List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor

The Bureau of International Labor Affairs (ILAB) maintains a list of goods and their source countries which it has reason to believe are produced by child labor or forced labor in violation of international standards, as required under the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act (TVPRA) of 2005 and subsequent reauthorizations. The List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor comprises 156 goods from 77 countries, as of June 23, 2021.

ILAB maintains the List primarily to raise public awareness about forced labor and child labor around the world and to promote efforts to combat them; it is not intended to be punitive, but rather to serve as a catalyst for more strategic and focused coordination and collaboration among those working to address these problems.

Publication of the List has resulted in new opportunities for ILAB to engage with foreign governments to combat forced labor and child labor. It is also a valuable resource for researchers, advocacy organizations and companies wishing to carry out risk assessments and engage in due diligence on labor rights in their supply chains.

The countries on the List span every region of the world. The most common agricultural goods listed are sugarcane, cotton, coffee, tobacco, cattle, rice, and fish. In the manufacturing sector, bricks, garments, textiles, footwear, carpets, and fireworks appear most frequently. In mined or quarried goods, gold, coal and diamonds are most common.

ILAB published the initial TVPRA List in 2009 and updated it annually through 2014, following a set of procedural guidelines that were the product of an intensive public consultation process. ILAB now updates and publishes the List every other year, pursuant to changes in the law.

Procedural Guidelines

 

On May 15, 2020, ILAB's Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking published Procedural Guidelines for the development and maintenance of the List of Goods from countries produced by child labor or forced labor in violation of international standards.

Filters

Display
Country/Area Good Exploitation Type
China
  Bricks

There are reports that children, ages 8-17, are forced to produce bricks in China, with concentrations in the Shanxi and Henan provinces. Victims are from provinces across China; some children are abducted or trafficked through coercion and sold to work in brick kilns. Information from media sources and a research study indicate that the children are forced to work without pay under threat of physical violence, held against their will, watched by guards, and denied sufficient food. 

Chinese Translation

Child Labor, Forced Labor
China
  Cotton

There are reports that children are forced to pick cotton in China. Reports from an NGO and the U.S. Government indicate that children in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region and in Gansu province are mobilized through schools and required by provincial regulations to work during the autumn harvest. According to the most recently available estimates, between 40,000 and 1 million students are mobilized annually for the harvest, beginning as early as the third grade. Most children are paid little if at all, after deductions for meals, transportation, and payments to the school. These students are required to pick daily quotas of cotton or pay fines, and performance in the cotton harvest is assessed for the students' promotion to higher grade levels. 

Chinese Translation

Child Labor, Forced Labor
China
  Electronics

There are reports that children ages 13-15 are forced to produce electronics in China. Based on the most recently available data from media sources, government raids, and NGOs, hundreds of cases of forced child labor have been reported in factories in Guangdong province, but the children are often from Henan, Shanxi, or Sichuan provinces. In some cases, children are forced to work in electronics factories through arrangements between the factories and the schools that the children attend in order to cover alleged tuition debts. The forced labor programs are described as student apprenticeships; however, the children report that they were forced to remain on the job and not allowed to return home. Half of the students' wages are sent directly to the schools, and the children receive little compensation after deductions are made for food and accommodations. In other cases, children are abducted or deceived by recruiters, sent to Guangdong, and sold to employers. Some children are held captive, forced to work long hours for little pay. 

Chinese Translation

Child Labor, Forced Labor
China
  Fish

There are reports that adults are forced to work in the production of fish on China’s distant-water fishing fleet.  China’s fleet is the largest in the world, with an estimated 3,000 fishing vessels, and contains a wide variety of vessels, from longliners to purse seiners, operating on the high seas and in foreign countries’ exclusive economic zones in every region of the world.  The majority of the crew on board are migrant workers from Indonesia and the Philippines, who are particularly vulnerable to forced labor.  It is estimated that there are tens of thousands of workers who are sometimes recruited by agencies that deceive workers with false information regarding their wages and the terms of the contracts, and require the workers to pay recruitment fees and sign debt contracts.  According to various sources, numerous incidents of forced labor have been reported on Chinese fishing vessels.  While on board the vessels, workers’ identity documents are often confiscated, the crew spends months at sea without stopping at a port of call, and they are forced to work 18 to 22 hours a day with little rest.  Workers face hunger and dehydration, live in degrading and unhygienic conditions, are subjected to physical violence and verbal abuse, are prevented from leaving the vessel or ending their contracts, and are frequently not paid their promised wages.

Chinese Translation

Forced Labor
China
  Gloves

There are reports of glove factories forcibly training and employing 1,500 to 2,000 ethnic minority adult workers with the government’s support.  Victim testimonies, news media, and think tanks report that factories, including for gloves, frequently engage in coercive recruitment; limit workers’ freedom of movement and communication; and subject workers to constant surveillance, retribution for religious beliefs, exclusion from community and social life, and isolation.  Further, reports indicate little pay, mandatory Mandarin lessons, ideological indoctrination, and poor living conditions. In some instances, workers have been reported to be subject to torture.  More broadly, according to varied estimates, at least 100,000 to hundreds of thousands of Uyghurs, ethnic Kazakhs, and other Muslim minorities are being subjected to forced labor in China following detention in re-education camps.  In addition to this, poor workers in rural areas may also experience coercion without detention.  Workers are either placed at factories within the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, where the camps are located, or transferred out of Xinjiang to factories in eastern China.

