1997 Private Pension Plan Bulletins Abstract of Form 5500 Annual Reports

Private Pension Plan Bulletin
Abstract of 1997 Form 5500 Annual Reports

U.S. Department of Labor
Pension and Welfare Benefits Administration
Office of Policy and Research
Number 10, Winter 2001

Introduction

This is the tenth edition of the Private Pension Plan Bulletin. The tabulations presented in this report contain data based on 1997 Form 5500 filings. Reports for 1997 plan years were filed by plans for fiscal years beginning anywhere from January 1, 1997 to December 30, 1997. The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) processed 1997 filings from August 1998 through July 2000.

Form 5500 reports are filed annually with the IRS. Plans covering 100 or more participants must file a Form 5500 every year containing extensive financial, participant, and actuarial data. Plans covering fewer than 100 participants are required to file a less detailed report (known as a Form 5500 C/R).

The universe for this Bulletin consists of all private pension plans for which a Form 5500 or Form 5500 C/R has been filed with the IRS in accordance with Title I of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA). Such plans may be defined benefit or defined contribution plans. They generally cover private wage and salary employees and are sponsored either by employers or jointly by employers and unions.

The IRS processes the reports and provides computerized edited files to the Department of Labor's Pension and Welfare Benefits Administration. To produce this report, data on all plans covering 100 or more participants are combined with a 5 percent sample of small plan filers. This combined file is subjected to additional editing and weighted to represent the universe of private pension plans covering two or more participants.

Key findings from the 1997 filings are summarized in the Highlights on pages 2 and 3. The tabulations are organized into five sections. Section A contains summary data on plans, participants, assets, income and expenses. Section B contains more detailed data on plans and participants, showing distributions by different size measures. Section C contains balance sheets and income statements for the major types of pension plans. Section D contains detailed data on defined contribution plans. Section E contains historical data from 1978 to 1997. The organization of this Bulletin is similar to the previous edition with the exception of an additional table in Section B on terminated and merged plans and an additional table in Section D on participant direction of investments of 401(k) plan assets.

This publication was prepared by Richard Hinz, Helen Lawrence, David McCarthy, Daniel Beller, Steve Donahue, and Phyllis Fernandez of the Office of Policy and Research. Although this Bulletin is not copyrighted, proper acknowledgment would be appreciated. The recommended citation is:

United States Department of Labor, Pension and Welfare Benefits Administration. Abstract of 1997 Form 5500 Annual Reports. Private Pension Plan Bulletin No. 10, Winter 2001, Washington, DC.


Contents

  • Section A: Summary
    • Table A1: Number of Pension Plans, Total Participants, Active Participants, Assets, Contributions, and Benefits by type of plan, 1997
    • Table A2: Number of Participants in Pension Plans by type of plan entity, type of plan, and type of participant, 1997
    • Table A3: Balance Sheet of Pension Plans by type of plan, 1997
    • Table A4: Income Statement of Pension Plans by type of plan, 1997
    • Table A5: Amount of Assets in Pension Plans by type of plan and method of funding, 1997
    • Table A6: Collective Bargaining Status of Pension Plans, Participants, and Assets by type of plan, 1997
    • Figure A1: Distribution of Pension Plans and Participants by type of plan, 1997
    • Figure A2: Active Participants in Pension Plans by vesting status and type of plan, 1997
    • Figure A3: Distribution of Assets by method of funding, 1997
  • Section B: Plans and Participants
    • Table B1: Distribution of Pension Plans by number of participants, 1997
    • Table B2: Distribution of Pension Plans by amount of assets, 1997
    • Table B3: Distribution of Pension Plans by industry, 1997
    • Table B4: Distribution of Participants by number of participants, 1997
    • Table B5: Distribution of Participants by amount of assets, 1997
    • Table B6: Distribution of Participants by industry, 1997
    • Table B7: Distribution of Active Participants by type of plan, 1997
    • Table B8: Number of Plans by type of plan and method of funding, 1997
    • Table B9: Number of Participants by type of plan and method of funding, 1997
    • Table B10: Percent Distribution of Plans Filing Final Form 5500 Reports by type of plan, size of plan, and reason for final filing, 1997
  • Section C: Financial
    • Table C1: Distribution of Assets by number of participants, 1997
    • Table C2: Distribution of Assets by asset size, 1997
    • Table C3: Distribution of Assets by industry, 1997
    • Table C4: Balance Sheet of Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants by type of plan, 1997
    • Table C5: Balance Sheet of Single Employer Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants by type of plan, 1997
    • Table C6: Balance Sheet of Multiemployer Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants by type of plan, 1997
    • Table C7: Percentage Distribution of Assets in Defined Benefit Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants by type of asset and size of plan, 1997
    • Table C8: Percentage Distribution of Assets in Defined Contribution Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants by type of asset and size of plan, 1997
    • Table C9: Income Statement of Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants by type of plan, 1997
    • Table C10: Income Statement of Single Employer Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants by type of plan, 1997
    • Table C11: Income Statement of Multiemployer Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants by type of plan, 1997
    • Table C12: Percentage Distribution of Income in Defined Benefit Plans with 100 or More Participants by source of income and size of plan, 1997
    • Table C13: Percentage Distribution of Income in Defined Contribution Plans with 100 or More Participants by source of income and size of plan, 1997
    • Figure C1: Average Assets per Participant by plan size, 1997
    • Figure C2: Distribution of Pension Plans, Participants and Assets by plan size, 1997
  • Section D: Defined Contribution Plans
    • Table D1: Balance Sheet of Defined Contribution Plans with 100 or More Participants by type of plan, 1997
    • Table D2: Income Statement of Defined Contribution Plans with 100 or More Participants by type of plan, 1997
    • Table D3: Number of 401(k) Type Plans, Participants, Active Participants, Assets, Contributions, and Benefits by type of plan, 1997
    • Table D4: Number of 401(k) Type Plans by number of participants and primary or supplemental status, 1997
    • Table D5: Number of Active Participants in 401(k) Type Plans by number of participants and primary or supplemental status, 1997
    • Table D6: Number of 401(k) Type Plans, Participants, and Assets by size of plan and participant direction status, 1997
    • Table D7: Balance Sheet of 401(k) Type Plans 1997
    • Table D8: Income Statement of 401(k) Type Plans 1997
    • Table D9: Balance Sheet of 401(k) Type Plans with 100 or More Participants 1997
    • Table D10: Income Statement of 401(k) Type Plans With 100 or More Participants 1997
    • Table D11: Number of Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOPs), Total Participants, Active Participants, Assets, Contributions, and Benefits by type of assets, 1997
    • Table D12: Number of Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOPs), Total Participants, Active Participants, Assets, Contributions, and Benefits by type of ESOP, 1997
    • Table D13: Number of Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOPs) by number of participants and primary or supplemental status, 1997
    • Table D14: Balance Sheet of Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOPs) with 100 or More Participants by leveraged status, 1997
    • Table D15: Income Statement of Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOPs) with 100 or More Participants by leveraged status, 1997
  • Section E: Historical Tables
    • Table E1: Number of Pension Plans by type of plan, 1978-1997
    • Table E2: Number of Pension Plans with Fewer than 100 Participants by type of plan, 1978-1997
    • Table E3: Number of Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants by type of plan, 1978-1997
    • Table E4: Estimated Private Wage and Salary Worker Participation Rates Under Primary and Supplemental Pension Plans 1978-1997
    • Table E5: Number of Participants in Pension Plans by type of plan, 1978-1997
    • Table E6: Number of Participants in Pension Plans with Fewer than 100 Participants by type of plan, 1978-1997
    • Table E7: Number of Participants in Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants by type of plan, 1978-1997
    • Table E8: Number of Active Participants in Pension Plans by type of plan, 1978-1997
    • Table E9: Number of Active Participants in Pension Plans with Fewer than 100 Participants by type of plan, 1978-1997
    • Table E10: Number of Active Participants in Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants by type of plan, 1978-1997
    • Table E11: Pension Plan Assets by type of plan, 1978-1997
    • Table E12: Pension Plan Assets of Plans with Fewer than 100 Participants by type of plan, 1978-1997
    • Table E13: Pension Plan Assets of Plans with 100 or More Participants by type of plan, 1978-1997
    • Table E14: Pension Plan Contributions by type of plan, 1978-1997
    • Table E15: Pension Plan Contributions of Plans with Fewer than 100 Participants by type of plan, 1978-1997
    • Table E16: Pension Plan Contributions of Plans with 100 or More Participants by type of plan, 1978-1997
    • Table E17: Pension Plan Benefits Disbursed by type of plan, 1978-1997
    • Table E18: Pension Plan Benefits Disbursed From Plans with Fewer than 100 Participants by type of plan, 1978-1997
    • Table E19: Pension Plan Benefits Disbursed From Plans with 100 or More Participants by type of plan, 1978-1997
    • Table E20: Percentage Distribution of Active Participants in Plans with 100 or More Participants by vesting status, 1978-1997
    • Table E21: Percentage Distribution of Active Participants in Single Employer Plans with 100 or More Participants by vesting status, 1978-1997
    • Table E22: Percentage Distribution of Active Participants in Multiemployer Plans with 100 or More Participants by vesting status, 1978-1997
    • Table E23: Number of 401(k) Type Plans, Participants, Assets, Contributions, and Benefit Payments 1984-1997
    • Table E24: Aggregate Rates of Return Earned by Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants 1985-1997
    • Table E25: Aggregate Investment Performance of Private Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants 1985-1997
    • Table E26: Aggregate Rates of Return Earned by Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOPs) and 401(k) Plans with 100 or More Participants 1990-1997
    • Figure E1: Number of Pension Plans 1978-1997
    • Figure E2: Number of Defined Contribution Plans 1984-1997
    • Figure E3: Pension Plan Active Participants 1978-1997
    • Figure E4: Participants per Plan by type of plan, 1978-1997
    • Figure E5: Ratio of Active to retired Participants in Defined Benefit Plans 1978-1997
    • Figure E6: Pension Coverage of Wage and Salary Workers 1978-1997
    • Figure E7: Pension Plan Assets 1978-1997
    • Figure E8: Assets Per Participant by type of plan, 1978-1997
    • Figure E9: Pension Plan Contributions and Benefits 1977-1997
    • Figure E10: Rates of Return by type of plan, 1985-1997
    • Figure E11: Rates of Return for Single and Multiemployer Plans 1985-1997
    • Figure E12: Rates of Return for 401(k) Type Plans 1990-1997
    • Figure E13: Rates of Return for ESOPs 1990-1997

Highlights

The number of private pension plans increased 3% in 1997 to 720,000, the largest percentage increase since 1986. The growth in plans resulted from a 15% increase in 401(k) type plans to 265,300. This more than offset a 7% decrease in defined benefit (DB) plans to 59,500 and a 2% decrease in non-401(k) defined contribution plans (DC) to 395,300. About 40% of the decrease in non-401(k) DC plans resulted from conversions of ongoing DC plans to 401(k) status.

The number of active participants in pension plans increased by 4% to 70.7 million in 1997. The overall increase was led by very strong growth in 401(k) plan enrollment, which increased by 10% to 33.9 million. Active participants in non-401(k) DC plans increased 2% to 14.1 million. DB plan active participants decreased 2% in 1997 to 22.7 million. The number of active participants in DB plans has decreased every year since 1984, by an average of about 2% per year.

Assets held by private pension plans in 1997 totaled $3.6 trillion, a 13% increase over 1996. Defined contribution plan assets increased 17% to $1.8 trillion while DB plan assets increased 9% to $1.7 trillion. 1997 was the first year in which DC plan assets exceeded the amount of assets held by DB plans.

Other findings from the Form 5500 series reports filed for 1997 plan years are summarized below:

  • While the number of small DB plans has decreased every year since 1986, and the number of medium and large DB plans has decreased every year since 1992, the primary reason for the decrease differs between the two groups. Among small plans filing final reports in 1997, 96% terminated and 4% merged with another plan. Among medium and large plans filing final reports, 34% terminated and 66% merged with another plan.
  • DC plans filing a final report in 1997 followed a similar pattern, with 88% of the small plans terminating and 12% merging, compared to 25% of medium and large plans terminating and 75% merging.
  • Among pension covered workers in 1997, about 54% were covered only by DC plan(s), 32% were covered by both DB and DC plans, and 14% only by a DB plan.
  • About two-thirds of pension covered workers (and about one-third of all private sector workers) participated in a 401(k) type plan in 1997, either as a primary or supplemental plan.
  • Most of the increase in the number of 401(k) type plan participants during the mid-1990s has been in firms providing pension coverage only through a 401(k) plan. For example, in 1997 an estimated 49% of 401(k) plan enrollees worked for firms sponsoring only 401(k) plans, an increase from 46% in 1996 and 44% in 1995.This pattern is in contrast to the experience during the 1980s, where much of the growth in 401(k) plan participation resulted from the adoption of 401(k) plans (or conversion of existing DC plans) by medium and large firms to supplement DB plans.
  • Seventy-eight percent of 401(k) type plans, covering 83% of the active participants, and holding 83% of the assets, provided for participant direction of investments of either all assets or assets based on employee contributions.
  • Among plans with 100 or more participants, DC plans achieved a 19.3% aggregate rate of return (investment earnings and appreciation) in 1997, with additional asset growth arising from a positive cash flow of $9.9 billion (contributions minus benefit payout and administrative expenses). Defined benefit plans had a 16.8% aggregate rate of return in 1997 and a negative cash flow of -$67.8 billion.
  • DB plans have experienced a negative cash flow every year since 1985. Compared to DC plans, DB plans are more likely to cover workers in many manufacturing and other mature industries with stagnant employment growth. Aging workforces in many of these industries have led to a declining ratio of active to retired workers, from 5.5 in 1978 to 2.5 in 1997.
  • Aided by a $21.1 billion positive cash flow, assets held by 401(k) type plans continued to increase at a more rapid rate (19%) than other types of pension plans. The aggregate rate of return for medium and large 401(k) type plans in 1997 was 18.2%, or slightly higher than the overall average of 17.9% for all pension plans.
  • Benefit payments from plans to retirees, survivors, and terminating employees increased by 9% in 1997 to $232.5 billion. Benefits paid out by DC plans increased 16% to $135.3 billion and benefit payments from DB plans increased by less than 1% to $97.2 billion.
  • Contributions to DC plans increased by 11% in 1997 to $148.1 billion while DB plan contributions increased 1% to $36.1 billion.
  • A major consequence of the shift in the pension system from DB to 401(k) plans has been a parallel shift in the financing of pension benefits from employers to employees. From 1977 to 1997, the percentage of contributions to all plans made by participants increased from 12% to 46%. Among DC plans, the share of total contributions made by participants increased from 29% to 55% over the 1977-97 period.
  • Of total employer and employee contributions made to 401(k) plans, 66% were made by employees. For workers participating only in a 401(k), 62% of contributions were made by employees compared to 69% for workers participating in both a 401(k) plan and another plan sponsored by their employer.
  • ESOPs, after achieving a rate of return in 1996 (18.4%) that was well above the average for all pension plans (14.9%), attained a 17.0% rate of return in 1997, compared to the 17.9% average for all pension plans.

Section A: Summary

Table A1: Number of Pension Plans, Total Participants, Active Participants, Assets, Contributions, and Benefits
by type of plan, 1997

Type of Plan

Number of Plans(1)

Total Participants
(thousands)(2)

Active Participants
(thousands)(3)

Total Assets
(millions)(4)

Total Contributions
(millions)(5)

Total Benefits
(millions)(6)

Total

720,041

94,985

70,724

$3,553,757

$177,940

$232,479

Defined benefit

59,499

40,392

22,745

1,735,604

29,862

97,213

Defined contribution

660,542

54,593

47,979

1,818,152

148,078

135,266

Profit sharing and thrift-savings

516,342

44,342

39,191

1,513,646

127,432

112,279

Stock bonus

4,410

3,612

3,075

123,090

7,790

9,184

Target benefit

5,860

171

148

6,239

345

529

Money purchase

108,203

5,120

4,447

140,621

10,115

10,365

Annuity-403(b)(1)

15,943

97

93

742

104

66

Custodial account-403(b)(7)

1,425

7

7

166

16

13

IRAs or annuities (Code 408)

1,051

27

20

1,002

52

87

Other defined contribution

7,307

1,215

999

32,647

2,224

2,742

Footnotes
  1. Excludes plans covering only one participant.
  2. Includes active, retired, and separated vested participants not yet in pay status. The number of participants also includes double counting of workers in more than one plan.
  3. Active participants include any workers currently in employment covered by a plan and who are earning or retaining credited service under a plan. Active participants also include nonvested former employees who have not yet incurred a break in service.
  4. Total asset amounts shown exclude funds held by life insurance companies under allocated group insurance contracts for payment of retirement benefits. These excluded funds make up roughly 10 to 15 percent of total pension fund assets.
  5. Includes both employer and employee contributions.
  6. Amounts shown include both benefits paid directly from trust funds and premium payments made by plans to insurance carriers. Amounts exclude benefits paid directly by insurance carriers.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1997.


