Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Congo, Democratic Republic of the (DRC)

Cobalt Ore (Heterogenite)
Cobalt Ore (Heterogenite)
Child Labor Icon
Copper
Copper
Child Labor Icon
Diamonds
Diamonds
Child Labor Icon
Gold
Gold
Child Labor Icon
Forced Child Labor Icon
Forced Labor Icon
Tantalum Ore (Coltan)
Tantalum Ore (Coltan)
Child Labor Icon
Forced Child Labor Icon
Forced Labor Icon
Tin Ore (Cassiterite)
Tin Ore (Cassiterite)
Child Labor Icon
Forced Child Labor Icon
Forced Labor Icon
Tungsten Ore (Wolframite)
Tungsten Ore (Wolframite)
Child Labor Icon
Forced Child Labor Icon
Forced Labor Icon
Congo, Democratic Republic of the (DRC)
2018 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Minimal Advancement – Efforts Made but Continued Practice that Delayed Advancement

In 2018, the Democratic Republic of the Congo made a minimal advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The government convicted two former militia leaders of war crimes, including for the recruitment and use of children in armed conflict. The Ministry of Mines also launched a traceability and monitoring system for artisanal mines to detect cases of child labor. However, despite new initiatives to address child labor, the Democratic Republic of the Congo is receiving an assessment of minimal advancement because it continued a practice that delayed advancement in eliminating the worst forms of child labor. Research indicates that labor inspectors failed to conduct any worksite inspections for the third year in a row. Labor inspections are a key tool for identifying child labor violations, and their absence makes children more vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor. In addition, members of the Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo detained and sometimes committed extra-judicial killing of boys due to their perceived support or affiliation with non-state armed groups. Children in the Democratic Republic of the Congo engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in the forced mining of gold, tin ore (cassiterite), tantalum ore (coltan), and tungsten ore (wolframite), and are used in armed conflict, sometimes as a result of forcible recruitment or abduction by non-state armed groups. Other gaps remain, including a lack of trained enforcement personnel, limited financial resources, poor coordination of government efforts to combat child labor, and laws mandating free primary education which are not enforced.

Children in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in the forced mining of gold, tin ore (cassiterite), tantalum ore (coltan), and tungsten ore (wolframite), and are used in armed conflict, sometimes as a result of forcible recruitment or abduction by non-state armed groups. (1-7) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in the DRC. Data on some of these indicators are not available from the sources used in this report.

Table 1. Statistics on Children's Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

35.8 (unavailable)

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

77.3

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

37.1

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

70.0

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2015, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2019. (8)

Source for all other data: International Labor Organization's analysis of statistics from Demographic and Health Survey, 2013–2014. (9)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children's Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Farming, including tilling fields, planting seeds, watering crops, carrying heavy loads,† weeding, harvesting crops, and use of chemical products and machetes in the production of beans, corn, manioc, rice, and sweet potatoes (10-14)

 

Fishing, including maintaining fishing tools, baiting hooks, transporting heavy loads, using explosives, and salting, smoking, and packaging fish (10-12,14)

 

Herding and raising livestock such as chickens, goats, and pigs, including feeding, cleaning cages or stalls, and disposing of waste (11,12,15)

 

Hunting (10,15)

 

Industry

Mining,† including carrying heavy loads,† digging, sifting, sorting, transporting, using explosives, washing, and working underground† in the production of diamonds, copper, cobalt ore (heterogenite), gold, tin ore (cassiterite), tantalum ore (coltan), and tungsten ore (wolframite) (1,4,5,10,13,14,16-19)

 

Working as auto mechanics and in carpentry and craft workshops (10)

 

Working on construction sites and building roads (10)

 

Services

Domestic work (10,13,14)

 

Driving motorcycle taxis (14)

 

Street work, including vending, garbage scavenging, and carrying heavy loads (10,11,14)

 

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Forced mining of gold, tantalum (coltan), tin (cassiterite), and tungsten (wolframite), each sometimes as a result of debt bondage (3-5)

Forced domestic work and commercial sexual exploitation, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (3,4,10,18,20-23)

 

Use in illicit activities, including for spying, carrying stolen goods, and smuggling minerals (3,20,24,25)

 

Forced recruitment of children by non-state armed groups for use in armed conflict, including as checkpoint monitors, combatants, concubines, domestic workers, field hands, human shields, looters, porters, spies, and tax collectors at mining sites (3,6,7)

 

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

International organizations estimate that there are between 125 and 150 indigenous and foreign non-state armed groups operating within the DRC. (3,27) Some of these armed groups—including Forces Démocratiques de Libération du Rwanda (FDLR), Mayi Mayi Mazembe, Kamuina Nsapu Mayi Mayi groups, Nduma Défense du Congo (NDC/Renove), Nyatura, and Rayia Mutomboki—continued to abduct and recruit children for use in armed conflict. (6,7,26) UNICEF and other international organizations estimate that between 40 and 70 percent of the militias in central DRC include children, some as young as age 5. (25) Roughly half of all children separated from armed groups were under the age of 15. (26) Limited research indicates that some members of the Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (FARDC) may have collaborated with non-state armed groups known for recruiting children, including coordinating operations or selling arms and munitions. (3,6,27-29) Although there is strong evidence of children engaged in armed conflict, commercial sexual exploitation, and forced labor in mining, there is a lack of information on the overall nature of child labor because a comprehensive, stand-alone, child labor survey has never been conducted in the DRC. (12)

The government has mandated free primary education, but these laws were not implemented throughout the country, and some families are required to pay for school uniforms, tuition, and additional fees, which may be prohibitive. (1,10,12,16,19,23,30-32) Children may sometimes join armed groups or engage in child labor in artisanal mines hoping to earn money for school-related expenses. (1,4,16,17,25,30-32) Schools throughout the DRC are overcrowded, understaffed, structurally damaged by conflicts, occupied by internally displaced persons, or require students to travel long distances. (1,2,23,25,33-35) Children and teachers also face difficulty in accessing education due to their large-scale internal displacement and fear of violence, being forcibly recruited, or sexually assaulted at or on their way to school. (23,25,33-37) Non-state armed groups attacked 89 schools between January and September 2018, and FARDC attacked 3 schools. (26) Furthermore, an Ebola outbreak in northeastern DRC impacted some students' access to education as families fled the affected areas or others kept their children at home for fear of transmission at school. Additionally, frequent teacher strikes occurred as a result of irregular payment of teacher salaries. (14,38)