Chinese Translation

Forced Labor
China
  Hair Products

There are reports that thousands of adult ethnic minority workers are forcibly employed in factories producing hair products such as wigs.  China produces more than 80 percent of the global market’s products made from hair and is the world’s largest exporter of these products.  Victim testimonies, news media, and think tanks report that factories, including for hair products, frequently engage in coercive recruitment; limit workers’ freedom of movement and communication; and subject workers to constant surveillance, retribution for religious beliefs, exclusion from community and social life, and isolation.  Further, workers in these factories can be subject to regular government propaganda, extremely long hours, and little to no pay.  More broadly, according to varied estimates, at least 100,000 to hundreds of thousands of Uyghurs, ethnic Kazakhs, and other Muslim minorities are being subjected to forced labor in China following detention in re-education camps.  In addition to this, poor workers in rural areas may also experience coercion without detention.  Workers can be placed at factories within the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, where the camps are located, or be transferred out of Xinjiang to factories in eastern China.

Chinese Translation

Forced Labor
China
  Polysilicon

There are reports that adults are forced to produce polysilicon for solar panels in China. According to estimates, over one hundred thousand Uyghurs, ethnic Kazakhs, and other Muslim minorities are being subjected to forced labor in China following detention in re-education camps, in addition to workers who may also experience coercion without detention. Workers, often from poor rural areas, have been placed at factories in industrial areas within the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, where the camps are located, or have been transferred out of Xinjiang to factories in other parts of China. China is the world’s largest producer of solar-grade polysilicon, and over 50 percent of the country’s production takes place in Xinjiang. Researchers note that Xinjiang is undergoing an expansion of the energy sector, including solar energy and polysilicon, and thousands of Uyghur workers have reportedly been transferred to work sites over the last five years. The polysilicon manufacturers work with the Chinese government to make use of ethnic minority groups for exploitative labor, often receiving financial incentives. Victim testimonies, news media, and think tanks report that factories frequently engage in coercive recruitment; limit workers’ freedom of movement and communication; subject workers to constant surveillance, religious retribution, physical violence, exclusion from community and social life; and threaten family members.

Forced Labor
China
  Textiles

According to think tank and media reports, the textile industry works with the Government of China to make use of adult ethnic minority groups for forced, exploitative labor.  Researchers note that Xinjiang is undergoing an expansion of the textile industry, and it is possible that hundreds of thousands of workers are being subjected to forced labor as part of this effort.  Victim testimonies, news media, and think tanks report that factories, including for textiles, frequently engage in coercive recruitment; limit workers’ freedom of movement and communication; and subject workers to constant surveillance, retribution for religious beliefs, exclusion from community and social life, and threaten family members.  Further, some workers have been subject to military-style management, government indoctrination, and are paid below the minimum wage. There are reports that adults are forced to produce textiles in China.  More broadly, according to varied estimates, at least 100,000 to hundreds of thousands of Uyghurs, ethnic Kazakhs, and other Muslim minorities are being subjected to forced labor in China following detention in re-education camps.  In addition to this, poor workers in rural areas may also experience coercion without detention.  Workers can be placed at factories within the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, where the camps are located, or be transferred out of Xinjiang to factories in eastern China.

Child Labor, Forced Labor
China
  Thread/Yarn

Reports indicate that more than 2,000 adult Uyghur and ethnic Kazakh workers have been involuntarily transferred out of Xinjiang to yarn factories in the east and forced to produce thread/yarn products.  It also is likely that many others are subjected to forced labor at yarn factories within Xinjiang, particularly for cotton yarns.  Victim testimonies, news media, and think tanks report that factories, including for thread/yarn, frequently engage in coercive recruitment; limit workers’ freedom of movement and communication; and subject workers to constant surveillance, retribution for religious beliefs, exclusion from community and social life, and threaten family members.  Further, workers may undergo re-education to eradicate “extremism.”  More broadly, according to varied estimates, at least 100,000 to hundreds of thousands of Uyghurs, ethnic Kazakhs, and other Muslim minorities are being subjected to forced labor in China following detention in re-education camps.  In addition to this, poor workers in rural areas may also experience coercion without detention.  Workers can be placed at factories within the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, where the camps are located, or be transferred out of Xinjiang to factories in eastern China.

Chinese Translation

Forced Labor
China
  Tomato Products

There are reports that adults are forced to produce tomato products in China.  Xinjiang is a major producer of tomato products, especially tomato paste.  Victim testimonies, news media, and think tanks report that factories, including for tomato products, frequently engage in coercive recruitment; limit workers’ freedom of movement and communication; and subject workers to constant surveillance, retribution for religious beliefs, exclusion from community and social life, and isolation.  More broadly, according to varied estimates, at least 100,000 to hundreds of thousands of Uyghurs, ethnic Kazakhs, and other Muslim minorities are being subjected to forced labor in China following detention in re-education camps.  In addition to this, poor workers in rural areas may also experience coercion without detention.

Chinese Translation

Forced Labor
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Public Comments & Submissions

ILAB accepts public submissions for the TVPRA List on an ongoing basis, and reviews them as they are received. Submissions will continue to be taken into account as ILAB works to release periodic updates to the List. To submit information, please send an email to ILAB-TVPRA@dol.gov; fax to 202-693-4830; or mail to ILAB, U.S. Department of Labor, c/o OCFT Research and Policy Unit, 200 Constitution Ave NW, S-5315, Washington, DC 20210. View the list of submissions.


The List in Numbers

The List in Numbers

What You Can Do

What Can You Do to Help Address Child Labor and Forced Labor?