Table A2: Number of Participants in Pension Plans
by type of plan entity, type of plan, and type of participant, 1997 (numbers in thousands)

Type of Participant

Total Plans Total

Total Plans Defined Benefit

Total Plans Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans(1) Total

Single Employer Plans(1) Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans(1) Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans(2) Total

Multiemployer Plans(2) Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans(2) Defined Contribution

Total participants

94,985

40,392

54,593

83,881

31,678

52,204

11,103

8,714

2,389

Active participants(3)

70,724

22,745

47,979

64,088

18,118

45,970

6,637

4,628

2,009

Fully vested

50,142

15,398

34,744

45,836

12,936

32,900

4,307

2,462

1,844

Partially vested

8,156

267

7,889

8,054

197

7,857

102

70

31

Nonvested

12,427

7,080

5,346

10,198

4,985

5,213

2,228

2,095

133

Retired or separated participants receiving benefits

9,599

8,999

600

7,266

6,695

571

2,333

2,304

29

Separated part. with vested right to benefits

14,661

8,647

6,014

12,528

6,865

5,663

2,133

1,782

351

Footnotes
  1. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  2. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.
  3. Plans with less than 100 participants are required to provide only the total participant count. For these plans, which cover approximately 10 percent of all participants, the distribution of active, retired, and separated vested participants was assumed to be the same as for larger plans in each column.

Note: Excludes plans covering only one participant.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1997.


Table A3: Balance Sheet of Pension Plans
by type of plan, 1997 (amounts in millions)

Type of Asset or Liability

Total

Defined Benefit

Defined Contribution

Assets

Cash

$102,841

$37,722

$65,119

Receivables

60,234

27,826

32,408

Corporate debt and equity instruments

994,118

442,012

552,106

U.S. Government securities

167,043

120,752

46,290

Real estate and mortgages (other than to participants)

21,203

14,365

6,838

Mortgage loans to participants

1,245

106

1,139

Other loans to participants

28,772

912

27,860

Other investments and assets

2,177,595

1,091,648

1,085,947

Buildings and other property used in plan operations

706

260

445

Total Assets

3,553,757

1,735,604

1,818,152

Liabilities

Payables

15,227

8,319

6,907

Acquisition indebtedness

15,709

1,632

14,078

Other liabilities

34,134

17,267

16,867

Total Liabilities

65,070

27,218

37,852

Net Assets

3,488,687

1,708,386

1,780,300

Note: Total asset amounts shown exclude funds held by life insurance companies under allocated group insurance contracts for payment of retirement benefits. These excluded funds make up roughly 10 to 15 percent of total pension fund assets.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1997.


Table A4: Income Statement of Pension Plans
by type of plan, 1997 (amounts in millions)

Income and Expenses

Total

Defined Benefit

Defined Contribution

Income

Contributions received or receivable from:

Employers

$90,523

$28,271

$62,252

Participants

77,494

639

76,855

Others

8,883

866

8,017

Noncash contributions

1,042

86

956

Total contributions

177,940

39,862

148,078

Investment earnings(1)

54,553

27,674

26,879

Net gain (loss) on sale of assets

59,682

35,534

24,148

Other or unspecified income(2)

438,508

197,066

241,442

Total Income

730,683

290,136

440,547

Expenses

Benefit payments and payments to provide benefits:

Direct benefits

224,040

93,120

130,920

Other benefits

8,439

4,093

4,346

Total payments

232,479

97,213

135,266

Total administrative expenses

9,645

6,728

2,917

Other or unspecified expenses

4,216

451

3,766

Total Expenses

246,341

104,391

141,949

Net Income

484,343

185,744

298,598

Footnotes
  1. Includes interest earnings, dividends, and rents.
  2. Includes net gain (loss) from pooled funds, unrealized appreciation (depreciation) of assets, and miscellaneous other income items.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1997.


Table A5: Amount of Assets in Pension Plans
by type of plan and method of funding, 1997 (amounts in millions)

Method of Funding

Total Plans Total

Total Plans Defined Benefit

Total Plans Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans(1) Total

Single Employer Plans(1) Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans(1) Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans(2) Total

Multiemployer Plans(2) Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans(2) Defined Contribution

Funding arrangement for investment of assets

Total

$3,553,757

$1,735,604

$1,818,152

$3,213,304

$1,432,788

$1,780,516

$340,452

$302,816

$37,636

Trust

2,161,885

1,017,822

1,144,063

1,967,094

849,456

1,117,638

194,791

168,366

26,425

Insurance

6,416

3,329

3,086

6,308

3,257

3,051

108

73

36

Trust and insurance

1,385,176

714,453

670,723

1,239,623

580,075

659,548

145,553

134,378

11,175

Other

280

0

279

280

0

279

0

0

0

Funding arrangement for payment of benefits

Total

$3,553,757

$1,735,604

$1,818,152

$3,213,304

$1,432,788

$1,780,516

$340,452

$302,816

$37,636

Trust

2,071,645

868,427

1,203,218

1,930,118

743,038

1,187,080

141,527

125,389

16,138

Insurance

74,859

39,097

35,762

72,855

37,571

35,284

2,004

1,526

478

Trust and insurance

1,395,217

826,128

569,089

1,198,504

650,378

548,126

196,713

175,750

20,963

Other

12,035

1,952

10,083

11,827

1,800

10,027

208

152

56

Footnotes
  1. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  2. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Note: Total asset amounts shown exclude funds held by life insurance companies under allocated group insurance contracts for payment of retirement benefits. These excluded funds make up roughly 10 to 15 percent of total pension fund assets.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1997.


Table A6: Collective Bargaining Status of Pension Plans, Participants, and Assets
by type of plan, 1997

Collective Bargaining Status

Total Plans Number of Plans

Total Plans Total Participants (thousands)

Total Plans Total Assets (millions)(1)

Defined Benefit Number of Plans

Defined Benefit Total Participants (thousands)

Defined Benefit Total Assets (millions)(1)

Defined Contribution Number of Plans

Defined Contribution Total Participants (thousands)

Defined Contribution Total Assets (millions)(1)

Total

720,041

94,985

$3,553,757

59,499

40,392

$1,735,604

660,542

54,593

$1,818,152

Collectively bargained plans

17,037

29,267

1,228,112

8,245

19,873

924,403

8,792

9,393

303,709

Noncollectively bargained plans

703,005

65,718

2,325,645

51,254

20,518

811,201

651,751

45,200

1,514,443

  1. Asset amounts shown exclude funds held by life insurance companies under allocated insurance contracts for payment of retirement benefits. These excluded funds make up roughly 10 to 15 percent of total pension fund assets.

Note: Some collectively bargained plans cover nonbargaining unit employees under a separate non-negotiated benefit structure.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1997.


Figure A1 - Distribution of Pension Plans and Participants by type of plan, 1997


Figure A2 - Active Participants in Pension Plans by vesting status and type of plan, 1997


Figure A3 - Distribution of Assets by method of funding, 1997


Section B: Plans and Participants

Table B1: Distribution of Pension Plans
by number of participants, 1997

Number of Participants

Total Plans Total

Total Plans Defined Benefit

Total Plans Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans(1) Total

Single Employer Plans(1) Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans(1) Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans(2) Total

Multiemployer Plans(2) Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans(2) Defined Contribution

Total

720,041

59,499

660,542

716,912

57,720

659,192

3,130

1,779

1,351

None or not reported

55,433

5,719

49,714

55,365

5,673

49,691

69

46

23

2-9

312,695

20,792

291,903

312,691

20,790

291,901

4

2

2

10-24

150,411

7,350

143,060

150,410

7,350

143,059

1

-

1

25-49

83,074

4,903

78,170

83,019

4,903

78,115

55

-

55

50-99

52,085

4,882

47,202

51,863

4,802

47,061

221

80

141

100-249

32,531

4,994

27,536

32,148

4,803

27,344

383

191

192

250-499

14,148

3,359

10,789

13,646

3,083

10,563

502

276

226

500-999

8,366

2,648

5,718

7,759

2,298

5,461

607

350

257

1,000-2,499

6,172

2,431

3,741

5,539

2,052

3,487

633

379

254

2,500-4,999

2,496

1,077

1,419

2,194

893

1,301

302

184

118

5,000-9,999

1,355

663

692

1,184

538

646

171

125

46

10,000-19,999

687

346

341

591

273

318

96

73

23

20,000-49,999

415

225

190

365

183

182

50

42

8

50,000 or more

176

109

67

140

78

62

36

31

5

Footnotes
  1. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  2. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Note: Excludes plans covering only one participant.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1997.


Table B2: Distribution of Pension Plans
by amount of assets, 1997

Amount of Assets

Total Plans Total

Total Plans Defined Benefit

Total Plans Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans(1) Total

Single Employer Plans(1) Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans(1) Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans(2) Total

Multiemployer Plans(2) Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans(2) Defined Contribution

Total

720,041

59,499

660,542

716,912

57,720

659,192

3,130

1,779

1,351

None or not reported

87,391

15,531

71,861

87,330

15,491

71,839

62

40

22

$1-24K

37,186

706

36,480

37,150

702

36,448

36

4

32

25-49K

36,316

581

35,735

36,310

580

35,730

6

1

5

50-99K

60,374

1,908

58,466

60,359

1,902

58,457

15

6

9

100-249K

116,451

4,616

111,835

116,404

4,610

111,794

47

6

41

250-499K

114,137

6,903

107,234

114,093

6,895

107,198

44

8

36

500-999K

105,257

7,529

97,727

105,200

7,519

97,680

57

10

47

1-2.4M

91,136

7,898

83,239

90,929

7,854

83,076

207

44

163

2.5-4.9M

33,556

3,646

29,910

33,106

3,477

29,629

450

169

280

5-9.9M

16,675

2,651

14,024

16,328

2,488

13,840

347

163

184

10-24.9M

10,723

2,817

7,905

10,149

2,483

7,665

574

334

240

25-49.9M

4,418

1,631

2,787

3,988

1,329

2,659

430

302

128

50-74.9M

1,753

759

994

1,551

612

939

202

147

55

75-99.9M

914

433

481

781

330

451

133

103

30

100-149.9M

1,008

454

554

874

348

526

134

106

28

150-199.9M

568

265

303

472

187

285

96

78

18

200-249.9M

408

222

186

344

169

175

64

53

11

250-499.9M

769

397

372

656

297

359

113

100

13

500-999.9M

492

262

230

439

215

224

53

47

6

1-2.49B

340

188

152

296

146

150

44

42

2

2.5B or more

169

101

68

153

85

68

16

16

-

Footnotes
  1. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  2. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Note: Excludes plans covering only one participant. The letters K, M, and B denote thousands, millions, and billions, respectively.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1997.


Table B3: Distribution of Pension Plans
by industry, 1997

Industry

Total Plans Total

Total Plans Defined Benefit

Total Plans Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans(1) Total

Single Employer Plans(1) Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans(1) Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans(2) Total

Multiemployer Plans(2) Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans(2) Defined Contribution

Total

720,041

59,499

660,542

716,912

57,720

659,192

3,130

1,779

1,351

Agriculture

11,840

1,178

10,663

11,830

1,171

10,660

10

7

3

Mining

4,705

570

4,135

4,696

564

4,132

9

6

3

Construction

48,416

3,011

45,404

46,527

2,046

44,481

1,888

965

923

Manufacturing

91,261

12,726

78,536

90,971

12,508

78,463

291

218

73

Transportation

11,283

1,020

10,263

11,028

843

10,185

255

177

78

Communications and utilities

8,673

1,588

7,085

8,660

1,582

7,078

13

6

7

Wholesale trade

50,462

3,658

46,805

50,396

3,603

46,794

66

55

11

Retail trade

48,584

2,911

45,673

48,455

2,802

45,653

129

109

20

Finance, insurance and real estate

55,436

5,823

49,612

55,424

5,816

49,607

12

7

5

Services

334,394

17,075

317,319

333,948

16,850

317,099

445

225

220

Tax-exempt organizations

43,607

9,397

34,210

43,600

9,395

34,205

7

2

5

Industry not reported

11,380

542

10,838

11,376

540

10,836

4

2

2

Footnotes
  1. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  2. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Note: Excludes plans covering only one participant.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1997.


Table B4: Distribution of Participants
by number of participants, 1997

Number of Participants

Total Plans Total

Total Plans Defined Benefit

Total Plans Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans(1) Total

Single Employer Plans(1) Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans(1) Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans(2) Total

Multiemployer Plans(2) Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans(2) Defined Contribution

Total

94,985

40,392

54,593

83,881

31,678

52,204

11,103

8,714

2,389

2-9

1,417

91

1,326

1,417

91

1,326

0

0

0

10-24

2,349

114

2,234

2,349

114

2,234

0

-

0

25-49

2,866

173

2,693

2,864

173

2,691

2

-

2

50-99

3,645

353

3,293

3,628

347

3,282

17

6

11

100-249

5,186

827

4,360

5,120

793

4,327

67

34

33

250-499

4,932

1,189

3,743

4,745

1,086

3,659

187

103

84

500-999

5,876

1,886

3,989

5,439

1,634

3,805

437

252

184

1,000-2,499

9,602

3,832

5,770

8,581

3,215

5,365

1,021

617

405

2,500-4,999

8,747

3,772

4,975

7,689

3,126

4,563

1,057

646

412

5,000-9,999

9,526

4,645

4,880

8,351

3,775

4,576

1,174

870

304

10,000-19,999

9,704

4,860

4,844

8,357

3,844

4,513

1,348

1,016

331

20,000-49,999

12,680

6,768

5,912

11,125

5,486

5,639

1,555

1,282

272

50,000 or more

18,457

11,883

6,574

14,218

7,995

6,223

4,239

3,888

351

Footnotes
  1. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  2. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.
  3. Less than 500

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1997.


Table B5: Distribution of Participants
by amount of assets, 1997 (numbers in thousands)

Amount of Assets

Total Plans Total

Total Plans Defined Benefit

Total Plans Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans(1) Total

Single Employer Plans(1) Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans(1) Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans(2) Total

Multiemployer Plans(2) Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans(2) Defined Contribution

Total

94,985

40,392

54,593

83,881

31,678

52,204

11,103

8,714

2,389

None or not reported

1,963

611

1,352

1,956

608

1,348

7

3

4

$1-24K

320

9

310

316

9

307

4

1

3

25-49K

367

6

361

366

6

360

1

0

1

50-99K

765

22

744

761

20

741

4

1

3

100-249K

1,760

67

1,692

1,753

66

1,687

7

1

5

250-499K

2,263

134

2,129

2,244

131

2,112

20

3

17

500-999K

3,031

258

2,773

3,003

254

2,749

28

4

24

1-2.4M

5,159

629

4,530

5,052

613

4,439

107

16

91

2.5-4.9M

4,493

813

3,680

4,313

770

3,542

180

42

138

5-9.9M

4,658

1,118

3,540

4,387

1,031

3,355

272

87

184

10-24.9M

7,133

2,364

4,769

6,519

2,086

4,433

614

278

335

25-49.9M

6,222

2,521

3,702

5,484

2,105

3,379

738

416

322

50-74.9M

3,976

1,743

2,233

3,548

1,480

2,068

428

263

165

75-99.9M

2,946

1,391

1,555

2,518

1,119

1,399

428

272

156

100-149.9M

3,941

1,841

2,100

3,417

1,549

1,868

524

292

231

150-199.9M

3,248

1,418

1,830

2,586

1,006

1,580

662

413

249

200-249.9M

3,234

1,507

1,727

2,780

1,123

1,657

454

384

70

250-499.9M

7,215

3,853

3,361

6,008

2,842

3,167

1,206

1,011

195

500-999.9M

7,507

4,065

3,441

6,470

3,193

3,276

1,037

872

165

1-2.49B

10,904

6,501

4,403

9,064

4,691

4,373

1,840

1,810

30

2.5B or more

13,879

9,518

4,361

11,337

6,976

4,361

2,543

2,543

-

Footnotes
  1. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  2. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Notes: Excludes plans covering only one participant. The letters K, M, and B denote thousands, millions, and billions, respectively.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1997.