UNICEF estimates that only 14 percent of children under age 5 have birth certificates. (39) Low rates of birth registration leave many children vulnerable to child labor because it makes age verification difficult during the FARDC recruitment campaigns and hinders efforts to identify and separate children associated with armed groups. (4,11,35)

The DRC has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in the DRC's legal framework to adequately protect children from the worst forms of child labor, including its compulsory education age.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

16

Article 6 of the Labor Code; Article 50 of the Child Protection Code (40-42)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 10 of the Decree Establishing the Conditions for Children's Work (43)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Articles 8–15 of the Decree Establishing the Conditions for Children's Work; Articles 26 and 299 bis of the Mining Code; Article 8b of the Decree on Validation Procedures for Artisanal Mines; Article 125 of the Labor Code (40,41,43-47)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 2 and 3 of the Labor Code; Articles 53 and 187 of the Child Protection Code; Articles 16 and 61 of the Constitution; Article 8 of the Decree Establishing the Conditions for Children's Work (32,40,42,43)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 3 of the Labor Code; Articles 53, 162, and 187 of the Child Protection Code; Article 174j of the Penal Code; Article 8 of the Decree Establishing the Conditions for Children's Work (40,42,43,48)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 3 of the Labor Code; Articles 53, 61, 169, 173, 179–180, 182–183, and 187 of the Child Protection Code; Articles 174b, 174j, 174m, and 174n of the Penal Code; Article 8 of the Decree Establishing the Conditions for Children's Work (40,42,43,48)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 3 of the Labor Code; Article 8 of the Decree Establishing the Conditions for Children's Work; Articles 53, 187–188, and 194 of the Child Protection Code (40,42,43)

Minimum Age for Voluntary State Military Recruitment

Yes

18

Article 27 of the Law on Armed Forces; Articles 53, 71, and 187 of the Child Protection Code (40,49)

Prohibition of Compulsory Recruitment of Children by (State) Military

Yes*

 

Article 7 of the Law on Armed Forces; Article 27 of the Law on the Military Status of the Congolese Armed Forces; Articles 53, 71, and 187 of the Child Protection Code (40,49,50)

Prohibition of Military Recruitment by Non-state Armed Groups

Yes

 

Articles 53, 71, and 187 of the Child Protection Code; Article 190 of the Constitution (32,40)

Compulsory Education Age

No

12‡

Article 38 of the Child Protection Code; Articles 7.21, 12, and 72 of the Law on National Education; Article 43 of the Constitution (32,40,51)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 38 of the Child Protection Code; Article 43 of the Constitution; Article 38 of the Child Protection Code; Articles 12 and 72 of the Law on National Education (32,40,51)

* No conscription (15)
‡ Age calculated based on available information (31,40,51)

In March 2018, the President signed into law a new Mining Code which was adopted by the National Assembly and Senate in December 2017. This law explicitly punishes individuals for using child labor in mining or selling ore mined with child labor. (43)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, the absence of worksite inspections conducted at the national level in the DRC may have impeded the enforcement of child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Employment, Labor, and Social Welfare (MOL)

Investigates cases related to child labor, including its worst forms. (33) Refers cases of child labor to the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights (MOJ) for prosecution. (14)

Ministry of Justice and Human Rights (MOJ)

Enforces criminal laws related to child labor. (11,14) Oversees five juvenile courts in Kinshasa and assists the International Criminal Court to conduct investigations and prosecute individuals who use children in armed conflict. (14,27,35)

Ministry of the Interior

Investigates allegations of human trafficking rings, refers child labor cases to the MOJ for prosecution, and provides ongoing support to victims. (14,27) In the case of the Police Unit for Child Protection and Combating Sexual Violence, combats conflict-related sexual and gender-based violence against women and children, protects children and women who are victims of physical abuse, and ensures the demobilization of children. (14,52,53) In 2018, became the primary coordination body for the trafficking in persons working group. (27)

Office of the President's Personal Representative on Sexual Violence and Child Recruitment

Supports and coordinates the efforts of government officials and international bodies to combat sexual violence and the use of children in armed conflict. (33,54) Compiles data on prosecutions in military and civil courts involving sexual violence against girls and maintains a hotline for reporting cases. (27)

Ministry of Defense (MOD)

Investigates and prosecutes in military courts military officials suspected of recruiting and using child soldiers, and leads the implementation of the Action Plan to End the Recruitment and Use of Child Soldiers. Through its Department of Child Protection, coordinates actions with UNICEF. (14) Through its Children Associated with Armed Forces and Armed Groups Unit, coordinates demobilization, disarmament, and reintegration activities. (27,55)

Ministry of Gender and Family (MOGF)

Oversees and investigates cases related to the commercial sexual exploitation of children. (14)

Ministry of Social Affairs, Solidarity, and Humanitarian Action (MINASA)

Monitors humanitarian programs and coordinates with key actors to promote social services to vulnerable groups, including street children, human trafficking victims, and child soldiers. (14)

Labor Law Enforcement
In 2018, the absence of worksite inspections conducted at the national level in the DRC may have impeded the enforcement of child labor laws (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2017

2018

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown (15)

Unknown (14)

Number of Labor Inspectors

200 (15)

200 (14)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (15)

Yes (14)

Initial Training for New Labor Inspectors

Unknown (15)

No (14)

 

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A (15)

No (14)

Refresher Courses Provided

No (15)

No (14)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

0 (15)

0 (14)

 

Number Conducted at Worksite

0 (15)

0 (14)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

0 (15)

