List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor

The Bureau of International Labor Affairs (ILAB) maintains a list of goods and their source countries which it has reason to believe are produced by child labor or forced labor in violation of international standards, as required under the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act (TVPRA) of 2005 and subsequent reauthorizations. The List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor comprises 159 goods from 78 countries and areas, as of September 28, 2022.

ILAB maintains the List primarily to raise public awareness about forced labor and child labor around the world and to promote efforts to combat them; it is not intended to be punitive, but rather to serve as a catalyst for more strategic and focused coordination and collaboration among those working to address these problems.

Publication of the List has resulted in new opportunities for ILAB to engage with foreign governments to combat forced labor and child labor. It is also a valuable resource for researchers, advocacy organizations and companies wishing to carry out risk assessments and engage in due diligence on labor rights in their supply chains.

The countries on the List span every region of the world. The most common agricultural goods listed are sugarcane, cotton, coffee, tobacco, cattle, rice, and fish. In the manufacturing sector, bricks, garments, textiles, footwear, carpets, and fireworks appear most frequently. In mined or quarried goods, gold, coal and diamonds are most common.

ILAB published the initial TVPRA List in 2009 and updated it annually through 2014, following a set of procedural guidelines that were the product of an intensive public consultation process. ILAB now updates and publishes the List every other year, pursuant to changes in the law.

Procedural Guidelines

On January 25, 2024, ILAB's Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking published Procedural Guidelines for the development and maintenance of the List of Goods from countries produced by child labor or forced labor in violation of international standards.

Country/Area Good Exploitation Type
Argentina Tobacco Child Labor
Brazil Tobacco Child Labor
Cambodia Tobacco Child Labor
Indonesia Tobacco Child Labor
Kenya Tobacco Child Labor
Kyrgyz Republic Tobacco Child Labor
Lebanon Tobacco Child Labor
Malawi Tobacco

There are reports that children in Malawi are forced to work producing tobacco. Tobacco estates are concentrated in the Mzimba, Kasungu, Mchinji and Mzimba districts. According to the most recently available data from the ILO and NGOs, over 70,000 children work on tobacco plantations, some of them under conditions of bonded labor. Families working on tobacco estates sometimes become bonded to their landlords, and their children are forced to work to repay their family debts. Landlords charge these tenant workers for costs such as rent, fertilizer, and seeds; these costs often exceed the profit earned from the tobacco harvest and result in debt for the worker and his or her family. Some children are also hired under deceptive terms of work and promised payment, and then are paid little, if at all, at the end of the season. Some children are forced to work long hours, including overtime, and are forced to perform dangerous tasks, such as carrying heavy loads and using pesticides. In addition, certain children work under threats and penalties including physical, verbal, and sexual abuse, and do not receive food or pay. 

Child Labor, Forced Labor
Mexico Tobacco Child Labor
Mozambique Tobacco Child Labor
Nicaragua Tobacco Child Labor
Philippines Tobacco Child Labor
Tanzania Tobacco Child Labor
Uganda Tobacco Child Labor
Vietnam Tobacco

There is evidence that children ages 5 to 17 grow tobacco in Vietnam. The results of the Government of Vietnam’s National Child Labor Survey 2012, published in 2014, show that an estimated 2,555 child laborers are involved in growing tobacco. Approximately 26.4 percent, or 675, of the total number of child laborers who grow tobacco are 5-11 years old, while 73.6 percent, or 1,880, are 15-17 years old. The survey considers a child to be engaged in child labor if the child is working an excessive number of hours per week for his or her age, or if the child is engaged in work that is prohibited for underage employees according to national legislation. 

Child Labor
Zambia Tobacco Child Labor
Zimbabwe Tobacco

There are reports that children produce tobacco in Zimbabwe.  According to Human Rights Watch and local media reports, there are numerous cases of children working on tobacco farms in Zimbabwe’s northeastern provinces, including Mashonaland West, Mashonaland Central, Mashonaland East, and Manicaland.  There are reports of increasing numbers of children working on small, non-commercial farms.  In many cases, children drop out of school to work on tobacco farms.  Children perform hazardous forms of work, including mixing, handling, and spraying pesticides.  Children also experience adverse health effects related to exposure to nicotine, which enters their bodies through the skin during the handling of tobacco.

Child Labor
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Public Comments & Submissions

ILAB accepts public submissions for the TVPRA List on an ongoing basis, and reviews them as they are received. Submissions will continue to be taken into account as ILAB works to release periodic updates to the List. To submit information, please send an email to; fax to 202-693-4830; or mail to ILAB, U.S. Department of Labor, c/o OCFT Research and Policy Unit, 200 Constitution Ave NW, S-5315, Washington, DC 20210. View the list of submissions.

The List in Numbers

The List in Numbers

What You Can Do

What Can You Do to Help Address Child Labor and Forced Labor?