Table B6: Distribution of Participants
by industry, 1997 (numbers in thousands)

Industry

Total Plans Total

Total Plans Defined Benefit

Total Plans Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans(1) Total

Single Employer Plans(1) Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans(1) Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans(2) Total

Multiemployer Plans(2) Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans(2) Defined Contribution

Total

94,985

40,392

54,593

83,881

31,678

52,204

11,103

8,714

2,389

Agriculture

510

185

325

492

169

324

18

16

2

Mining

980

488

492

833

348

485

148

140

7

Construction

6,035

3,108

2,927

1,671

163

1,507

4,364

2,945

1,419

Manufacturing

34,199

16,934

17,265

32,786

15,754

17,032

1,413

1,180

233

Transportation

4,696

2,479

2,217

3,170

1,073

2,097

1,526

1,405

120

Communications and utilities

4,951

2,442

2,508

4,902

2,406

2,496

49

36

13

Wholesale trade

3,417

950

2,467

3,151

714

2,437

266

236

29

Retail trade

10,161

3,509

6,652

8,714

2,208

6,506

1,446

1,301

146

Finance, insurance and real estate

9,385

3,963

5,422

9,348

3,935

5,413

37

28

9

Services

17,902

5,186

12,716

16,091

3,781

12,310

1,811

1,405

406

Tax-exempt organizations

2,352

1,060

1,292

2,349

1,059

1,290

3

1

2

Industry not reported

397

89

308

374

68

306

23

21

3

Footnotes

  1. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  2. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1997.


Table B7: Distribution of Active Participants
by type of plan, 1997(1) (numbers in thousands)

Type of Plan

Total Plans

Single Employer Plans(2)

Multiemployer Plans(3)

TOTAL

70,724

64,088

6,637

Defined benefit

22,745

18,118

4,628

Defined contribution

47,979

45,970

2,009

Profit sharing and thrift-savings

39,191

38,829

362

Stock bonus

3,075

3,074

0

Target benefit

148

143

5

Money purchase

4,447

2,966

1,481

Annuity-403(b)(1)

93

84

9

Custodial account-403(b)7

7

7

-

IRAs or annuities (Code 408)

20

17

2

Other defined contribution

999

849

150

Footnotes
  1. Active participants include any workers currently in employment covered by a plan and who are earning or retaining credited service under a plan. Active participants also include any nonvested former employees who have not yet incurred a break in service.
  2. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  3. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1997.


Table B8: Number of Plans
by type of plan and method of funding, 1997

Method of Funding

Total Plans Total

Total Plans Defined Benefit

Total Plans Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans(1) Total

Single Employer Plans(1) Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans(1) Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans(2) Total

Multiemployer Plans(2) Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans(2) Defined Contribution

Funding arrangement for investment of assets

Total

720,041

59,499

660,542

716,912

57,720

659,192

3,130

1,779

1,351

Trust

487,682

35,149

452,533

485,360

33,870

451,490

2,322

1,279

1,043

Insurance

14,114

1,684

12,430

14,095

1,673

12,422

19

11

8

Trust and insurance

168,790

12,704

156,086

168,007

12,217

155,790

783

487

296

Other

49,456

9,962

39,494

49,450

9,960

39,490

6

2

4

Funding arrangement for payment of benefits

Total

720,041

59,499

660,542

716,912

57,720

659,192

3,130

1,779

1,351

Trust

477,940

34,614

443,325

476,654

33,912

442,742

1,285

702

584

Insurance

51,057

4,432

46,625

50,957

4,372

46,585

100

60

40

Trust and insurance

125,798

10,226

115,571

124,089

9,235

114,853

1,709

991

718

Other

65,247

10,226

55,021

65,212

10,200

55,012

35

26

9

Footnotes
  1. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  2. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1997.


Table B9: Number of Participants
by type of plan and method of funding, 1997 (numbers in thousands)

Method of Funding

Total Plans Total

Total Plans Defined Benefit

Total Plans Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans(1) Total

Single Employer Plans(1) Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans(1) Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans(2) Total

Multiemployer Plans(2) Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans(2) Defined Contribution

Funding arrangement for investment of assets

Total

94,985

40,392

54,593

83,881

31,678

52,204

11,103

8,714

2,389

Trust

59,752

25,397

34,356

52,932

20,398

32,535

6,820

4,999

1,821

Insurance

593

220

373

586

217

369

7

3

3

Trust and insurance

33,191

14,317

18,874

28,914

10,605

18,309

4,277

3,712

565

Other

1,449

458

991

1,449

458

990

(3)

0

(3)

Funding arrangement for payment of benefits

Trust

55,766

22,010

33,756

51,553

18,744

32,809

4,213

3,266

947

Insurance

3,601

1,239

2,362

3,514

1,177

2,336

87

61

26

Trust and insurance

33,919

16,658

17,261

27,122

11,273

15,849

6,797

5,384

1,413

Other

1,699

486

1,214

1,692

483

1,209

7

3

4

Footnotes
  1. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  2. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.
  3. Less than 500.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1997.


Table B10: Percent Distribution of Plans filing final Form 5500 Reports
by type of plan, size of plan, and reason for final filing, 1997

Type of plan

Reason for Final Filing Total

Reason for Final Filing Plan Terminated

Reason for Final Filing Plan Merged

All plans

Total

100

69

31

Defined benefit

100

68

32

Defined contribution

100

69

31

Plans with fewer than 100 participants

Total

100

90

10

Defined benefit

100

96

4

Defined contribution

100

88

12

Plans with 100 or more participants

Total

100

28

72

Defined benefit

100

34

66

Defined contribution

100

25

75

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1997.


Section C: Financial

Table C1: Distribution of Assets
by number of participants, 1997 (amounts in millions)

 

 

Number of Participants

Total Plans Total

Total Plans Defined Benefit

Total Plans Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans(1) Total

Single Employer Plans(1) Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans(1) Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans(2) Total

Multiemployer Plans(2) Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans(2) Defined Contribution

Total

$3,553,757

$1,735,604

$1,818,152

$3,213,304

$1,432,788

$1,780,516

$340,452

$302,816

$37,636

None or not reported

5,160

1,920

3,240

4,668

1,504

3,165

491

416

75

2-9

126,236

10,225

116,011

126,236

10,225

116,011

(3)

(3)

(3)

10-24

94,092

3,260

90,831

94,089

3,260

90,829

2

-

2

25-49

79,758

3,280

76,478

79,616

3,280

76,336

142

-

142

50-99

93,530

6,929

86,601

92,864

6,607

86,257

666

322

344

100-249

120,590

18,917

101,673

118,414

17,553

100,860

2,176

1,364

813

250-499

113,379

29,617

83,762

107,362

25,198

82,165

6,017

4,419

1,597

500-999

142,464

51,011

91,452

127,806

39,826

87,980

14,658

11,186

3,472

1,000-2,499

263,179

116,146

147,033

228,548

89,494

139,054

34,631

26,653

7,978

2,500-4,999

280,887

134,183

146,704

245,187

106,678

138,509

35,701

27,505

8,195

5,000-9,999

362,720

182,693

180,027

323,013

148,298

174,714

39,707

34,394

5,313

10,000-19,999

403,901

210,308

193,593

358,860

169,258

189,603

45,041

41,050

3,991

20,000-49,999

580,337

312,545

267,793

531,800

268,569

263,230

48,537

43,975

4,562

50,000 or more

887,524

654,571

232,953

774,841

543,038

231,802

112,683

111,532

1,151

Footnotes
  1. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  2. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.
  3. Less than $500,000.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1997.


Table C2: Distribution of Assets
by asset size, 1997 (numbers in millions)

Amount of Assets

Total Plans Total

Total Plans Defined Benefit

Total Plans Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans(1) Total

Single Employer Plans(1) Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans(1) Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans(2) Total

Multiemployer Plans(2) Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans(2) Defined Contribution

Total

$3,553,757

$1,735,604

$1,818,152

$3,213,304

$1,432,788

$1,780,516

$340,452

$302,816

$37,636

1-24K

481

9

472

481

9

472

(3)

(3)

(3)

25-49K

1,343

23

1,321

1,343

23

1,320

(3)

(3)

(3)

50-99K

4,461

146

4,315

4,460

146

4,314

1

(3)

1

100-249K

19,528

801

18,727

19,519

800

18,719

9

1

8

250-499K

41,149

2,522

38,627

41,133

2,519

38,614

16

3

13

500-999K

74,541

5,384

69,157

74,498

5,376

69,121

44

8

36

1-2.4M

140,828

12,320

128,508

140,452

12,241

128,211

376

79

297

2.5-4.9M

116,412

13,031

103,381

114,747

12,380

102,367

1,665

651

1,014

5-9.9M

116,141

18,958

97,183

113,589

17,748

95,841

2,552

1,210

1,342

10-24.9M

165,165

45,224

119,941

155,711

39,696

116,015

9,454

5,528

3,926

25-49.9M

154,642

57,493

97,149

139,191

46,693

92,498

15,450

10,800

4,651

50-74.9M

106,816

46,418

60,398

94,411

37,338

57,072

12,405

9,079

3,326

75-99.9M

79,285

37,468

41,818

67,606

28,467

39,139

11,679

9,001

2,678

100-149.9M

122,363

54,970

67,393

105,961

42,087

63,874

16,402

12,883

3,519

150-199.9M

97,805

45,710

52,095

81,202

32,204

48,998

16,603

13,506

3,097

200-249.9M

90,999

49,531

41,468

76,577

37,572

39,005

14,422

11,959

2,463

250-499.9M

269,862

140,544

129,319

230,527

105,848

124,679

39,335

34,696

4,639

500-999.9M

340,448

182,390

158,058

302,127

148,378

153,749

38,321

34,013

4,309

1-2.49B

521,952

288,558

233,395

459,820

228,742

231,078

62,132

59,815

2,317

2.5B or more

1,089,534

734,106

355,428

989,950

634,522

355,428

99,585

99,585

-

Footnotes
  1. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  2. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.
  3. Less than $500,000.

Note: Excludes plans covering only one participant. The letters K,M, and B denote thousands, millions, and billions, respectively.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1997.


Table C3: Distribution of Assets
by industry, 1997 (amounts in millions)

Industry

Total Plans Total

Total Plans Defined Benefit

Total Plans Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans(1) Total

Single Employer Plans(1) Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans(1) Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans(2) Total

Multiemployer Plans(2) Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans(2) Defined Contribution

TOTAL

$3,553,757

$1,735,604

$1,818,152

$3,213,304

$1,432,788

$1,780,516

$340,452

$302,816

$37,636

Agriculture

11,126

3,764

7,363

10,914

3,559

7,356

212

205

7

Mining

43,630

21,200

22,430

35,962

13,706

22,256

7,668

7,494

174

Construction

206,369

138,528

67,841

44,898

4,787

40,111

161,472

133,742

27,730

Manufacturing

1,520,959

810,731

710,228

1,496,727

787,666

709,061

24,232

23,066

1,167

Transportation

174,301

116,674

57,628

104,754

49,742

55,012

69,548

66,932

2,616

Communications and utilities

354,330

233,257

121,073

352,376

231,391

120,986

1,954

1,866

87

Wholesale trade

98,902

23,830

75,072

94,870

19,926

74,944

4,032

3,904

128

Retail trade

148,892

51,250

97,643

123,255

26,118

97,137

25,638

25,132

506

Finance, insurance, and real estate

392,645

155,356

237,289

391,873

154,679

237,193

772

677

95

Services

535,008

143,557

391,451

491,322

104,948

386,374

43,686

38,609

5,077

Tax-exempt organizations

60,799

34,846

25,953

60,749

34,829

25,920

50

17

32

Industry not reported

6,794

2,611

4,183

5,604

1,438

4,166

1,189

1,173

17

Footnotes
  1. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  2. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1997.


Table C4: Balance Sheet of Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants
by type of plan, 1997 (amounts in millions)

Type of Asset or Liability

Total

Defined Benefit

Defined Contribution

Assets

Receivables

Employer contributions

$22,606

$9,040

$13,565

Participant contributions

1,816

130

1,686

Income receivables

5,417

3,719

1,698

Other receivables

19,327

14,186

5,140

Less allowance for doubtful accounts

132

122

10

Total receivables (net)

49,034

26,954

22,080

General Investments

Interest-bearing cash

64,693

32,227

32,466

Certificates of deposit

3,839

1,401

2,438

U.S. Government securities

145,668

118,620

27,048

Corporate debt instruments: Preferred

43,210

32,273

10,937

Corporate debt instruments: All other

73,057

59,497

13,560

Preferred stock

18,842

4,238

14,604

Common stock

442,852

330,587

112,265

Partnership/joint venture interests

14,865

13,997

868

Income-producing real estate

6,680

6,071

609

Nonincome-producing real estate

2,678

2,593

85

Residential loans (other than to participants) secured by mortgages

2,698

2,160

538

Commercial loans secured by mortgages

3,164

2,889

276

Mortgage loans to participants

884

97

787

Other loans to participants

23,308

628

22,681

Other loans

2,101

850

1,252

Value of interest in common/collective trusts

216,473

112,113

104,360

Value of interest in pooled separate accounts

97,995

46,364

51,631

Value of interest in master trusts

1,084,084

775,001

309,082

Value of interest in 103-12 investment entities

6,293

3,361

2,932

Value of interest in registered investment companies

408,432

66,022

342,410

Value of funds held in insurance company general account

104,430

25,999

78,431

Other or unspecified general investments

85,879

38,258

47,621

Total general investments

2,852,125

1,675,245

1,176,880

Employer securities

248,606

5,590

243,017

Employer real property

539

61

477

Unspecified investments

441

40

401

Total noninterest-bearing cash

3,954

1,841

2,113

Buildings and other property used in plan operations

283

260

23

Total Assets

3,154,982

1,709,990

1,444,991

Liabilities

Benefit claims payable

4,964

641

4,323

Operating payables

9,603

7,635

1,969

Acquisition indebtedness

14,591

1,471

13,120

Other liabilities

31,818

16,280

15,538

Total Liabilities

60,976

26,026

34,951

Net Assets

3,094,005

1,683,965

1,410,041

Footnotes

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1997.