Unknown (14)

 

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

N/A (15)

Unknown (14)

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that Were Collected

N/A (15)

Unknown (14)

Routine Inspections Conducted

No (15)

No (14)

 

Routine Inspections Targeted

N/A (15)

N/A

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (15)

Yes (14)

 

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

No (15)

No (14)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (15)

Yes (14)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (15)

Yes (14)

The number of labor inspectors is likely insufficient for the size of the DRC's workforce, which includes over 31 million workers. According to the ILO's technical advice of a ratio approaching 1 inspector for every 40,000 workers in less developed economies, the DRC would employ about 784 labor inspectors. (56,57)  In addition, the government did not allocate funds for enforcement agencies to conduct inspections or investigations, thereby limiting its ability to adequately enforce child labor law provisions. (14,26,33)

Implementing decrees for the Child Protection Code have not been adopted. In addition, penalties for criminal violations related to the worst forms of child labor—including the use of children in armed conflict—are 1 to 3 years of imprisonment with fines as high as $130, which are insufficient to serve as deterrents. (3,21,41,43,58)

Criminal Law Enforcement
In 2018, criminal law enforcement agencies in the DRC took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including the allocation of financial resources.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2017

2018

Initial Training for New Criminal Investigators

No (9)

No (14)

 

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A (15)

No (14)

Refresher Courses Provided

No (15)

Yes (3)

Number of Investigations

Unknown (15)

Unknown (14)

Number of Violations Found

1,031 (15)

2,255 (27)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

1 (59)

13‡ (26)

Number of Convictions

1 (60)

2‡ (26,61)

Imposed Penalties for Violations Related to The Worst Forms of Child Labor

Yes (62,63)

Yes (7,61,64)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (15)

Yes (3)

‡ Data are from January 1, 2018 to September 20, 2018.

In 2018, the government made efforts to hold perpetrators of the worst forms of child labor accountable. The Ministry of the Interior identified two child victims of sex trafficking, who were repatriated to the Republic of the Congo by the Ministry of Gender and Family. (27) In South Kivu, a military tribunal sentenced Lieutenant Colonel Maro Ntumwa, former leader of a Mai Mai group known for using children in armed conflict, to 20 years in prison for crimes against humanity and war crimes, including the sexual slavery of girls. (61) In North Kivu, a military tribunal convicted Dominique Buyenge of war crimes for his role in the recruitment and use of children in armed conflict and sentenced him to life imprisonment; and hearings began in the trial of Ntabo Ntaberi Sheka, a militia leader known for the forced recruitment of boys. (7,64) Furthermore, testimony continued at the International Criminal Court against Bosco Ntaganda, former leader of the Forces Patriotiques pour la Libération du Congo (FPLC). He is accused of crimes against humanity, including the forced recruitment of children in armed conflict and sexual slavery of girls. (65,66)

During the reporting period, an international organization verified two cases of children used—but not recruited—in support roles by the FARDC, one for sexual slavery and domestic work and the other for forced labor. Although the commander allegedly responsible for these offenses was redeployed to a different regiment, he was not otherwise held accountable. (3) However, impunity remained a concern as the government did not consistently hold perpetrators accountable, and some officials may be complicit in helping perpetrators avoid prosecution. (3)

A lack of coordination among ministries in conducting investigations, collecting data, and providing services to victims hinders the government's ability to adequately combat the worst forms of child labor. (3,27) Research indicates that the justice system lacks the independence, knowledge, capacity, and resources to investigate and prosecute child labor violations. (4,21,33)

Members of both the national police and government-backed non-state armed groups carried out extrajudicial killings of civilians in central DRC, including children, due to their perceived support or affiliation with non-state armed groups. (6,23,26,28,33,67,68) The government detained 125 children, including 6 girls, for their alleged association with armed groups for periods between 3 to 48 days, despite a 2012 directive that requires that all children detained for their association with armed groups be immediately transferred to the UN. (26,33) Police in Kinshasa also killed, beat, or forcibly disappeared teenage boys known to support opposition groups or those who had refused to disrupt opposition-led protests through violent means in exchange for pay from state security agents. (69)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including lack of coordination among agencies.

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Committee to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor (NCCL)

Oversees the National Action Plan to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor and monitors its implementation. (68,70) Led by the MOL and includes representatives from 12 other ministries, local NGOs, and civil society. (14,68,70) Although it did not formally meet in 2018 due to a lack of funding, the NCCL created plans for a national road map to combat child labor and a nationwide conference in 2020. (27)

Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration Commission (UEPN-DDR)

Coordinates the identification, verification, and release of children associated with armed groups, and refers them to social services providers for family reunification and reinsertion by collaborating with the MOGF, the UN Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO), UNICEF, and NGOs. (14,27,55) Led by the MOD's Children Associated with Armed Forces and Armed Groups unit. (27,55) Between 2015 and 2018, secured the release of 17,141 children, who received social services through UNICEF and NGOs. (14,71)

Joint Technical Working Group (JTWG)

Coordinates the implementation of the Child Soldiers Action Plan and activities at the provincial level in North Kivu, South Kivu, and Orientale provinces. Led by the MOGF and includes representatives from four other ministries and the UN. (3,5,72) In 2018, met monthly and developed a 2018 road map for ending recruitment of children, held 7 workshops on conducting age verification procedures, which resulted in the removal of 146 children from the Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (FARDC) prior to training. Established a new JTWG in Kasai Province, revitalized the JTWG in Kasai Central, and negotiated the release of children from detention centers. (3,26,27)

Working Group on Trafficking in Persons

Analyzes human trafficking trends and discusses strategies to develop comprehensive human trafficking legislation and an inter-ministerial coordinating body. Led by the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and the U.S. Embassy; includes representatives from relevant ministries, civil society organizations, law enforcement officials, and other Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) officials. (14) In 2018, the Ministry of the Interior drafted a bill to formalize the working group and encourage passage of a draft human trafficking bill, but both were pending at year's end. (27)

