016. http://enoughproject.org/files/Bulletin_ECQ_April_2016_EN.pdf.

78.       Annie Callaway, and Sasha Lezhnev. "Number of Certified Conflict-Free Mines in Congo Increases by 31%: 204 Mines Certified." enoughproject.org [online] May 31, 2016 [cited May 16, 2017]; http://enoughproject.org/blog/number-conflict-free-mines-congo-increases-31-204-mines-certified.

79.       Wakabi, W. "Congo-Kinshasa: Reparations Plan for Lubanga Victims Takes Shape." allafrica.com [online] October 14, 2016 [cited October 14, 2016]; http://allafrica.com/stories/201610170198.html.

80.       Biddle, J. "CPI: les ex-enfants soldats d'une milice congolaise stigmatisés à vie." information.tv5monde.com [online] October 11, 2016 [cited October 17, 2016]; http://tempsreel.nouvelobs.com/monde/20161011.AFP9486/cpi-les-ex-enfants-soldats-d-une-milice-congolaise-stigmatises-a-vie.html.

81.       Mission de l’Organisation des Nations Unies pour la Stabilisation en République Démocratique du Congo (MONUSCO). Protéger et soutenir les enfants touchés par la violence et les conflits; February 2015. https://monusco.unmissions.org/sites/default/files/echos_monusco_42_1.pdf.

82.       UN General Assembly. Annual Report of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict. New York; December 22, 2016. Report No. A/HRC/34/44. http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/HRC/34/44&Lang=E&Area=UNDOC.

83.       DR Congo: Children Held in Remote Military Prison, Human Rights Watch, [online] April 4, 2016 [cited October 17, 2016]; https://www.hrw.org/news/2016/04/04/dr-congo-children-held-remote-military-prison.

84.       Human Rights Watch. World Report 2017: Democratic Republic of the Congo; January 2017. https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/drc_2.pdf.

85.       U.S. Embassy-Kinshasa official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. October 20, 2016.

86.       U.S. Embassy- Kinshasa. reporting, February 26, 2014.

87.       Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Arrêté Inteministériel Portant Creation et Fonctionnement du Commite National de Lutte Contre les Pires Formes de Travail des Enfants, N°12/MIN/TPS/AR/34/2006, enacted June 10, 2006. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex4.detail?p_lang=fr&p_isn=75554&p_country=COD&p_count=241.

88.       Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Modifiant et Completant l'Arrêté Interministériel N° 12/MIN/TPS/AR/34/2006 du 10 Juin 2006 Portant Creation et Fonctionnement du Comite National de Lutte Contre les Pires Formes de Travail des Enfants, N° 118/CAB/MIN/ETPS/MBL/DKL/dag/2013; N° 004/CAB/MIN/AFF.SOC/2013; N° 003/CAB/MIN/GEFAE/2013, enacted October 14, 2013. [Source on file].

89.       Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Ordonnance portant création, organisation et fonctionnement de l’unité d’exécution du programme national de désarmement, démobilisation et réinsertion, en sigle « UEPN-DDR », N° 07/057, enacted July 14, 2007. http://www.droitcongolais.info/files/JO-n-15--annee-48,-1er-aout-2007-.pdf.

90.       U.S. Embassy-Kinshasa. reporting, February 27, 2015.

91.       Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Rapport Final de l'Atelier National sur le Travail des Enfants dans l'Agriculture en Republique Democratique du Congo. Kinshasa, Ministere de l'Emploi, du Travail et de la Prevoyance Sociale May 20, 2015. [Source on file].

92.       Government of Democratic Republic of the Congo. Plan d'action pour la lutte contre le recrutement et l'utilisation d'enfant ainsi que les autre violations graves des droits de l'enfant par les forces armées et les services de sécurité de la République Démocratique du Congo; October 4, 2012. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/MONOGRAPH/101406/122160/F474283417/INT-101406.pdf.

93.       Joint Technical Working Group on Children and Armed Conflict. UN/GoDRC Action Plan to stop and prevent underage recruitment, sexual violence and other grave child rights violations; October 4, 2012. [Source on file].

94.       Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. "Le « Plan Global DDR III » a démarré." UEPNDDR.cd [previously online] June 13, 2015 [cited March 14, 2016]; http://uepnddr.cd/?p=113 [source on file].

95.       Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. "Contexte général du DDR III." UEPNDDR.cd [previously online] May 1, 2015 [cited March 14, 2016]; http://uepnddr.cd/Presentation_DDR3.html [source on file].