Table C5: Balance Sheet of Single Employer Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants
by type of plan, 1997(1) (amounts in millions)

Type of Asset or Liability

Total

Defined Beneft

Defined Contribution

Assets

Receivables

Employer contributions

$20,994

$7,701

$13,293

Participant contributions

1,799

124

1,675

Income receivables

3,898

2,380

1,518

Other receivables

17,326

12,383

4,943

Less allowance for doubtful accounts

11

4

7

Total receivables (net)

44,006

22,582

21,423

General Investments

Interest-bearing cash

52,495

21,856

30,640

Certificates of deposit

2,904

1,108

1,796

U.S. Government securities

81,908

63,063

18,845

Corporate debt instruments: Preferred

23,851

14,078

9,773

Corporate debt instruments: All other

48,489

37,763

10,726

Preferred stock

18,343

3,764

14,580

Common stock

323,971

218,246

105,725

Partnership/joint venture interests

13,717

12,931

785

Income-producing real estate

2,867

2,361

506

Nonincome-producing real estate

2,387

2,319

68

Residential loans (other than to participants) secured by mortgages

2,154

1,687

467

Commercial loans secured by mortgages

1,049

844

206

Mortgage loans to participants

785

10

775

Other loans to participants

22,991

595

22,396

Other loans

1,552

335

1,217

Value of interest in common/collective trusts

176,973

75,987

100,986

Value of interest in pooled separate accounts

92,392

41,650

50,743

Value of interest in master trusts

1,083,122

774,396

308,726

Value of interest in 103-12 investment entities

4,510

2,323

2,187

Value of interest in registered investment companies

394,868

56,000

338,868

Value of funds held in insurance company general account

96,029

20,383

75,647

Other or unspecified general investments

72,145

27,156

44,989

Total general investments

2,519,503

1,378,852

1,140,651

Employer securities

247,918

4,905

243,014

Employer real property

535

57

477

Unspecified investments

356

40

317

Total noninterest-bearing cash

3,492

1,471

2,021

Buildings and other property used in plan operations

21

5

16

Total Assets

2,815,831

1,407,912

1,407,919

Liabilities

Benefit claims payable

4,750

547

4,203

Operating payables

8,827

6,908

1,919

Acquisition indebtedness

14,275

1,157

13,118

Other liabilities

29,171

13,799

15,372

Total Liabilities

57,024

22,412

34,612

Net Assets

2,758,807

1,385,501

1,373,307

Footnotes
  1. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1997.


Table C6: Balance Sheet of Multiemployer Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants
by type of plan, 1997(1) (amounts in millions)

Type of Asset or Liability

Total

Defined Benefit

Defined Contribution

Assets

Receivables

Employer contributions

$1,612

$1,340

$272

Participant contributions

17

6

11

Income receivables

1,519

1,340

180

Other receivables

2,001

1,804

197

Less allowance for doubtful accounts

121

118

3

Total receivables (net)

5,028

4,371

657

General Investments

Interest-bearing cash

12,198

10,371

1,827

Certificates of deposit

935

294

641

U.S. Government securities

63,759

55,557

8,203

Corporate debt instruments: Preferred

19,359

18,195

1,163

Corporate debt instruments: All other

24,568

21,735

2,834

Preferred stock

499

475

24

Common stock

118,880

112,341

6,540

Partnership/joint venture interests

1,149

1,066

83

Income-producing real estate

3,813

3,710

103

Nonincome-producing real estate

291

274

17

Residential loans (other than to participants) secured by mortgages

544

473

70

Commercial loans secured by mortgages

2,115

2,045

70

Mortgage loans to participants

98

87

12

Other loans to participants

317

33

285

Other loans

549

515

34

Value of interest in common/collective trusts

39,500

36,126

3,374

Value of interest in pooled separate accounts

5,602

4,714

888

Value of interest in master trusts

961

605

356

Value of interest in 103-12 investment entities

1,783

1,038

745

Value of interest in registered investment companies

13,564

10,021

3,543

Value of funds held in insurance company general account

8,401

5,616

2,785

Other or unspecified general investments

13,734

11,102

2,632

Total general investments

332,622

296,392

36,230

Employer securities

688

685

3

Employer real property

4

4

(2)

Unspecified investments

84

(2)

84

Total noninterest-bearing cash

462

371

92

Buildings and other property used in plan operations

262

255

7

Total Assets

339,151

302,078

37,072

Liabilities

Benefit claims payable

214

94

120

Operating payables

777

727

50

Acquisition indebtedness

316

313

3

Other liabilities

2,647

2,480

166

Total Liabilities

3,953

3,614

339

Net Assets

335,198

298,464

36,734

Footnotes
  1. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.
  2. Less than $500,000.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1997.


Table C7: Percentage Distribution of Assets in Defined Benefit Plans with 100 or More Participants by type of asset and size of plan, 1997

Type of Asset

Total

$1-.9M

$1.0M-9.9M

$10.0M-249.9M

$250.0M-999.9M

$1.0B or more

Total Assets

100

100

100

100

100

100

Cash

2

9

5

2

2

2

Receivables

2

8

3

2

1

2

U.S. Government securities

7

5

8

10

8

6

Corporate debt instruments: Preferred

2

6

2

2

2

2

Corporate debt instruments: All other

3

2

3

4

4

3

Corporate stocks

20

5

14

22

20

19

Real estate and mortgages (other than to participants)

1

(1)

(1)

(1)

1

1

Other loans to participants

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

Value of interest in common/collective trusts

7

8

9

8

6

6

Value of interest in pooled separate accounts

3

6

9

4

2

2

Value of interest in master trusts

45

20

20

32

45

50

Value of interest in registered investment companies

4

13

14

8

4

2

Value of funds held in insurance company general account

2

14

9

3

1

1

Employer securities

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

Other investments

3

5

4

3

3

3

Footnotes
  1. Less than one percent.

Note: The letters M and B in the column headings denote millions and billions, respectively. Percentage distribution may not add up to 100 because of rounding.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1997.


Table C8: Percentage Distribution of Assets in Defined Contribution Plans with 100 or More Participants
by type of asset and size of plan, 1997

Type of Asset

Total

$1-.9M

$1.0M-9.9M

$10.0M-249.9M

$250.0M-999.9M

$1.0B or more

Total Assets

100

100

100

100

100

100

Cash

3

5

5

4

2

1

Receivables

2

5

3

2

2

1

U.S. Government securities

2

1

2

3

2

1

Corporate debt instruments: Preferred

1

2

3

1

(1)

1

Corporate debt instruments: All other

1

1

1

1

1

1

Corporate stocks

9

3

6

8

9

10

Real estate and mortgages (other than to participants)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

Other loans to participants

2

1

2

2

2

1

Value of interest in common/collective trusts

7

5

7

9

7

6

Value of interest in pooled separate accounts

4

23

16

5

1

1

Value of interest in master trusts

21

1

2

10

23

33

Value of interest in registered investment companies

24

27

34

36

24

12

Value of funds held in insurance company general account

5

8

8

5

5

5

Employer securities

17

2

4

10

19

24

Other investments

4

14

8

4

4

3

Footnotes
  1. Less than one percent.

Note: The letters M and B in the column headings denote millions and billions, respectively. Percentage distribution may not add up to 100 because of rounding.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1997.


Table C9: Income Statement of Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants
by type of plan, 1997 (amounts in millions)

Income and Expenses

Total

Defined Benefit

Defined Contribution

Income

Contributions received or receivable from:

Employers

$69,221

$26,361

$42,859

Participants

67,443

617

66,826

Other administrative expenses

6,024

822

5,202

Noncash contributions

969

86

883

Total contributions

143,655

27,886

115,770

Interest earnings:

Interest-bearing cash

6,464

2,646

3,819

Certificates of deposit

258

109

149

Other administrative expenses

8,196

6,604

1,592

Corporate debt instruments

6,160

5,086

1,074

Mortgage loans

405

319

85

Other loans

1,279

52

1,226

Other or unspecified interest

13,223

5,733

7,491

Total interest earnings

35,985

20,549

15,436

Dividends:

Preferred stock

1,869

281

1,588

Common stock

15,648

6,331

9,317

Total dividend income

17,517

6,612

10,906

Rents

360

287

72

Net gain (loss) on sale of assets

51,788

34,872

16,916

Unrealized appreciation (depreciation) of assets

122,825

42,853

79,972

Net investment gain (loss) from common/collective trusts

25,481

12,475

13,006

Net investment gain (loss) from pooled separate accounts

14,459

6,562

7,896

Net investment gain (loss) from master trusts

166,439

120,737

45,702

Net investment gain (loss) from 103-12 investment entities

929

499

430

Net investment gain (loss) from registered investment companies

47,355

5,460

41,895

Other or unspecified income

8,320

3,137

5,183

Total Income

635,113

281,931

353,183

Expenses

Benefit payments and payments to provide benefits:

Direct benefits

184,868

86,385

98,483

Payments to insurance carriers

2,992

2,650

342

Other benefits

1,554

459

1,096

Total payments

189,413

89,493

99,920

Interest expense

2,109

10

2,099

Administrative expenses:

Salaries and allowances

277

214

63

Accounting fees

136

89

47

Actuarial fees

418

401

17

Contract administrator fees

617

440

177

Investment advisory and management fees

3,614

3,046

569

Legal fees

160

131

29

Valuation/appraisal fees

16

8

8

Trustee fees/expenses

653

412

240

Other administrative expenses

2,340

1,745

596

Total administrative expenses

8,231

6,486

1,745

Other or unspecified expenses

9

(1)

9

Total Expenses

199,762

95,989

103,773

Net Income

435,352

185,941

249,410

Footnotes
  1. Less than $500,000.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1997.


Table C10: Income Statement of Single Employer Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants
by type of plan, 1997 (amounts in millions)

Income and Expenses

Total

Defined Benefit

Defined Contribution

Income

Contributions received or receivable from:

Employers

$56,328

$16,352

$39,976

Participants

67,138

547

66,591

Others

5,995

804

5,191

Noncash contributions

969

86

883

Total contributions

139,429

17,788

112,641

Interest earnings:

Interest-bearing cash

5,571

1,864

3,707

Certificates of deposit

188

86

102

U.S. Government securities

4,325

3,240

1,084

Corporate debt instruments

3,556

2,709

846

Mortgage loans

212

141

70

Other loans

1,243

37

1,206

Other or unspecified interest

11,570

4,370

7,201

Total interest earnings

26,665

12,448

14,217

Dividends:

Preferred stock

1,792

210

1,582

Common stock

13,628

4,460

9,168

Total dividend income

15,421

4,671

10,751

Rents

181

113

68

Net gain (loss) on sale of assets

38,573

22,379

16,194

Unrealized appreciation (depreciation) of assets

104,679

25,935

78,744

Net investment gain (loss) from common/collective trusts

20,751

8,061

12,690

Net investment gain (loss) from pooled separate accounts

13,797

5,997

7,799

Net investment gain (loss) from master trusts

166,312

120,641

45,671

Net investment gain (loss) from 103-12 investment entities

698

362

336

Net investment gain (loss) from registered investment companies

46,225

4,702

41,522

Other or unspecified income

7,875

2,730

5,145

Total Income

571,605

225,826

345,779

Expenses

Benefit payments and payments to provide benefits:

Direct benefits

168,022

71,475

96,547

Payments to insurance carriers

1,784

1,481

304

Other benefits

1,507

431

1,076

Total payments

171,312

73,386

97,926

Interest expense

2,104

6

2,098

Administrative expenses:

Salaries and allowances

92

43

48

Accounting fees

87

51

36

Actuarial fees

352

339

13

Contract administrator fees

441

289

152

Investment advisory and management fees

2,627

2,148

479

Legal fees

56

40

16

Valuation/appraisal fees

14

6

8

Trustee fees/expenses

629

392

237

Other administrative expenses

1,975

1,429

545

Total administrative expenses

6,271

4,738

1,533

Other or unspecified expenses

9

(1)

9

Total Expenses

179,696

78,131

101,566

Net Income

391,909

147,696

244,213

Footnotes
  1. Less than $500,000.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1997.


Table C11: Income Statement of Multiemployer Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants
by type of plan, 1997 (amounts in millions)

Income and Expenses

Total

Defined Benefit

Defined Contribution

Income

Contributions received or receivable from:

Employers

$12,892

$10,009

$2,883

Participants

305

70

235

Others

28

18

10

Noncash contributions

(1)

(1)

(1)

Total contributions

13,226

10,097

3,128

Interest earnings:

Interest-bearing cash

893

782

111

Certificates of deposit

70

23

47

U.S. Government securities

3,872

3,364

508

Corporate debt instruments

2,604

2,377

227

Mortgage loans

193

178

15

Other loans

36

15

21

Other or unspecified interest

1,653

1,363

290

Total interest earnings

9,321

8,102

1,219

Dividends:

Preferred stock

77

71

6

Common stock

2,020

1,871

149

Total dividend income

2,096

1,941

155

Rents

179

174

4

Net gain (loss) on sale of assets

13,215

12,493

722

Unrealized appreciation (depreciation) of assets

18,146

16,918

1,228

Net investment gain (loss) from common/collective trusts

4,730

4,415

315

Net investment gain (loss) from pooled separate accounts

662

565

97

Net investment gain (loss) from master trusts

127

96

31

Net investment gain (loss) from 103-12 investment entities

231

137

94

Net investment gain (loss) from registered investment companies

1,130

758

372

Other or unspecified income

445

408

38

Total Income

63,508

56,104

7,404

Expenses

Benefit payments and payments to provide benefits:

Direct benefits

16,846

14,910

1,936

Payments to insurance carriers

1,207

1,169

38

Other benefits

48

28

20

Total payments

18,101

16,107

1,994

Interest expense

5

4

1

Administrative expenses:

Salaries and allowances

186

171

15

Accounting fees

50

39

11

Actuarial fees

66

62

3

Contract administrator fees

176

151

25

Investment advisory and management fees

987

898

90

Legal fees

104

91

14

Valuation/appraisal fees

2

2

(1)

Trustee fees/expenses

24

20

4

Other administrative expenses

365

315

50

Total administrative expenses

1,960

1,748

212

Total Expenses

20,065

17,859

2,207

Net Income

43,443

38,246

5,197

Footnotes
  1. Less than $500,000.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1997.


Table C12: Percentage Distribution of Income of Defined Benefit Plans with 100 or More Participants
by source of income and size of plan, 1997

Income and Expenses

Total

$1-.9M

$1.0M-9.9M

$10.0M-249.9M

$250.0M-999.9M

$1.0B or More

Total Income

100

100

100

100

100

100

Contributions received or receivable from:

Employers

9

56

28

15

11

6

Participants

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

Others

(1)

1

(1)

1

(1)

(1)

Total contributions

10

58

28

16

11

7

Interest earnings:

Interest-bearing cash

1

2

2

1

1

1

Certificates of deposit

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

U.S. Government securities

2

1

2

3

2

2

Corporate debt instruments

2

1

1

2

2

2

Mortgage loans

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

Other loans

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

Other or unspecified interest

2

4

4

2

2

2

Total interest earnings

7

8

10

8

7

7

Total dividend income

2

2

2

3

2

2

Net gain (loss) on sale of assets

12

3

8

13

12

12

Unrealized appreciation (depreciation) of assets

15

7

14

20

18

13

Net investment gain (loss) from common/collective trusts

4

2

6

5

3

4

Net investment gain (loss) from pooled separate accounts

2

2

6

3

2

2

Net investment gain (loss) from master trusts

43

9

15

27

40

51

Net investment gain (loss) from registered investment companies

2

5

7

4

2

1

Other or unspecified income

1

5

4

2

3

1

Footnotes
  1. Less than one percent.

Note: Percentage distributions may not add to 100 because of rounding.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1997.


Table C13: Percentage Distribution of Income of Defined Contribution Plans with 100 or More Participants
by source of income and size of plan, 1997

Income and Expenses

Total

$1-.9M

$1.0M-9.9M

$10.0M-249.9M

$250.0M-999.9M

$1.0B or More

Total Income

100

100

100

100

100

100

Contributions received or receivable from:

Employers

12

24

19

16

12

7

Participants

19

47

30

22

18

14

Others

1

5

4

2

1

(1)

Total contributions

33

76

53

40

32

22

Interest earnings:

Interest-bearing cash

1

1

1

1

1

1

Certificates of deposit

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

U.S. Government securities

(1)

(1)

(1)

1

(1)

(1)

U.S. Government securities

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

Mortgage loans

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

Other loans

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

Other or unspecified interest

2

1

2

2

2

2

Total interest earnings

4

2

4

5

4

4

Total dividend income

3

1

2

3

4

3

Net gain (loss) on sale of assets

5

2

2

4

5

6

Unrealized appreciation (depreciation) of assets

23

1

7

15

25

31

Net investment gain (loss) from common/collective trusts

4

1

3

4

3

4

Net investment gain (loss) from pooled separate accounts

2

6

8

3

1

1

Net investment gain (loss) from master trusts

13

(1)

1

6

12

22

Net investment gain (loss) from registered investment companies

12

6

15

18

12

6

Other or unspecified income

2

4

5

2

1

(1)

Footnotes
  1. Less than one percent.

Note: Percentage distributions may not add to 100 because of rounding.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1997.