Inter-ministerial Commission (IMC) Responsible for Addressing the Issue of Child Labor in Mines and on Mine Sites in DRC

Coordinates efforts to eradicate child labor in the DRC's mining sector and serves as an advisor to other ministries combating child labor in mining. (5) In conjunction with the IOM and international donors, also validated 93 additional mines as conflict and child labor free during the reporting period, bringing the total number of validated tin, tungsten, and tantalum sites to 401 and gold sites validated to 56. (27) A meeting of donors to solicit funding for the establishment of a Zero Tolerance of Children in Mining Special Fund did not occur in 2018 as scheduled. (14,73)

Overlapping objectives and duplication of efforts, combined with a lack of resources and trained personnel, may have impeded the government's ability to coordinate actions to combat the worst forms of child labor. (23,27) In addition, the Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration Commission is meant to take the lead on child soldier issues; however, research indicates that, in practice, this did not always happen. (27)

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including whether relevant policies were active.

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Action Plan to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2012–2020)

Developed by the NCCL in consultation with UNICEF to eliminate the worst forms of child labor in the DRC by 2020. (10,74) Promotes the enforcement of laws prohibiting the worst forms of child labor; universal primary education; monitoring and evaluation efforts; and improved coordination of stakeholders. Raises awareness, empowers communities to stop child labor practices, and provides prevention and reintegration services. (10,74) No activities were implemented in 2018 due to a lack of funding. (14)

Action Plan to End the Recruitment and Use of Child Soldiers (Child Soldiers Action Plan)

UN-backed plan that aims to prevent and end the use of children in armed forces, provide support and reintegration services, pursue accountability for perpetrators, and create a partnership framework for the UN and the government. (75,76) Includes standard operating procedures for age verification to help the FARDC avoid underage recruitment. (2,3,5) In 2018, provided training to members of the FARDC and police officers. (26) MONUSCO and the government worked with leaders of non-state armed groups to sign action plans to end the recruitment of children and establish an implementing mechanism; as of March 2019, 14 additional non-state armed groups had signed similar pledges. (7,27)

UEPN-DDR's National Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration Plan (PNDDR) DDR III

Aims to provide rehabilitation and reintegration services to demobilized combatants, including children. (3,77-79) Implemented with support from the UN and international partners and within the 2013 Framework Agreement for Peace, Security, and Cooperation for the DRC and the Great Lakes Region. (78,80,81) Requires children separated from armed groups to be immediately transferred to UNICEF. (27) In 2018, UNICEF, through its partners, provided social services to 2,253 children formerly associated with armed groups. (26)

National Sectoral Strategy to Combat Child Labor in Artisanal Mines and Artisanal Mining Sites (2017–2025)

Ministry of Mines policy that aims to eradicate child labor in artisanal mines by 2025 by strengthening laws, improving data collection on the prevalence of child labor in the mining sector, promoting responsible sourcing regulations, improving child protection, and building stakeholder capacity to address these issues. (82) In 2018, launched a traceability and monitoring system to track minerals mined in artisanal sites, and the governor of Lualaba Province in the Katanga region made a public announcement prohibiting children from working in mines. (33,83)

Inter-Ministerial Commission's Triennial Action Plan (2017–2020)

Seeks to eradicate child labor in mining by 2020, particularly in the tin, tantalum, tungsten, cobalt, and copper sectors by monitoring existing policies and strengthening measures to remove children from mining sites. (84) Funding is being solicited for implementation of this policy. (73)

National Action Plan Against Sexual Violence in Conflict

MOGF policy in support of UN Resolution 1325 on women, peace, and security that aims to combat sexual violence against girls associated with armed groups and ensure prosecution of perpetrators. (85) In 2018, validated the National Action Plan of Resolution 1325 and an associated coordinating committee to oversee implementation. Aims to prevent the recruitment of children, particularly girls, into armed groups, and provide social services upon their release. (86)

‡ The government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor. (20,21,87,88)

Although limited activities have been carried out under the National Action Plan to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor, it has not been formally adopted by the government. As a result, its implementation has been severely constrained by a lack of dedicated funding and poor coordination. (19,23,27)

In 2018, the government funded and participated in programs that may contribute to preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including the adequacy of programs to address the full scope of the problem and in all relevant sectors.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

USDOL-funded Projects

Includes Measurement, Awareness-Raising, and Policy Engagement (MAP 16) Project on Child Labor and Forced Labor, a $20 million project implemented by the ILO to conduct research and develop new survey methodologies, improve awareness, and strengthen policies and government capacity to combat child labor and forced labor. In 2018, MAP16 completed work on a three-country study of forced child labor in conflict zones. (89) Also includes Combatting Child Labor in the Democratic Republic of the Congo's Cobalt Industry (2018–2021),* a $2.5 million project implemented by the ILO to reduce child labor in the mining sector and improve working conditions. (90,91) Additional information is available on the USDOL website.

World Bank-funded Projects

Projects in support of re-establishing peace and stability. Includes Reinsertion and Reintegration Project (2015–2019), a $21 million project that aims to assist with social reintegration for the child combatants identified as part of DDR III; Human Development Systems Strengthening (2014–2020), a $46.8 million project that aims to increase birth registration and improve school infrastructure; and Education Quality Improvement Project (EQUIP) (2017–2021), a $100 million project that aims to improve the quality of primary school education. (81,92-96) In 2018, the Human Development Systems Strengthening project trained 1,245 education and health workers on data collection. EQUIP identified all 1,350 schools that will participate in the pilot and integrated 1,488 previously unpaid primary school teachers into the civil service. (97,98) The Reinsertion and Reintegration Project has also demobilized a total of 4,700 combatants since it began implementation in 2016. (99)

