The USMCA has the strongest labor provisions of any U.S. trade agreement.  In addition to petitions under the Labor Chapter, the agreement includes the innovative Facility Specific Rapid Response Labor Mechanism (RRM) that permits the U.S. Government to take expedited enforcement actions against individual factories that appear to be denying workers the right of freedom of association and collective bargaining under Mexican law. Stakeholders can file labor chapter petitions and Rapid Response petitions, and the U.S. government can also self-initiate RRM actions. The Department of Labor and the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative have already collaborated on multiple RRM cases to protect workers’ rights under the USMCA. Read more about individual cases here.