Figure C1 - Average Assets per Participant by plan size, 1997


Figure C2 - Distribution of Pension Plans, Participants and Assets by plan size, 1997


Section D: Defined Contribution Plans

Table D1: Balance Sheet of Defined Contribution Plans with 100 or More Participants
by type of plan, 1997

Type of Asset or Liability

Total Defined Contribution Plans

Profit Sharing and Thrift-Savings Plans

Stock Bonus Plans

Target Benefit Plans

Money Purchase Plans

Other Defined Contribution Plans

Assets

Receivables

Employer contributions

$13,565

$11,196

$1,005

$34

$1,197

$133

Participant contributions

1,686

1,579

39

1

27

41

Income receivables

1,698

1,260

114

23

235

66

Other receivables

5,140

4,564

267

9

205

94

Less allowance for doubtful accounts

10

3

(1)

(1)

6

1

Total receivables (net)

22,080

18,596

1,425

68

1,658

333

General Investments

Interest-bearing cash

32,466

26,659

2,000

106

2,943

759

Certificates of deposit

2,438

1,573

30

1

704

130

U.S. Government securities

27,048

16,057

596

122

8,638

1,635

Corporate debt instruments: Preferred

10,937

8,807

460

17

1,169

484

Corporate debt instruments: All other

13,560

8,620

356

42

3,642

899

Preferred stock

14,604

13,830

524

3

168

79

Common stock

112,265

85,208

9,387

297

12,922

4,452

Partnership/joint venture interests

868

709

2

10

122

25

Income-producing real estate

609

381

3

(1)

164

62

Nonincome-producing real estate

85

63

(1)

(1)

6

16

Residential loans (other than to participants) secured by mortgages

538

403

2

(1)

124

8

Commercial loans secured by mortgages

276

192

1

(1)

80

3

Mortgage loans to participants

787

686

52

(1)

17

31

Other loans to participants

22,681

20,630

1,297

6

448

299

Other loans

1,252

1,207

1

17

22

4

Value of interest in common/collective trusts

104,360

93,557

2,822

107

4,646

3,227

Value of interest in pooled separate accounts

51,631

48,027

62

36

3,165

340

Value of interest in master trusts

309,082

273,919

22,965

885

9,532

1,781

Value of interest in 103-12 investment entities

2,932

2,514

127

(1)

292

(1)

Value of interest in registered investment companies

342,410

310,786

9,084

488

16,576

5,477

Value of funds held in insurance company general account

78,431

68,953

1,733

73

6,472

1,200

Other or unspecified general investments

47,621

40,166

2,691

46

3,853

865

Total general investments

1,176,880

1,022,945

54,196

2,256

75,706

21,777

Employer securities

243,017

169,656

63,187

12

1,490

8,670

Employer real property

477

477

1

(1)

(1)

(1)

Unspecified investments

401

276

(1)

(1)

88

36

Total noninterest-bearing cash

2,113

1,831

68

1

180

32

Buildings and other property used in plan operations

23

2

(1)

(1)

16

5

Total Assets

1,444,991

1,213,784

118,877

2,337

79,140

30,853

Liabilities

Benefit claims payable

4,323

3,121

701

5

342

155

Operating payables

1,969

1,370

511

1

56

30

Acquisition indebtedness

13,120

7,034

5,424

(1)

35

627

Other liabilities

15,538

9,935

4,718

1

279

605

Total Liabilities

34,951

21,460

11,355

6

711

1,418

Net Assets

1,410,041

1,192,324

107,523

2,331

78,428

29,435

Footnotes
  1. Less than $500,000.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1997.


Table D2: Income Statement of Defined Contribution Plans with 100 or More Participants
by type of plan, 1997

Income and Expenses

Total Defined Contribution Plans

Profit Sharing and Thrift-Savings Plans

Stock Bonus Plans

Target Benefit Plans

Money Purchase Plans

Other Defined Contribution Plans

Income

Contributions received or receivable from:

Employers

$42,859

$32,414

$3,847

$111

$5,524

$963

Participants

66,826

62,443

2,949

14

627

794

Others

5,202

4,754

168

3

186

89

Noncash contributions

883

374

501

0

1

8

Total contributions

115,770

99,984

7,465

128

6,337

1,854

Interest earnings:

Interest-bearing cash

3,819

3,302

174

3

243

95

Certificates of deposit

149

94

4

(1)

43

7

U.S. Government securities

1,592

893

34

7

557

103

Corporate debt instruments

1,074

763

20

3

232

56

Mortgage loans

85

64

(1)

(1)

17

3

Other loans

1,226

1,115

59

(1)

38

15

Other or unspecified interest

7,491

6,577

205

6

550

152

Total interest earnings

15,436

12,807

497

20

1,681

432

Dividends:

Preferred stock

1,588

1,015

471

(1)

31

71

Common stock

9,317

7,593

1,061

10

429

224

Total dividend income

10,906

8,608

1,531

10

461

296

Rents

72

56

(1)

(1)

9

6

Net gain (loss) on sale of assets

16,916

13,233

1,719

24

1,274

666

Unrealized appreciation (depreciation) of assets

79,972

60,522

13,664

69

2,911

2,806

Net investment gain (loss) from common/collective trusts

13,006

11,757

544

8

508

188

Net investment gain (loss) from pooled separate accounts

7,896

7,375

28

15

442

36

Net investment gain (loss) from master trusts

45,702

39,219

4,890

77

1,210

306

Net investment gain (loss) from 103-12 investment entities

430

399

1

0

29

(1)

Net investment gain (loss) from registered investment companies

41,895

38,461

1,000

78

1,858

498

Other or unspecified income

5,183

4,363

412

4

334

70

Total Income

353,183

296,784

31,753

433

17,053

7,159

Expenses

Benefit payments and payments to provide benefits:

Direct benefits

98,483

83,665

7,763

111

4,839

2,106

Payments to insurance carriers

342

152

1

4

149

35

Other benefits

1,096

672

281

(1)

106

37

Total payments

99,920

84,489

8,045

115

5,094

2,178

Interest expense

2,099

1,171

857

(1)

3

67

Administrative expenses:

Salaries and allowances

63

39

(1)

(1)

18

5

Accounting fees

47

33

1

(1)

10

3

Actuarial fees

17

10

1

1

3

2

Contract administrator fees

177

127

7

(1)

33

9

Investment advisory and management fees

569

415

13

3

107

30

Legal fees

29

14

1

(1)

11

4

Valuation/appraisal fees

8

7

1

1/

1

1/

Trustee fees/expenses

240

205

15

1

13

7

Other administrative expenses

596

478

29

1

62

26

Total administrative expenses

1,745

1,327

68

6

258

86

Other or unspecified expenses

9

3

6

(1)

(1)

(1)

Total Expenses

103,773

86,989

8,976

121

5,355

2,331

Net Income

249,410

209,795

22,777

312

11,698

4,828

Footnotes
  1. Less than $500,000.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1997.


Table D3: Number of 401(k) Type Plans, Participants, Active Participants, Assets, Contributions, and Benefits
by type of plan, 1997

Type of Plan

Number of Plans(1)

Total Participants (thousands)(2)

Active Participants (thousands)(3)

Total Assets (millions)

Total Contributions (millions)(4)

Total Benefits (millions)(5)

Total

265,251

38,484

33,865

$1,264,168

$115,673

$93,070

Profit sharing and thrift-savings

258,341

36,759

32,342

1,183,851

110,083

87,181

Stock bonus

614

1,165

997

71,678

4,664

5,240

Target benefit

121

6

6

240

23

13

Money purchase

4,374

448

420

7,027

728

533

Annuity-403(b)(1)

130

3

3

21

7

2

Custodial account-403(b)(7)

27

2

1

66

6

10

IRAs or annuities (Code 408)

118

7

6

143

19

10

Other defined contribution

1,527

95

90

1,143

144

81

Footnotes
  1. Excludes plans covering only one participant.
  2. Includes active, retired, and separated vested participants not yet in pay status. The number of participants also includes double counting of workers in more than one plan.
  3. Active participants include any workers currently in employment covered by a plan and who are earning or retaining credited service under a plan. Active participants also include nonvested former employees who have not yet incurred a break in service.
  4. Includes both employer and employee contributions.
  5. Amounts shown include both benefits paid directly from trust funds and premium payments made by plans to insurance carriers. Amounts exclude benefits made directly by insurance carriers.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1997.


Table D4: Number of 401(k) Type Plans
by number of participants and primary or supplemental status, 1997

Number of Participants

Total

401(k) Plan is Only Plan Sponsored by Employer

Employer Sponsoring 401(k) Plan Also Sponsors Another Pension Plan(s)

Total

265,251

235,375

29,877

None or not reported

8,780

7,987

793

2-9

53,983

49,159

4,824

10-24

78,457

72,488

5,969

25-49

53,285

48,570

4,715

50-99

33,218

29,837

3,381

100-249

20,523

16,771

3,752

250-499

8,090

5,871

2,219

500-999

4,222

2,622

1,600

1,000-2,499

2,725

1,426

1,299

2,500-4,999

1,028

384

644

5,000-9,999

498

162

336

10,000-19,999

254

62

192

20,000-49,999

141

30

111

50,000 or more

47

6

41

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1997.


Table D5: Number of Active Participants in 401(k) Type Plans
by number of participants and primary or supplemental status, 1997

Number of Participants

Total

401(k) Plan is Only Plan Sponsored by Employer

Employer Sponsoring 401(k) Plan also Sponsors Another Pension Plan(s)

Total

33,865

16,613

17,252

2-9

308

283

25

10-24

1,215

1,122

93

25-49

1,769

1,613

156

50-99

2,200

1,973

227

100-249

2,893

2,329

564

250-499

2,473

1,777

696

500-999

2,606

1,584

1,022

1,000-2,499

3,714

1,898

1,816

2,500-4,999

3,160

1,163

1,997

5,000-9,999

3,034

997

2,038

10,000-19,999

3,075

737

2,339

20,000-49,999

3,682

846

2,836

50,000 or more

3,737

293

3,444

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1997.


Table D6: Number of 401(k) Type Plans, Participants, and Assets
by size of plan and participant direction status, 1997

Number of Participants

Total
Number of Plans

Total
Active Participants (thousands)

Total
Total Assets (millions)

Investments are participant directed(1)
Number of Plans

Investments are participant directed(1)
Active Participants (thousands)

Investments are participant directed(1)
Total Assets (millions)

Investments are not participant directed
Number of Plans

Investments are not participant directed
Active Participants (thousands)

Investments are not participant directed
Total Assets (millions)

Total

265,251

33,865

$1,264,168

206,901

28,205

$1,043,525

58,351

5,660

$220,644

None or not reported

8,780

-

2,180

6,005

-

1,191

2,775

-

989

1-9

53,983

308

10,630

38,576

225

6,306

15,407

83

4,325

10-24

78,457

1,215

30,453

61,818

962

22,374

16,639

253

8,079

25-49

53,285

1,769

40,958

41,678

1,381

30,363

11,607

389

10,595

50-99

33,218

2,200

53,526

27,142

1,796

41,663

6,076

404

11,863

100-249

20,523

2,893

69,685

17,313

2,454

56,955

3,211

439

12,730

250-499

8,090

2,473

58,825

6,900

2,112

48,943

1,190

361

9,882

500-999

4,222

2,606

66,114

3,584

2,214

55,107

638

391

11,007

1,000-2,499

2,725

3,714

106,175

2,296

3,131

89,629

429

583

16,546

2,500-4,999

1,028

3,160

114,672

834

2,557

92,038

194

603

22,634

5,000-9,999

498

3,034

141,534

389

2,372

110,742

109

662

30,791

10,000-19,999

254

3,075

160,211

202

2,465

129,060

52

610

31,150

20,000-49,999

141

3,682

206,096

121

3,177

184,847

20

505

21,249

50,000 or more

47

3,737

203,109

43

3,360

174,305

4

377

28,804

Footnotes
  1. Includes both plans where investment of all assets are directed by participants and plans where only assets based on employee contributions are directed by participants.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1997.


Table D7: Balance Sheet of 401(k) Type Plans
1997

Type of Asset or Liability

Total

401(k) Plan is Only Plan Sponsored by Employer

Employer Sponsoring 401(k) Plan Also Sponsors Another Pension Plan(s)

Assets

Cash

$33,067

$14,672

$18,395

Receivables

17,920

8,628

9,292

Corporate debt and equity instruments

297,921

72,938

224,982

U.S. Government securities

14,340

5,481

8,859

Real estate and mortgages (other than to participants)

1,327

893

435

Mortgage loans to participants

841

290

551

Other loans to participants

23,179

7,715

15,465

Other investments and assets

875,385

278,246

597,139

Buildings and other property used in plan operations

187

172

16

Total Assets

1,264,168

389,034

875,134

Liabilities

Payables

4,409

932

3,477

Acquisition indebtedness

6,446

1,056

5,390

Other liabilities

10,923

1,825

9,099

Total Liabilities

21,778

3,813

17,966

Net Assets

1,242,390

385,222

857,168

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1997.


Table D8: Income Statement of 401(k) Type Plans
1997

Income and Expenses

Total

401(k) Plan is Only Plan Sponsored by Employer

Employer Sponsoring01(k) Plan Also Sponsors Another Pension Plan(s)

Income

Contributions received or receivable from:

Employers

$36,071

$17,415

$18,655

Participants

72,456

28,504

43,952

Others

6,433

3,969

2,463

Noncash contributions

714

47

667

Total contributions

115,673

49,935

65,738

Investment earnings (1)

20,329

4,439

15,890

Net gain (loss) on sale of assets

14,449

4,151

10,298

Other or unspecified income (2)

173,885

48,836

125,048

Total Income

324,336

107,362

216,974

Expenses

Benefit payments and payments to provide benefits

Direct benefits

91,744

31,252

60,491

Other benefits

1,326

823

503

Total payments

93,070

32,075

60,995

Total administrative expenses

1,475

764

711

Other or unspecified expenses

1,571

461

1,109

Total Expenses

96,116

33,301

62,815

Net Income

228,220

74,061

154,159

Footnotes
  1. Includes interest earnings, dividends, and rents.
  2. Includes net gain (loss) from pooled funds, unrealized appreciation (depreciation) of assets, and miscellaneous other income items.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1997.


Table D9: Balance Sheet of 401(k) Type Plans with 100 or More Participants
1997

Type of Asset or Liability

Total

401(k) Plan is Only Plan Sponsored by Employer

Employer Sponsoring 401(k) Plan Also Sponsors Another Pension Plan(s)

Assets

Receivables

Employer contributions

$8,194

$3,979

$4,215

Participant contributions

1,532

622

910

Income receivables

1,106

237

870

Other receivables

3,929

953

2,976

Less allowance for doubtful accounts

1

1

(1)

Total receivables (net)

14,760

5,790

8,971

General Investments

Interest-bearing cash

23,893

8,171

15,722

Certificates of deposit

1,170

355

815

U.S. Government securities

11,112

3,130

7,982

Corporate debt instruments: Preferred

6,681

3,314

3,367

Corporate debt instruments: All other

6,033

2,102

3,931

Preferred stock

3,480

596

2,884

Common stock

66,840

16,233

50,607

Partnership/joint venture interests

308

236

72

Income-producing real estate

293

198

95

Nonincome-producing real estate

33

22

11

Residential loans (other than to participants) secured by mortgages

332

61

271

Commercial loans secured by mortgages

91

80

11

Mortgage loans to participants

713

170

543

Other loans to participants

20,398

5,180

15,218

Other loans

1,175

177

997

Value of interest in common/collective trusts

86,985

20,621

66,363

Value of interest in pooled separate accounts

45,439

24,991

20,449

Value of interest in master trusts

266,831

27,277

239,554

Value of interest in 103-12 investment entities

1,991

284

1,707

Value of interest in registered investment companies

288,731

105,778

182,953

Value of funds held in insurance company general account

65,588

14,552

51,036

Other or unspecified general investments

36,551

12,114

24,437

Total general investments

934,667

245,642

689,025

Employer securities

174,748

16,778

157,970

Employer real property

399

324

75

Unspecified investments

257

257

(1)

Total noninterest-bearing cash

1,589

550

1,039

Buildings and other property used in plan operations

(1)

(1)

(1)

Total Assets

1,126,421

269,341

857,080

Liabilities

Benefit claims payable

2,670

684

1,986

Operating payables

1,579

104

1,475

Acquisition indebtedness

6,346

959

5,387

Other liabilities

10,395

1,579

8,816

Total Liabilities

20,991

3,326

17,665

Net Assets

1,105,430

266,014

839,415

Footnotes
  1. Less than $500,000.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1997.