Programs to Support Vulnerable Children†

Government and donor-supported projects that aim to improve child protection. Includes a $4 million Government of Japan-funded program that aims to provide education, vocational training, reintegration kits, and school feeding programs to 13,000 children and construct a training center for youth in North Kivu Province; a $97 million Government of Canada-funded program that aims to assist 95,000 at-risk youth living near mining sites; and a MINASA and NGO program to reintegrate children removed from the street into communities and reunify children formerly associated with armed groups with their families. (3,14,27,100) At least 4,977 children received temporary care from social services providers during the reporting period. (27)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. (101,102)

The scope of existing child disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration programs is insufficient; the entire process is slow, funding is inadequate, and collaboration between partners is weak. (3,21,30,35,103) Children separated from armed groups remain vulnerable to re-recruitment and stigmatization, and girls, who make up an estimated 30 to 40 percent of children associated with armed groups, need to be specifically targeted in the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration process. (5,30,35,103-105) Research also indicates that the government needs to strengthen its efforts to assist street children and implement programs specifically designed to assist children engaged in forced labor in agriculture, domestic work, and commercial sexual exploitation. (4,21,22,35)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in the DRC (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Establish by law a compulsory education age that extends to the minimum age for employment.

2013 – 2018

Enforcement

Ensure that the Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo does not support non-state armed groups that perpetuate the worst forms of child labor, including child soldiering.

2017 – 2018

Issue appropriate decrees to ensure that enacted laws are implemented, including those that provide for free education throughout the country and require demobilized children to be handed over to child protection actors for social services and reintegration assistance.

2009 – 2018

Publish data related to enforcement efforts, including the number of violations found, investigations conducted, penalties imposed, and penalties collected.

2009 – 2018

Significantly increase the number of labor inspectors to meet the ILO's technical advice and ensure that inspectors receive adequate training and funding to carry out their duties.

2011 – 2018

Ensure that inspectors have adequate resources and transportation to conduct inspections throughout the country.

2015 – 2018

Increase penalties for the worst forms of child labor so they are sufficiently stringent to serve as a deterrent.

2013 – 2018

Ensure that judges, prosecutors, and investigators receive adequate training and resources to investigate and prosecute child labor crimes.

2011 – 2018

Improve coordination among relevant criminal enforcement agencies in conducting investigations, collecting data, and providing services to victims.

2017 – 2018

Cease the practice of subjecting children to physical violence and detention for their alleged association with armed groups, and ensure that enforcement officials do not carry out extrajudicial killings.

2015 – 2018

Coordination

Improve coordination among relevant ministries to avoid duplication of efforts and ensure that they receive adequate resources and trained personnel to combat the worst forms of child labor, including child trafficking.

2015 – 2018

Ensure that the Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration Commission is able to coordinate the government's DDR III program as intended.

2015 – 2018

Government Policies

Ensure the implementation of relevant policies.

2011 – 2018

Social Programs

Conduct a stand-alone child labor survey.

2013 – 2018

Improve access to education for all children by regulating classroom size, training additional teachers, building additional schools, and ensuring that schools are safe and students are not subjected to sexual abuse or forcible recruitment while at or on their way to school. Make additional efforts to prevent schools from being attacked and occupied by armed groups.

2012 – 2018

Ensure that all children are registered at birth or have identification documents.

2012 – 2018

Expand efforts to address the needs of demobilized children and incorporate stigmatization, gender, and re-recruitment concerns into programs to reintegrate such children.

2009 – 2018

Ensure that existing social programs are implemented as intended and establish or expand efforts to address exploitative forced child labor in domestic work and commercial sexual exploitation.

2009 – 2018

  1. Sjöström, Therese. Childhood lost: Diamond mining in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and weaknesses of the Kimberley Process. SwedWatch, December 21, 2016: Report No. 83
    http://www.swedwatch.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/83_swedwatch_drc_diamonds_0.pdf.

  2. UN Security Council. Report of the Secretary-General on Children and Armed Conflict. August 24, 2017: A/72/361–S/2017/821.
    https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/N1726811.pdf.

  3. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2019: Democratic Republic of the Congo. Washington, DC, June 20, 2019.
    https://www.state.gov/reports/2019-trafficking-in-persons-report-2/democratic-republic-of-the-congo/.

  4. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Concluding observations on the report submitted by the Democratic Republic of the Congo under article 12 (1) of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography. February 28, 2017: CRC/C/OPSC/COD/CO/1.
    http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC/C/OPSC/COD/CO/1&Lang=en.

  5. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Democratic Republic of the Congo (ratification: 2001). Published 2018.
    https://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3338476:NO.

  6. UN Security Council. Children and armed conflict: Report of the Secretary-General. A/72/865–S/2018/465. May 16, 2018.
    https://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/{65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9}/a_72_865_s_2018_465.pdf.

  7. UN Security Council. Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. October 1, 2018: S/2018/882.
    https://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/{65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9}/s_2018_882.pdf.

  8. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed March 16, 2019.
    http://data.uis.unesco.org/. For more information, please see "Children

  9. ILO. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Demographic and Health Survey, 2013-2014. Analysis received March 12, 2019. Please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

  10. Ministere de l'Emploi du Travail et de la Prevoyance Sociale (METPS). Plan d'Action National (PAN) de Lutte Contre les Pires Formes de Travail des Enfants en Republique Democratique du Congo (2012 - 2020). Kinshasa: Comité National de Lutte Contre les Pires Formes de Travail des Enfants (CN-PFTE), December 2011. Source on file.

  11. U.S. Embassy- Kinshasa official. Email communication to USDOL official. July 31, 2015.

  12. Dieuboue, J. Etat de la Securite et Sante dans l’Agriculture en Republique Democratique du Congo (RDC) Année 2015. Geneva: ILO. 2015. Source on file.

  13. Faber, Benjamin et al. Artisanal Mining, Livelihoods, and Child Labor in the Cobalt Supply Chain of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Center for Effective Global Action, May 6, 2017: Policy Report.
    http://escholarship.org/uc/item/17m9g4wm.

  14. U.S. Embassy- Kinshasa. Reporting. May 10, 2019.

  15. U.S. Embassy- Kinshasa. Reporting. February 20, 2018.

  16. Amnesty International. "This is what we die for:" Human rights abuses in the Democratic Republic of the Congo power the global trade in cobalt. London, January 19, 2016.
    https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/afr62/3183/2016/en/.