96.       Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Plan Global de Désarmement, Demobilisation et Reintegration (DDR Ill): Programme National de Désarmement, Demobilisation et Reinsertion (PNDDR). Online. Kinshasa, Ministere de la Defense Nationale et des Anciens Combattants; 2014. http://desc-wondo.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/Plan-Global-de-DDR-III.pdf.

97.       Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Programme National de Desarmement, Demobilisation et Reinsertion (PNDDR) Rapport Mensuel d'Activites du DDR III. Kinshasa, Ministere de la Defense Nationale et des Anciens Combattants; November 2015. [Source on file].

98.       World Bank. Congo, Democratic Republic of - Reinsertion and Reintegration Project. Washington, DC; May 4, 2015. Report No. PAD1244. http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2015/05/08/090224b082e58e01/1_0/Rendered/PDF/Congo00Democra0integration0Project0.pdf.

99.       Ministre du Genre, de la Famille, et de l'Enfant. Plan d'Action du Gouvernement de la Republique Democratique du Congo pour l'Application de la Resolution 1325 du Conseil de Securite des Nations Unies. Kinshasa; January 2010. [Source on file].

100.     World Vision official. Interview with USDOL official. July 30, 2015.

101.     "RDC : 100 millions USD pour réhabiliter 1000 écoles." Kongotimes.info [online] June 25, 2013 [cited March 14, 2016]; http://afrique.kongotimes.info/rdc/enseignement/5995-congo-millions-usd-rehabiliter-1000-ecoles-examen-etat-edition-2013-kabila-chevet-secteur-educatif.html.

102.     All Africa. "Congo-Kinshasa: 'New Dawn' in Land of Rape and Child Soldiers." allafrica.com [online] July 13, 2015 [cited November 13, 2015]; http://allafrica.com/stories/201507131888.html.

103.     World Bank. ZR Support to Basic Education Program (P131120) Implementation Status & Results Report. Washington, DC; February 8, 2016. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2016/02/25885184/congo-democratic-republic-zr-support-basic-education-program-p131120-implementation-status-results-report-sequence-06.

104.     World Bank. Project Appraisal Document on a Proposed Grant in the Amount of US$ 100 Million to the Democratic Republic of Congo for a Support to Basic Education Project Under the Global Partnership for Education Fund. Washington, DC; May 2, 2013. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2013/05/17817566/democratic-republic-congo-support-basic-education-program-under-global-partnership-education-fund-project.

105.     World Bank. Project Paper on a Proposed Additional Grant in the Amount of SDR 21.8 Million (US$30 Million Equivalent) with an Additional Grant from the Global Financing Facility (GFF) in the Amount of US$10 Million to the Democratic Republic of Congo for a Human Development Systems Strengthening Project. Project Paper. Washington, DC; March 8, 2016. Report No. PAD1735. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/286411467987906150/pdf/PAD1735-PJPR-P145965-P156421-IDA-R2016-0038-1-Box394870B-OUO-9.pdf.

106.     "4 millions de dollars pour les ex-enfants soldats." Le Phare [online] October 10, 2015 [cited December 2, 2015]; http://www.lephareonline.net/4-millions-de-dollars-pour-les-ex-enfants-soldats/.

107.     ILO. Programme Pays pour un Travail Decent (2013-2016). http://www.ilo.org/public/english/bureau/program/dwcp/download/thecongo.pdf.

108.     Child Soldiers International. "Briefing on the recruitment and use of children in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) to the UN Security Council Working Group on Children and Armed Conflict." Child-Soldiers.org [online] July 31, 2014 [cited March 14, 2016]; https://www.child-soldiers.org/Shop/briefing-to-the-un-security-council-working-group-on-the-recruitment-and-use-of-children-in-the-drc-1.

109.     "Journée mondiale contre l’utilisation d’enfants soldats en République Démocratique du Congo (RDC)." Child Soldiers International [online] February 12, 2015 [cited November 24, 2015]; [Source on file].

110.     Mission de l’Organisation des Nations Unies pour la Stabilisation en République Démocratique du Congo (MONUSCO). Invisible Survivors: Girls in Armed Groups in the Democratic Republic of Congo From 2009 to 2015; November 25, 2015. https://childrenandarmedconflict.un.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/151123-Girls-in-Armed-Groups-2009-2015-Final.pdf.

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