Table D10: Income Statement of 401(k) Type Plans With 100 or More Participants
1997

Income and Expenses

Total

401(k) Plan is Only Plan Sponsored by Employer

Employer Sponsoring 401(k) Plan Also Sponsors Another Pension Plan(s)

Income

Contributions received or receivable from:

Employers

$28,064

$10,312

$17,752

Participants

62,967

20,265

42,702

Others

4,430

2,462

1,967

Noncash contributions

694

29

665

Total contributions

96,154

33,068

63,086

Interest earnings:

Interest-bearing cash

3,066

854

2,213

Certificates of deposit

76

20

56

U.S. Government securities

627

215

412

Corporate debt instruments

593

200

392

Mortgage loans

52

14

39

Other loans

1,082

287

795

Other or unspecified interest

6,078

1,313

4,765

Total interest earnings

11,574

2,903

8,671

Dividends:

Preferred stock

874

96

779

Common stock

7,501

1,289

6,212

Total dividend income

8,376

1,385

6,991

Rents

45

43

2

Net gain (loss) on sale of assets

12,060

2,331

9,729

Unrealized appreciation (depreciation) of assets

54,937

8,485

46,453

Net investment gain (loss) from common/collective trusts

11,294

2,296

8,998

Net investment gain (loss) from pooled separate accounts

6,720

3,673

3,047

Net investment gain (loss) from master trusts

40,438

3,918

36,520

Net investment gain (loss) from 103-12 investment entities

246

62

184

Net investment gain (loss) from registered investment companies

36,602

13,423

23,179

Other or unspecified income

3,830

1,915

1,915

Total Income

282,277

73,502

208,774

Expenses

Benefit payments and payments to provide benefits:

Direct benefits

77,722

20,412

57,311

Payments to insurance carriers

81

51

30

Other benefits

602

156

446

Total payments

78,405

20,618

57,787

Interest expense

1,208

115

1,092

Administrative expenses:

Salaries and allowances

32

11

20

Accounting fees

26

14

13

Actuarial fees

7

2

5

Contract administrator fees

125

54

71

Investment advisory and management fees

321

139

182

Legal fees

11

3

8

Valuation/appraisal fees

6

2

4

Trustee fees/expenses

184

65

119

Other administrative expenses

442

194

247

Total administrative expenses

1,154

485

669

Other or unspecified expenses

2

2

(1)

Total Expenses

80,768

21,220

59,548

Net Income

201,509

52,282

149,227

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1997.


Table D11: Number of Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOPs), Total Participants, Active Participants, Assets, Contributions, and Benefits
by type of assets, 1997

Type of Plan

Number of Plans(1)

Total Participants (thousands)(2)

Active Participants (thousands)(3)

Total Assets (millions)

Total Contributions (millions)(4)

Total Benefits (millions)(5)

Total ESOPs

8,466

7,364

6,268

$369,656

$19,375

$26,697

Profit sharing and thrift-savings

3,007

4,043

3,434

260,195

12,776

18,518

Stock bonus

4,042

2,915

2,495

98,448

6,000

7,314

Target benefit

3

3

3

61

6

6

Money purchase

85

33

26

1,220

63

61

Annuity-403(b)(1)

46

0

0

0

0

0

403(b)(7)

2

2

1

66

5

10

IRAs or annuities (Code 408)

37

0

0

16

1

0

Other defined contribution

1,246

368

308

9,650

523

788

Footnotes
  1. Excludes plans covering only one participant.
  2. Includes active, retired, and separated vested participants not yet in pay status. The number of participants also includes double counting of workers in more than one plan.
  3. Active participants include any workers currently in employment covered by a plan and who are earning or retaining credited service under a plan. Active participants also include nonvested former employees who have not yet incurred a break in service.
  4. Includes both employer and employee contributions.
  5. Amounts shown include both benefits paid directly from trust funds and premium payments made by plans to insurance carriers. Amounts excludebenefits made directly by insurance carriers.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1997.


Table D12: Number of Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOPs), Total Participants, Active Participants, Assets, Contributions, and Benefits
by type of ESOP, 1997

Type of Plan

Number of Plans (1)

Total Participants (thousands)(2)

Active Participants (thousands)(3)

Total Assets (millions)

Total Contributions (millions)(4)

Total Benefits (millions)(5)

Total ESOPs

8,466

7,364

6,268

$369,656

$19,375

$26,697

Nonleveraged ESOPs

4,775

3,546

3,049

94,385

5,738

8,069

Leveraged ESOPs

3,691

3,818

3,218

275,271

13,637

18,628

Footnotes
  1. Excludes plans covering only one participant.
  2. Includes active, retired, and separated vested participants not yet in pay status. The number of participants also includes double counting of workers in more than one plan.
  3. Active participants include any workers currently in employment covered by a plan and who are earning or retaining credited service under a plan. Active participants also include nonvested former employees who have not yet incurred a break in service.
  4. Includes both employer and employee contributions.
  5. Amounts shown include both benefits paid directly from trust funds and premium payments made by plans to insurance carriers. Amounts excludebenefits made directly by insurance carriers.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1997.


Table D13: Number of Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOPs)
by number of participants and primary or supplemental status, 1997

Number of Participants

Total

ESOP Plan is Only Plan Sponsored by Employer

Employer Sponsoring ESOP Plan Also Sponsors Another Pension Plan(s)

Total

8,466

5,184

3,282

None or not reported

580

418

162

2-9

752

681

71

10-24

1,114

828

286

25-49

1,578

1,072

506

50-99

1,620

1,231

389

100-249

1,276

608

668

250-499

581

164

417

500-999

337

81

256

1,000-2,499

263

63

200

2,500-4,999

136

20

116

5,000-9,999

94

8

86

10,000-19,999

57

3

54

20,000-49,999

53

5

48

50,000 or more

25

2

23

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1997.


Table D14: Balance Sheet of Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOPs) with 100 or More Participants
by leveraged status, 1997

Type of Asset or Liability

Total ESOPs

Nonleveraged ESOPs

Leveraged ESOPs

Assets

Receivables

Employer contributions

$1,983

$955

$1,028

Participant contributions

191

100

91

Income receivables

467

82

386

Other receivables

801

435

366

Allowance for doubtful accounts

(1)

0

(1)

Total receivables (net)

3,443

1,572

1,870

General Investments

Interest-bearing cash

3,892

1,946

1,946

Certificates of deposit

204

46

158

U.S. Government securities

2,646

431

2,216

Corporate debt instruments: Preferred

3,038

214

2,824

Corporate debt instruments: All other

1,486

339

1,148

Preferred stock

12,301

1,461

10,840

Common stock

34,958

6,922

28,035

Partnership/joint venture interests

11

3

8

Income-producing real estate

6

5

1

Nonincome-producing real estate

(1)

(1)

(1)

Residential loans (other than to participants) secured by mortgages

5

2

3

Commercial loans secured by mortgages

1

1

 

Mortgage loans to participants

134

6

128

Other loans to participants

4,353

1,091

3,261

Other loans

3

1

2

Value of interest in common/collective trusts

16,134

4,282

11,853

Value of interest in pooled separate accounts

2,146

363

1,783

Value of interest in master trusts

79,018

14,523

64,495

Value of interest in 103-12 investment entities

756

132

624

Value of interest in registered investment companies

33,916

10,335

23,581

Value of funds held in insurance company general account

12,613

2,517

10,097

Other or unspecified general investments

7,251

3,634

3,617

Total general investments

214,869

48,252

166,617

Employer securities

143,191

40,597

102,595

Employer real property

5

5

 

Unspecified investments

9

9

(1)

Total noninterest-bearing cash

141

90

50

Buildings and other property used in plan operations

0

0

0

Total Assets

361,659

90,526

271,132

Liabilities

Benefit claims payable

1,282

765

518

Operating payables

1,279

83

1,197

Acquisition indebtedness

12,688

901

11,788

Other liabilities

11,312

389

10,924

Total Liabilities

26,562

2,137

24,426

Net Assets

335,096

88,390

246,707

Footnotes
  1. Less than $500,000.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1997.


Table D15: Income Statement of Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOPs) with 100 or More Participants
by leveraged status, 1997

Income and Expenses

Total ESOPs

Nonleveraged ESOPs

Leveraged ESOPs

Income

Contributions received or receivable from:

Employers

$7,705

$2,334

$5,372

Participants

9,843

2,672

7,171

Others

437

323

114

Noncash contributions

662

152

510

Total contributions

18,647

5,480

13,167

Interest earnings:

Interest-bearing cash

498

216

282

Certificates of deposit

13

2

12

U.S. Government securities

163

15

148

Corporate debt instruments

192

9

183

Mortgage loans

3

(1)

2

Other loans

207

54

153

Other or unspecified interest

1,030

300

730

Total interest earnings

2,106

596

1,510

Dividends:

Preferred stock

1,139

122

1,017

Common stock

2,982

787

2,195

Total dividend income

4,121

908

3,212

Rents

6

4

2

Net gain (loss) on sale of assets

3,795

1,061

2,734

Unrealized appreciation (depreciation) of assets

38,834

10,913

27,921

Net investment gain (loss) from common/collective trusts

3,630

842

2,788

Net investment gain (loss) from pooled separate accounts

524

24

500

Net investment gain (loss) from master trusts

13,559

2,374

11,185

Net investment gain (loss) from 103-12 investment entities

160

7

153

Net investment gain (loss) from registered investment companies

3,717

1,072

2,645

Other or unspecified income

796

420

376

Total Income

89,895

23,702

66,193

Expenses

Benefit payments and payments to provide benefits:

Direct benefits

24,612

7,130

17,482

Payments to insurance carriers

9

8

1

Other benefits

341

149

191

Total payments

24,962

7,287

17,675

Interest expense

2,037

103

1,934

Administrative expenses:

Salaries and allowances

4

(1)

4

Accounting fees

4

1

3

Actuarial fees

1

1

(1)

Contract administrator fees

20

8

12

Investment advisory and management fees

47

22

25

Legal fees

2

1

1

Valuation/appraisal fees

1

1

1

Trustee fees/expenses

37

10

27

Other administrative expenses

155

34

121

Total administrative expenses

271

78

193

Other or unspecified expenses

6

(1)

6

Total Expenses

27,276

7,468

19,808

Net Income

62,619

16,234

46,385

Footnotes
  1. Less than $500,000.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1997.


Section E: Historical Tables

Table E1: Number of Pension Plans
by type of plan, 1978-1997

Year

Total Plans
Total

Total Plans
Defined Benefit

Total Plans
Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans (1)
Total

Single Employer Plans (1)
Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans (1)
Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans (2)
Total

Multiemployer Plans (2)
Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans (2)
Defined Contribution

1978

442,998

128,407

314,591

440,443

126,238

314,205

2,555

2,169

386

1979

470,921

139,489

331,432

468,265

137,243

331,022

2,656

2,246

410

1980

488,901

148,096

340,805

486,142

145,764

340,378

2,759

2,332

427

1981

545,611

167,293

378,318

542,789

165,042

377,747

2,822

2,252

570

1982

594,456

174,998

419,458

591,417

172,662

418,755

3,039

2,336

703

1983

602,848

175,143

427,705

599,822

172,843

426,979

3,026

2,300

726

1984

604,434

168,015

436,419

601,413

165,732

435,681

3,021

2,283

738

1985

632,135

170,172

461,963

629,069

167,911

461,158

3,066

2,261

805

1986

717,627

172,642

544,985

714,563

170,431

544,132

3,063

2,210

853

1987

733,029

163,065

569,964

729,909

160,904

569,005

3,112

2,157

955

1988

729,922

145,952

583,971

726,648

143,833

582,815

3,275

2,119

1,156

1989

731,356

132,467

598,889

728,276

130,472

597,804

3,080

1,995

1,085

1990

712,308

113,062

599,245

709,404

111,251

598,153

2,904

1,812

1,092

1991

699,294

101,752

597,542

696,300

99,931

596,369

2,994

1,821

1,173

1992

708,335

88,621

619,714

705,226

86,797

618,429

3,109

1,824

1,285

1993

702,097

83,596

618,501

698,918

81,737

617,180

3,179

1,859

1,320

1994

690,344

74,422

615,922

687,158

72,555

614,603

3,186

1,867

1,319

1995

693,404

69,492

623,912

690,265

67,682

622,584

3,139

1,810

1,328

1996

696,224

63,657

632,566

692,957

61,790

631,167

3,267

1,867

1,399

1997

720,041

59,499

660,542

716,912

57,720

659,192

3,130

1,779

1,351

Footnotes
  1. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  2. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for 1978-97 plan years.


Table E2: Number of Pension Plans with Fewer than 100 Participants
by type of plan, 1978-1997

Year

Total Plans
Total

Total Plans
Defined Benefit

Total Plans
Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans (1)
Total

Single Employer Plans (1)
Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans (1)
Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans (2)
Total

Multiemployer Plans (2)
Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans (2)
Defined Contribution

1978

408,665

105,474

303,191

408,401

105,323

303,078

265

151

113

1979

435,334

116,143

319,191

435,053

115,954

319,099

281

189

92

1980

451,046

123,591

327,455

450,740

123,340

327,400

306

251

55

1981

505,368

142,304

363,064

505,109

142,165

362,944

259

139

120

1982

552,258

149,600

402,658

551,899

149,391

402,508

359

309

150

1983

558,146

149,164

408,982

557,847

148,955

408,892

299

209

90

1984

558,943

142,912

416,031

558,649

142,699

415,950

293

213

81

1985

583,476

145,430

438,046

583,171

145,292

437,879

305

138

167

1986

666,669

148,168

518,501

666,424

148,005

518,419

245

163

82

1987

681,238

139,644

541,594

680,921

139,472

541,449

310

169

141

1988

675,525

123,146

552,378

675,117

122,962

552,154

408

184

224

1989

675,706

111,048

564,658

675,470

110,941

564,529

236

107

129

1990

659,144

93,821

565,323

658,848

93,730

565,118

296

91

205

1991

645,517

83,298

562,218

645,182

83,181

562,001

334

117

217

1992

650,282

69,883

580,399

649,924

69,778

580,146

358

104

253

1993

642,615

64,937

577,678

642,196

64,799

577,396

419

137

282

1994

628,707

56,322

572,385

628,307

56,134

572,173

399

188

212

1995

631,117

52,405

578,712

630,780

52,311

578,469

337

94

243

1996

632,520

47,104

585,416

632,069

46,941

585,128

451

163

288

1997

653,696

43,647

610,049

653,347

43,519

609,828

350

128

222

Footnotes
  1. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  2. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for 1978-97 plan years.