  17. Frankel, Todd. The Cobalt Pipeline: Tracing the Path from Deadly Hand-dug Mines in Congo to Consumers' Phones and Laptops. Washington Post, September 30, 2016.
    https://www.washingtonpost.com/graphics/business/batteries/congo-cobalt-mining-for-lithium-ion-battery/.

  18. UNICEF. Mining & Corporate Social Responsibility: Katanga / Democratic Republic of the Congo. 2015. Source on file.

  19. Amnesty International. Time to Recharge: Corporate Action and Inaction to Tackle Abuses in the Cobalt Supply Chain. London, 2017.
    https://www.amnestyusa.org/reports/time-to-recharge/.

  20. World Vision. Plan d'Action Provincial de Lutte Contre le Pires Formes de Travail des Enfants. Kinshasa, 2015. Source on file.

  21. Bureau International Catholique de l’Enfance, Bureau National Catholique de l’Enfance en RDC, Programme d’Encadrement des Enfants de la Rue, and Groupe des Hommes Voués au Développement Intercommunautaire. 74ème Groupe de travail pré-sessionnel du Comité des droits de l’enfant 6-10 juin 2016 - 74ème session du Comité des droits de l’enfant 9-27 janvier 2017 sur la République Démocratique du Congo. May 2016.
    https://bice.org/app/uploads/2016/06/CRC74_RapportAlternatifConjoint_BICE_BNCE-RDC_PEDER_GHOVODI.pdf.

  22. World Bank. Implementation Completion and Results Report (IDA-H5780) on a Grant in the Amount Of SDR 6.6 Million (US$10 million equivalent) to the Democratic Republic of Congo for a Street Children Project February 29, 2016: ICR00003749.
    http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2016/03/02/090224b0841c82e1/1_0/Rendered/PDF/Democratic0Rep0eet0Children0Project.pdf.

  23. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Democratic Republic of the Congo (ratification: 2001). Published: 2018.
    https://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3338494:NO.

  24. UN Security Council. Final Report of the Group of Experts on the Democratic Republic of the Congo. January 12, 2015: S/2015/19.
    http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/2015/19.

  25. Global Protection Cluster. Secondary Data Review - Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) - The Kasaï Crisis. July 20, 2017.
    http://www.globalprotectioncluster.org/_assets/files/field_protection_clusters/Democratic_Republic_Congo/files/drc-kasai-crisis_secondary-data-review_2017-07-20.en.pdf

  26. UN Security Council. Report of the Secretary-General on Children and Armed Conflict. June 20, 2019: A/73/907–S/2019/509. https://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/2019/509&Lang=E&Area=UNDOC

  27. U.S. Embassy- Kinshasa. Reporting. March 13, 2019.

  28. Clowes, William. Briefing: The Conflict in Kasai, DRC. IRIN. July 31, 2017.
    http://www.irinnews.org/analysis/2017/07/31/briefing-conflict-kasai-drc.

  29. UNCHR. Statement of the High Commissioner to the Interactive dialogue on the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 35th session of the Human Rights Council. June 20, 2017.
    https://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=21779.

  30. Child Soldiers International. "If I Could go to School…": Education as a tool to prevent the recruitment of girls and assist with their recovery and reintegration in Democratic Republic of Congo. November 2016.
    https://www.child-soldiers.org/Handlers/Download.ashx?IDMF=eee41d6b-300c-4c22-b420-5200c601c09

  31. World Bank Group. Democratic Republic of Congo: Education Sector Public Expenditure Review - An Efficiency, Effectiveness, and Equity Analysis. October 2015: ACS14542.
    http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2015/10/22/090224b08316094e/1_0/Rendered/PDF/Public0expendi00and0equity0analysis.pdf.

  32. Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Constitution de la Republique Democratique du Congo. Enacted: February 18, 2006.
    http://democratie.francophonie.org/IMG/pdf/Constitution_de_la_RDC.pdf.

  33. U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2018: Democratic Republic of the Congo. Washington, DC, March 13, 2019.
    https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/democratic-republic-of-the-congo/

  34. UNICEF. Children, Victims of the Crisis in Kasai. August 2017.
    https://www.unicef.be/content/uploads/2017/08/kasai-crisis-eng.pdf.

  35. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Concluding observations on the combined third to fifth periodic reports of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. February 28, 2017: CRC/C/COD/CO/3-5.
    http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC/C/COD/CO/3-5&Lang=en

  36. Watt, Evan. 150,000 children out of school as violence rocks DR Congo region. Global Coalition to Protect Education from Attack, June 12 2017.
    http://www.protectingeducation.org/news/150000-children-out-school-violence-rocks-dr-congo-region.

  37. Human Rights Watch. "Our School Became the Battlefield": Using Schools for Child Recruitment and Military Purposes in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. October 27, 2015.
    https://www.hrw.org/report/2015/10/27/our-school-became-battlefield/using-schools-child-recruitment-and-military.

  38. Herrmann, Anne. Returning to school despite the Ebola epidemic. October 10, 2018.
    https://www.unicef.org/drcongo/en/stories/returning-school-despite-ebola-epidemic.

  39. UNICEF. Annual Report 2014, Democratic Republic of Congo. 2015. Source on file.

  40. Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Portant Protection de L'Enfant, N° 09/001 Enacted: January 2009.
    http://www.leganet.cd/Legislation/JO/2009/L.09.001.10.01.09.htm.

  41. Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Code Penal Congolais, N° 06/018. Enacted: July 20, 2006.
    http://www.leganet.cd/Legislation/DroitPenal/Loi.06.018.20.07.3006.htm.

  42. Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Code du Travail, N° 015/2002. Enacted: October 16, 2002. 
    http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/SERIAL/62645/52447/F1638018233/COD-62645.pdf.

