List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor

The Bureau of International Labor Affairs (ILAB) maintains a list of goods and their source countries which it has reason to believe are produced by child labor or forced labor in violation of international standards, as required under the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act (TVPRA) of 2005 and subsequent reauthorizations. The List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor comprises 148 goods from 76 countries, as of September 20, 2018.

ILAB maintains the List primarily to raise public awareness about forced labor and child labor around the world and to promote efforts to combat them; it is not intended to be punitive, but rather to serve as a catalyst for more strategic and focused coordination and collaboration among those working to address these problems.

Publication of the List has resulted in new opportunities for ILAB to engage with foreign governments to combat forced labor and child labor. It is also a valuable resource for researchers, advocacy organizations and companies wishing to carry out risk assessments and engage in due diligence on labor rights in their supply chains.

The countries on the List span every region of the world. The most common agricultural goods listed are sugarcane, cotton, coffee, tobacco, cattle, rice, and fish. In the manufacturing sector, bricks, garments, textiles, footwear, carpets, and fireworks appear most frequently. In mined or quarried goods, gold, coal and diamonds are most common.

ILAB published the initial TVPRA List in 2009 and updated it annually through 2014, following a set of procedural guidelines that were the product of an intensive public consultation process. ILAB now updates and publishes the List every other year, pursuant to changes in the law.

Procedural Guidelines

 

On December 27, 2007, ILAB's Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking published Procedural Guidelines for the development and maintenance of the List of Goods from countries produced by child labor or forced labor in violation of international standards.

Country Good Exploitation Type
Bangladesh Footwear Child Labor
Brazil Footwear Child Labor
China Footwear Forced Labor
India Footwear Child Labor
Turkey Footwear

There are reports that children as young as 9 produce footwear in Turkey. Both boys and girls, including many in the Syrian refugee community, are engaged in work activities in this sector. According to international organizations, NGOs, and media sources, there is credible evidence that the use of child labor is common in footwear production, including in major production areas such as Gaziantep and Istanbul. Children work long hours, with some reports of working up to 12 hours per day, 6 days per week. Due to the long hours worked, many child workers in this sector are unable to attend school. Some child laborers in this sector use hazardous chemicals, machinery, and materials. 

Child Labor
Vietnam Footwear

There is evidence that children ages 5 to 17 in Vietnam manufacture footwear. Based on the Government of Vietnam’s National Child Labor Survey 2012, the results of which were published in 2014, an estimated 9,756 child laborers work in footwear manufacturing for over 42 hours per week. Approximately 2.2 percent, or 215, of the total number of child laborers who manufacture footwear for over 42 hours per week are 12-14 years old, while 97.8 percent, or 9,541, are 15-17 years old. The survey considers a child to be engaged in child labor if the child is working an excessive number of hours per week for his or her age, or if the child is engaged in work that is prohibited for underage employees according to national legislation. 

Child Labor
Indonesia Footwear (Sandals) Child Labor
Showing 1 - 7 of 7 results
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Public Comments & Submissions

ILAB accepts public submissions for the TVPRA List on an ongoing basis, and reviews them as they are received. Submissions will continue to be taken into account as ILAB works to release periodic updates to the List. To submit information, please send an email to ILAB-TVPRA@dol.gov; fax to 202-693-4830; or mail to ILAB, U.S. Department of Labor, c/o OCFT Research and Policy Unit, 200 Constitution Ave NW, S-5315, Washington, DC 20210. View the list of submissions.


The List in Numbers

The List in Numbers: 148 goods from 76 countries for a total of 418 line items. Number of goods produced globally by production sector: Agriculture: 74, Manufacturing: 42, Mining/Quarrying: 31, Pornography: 1. Goods with Most Child Labor and Forced Labor Listings by number of countries and productions sector: Sugarcane: 18, Cotton: 17, Coffee: 17, Tobacco: 16, Cattle: 14, Fish: 12, Rice: 9, Bricks: 20, Garments: 10, Textiles: 7, Footwear: 7, Carpets: 5, Fireworks: 5, Gold: 22, Coal: 7, Diamonds: 6, Pornography: 7. Number of goods produced globally by child labor and forced forced labor by production sector: Agriculture, child labor: 66; Agriculture, forced labor: 29; Manufacturing, child labor: 38; Manufacturing, forced labor: 15; Mining/Quarrying, child labor: 31, Mining/Quarrying, forced labor: 12; Pornography, child labor: 1; Pornography, forced labor: 1. Goods with the Most Child Labor Listings by Number of Countries: Gold: 21, Bricks: 19, Sugarcane: 17, Coffee: 17, Tobacco: 16, Cotton: 15. Goods with the Most Forced Labor Listings by Number of Countries: Bricks: 8, Cotton: 8, Garments: 7, Cattle: 5, Sugarcane: 5.148 goods; 76 countries; 418 line items

What You Can Do

What Can You Do to Help Address Child Labor and Forced Labor?

 

  • What Can You Do to Help Address Child Labor and Forced Labor?
    • Ask Questions
      • Do workers have a voice to speak out against labor abuses where these goods are made?
      • What are the companies I buy from doing to fight child labor and forced labor in global supply chains?
      • What are governments doing to combat child labor and forced labor?
      • Could some of the goods I buy be made by child labor or forced labor?
    • Take Action
      • Empower yourself with knowledge about this problem: Download DOL's Sweat & Toil app.
      • Make your voice heard: spread the word among friends, family, and the companies you buy from and invest in.
      • Show your support for organizations that are working to end these abuses.
    • Demand Change. Advocate for a world in which:
      • Workers everywhere can raise their voices against child labor, forced labor, and other abuses.
      • Companies make serious commitments to addressing these issues.
      • Your investments have a positive social impact by promoting responsible labor practices in supply chains.
      • Governments work vigorously to adopt the country-specific Suggested Actions in DOL's Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor report.

To contact us, please email GlobalKids@dol.gov