Table E3: Number of Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants
by type of plan, 1978-1997

Year

Total Plans
Total

Total Plans
Defined Benefit

Total Plans
Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans (1)
Total

Single Employer Plans (1)
Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans (1)
Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans (2)
Total

Multiemployer Plans (2)
Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans (2)
Defined Contribution

1978

34,333

22,933

11,400

32,042

20,915

11,127

2,290

2,018

273

1979

35,587

23,346

12,241

33,212

21,289

11,923

2,375

2,057

318

1980

37,855

24,505

13,350

35,402

22,424

12,978

2,453

2,081

372

1981

40,243

24,989

15,254

37,680

22,877

14,803

2,563

2,113

450

1982

42,198

25,398

16,800

39,518

23,271

16,247

2,680

2,127

553

1983

44,702

25,979

18,723

41,975

23,888

18,087

2,727

2,091

636

1984

45,491

25,103

20,388

42,763

23,033

19,731

2,728

2,070

657

1985

48,658

24,742

23,917

45,897

22,619

23,279

2,761

2,123

638

1986

50,958

24,474

26,484

48,139

22,426

25,713

2,818

2,047

771

1987

51,791

23,421

28,370

48,988

21,432

27,556

2,802

1,988

814

1988

54,397

22,805

31,593

51,530

20,870

30,661

2,867

1,935

932

1989

55,650

21,419

34,231

52,807

19,531

33,275

2,844

1,888

956

1990

53,164

19,242

33,922

50,556

17,521

33,035

2,608

1,721

887

1991

53,777

18,454

35,324

51,118

16,750

34,368

2,660

1,704

956

1992

58,053

18,738

39,315

55,302

17,019

38,283

2,751

1,719

1,032

1993

59,482

18,660

40,822

56,722

16,938

39,784

2,760

1,722

1,038

1994

61,638

18,100

43,538

58,851

16,421

42,430

2,787

1,679

1,108

1995

62,287

17,087

45,200

59,486

15,371

44,115

2,802

1,716

1,086

1996

63,704

16,553

47,150

60,888

14,849

46,039

2,815

1,704

1,111

1997

66,345

15,852

50,493

63,565

14,201

49,364

2,780

1,651

1,129

Footnotes
  1. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  2. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for 1978-97 plan years.


Table E4: Estimated Private Wage and Salary Worker Participation Rates Under Primary and Supplemental Pension Plans
1978-1997(1)(workers in thousands)

Year

Number of Wage and Salary Workers

Workers Covered by a Primary Defined Benefit Plan
Number

Workers Covered by a Primary Defined Benefit Plan
Percent

Workers Covered by a Primary Defined Contribution Plan
Number

Workers Covered by a Primary Defined Contribution Plan
Percent

Workers Covered by a Supplemental Defined Contribution Plan(s)
Number

Workers Covered by a Supplemental Defined Contribution Plan(s)
Percent

1978

75,939

28,613

38

5,424

7

8,258

11

1979

78,058

29,008

37

5,790

7

9,368

12

1980

78,349

29,736

38

6,203

8

10,134

13

1981

80,282

29,687

37

7,224

9

10,629

13

1982

82,318

29,361

36

8,120

10

12,087

15

1983

84,410

29,576

35

9,395

11

14,191

17

1984

86,732

29,812

34

9,902

11

15,303

18

1985

88,293

28,894

33

11,550

13

16,018

18

1986

90,267

28,536

32

12,672

14

16,188

18

1987

91,559

28,347

31

13,437

15

16,110

18

1988

93,012

27,864

30

14,106

15

15,180

16

1989

94,448

27,240

29

15,485

16

15,242

16

1990

94,772

26,323

28

16,116

17

15,671

17

1991

94,959

25,701

27

17,133

18

15,287

16

1992

96,577

25,318

26

19,474

20

16,300

17

1993

97,749

25,091

26

19,780

20

16,621

17

1994

101,077

24,591

24

20,948

21

16,516

16

1995

102,162

23,531

23

23,038

23

16,482

16

1996

104,313

23,262

22

24,173

23

17,199

16

1997

106,955

22,724

21

27,045

25

18,531

17

Footnotes
  1. For workers covered under both a defined benefit and a defined contribution plan, the defined benefit plan is designated as the primary plan unless the plan name indicates it provides supplemental or only past service benefits.

Sources: Number of workers taken from Employment and Earnings, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. These numbers include both employed (full and part-time) and unemployed wage and salary workers. The number of workers in primary and supplemental plans are estimates derived from annual Form 5500 reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for 1978-97 plan years.


Table E5: Number of Participants in Pension Plans
by type of plan, 1978-1997 (numbers in thousands)

Year

Total Plans
Total

Total Plans
Defined Benefit

Total Plans
Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans (1)
Total

Single Employer Plans (1)
Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans (1)
Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans (2)
Total

Multiemployer Plans (2)
Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans (2)
Defined Contribution

1978

52,371

36,103

16,268

43,665

27,762

15,903

8,707

8,341

365

1979

55,097

36,810

18,287

46,085

28,275

17,810

9,013

8,536

477

1980

57,903

37,979

19,924

48,910

29,555

19,354

8,993

8,423

570

1981

60,564

38,903

21,661

51,326

30,331

20,995

9,238

8,572

666

1982

63,243

38,633

24,610

54,105

30,289

23,816

9,138

8,343

794

1983

69,147

40,025

29,122

59,645

31,405

28,240

9,501

8,620

881

1984

73,895

40,980

32,915

64,244

32,329

31,915

9,651

8,651

1,000

1985

74,665

39,692

34,973

65,414

31,436

3,978

9,251

8,256

995

1986

76,672

39,989

36,682

67,069

31,676

35,392

9,603

8,313

1,290

1987

78,223

39,958

38,265

68,550

31,650

36,900

9,673

8,308

1,365

1988

77,685

40,722

36,963

67,734

32,386

35,348

9,951

8,336

1,615

1989

76,405

39,958

36,447

65,964

31,248

34,716

10,441

8,710

1,731

1990

76,924

38,832

38,091

67,003

30,522

36,481

9,921

8,311

1,611

1991

77,662

39,027

38,634

67,583

30,683

36,900

10,079

8,344

1,735

1992

81,914

39,531

42,383

71,783

31,395

40,388

10,131

8,136

1,995

1993

83,870

40,267

43,603

73,770

32,151

41,619

10,100

8,116

1,983

1994

85,117

40,338

44,778

74,940

32,197

42,743

10,177

8,142

2,035

1995

87,452

39,736

47,716

76,969

31,341

45,629

10,483

8,395

2,088

1996

91,716

41,111

50,605

80,841

32,467

48,374

10,876

8,644

2,231

1997

94,985

40,392

54,593

83,881

31,678

52,204

11,103

8,714

2,389

Footnotes
  1. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  2. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for 1978-97 plan years.


Table E6: Number of Participants in Pension Plans with Fewer than 100 Participants
by type of plan, 1978-1997 (numbers in thousands)

Year

Total Plans
Total

Total Plans
Defined Benefit

Total Plans
Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans (1)
Total

Single Employer Plans (1)
Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans (1)
Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans (2)
Total

Multiemployer Plans (2)
Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans (2)
Defined Contribution

1978

5,143

1,828

3,316

5,127

1,820

3,307

16

7

9

1979

5,389

1,802

3,587

5,372

1,792

3,580

17

10

7

1980

5,741

1,995

3,746

5,725

1,980

3,744

17

15

2

1981

6,298

2,154

4,143

6,283

2,148

4,135

15

6

9

1982

6,877

2,155

4,722

6,854

2,144

4,710

23

11

12

1983

6,872

2,154

4,718

6,855

2,144

4,711

17

10

7

1984

6,886

2,013

4,873

6,869

2,013

4,856

17

12

5

1985

7,553

2,059

5,495

7,537

2,052

5,486

16

8

9

1986

7,926

2,033

5,893

7,914

2,025

5,889

12

8

4

1987

8,413

2,008

6,405

8,400

2,000

6,400

13

8

5

1988

8,345

1,720

6,625

8,329

1,713

6,616

16

8

9

1989

8,200

1,396

6,804

8,188

1,392

6,796

12

4

8

1990

8,268

1,279

6,989

8,251

1,275

6,976

17

4

13

1991

8,441

1,226

7,215

8,424

1,218

7,206

17

8

8

1992

9,076

1,129

7,946

9,059

1,125

7,934

17

5

12

1993

9,087

1,030

8,057

9,067

1,024

8,043

20

6

14

1994

9,152

944

8,208

9,132

935

8,197

20

9

11

1995

9,373

893

8,480

9,359

890

8,469

14

3

11

1996

9,571

794

8,777

9,551

789

8,762

21

5

16

1978

10,276

731

9,546

10,257

724

9,533

19

6

13

Footnotes
  1. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  2. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for 1978-97 plan years.


Table E7: Number of Participants in Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants
by type of plan, 1978-1997 (numbers in thousands)

Year

Total Plans
Total

Total Plans
Defined Benefit

Total Plans
Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans (1)
Total

Single Employer Plans (1)
Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans (1)
Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans (2)
Total

Multiemployer Plans (2)
Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans (2)
Defined Contribution

1978

47,228

34,275

12,953

38,537

25,941

12,596

8,691

8,334

357

1979

49,708

35,008

14,700

40,713

26,483

14,230

8,996

8,526

470

1980

52,162

35,984

16,178

43,185

27,575

15,610

8,977

8,408

568

1981

54,266

36,748

17,518

45,043

28,183

16,861

9,223

8,565

657

1982

56,366

36,446

19,920

47,248

28,112

19,136

9,118

8,332

785

1983

62,275

37,871

24,404

52,790

29,261

23,529

9,485

8,610

875

1984

67,009

38,967

28,042

57,375

30,316

27,059

9,634

8,640

995

1985

67,112

37,633

29,478

57,877

29,384

28,493

9,235

8,248

986

1986

68,746

37,956

30,790

59,155

29,651

29,503

9,591

8,305

1,286

1987

69,810

37,950

31,860

60,150

29,650

30,500

9,660

8,300

1,360

1988

69,340

39,002

30,338

59,404

30,673

28,732

9,935

8,326

1,606

1989

68,205

38,562

29,643

57,776

29,856

27,920

10,429

8,705

1,724

1990

68,655

37,553

31,102

58,752

29,247

29,505

9,904

8,306

1,598

1991

69,221

37,801

31,420

59,157

29,465

29,694

10,063

8,336

1,727

1992

72,838

38,402

34,436

62,724

30,270

32,454

10,114

8,132

1,982

1993

74,783

39,237

35,546

64,703

31,127

33,576

10,080

8,110

1,969

1994

75,964

39,394

36,570

65,807

31,262

34,546

10,157

8,133

2,024

1995

78,079

38,843

39,236

67,610

30,450

37,160

10,469

8,392

2,076

1996

82,145

40,317

41,828

71,290

31,677

39,613

10,855

8,640

2,215

1997

84,708

39,661

45,047

73,624

30,953

42,671

11,084

8,708

2,376

Footnotes
  1. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  2. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for 1978-97 plan years.


Table E8: Number of Active Participants in Pension Plans
by type of plan, 1978-1997 (numbers in thousands)

Year

Total Plans
Total

Total Plans
Defined Benefit

Total Plans
Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans (1)
Total

Single Employer Plans (1)
Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans (1)
Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans (2)
Total

Multiemployer Plans (2)
Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans (2)
Defined Contribution

1978

44,664

29,036

15,628

37,717

22,433

15,284

6,947

6,603

344

1979

46,929

29,440

17,489

39,799

22,757

17,041

7,130

6,683

447

1980

49,026

30,133

18,893

42,079

23,705

18,374

6,947

6,428

519

1981

50,826

30,082

20,743

43,821

23,701

20,120

7,005

6,381

623

1982

53,204

29,756

23,448

46,344

23,630

22,714

6,860

6,126

734

1983

57,808

29,964

27,844

50,911

23,877

27,034

6,897

6,087

810

1984

60,775

30,172

30,603

54,044

24,315

29,729

6,732

5,857

875

1985

62,268

29,024

33,244

55,778

23,465

32,313

6,491

5,559

931

1986

63,290

28,670

34,620

56,723

23,270

33,453

6,566

5,400

1,167

1987

63,392

28,432

34,959

56,846

23,170

33,676

6,546

5,262

1,284

1988

62,142

28,081

34,062

55,464

22,867

32,596

6,678

5,213

1,465

1989

61,294

27,304

33,990

54,300

21,892

32,408

6,994

5,412

1,582

1990

61,831

6,344

5,488

55,409

21,386

34,022

6,422

4,957

1,465

1991

61,517

25,747

35,771

55,048

20,833

34,215

6,469

4,914

1,555

1992

64,231

25,362

38,868

57,940

20,771

37,170

6,290

4,592

1,699

1993

64,746

25,127

39,619

58,596

20,670

37,926

6,150

4,458

1,692

1994

64,972

24,615

40,357

58,889

20,215

38,674

6,083

4,400

1,682

1995

66,193

23,531

42,662

9,894

19,005

40,889

6,299

4,525

1,773

1996

67,888

23,262

44,625

61,417

18,681

42,736

6,470

4,581

1,889

1997

70,724

22,745

47,979

64,088

18,118

45,970

6,637

4,628

2,009

Footnotes
  1. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  2. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Note: The number of participants includes double counting of workers in more than one plan.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for 1978-97 plan years.


Table E9: Number of Active Participants in Pension Plans with Fewer than 100 Participants
by type of plan, 1978-1997 (numbers in thousands)

Year

Total Plans
Total

Total Plans
Defined Benefit

Total Plans
Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans (1)
Total

Single Employer Plans (1)
Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans (1)
Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans (2)
Total

Multiemployer Plans (2)
Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans (2)
Defined Contribution

1978

4,934

1,675

3,259

4,918

1,668

3,250

16

7

9

1979

5,103

1,641

3,462

5,087

1,632

3,455

16

8

7

1980

5,406

1,828

3,578

5,392

1,816

3,576

14

12

2

1981

5,996

1,957

4,039

5,982

1,952

4,031

14

5

8

1982

6,463

1,974

4,489

6,447

1,966

4,481

16

8

8

1983

6,381

1,861

4,520

6,365

1,852

4,513

15

9

6

1984

6,591

1,841

4,750

6,576

1,831

4,745

16

11

5

1985

7,227

1,880

5,348

7,213

1,874

5,340

14

6

8

1986

7,583

1,849

5,734

7,573

1,843

5,731

10

7

3

1987

7,793

1,672

6,121

7,778

1,666

6,113

15

6

8

1988

7,715

1,525

6,189

7,699

1,519

6,180

16

6

10

1989

8,033

1,301

6,731

8,022

1,297

6,725

11

4

7

1990

7,944

1,162

6,783

7,928

1,158

6,770

16

4

13

1991

8,183

1,114

7,069

8,167

1,107

7,061

16

7

9

1992

7,707

1,022

7,685

8,692

1,019

7,673

15

4

12

1993

8,727

935

7,792

8,709

930

7,779

18

5

13

1994

8,790

856

7,935

8,771

847

7,924

19

9

10

1995

8,992

806

8,186

8,979

804

8,175

13

2

11

1996

9,182

717

8,465

9,163

712

8,450

19

4

15

1997

9,866

660

9,206

9,848

655

9,194

18

5

13

Footnotes
  1. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  2. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Note: The number of participants inculdes double counting of workers in more than one plan.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for 1978-97 plan years.


Table E10: Number of Active Participants in Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants
by type of plan, 1978-1997 (numbers in thousands)

Year

Total Plans
Total

Total Plans
Defined Benefit

Total Plans
Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans (1)
Total

Single Employer Plans (1)
Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans (1)
Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans (2)
Total

Multiemployer Plans (2)
Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans (2)
Defined Contribution

1978

39,730

27,361

12,369

32,798

20,765

12,033

6,931

6,596

335

1979

41,826

27,779

14,027

34,712

21,125

13,586

7,115

6,675

440

1980

43,620

28,305

15,315

36,687

21,889

14,798

6,933

6,416

517

1981

44,830

28,125

16,704

37,839

21,749

16,090

6,991

6,376

615

1982

46,741

27,782

18,959

39,897

21,664

18,233

6,844

6,118

726

1983

51,428

28,104

23,324

44,546

22,025

22,520

6,882

6,078

804

1984

54,184

28,331

25,853

47,468

22,484

24,984

6,716

5,846

870

1985

55,041

27,145

27,896

48,564

21,591

26,973

6,476

5,553

923

1986

55,706

26,820

28,886

49,150

21,427

27,723

6,556

5,393

1,163

1987

55,599

26,760

28,838

49,067

21,504

27,563

6,531

5,256

1,275

1988

54,428

26,555

27,872

47,765

21,348

26,417

6,663

5,207

1,456

1989

53,262

26,004

27,258

46,278

20,595

25,683

6,983

5,409

1,574

1990

53,887

25,182

28,705

47,481

20,228

27,252

6,406

4,954

1,453

1991

53,334

24,633

28,701

46,881

19,726

27,155

6,453

4,907

1,546

1992

55,224

24,340

31,184

49,249

19,752

29,497

6,275

4,588

1,687

1993

56,019

24,192

31,827

49,887

19,739

30,148

6,132

4,453

1,679

1994

56,181

23,759

32,422

50,118

19,368

30,750

6,064

4,392

1,672

1995

57,201

22,724

34,477

50,916

18,202

32,714

6,285

4,523

1,762

1996

58,706

22,546

36,160

52,255

17,968

34,286

6,451

4,577

1,873

1997

60,858

22.085

38.773

54,239

17,463

36,776

6,619

4,622

1,997

Footnotes
  1. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  2. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Note: The number of participants includes double counting of workers in more than one plan.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for 1978-97 plan years.