  43. Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Loi N°18/001 Modifiant et Completant la Loi N°007/2002 du 11 Juillet 2002 Portant Code Minier, Col. 1. Enacted: March 9, 2018. 
    https://www.mines-rdc.cd/fr/wp-content/uploads/Code minier/J.O._n°_speìcial_du_28_mars_2018_CODE_MINIER DE LA RDC.PDF.

  44. Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Arrêté Ministériel Fixant les Conditions de Travail des Enfants, N° 12/CAB.MIN/TPSI/045/08. Enacted: August 8, 2008. 

  45. Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Loi Modifiant et Complétant la Loi N° 015-2002 Portant Code du Travail, N° 16/010. Enacted: July 15, 2016. 
    https://www.investindrc.cd/fr/centre-d-informations/autres-textes-legaux/loi-n-16-010-du-15-juillet-2016-modifiant-et-completant-la-loi-n-015-2002-portant-code-du-travai

  46. Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Law Relating to the Mining Code, N° 007/2002. Enacted: July 11, 2002. 
    http://www.resourcegovernance.org/sites/default/files/Mining Code.pdf.

  47. Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Arrêté Ministériel relatif aux conditions de travail des femmes et enfants, N° 68/13. Enacted: May 17, 1968 
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  48. Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Arrêté Ministériel Fixant les procedures de qualification et de validation des sites miniers des fiueres aurifere et stannifere dans les provinces du Katanga, du Maniema, du Nord Kivu, du Sud Kivu et de la Province Orientale. N°0058/CAB.MIN/MINES/01/2012, enacted February 23, 2012. 
    http://mines-rdc.cd/fr/documents/Arrete_0058_2012.pdf.

  49. Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Loi Portant Statut du Militaire des Forces Armees de la Republique Democratique du Congo, N° 00120/01/2013 Enacted: January 23, 2013. 
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  50. Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Loi Portant Organisation Generale de la Defense et des Forces Armees, N° 04/023. Enacted: November 12, 2004 
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  51. Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Loi Cadre de l'Enseignement National, N° 86/0005. Enacted: September 22, 1986. 
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  52. UN Human Rights Council. National report submitted in accordance with paragraph 5 of the annex to Human Rights Council resolution 16/21: Democratic Republic of the Congo. January 30, 2014: A/HRC/WG.6/19/COD/1. 
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  53. UNDP. L’école de police de Mugunga a diplômé des officiers de police judiciaire spécialisés dans la lutte contre les violences sexuelles. February 18, 2015. 
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  54. Chonghaile, Clár Ní. Top Congo official hopes to shed country's ‘rape capital of the world’ tag. March 4, 2015. 
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  55. Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Ordonnance portant création, organisation et fonctionnement de l’unité d’exécution du programme national de désarmement, démobilisation et réinsertion, en sigle « UEPN-DDR », N° 07/057. Enacted: July 14, 2007. 
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  56. UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2017 Statistical Annex. New York, 2017. Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report. 
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  58. UNICEF. Tableau comparatif des amendements de la Société civile au Code minier. 2015. [Source on file] 

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  60. U.S. Embassy- Kinshasa. Reporting. February 26, 2018. 

  61. Trial International. Leon Maro Ntumwa. June 6, 2018. 
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  62. Perissi, Daniele and Elsa Taquet. The Kavumu Trial: Complementarity in Action in the Democratic Republic of Congo. International Justice Mission. February 5, 2018. 
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  63. Republique Democratique du Congo Justice Militaire Cour Militaire Sud-Kivu. L'Auditeur Militaire, Ministere Public et parties civiles contre BATUMIKE RUGIMBANYA Frederic et al. January 5, 2018. 
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  64. Trial International. Walikale Case: Time for Accountability For Warlord Ntabo “Sheka” Ntaberi. December 20, 2018. 
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  66. Corder, Mike. ICC prosecutors: No doubt Congo rebel Ntaganda is guilty. August 28, 2018. 
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  68. Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Arrêté Modifiant et Completant l'Arrêté Interministériel N° 12/MIN/TPS/AR/34/2006 du 10 Juin 2006 Portant Creation et Fonctionnement du Comite National de Lutte Contre les Pires Formes de Travail des Enfants Enacted: October 14, 2013. Source on file. 

  69. Human Rights Watch. DR Congo: Police Killed, ‘Disappeared’ 34 Youth. February 20, 2019. 
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  70. Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Arrêté Inteministériel Portant Creation et Fonctionnement du Commite National de Lutte Contre les Pires Formes de Travail des Enfants, N°12/MIN/TPS/AR/34/2006 Enacted: June 10, 2006. 
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  73. Y'Apeke, Joseph Ikoli Yombo. Secrétaire General a.i. aux Mines et Président de la Commission Interministériel/e chargée de la question du travail des enfants dans les mines artisanales: Réponse du Ministère des Mines aux Préoccupations des Partenaires Techniques et Financiers. Kinshasa, February 26, 2018. Source on file. 

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  75. Government of Democratic Republic of the Congo. Plan d'action pour la lutte contre le recrutement et l'utilisation d'enfant ainsi que les autre violations graves des droits de l'enfant par les forces armées et les services de sécurité de la République Démocratique du Congo. October 4, 2012. 
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  77. Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Le « Plan Global DDR III » a démarré. UEPNDDR.cd June 13, 2015. 
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  82. Gouvernement de la République Démocratique du Congo - Ministère des Mines. Strategie Nationale Sectorielle de Lutte Contre le Travail des Enfants dans les Mines Artisanales et sur les Sites Miniers Artisanaux en République Démocratique du Congo (2017-2025). August 2017. Source on file. 

  83. Shabalala, Zandi. Congo says will campaign to prevent child labour in cobalt. March 2, 2018. 
    https://af.reuters.com/article/africaTech/idAFKCN1GE17W-OZATP.

  84. Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Interministerial Commission responsible for addressing the issue of child labour in mines and on mine sites in DRC (2017-2020). 2017. Source on file. 

  85. Ministre du Genre, de la Famille, et de l'Enfant. Plan d'Action du Gouvernement de la Republique Democratique du Congo pour l'Application de la Resolution 1325 du Conseil de Securite des Nations Unies. Kinshasa, January 2010. Source on file. 

  86. République Démocratique du Congo, Ministère du Genre, Enfant et Famille. Plan d’Action National de la Mise en Œuvre de la Résolution 1325 du Conseil de Sécurité de Nations Unies, sur les Femmes, la Paix et la Sécurité IIème Génération 2019 -2022. September 2018. 
    https://www.peacewomen.org/sites/default/files/PAN 1325 II VALIDE VERSION FINALE.pdf.

  87. Global Coalition to Protect Education from Attack. Safe Schools Declaration Endorsements. November 14, 2017. 
    http://www.protectingeducation.org/guidelines/support.

  88. Global Coalition to Protect Education from Attack. Safe Schools Declaration. Accessed January 19, 2018. 
    http://www.protectingeducation.org/sites/default/files/documents/safe_schools_declaration-final.pdf.

  89. ILO. MAP 16 Technical Progress Report. October 2018. Source on file. 

  90. U.S. Department of Labor. Measurement, Awareness-Raising, and Policy Engagement (MAP 16) Project on Child Labor and Forced Labor (MAP16). December 2016. 
    https://www.dol.gov/agencies/ilab/projects/MAP16.

  91. U.S. Department of Labor. Combatting Child Labor in the Democratic Republic of the Congo’s Cobalt Industry. October 2018. 
    https://www.dol.gov/agencies/ilab/combatting-child-labor-democratic-republic-congos-cobalt-industry.

  92. World Bank. Project Paper on a Proposed Additional Grant in the Amount of SDR 21.8 Million (US$30 Million Equivalent) with an Additional Grant from the Global Financing Facility (GFF) in the Amount of US$10 Million to the Democratic Republic of Congo. March 8, 2016: PAD1735. 
    http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/286411467987906150/pdf/PAD1735-PJPR-P145965-P156421-IDA-R2016-0038-1-Box394870B-OUO-9.pdf.

  93. World Bank. Global Partnership for Education Fund Grant Agreement. April 19, 2017. 
    http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/182501505229544313/pdf/ITK171540-201708121116.pdf.

  94. World Bank. Project Appraisal Document on a Proposed Grant in the Amount of US$100 Million to the Democratic Republic of Congo for a Support to Basic Education Project Under the Global Partnership for Education Fund. May 2, 2013. 
    http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2013/05/17817566/democratic-republic-congo-support-basic-education-program-under-global-partnership-education-fund-project.

  95. World Bank. Project Paper on a Proposed Additional Grant in the Amount of US$30 Million with an Additional Grant from the Global Financing Facility (GFF) in the Amount of US$10 Million to the Democratic Republic of Congo for a Human Development Systems Strengthening Project. March 8, 2016. 
    http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/286411467987906150/pdf/PAD1735-PJPR-P145965-P156421-IDA-R2016-0038-1-Box394870B-OUO-9.pdf.

  96. World Bank. Project Appraisal Document on a Proposed Grant in the Amount of US$15 Million to the Democratic Republic of Congo for a Human Development Systems Strengthening Project. March 25, 2014. 
    http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/207911468027672171/pdf/PAD8860P145965010Box385177B00OUO090.pdf.

  97. World Bank. DR CONGO - Education Quality Improvement Project (EQUIP) Implementation Status & Results Report. January 30, 2019. 
    http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/714151548906469711/pdf/Disclosable-Version-of-the-ISR-DR-CONGO-Education-Quality-Improvement-Project-EQUIP-P157922-Sequence-No-03.pdf.

  98. World Bank. DRC Human Development Systems Strengthening Implementation Status & Results Report. November 29, 2018. 
    http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/894061543504736835/pdf/Disclosable-Version-of-the-ISR-DRC-Human-Development-Systems-Strengthening-P145965-Sequence-No-09.pdf.

  99. World Bank. DRC Reinsertion and Reintegration Project Implementation Status & Results Report. December 6, 2018. 
    http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/499211544075192683/pdf/Disclosable-Version-of-the-ISR-DRC-Reinsertion-and-Reintegration-Project-P152903-Sequence-No-06.pdf.

  100. Global Affairs Canada. Canada announces funding for child protection, women’s economic empowerment and humanitarian assistance in the Democratic Republic of Congo. July 7, 2017: News release. 
    https://www.canada.ca/en/global-affairs/news/2017/07/canada_announcesfundingforchildprotectionwomenseconomicempowerme.html

  101. World Bank. Project Appraisal Document on a Proposed Grant in the Amount of US$100 Million to the Democratic Republic of Congo for a DRC—Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response Project. June 6, 2018. 
    http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/431561535859045136/pdf/DRC-Gender-Based-PAD-06192018.pdf.

  102. World Bank. Project Appraisal Document on a Proposed Grant in the Amount of US$200 Million to the Democratic Republic of Congo for a Productive Inclusion Project. June 7, 2018. 
    http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/790511530415823984/pdf/DRC-PAD-06112018.pdf.

  103. Child Soldiers International. Submission to the Committee on the Rights of the Child on child recruitment and the reintegration of girls in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). June 2016. 
    https://www.child-soldiers.org/shop/submission-to-the-committee-on-the-rights-of-the-child-on-child-recruitment-and-the-reintegration-of.

  104. Child Soldiers International. What the girls say - Improving practices for the demobilisation and reintegration of girls associated with armed forces and armed groups in Democratic Republic of Congo. June 19, 2017. 
    https://www.child-soldiers.org/Handlers/Download.ashx?IDMF=e57e9cb2-cd70-4dc2-8681-e29bc6f3622b.

  105. Guilbert, Kieran. Raped then rejected, stigma drives former girl soldiers back into Congo's militias. Reuters, June 19, 2017. 
    https://www.voanews.com/a/raped-then-rejected-stigma-drives-former-girl-soldiers-back-into-congo-militias/3911038.html.

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