Table E11: Pension Plan Assets
by type of plan, 1978-1997(1)(amounts in millions)

Year

Total Plans
Total

Total Plans
Defined Benefit

Total Plans
Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans (2)
Total

Single Employer Plans (2)
Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans (2)
Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans (3)
Total

Multiemployer Plans (3)
Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans (3)
Defined Contribution

1978

$377,195

$272,684

$104,511

$343,183

$239,884

$103,299

$34,012

$32,800

$1,211

1979

445,430

319,595

125,835

404,724

280,326

124,398

40,706

39,269

1,437

1980

563,551

401,455

162,096

514,583

353,967

160,616

48,968

47,488

1,480

1981

628,916

444,376

184,540

572,101

389,846

182,615

56,814

54,890

1,924

1982

788,987

553,419

235,567

716,281

483,536

232,744

72,706

69,883

2,823

1983

923,470

642,359

281,111

843,693

566,369

277,323

79,777

75,990

3,788

1984

1,044,592

700,669

343,922

947,373

608,703

338,670

97,212

91,966

5,246

1985

1,252,739

826,117

426,622

1,136,417

716,107

420,310

116,322

110,010

6,312

1986

1,382,910

895,073

487,837

1,251,034

772,205

478,830

131,876

122,868

9,008

1987

1,402,488

877,269

525,219

1,266,694

751,475

515,219

135,794

125,794

10,000

1988

1,503,635

911,982

591,653

1,351,845

772,381

579,464

151,790

139,601

12,189

1989

1,675,597

987,971

687,626

1,505,319

832,148

673,171

170,278

155,822

14,455

1990

1,674,139

961,904

712,236

1,496,300

798,167

698,133

177,839

163,737

14,102

1991

1,936,271

1,101,987

834,284

1,743,190

926,424

816,766

193,080

175,562

17,518

1992

2,094,087

1,146,798

947,289

1,879,033

955,621

923,412

215,053

191,177

23,877

1993

2,316,272

1,248,180

1,068,092

2,091,468

1,049,915

1,041,553

224,804

198,265

26,540

1994

2,298,556

1,210,856

1,087,700

2,070,804

1,010,275

1,060,529

227,752

200,581

27,171

1995

2,723,735

1,402,079

1,321,657

2,458,153

1,163,416

1,294,737

265,582

238,663

26,920

1996

3,136,281

1,585,397

1,550,884

2,837,125

1,316,599

1,520,526

299,156

268,798

30,358

1997

3,553,757

1,735,604

1,818,152

3,213,304

1,432,788

1,780,516

340,452

302,816

37,636

Footnotes
  1. Asset amounts shown exclude funds held by life insurance companies under allocated group insurance contracts for payment of retirement benefits. These excluded funds make up roughly 10 to 15 percent of total private fund assets.
  2. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  3. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for 1978-97 plan years.


Table E12: Pension Plan Assets of Plans with Fewer than 100 Participants
by type of plan, 1978-1997(1)(amounts in millions)

Year

Total Plans
Total

Total Plans
Defined Benefit

Total Plans
Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans (2)
Total

Single Employer Plans (2)
Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans (2)
Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans (3)
Total

Multiemployer Plans (3)
Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans (3)
Defined Contribution

1978

$52,023

$15,661

$36,362

$51,727

$15,471

$36,255

$297

$190

$106

1979

64,021

19,498

44,523

63,725

19,271

44,453

296

227

69

1980

86,785

31,498

55,287

86,101

30,872

55,229

684

626

58

1981

104,006

38,792

65,214

103,220

38,081

65,139

785

711

74

1982

129,263

46,971

82,292

128,895

46,649

82,246

369

323

46

1983

155,214

60,594

94,620

154,626

60,064

94,562

58

530

58

1984

176,847

62,904

113,943

176,103

62,231

113,873

743

673

70

1985

211,665

67,745

143,920

210,666

66,878

143,789

999

867

132

1986

232,718

66,276

166,442

231,481

65,132

166,350

1,237

1,143

93

1987

228,244

65,232

163,012

227,048

64,277

162,771

1,196

955

241

1988

240,867

54,652

186,215

239,393

53,389

186,004

1,474

1,263

211

1989

236,459

44,570

191,889

236,016

44,243

191,773

443

327

116

1990

242,068

44,192

197,876

241,224

43,599

197,624

844

592

252

1991

264,329

40,161

224,168

263,967

40,033

223,934

362

128

234

1992

261,359

30,396

230,963

260,922

30,199

230,723

437

197

239

1993

291,912

33,166

258,746

291,238

32,770

258,468

675

396

278

1994

278,555

25,384

253,171

277,644

24,687

252,958

911

698

213

1995

323,751

26,455

297,295

323,066

26,210

296,855

685

245

440

1996

359,984

28,576

331,407

358,874

27,870

331,005

1,110

707

403

1997

398,775

25,614

373,161

397,474

24,876

372,598

1,302

738

563

Footnotes
  1. Asset amounts shown exclude funds held by life insurance companies under allocated group insurance contracts for payment of retirement benefits. These excluded funds make up roughly 10 to 15 percent of total private fund assets.
  2. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  3. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for 1978-97 plan years.


Table E13: Pension Plan Assets of Plans with 100 or More Participants
by type of plan, 1978-1997(1)(amounts in millions)

Year

Total Plans
Total

Total Plans
Defined Benefit

Total Plans
Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans (2)
Total

Single Employer Plans (2)
Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans (2)
Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans (3)
Total

Multiemployer Plans (3)
Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans (3)
Defined Contribution

1978

$325,172

$257,023

$68,149

$291,456

$224,413

$67,044

$33,715

$32,610

$1,105

1979

381,409

300,097

81,312

340,999

261,055

79,945

40,410

39,042

1,368

1980

476,766

369,957

106,809

428,482

323,095

105,387

48,284

46,862

1,422

1981

524,910

405,584

119,326

468,881

351,405

117,476

56,029

54,179

1,850

1982

659,724

506,448

153,276

587,386

436,887

150,499

72,337

69,560

2,777

1983

768,256

581,765

186,491

689,066

506,305

182,761

79,190

75,460

3,730

1984

867,745

637,765

229,979

771,270

546,472

224,797

96,469

91,293

5,176

1985

1,041,074

758,372

282,702

925,751

649,229

276,521

115,523

109,143

6,180

1986

1,150,192

828,797

321,395

1,019,553

707,073

312,480

130,639

121,725

8,915

1987

1,174,244

812,037

362,207

1,039,646

687,198

352,448

134,598

124,839

9,759

1988

1,262,768

857,330

405,438

1,112,452

718,992

393,460

150,316

138,338

11,978

1989

1,439,138

943,401

495,737

1,269,303

787,905

481,398

169,835

155,496

14,339

1990

1,432,072

917,712

514,360

1,255,076

754,567

500,509

176,995

163,145

13,851

1991

1,671,942

1,061,826

610,116

1,479,224

886,391

592,832

192,718

175,434

17,284

1992

1,832,728

1,116,401

716,326

1,618,111

925,422

692,689

214,617

190,979

23,637

1993

2,024,360

1,215,014

809,346

1,800,230

1,017,145

783,085

224,130

197,869

26,261

1994

2,020,001

1,185,471

834,529

1,793,159

985,588

807,572

226,841

199,884

26,958

1995

2,399,984

1,375,623

1,024,361

2,135,087

1,137,206

997,881

264,897

238,417

26,480

1996

2,776,297

1,556,821

1,219,476

2,478,251

1,288,729

1,189,521

298,047

268,092

29,955

1997

3,154,982

1,709,990

1,444,991

2,815,831

1,407,912

1,407,919

339,151

302,078

37,072

Footnotes
  1. Asset amounts shown exclude funds held by life insurance companies under allocated group insurance contracts for payment of retirement benefits. These excluded funds make up roughly 10 to 15 percent of total private fund assets.
  2. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  3. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for 1978-97 plan years.


Table E14: Pension Plan Contributions
by type of plan, 1978-1997 (amounts in millions)

Year

Total Plans
Total

Total Plans
Defined Benefit

Total Plans
Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans (1)
Total

Single Employer Plans (1)
Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans (1)
Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans (2)
Total

Multiemployer Plans (2)
Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans (2)
Defined Contribution

1978

$55,943

$37,591

$18,353

$49,793

$31,602

$18,191

$6,151

$5,989

$162

1979

61,279

40,585

20,694

54,217

33,738

20,479

7,061

6,847

214

1980

66,157

42,626

23,531

58,718

35,524

23,194

7,439

7,102

337

1981

75,374

46,985

28,389

67,191

39,187

28,004

8,183

7,798

385

1982

79,502

48,438

31,064

71,320

40,807

30,513

8,182

7,631

551

1983

82,447

46,313

36,134

74,022

38,677

35,345

8,425

7,636

789

1984

90,625

47,197

43,428

81,553

38,990

42,563

9,072

8,207

865

1985

95,188

41,996

53,192

85,927

33,794

52,133

9,261

8,202

1,059

1986

91,503

33,161

58,342

82,190

25,142

57,049

9,313

8,020

1,293

1987

92,070

29,793

62,277

82,834

21,993

60,841

9,235

7,800

1,436

1988

91,248

26,300

64,948

81,612

18,352

63,261

9,636

7,948

1,688

1989

97,920

24,723

73,197

88,049

16,684

71,365

9,871

8,039

1,832

1990

98,792

23,026

75,766

89,834

15,709

74,125

8,958

7,317

1,641

1991

111,124

30,146

80,978

102,224

22,952

79,272

8,899

7,194

1,705

1992

128,795

35,174

93,621

119,682

27,964

91,718

9,114

7,210

1,904

1993

153,642

52,123

101,519

143,944

44,521

99,423

9,698

7,602

2,096

1994

144,353

39,031

105,322

133,844

30,829

103,015

10,509

8,203

2,307

1995

158,832

41,423

117,409

147,621

32,600

115,021

11,210

8,823

2,387

1996

169,540

35,803

133,737

157,204

26,174

131,030

12,335

9,629

2,707

1997

177,940

29,862

148,078

164,633

19,723

144,909

13,307

10,138

3,169

Footnotes
  1. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  2. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Note: Includes both employer and employee contributions.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for 1978-97 plan years.


Table E15: Pension Plan Contributions of Plans with Fewer than 100 Participants
by type of plan, 1978-1997 (amounts in millions)

Year

Total Plans
Total

Total Plans
Defined Benefit

Total Plans
Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans (1)
Total

Single Employer Plans (1)
Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans (1)
Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans (2)
Total

Multiemployer Plans (2)
Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans (2)
Defined Contribution

1978

$9,644

$3,303

$6,342

$9,602

$3,271

$6,330

$43

$31

$12

1979

11,542

4,323

7,219

11,495

4,290

7,205

46

33

13

1980

13,545

5,870

7,675

13,490

5,830

7,660

55

40

15

1981

16,406

7,163

9,242

16,304

7,079

9,225

101

84

17

1982

16,094

7,672

9,422

16,047

7,641

9,406

47

31

16

1983

17,357

7,593

9,764

17,288

7,537

9,751

69

56

13

1984

18,561

7,850

10,712

18,487

7,788

10,700

74

62

12

1985

21,575

7,404

14,171

21,489

7,339

14,150

86

65

21

1986

21,543

5,659

15,884

21,475

5,607

15,868

68

52

16

1987

19,963

4,296

15,667

19,895

4,239

15,656

67

57

11

1988

18,964

3,015

15,948

18,909

2,981

15,929

54

34

20

1989

20,995

2,763

18,232

20,961

2,742

18,219

34

21

13

1990

21,687

2,608

19,079

21,642

2,590

19,052

44

18

26

1991

21,908

2,420

19,488

21,881

2,413

19,468

27

7

21

1992

25,214

2,229

22,985

25,185

2,223

22,962

29

6

23

1993

25,959

2,451

23,508

25,904

2,418

23,486

55

33

22

1994

23,933

1,918

22,015

23,688

1,693

21,995

245

225

20

1995

28,150

2,406

25,744

28,111

2,392

25,719

39

14

25

1996

30,802

1,943

28,860

30,742

1,911

28,830

60

31

29

1997

34,285

1,977

32,309

34,204

1,936

32,268

81

41

40

Footnotes
  1. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  2. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Note: Includes both employer and employee contributions.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for 1978-97 plan years.


Table E16: Pension Plan Contributions of Plans with 100 or More Participants
by type of plan, 1978-1997 (amounts in millions)

Year

Total Plans
Total

Total Plans
Defined Benefit

Total Plans
Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans (1)
Total

Single Employer Plans (1)
Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans (1)
Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans (2)
Total

Multiemployer Plans (2)
Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans (2)
Defined Contribution

1978

$46,299

$34,288

$12,010

$40,191

$28,331

$11,861

$6,108

$5,958

$150

1979

49,737

36,262

13,475

42,722

29,448

13,274

7,015

6,814

201

1980

52,612

36,756

15,856

45,228

29,694

15,534

7,384

7,062

322

1981

58,968

39,822

19,147

50,887

32,108

18,779

8,082

7,714

368

1982

62,408

40,766

21,642

54,273

33,166

21,108

8,135

7,600

535

1983

65,090

38,720

26,370

56,734

31,140

25,594

8,356

7,580

776

1984

72,064

39,347

32,717

63,066

31,203

31,863

8,997

8,145

853

1985

73,613

34,592

39,021

64,438

26,455

37,983

9,175

8,137

1,038

1986

69,960

27,502

42,458

60,715

19,535

41,180

9,245

7,968

1,277

1987

72,107

25,497

46,610

62,939

17,754

45,185

9,168

7,743

1,425

1988

72,286

23,285

49,000

62,703

15,371

47,332

9,582

7,914

1,668

1989

76,925

21,960

54,965

67,088

13,942

53,146

9,837

8,018

1,819

1990

77,105

20,418

56,687

68,192

13,119

55,073

8,914

7,299

1,614

1991

89,215

27,726

61,489

80,343

20,539

59,804

8,872

7,187

1,684

1992

103,581

32,945

70,636

94,497

25,741

68,756

9,084

7,204

1,880

1993

127,683

49,672

78,011

118,040

42,103

75,937

9,643

7,569

2,074

1994

120,420

37,113

83,307

110,155

29,135

81,020

10,265

7,978

2,287

1995

130,682

39,017

91,665

119,510

30,208

89,302

11,172

8,809

2,363

1996

138,738

33,860

104,877

126,463

24,263

102,200

12,275

9,598

2,677

1997

143,655

27,886

115,770

130,429

17,788

112,641

13,226

10,097

3,128

Footnotes
  1. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  2. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Note: Includes both employer and employee contributions.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for 1978-97 plan years.


Table E17: Pension Plan Benefits Disbursed
by type of plan, 1978-1997(1)(amounts in millions)

Year

Total Plans
Total

Total Plans
Defined Benefit

Total Plans
Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans (2)
Total

Single Employer Plans (2)
Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans (2)
Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans (3)
Total

Multiemployer Plans (3)
Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans (3)
Defined Contribution

1978

$26,516

$17,661

$8,855

$23,333

$14,485

$8,748

$3,283

$3,176

$108

1979

28,680

18,688

9,991

25,272

15,386

9,886

3,408

3,302

106

1980

35,280

22,148

13,132

31,485

18,524

12,961

3,795

3,624

171

1981

44,753

27,334

17,420

40,281

22,987

17,294

4,473

4,347

125

1982

55,307

33,875

21,432

50,219

28,957

21,263

5,088

4,918

170

1983

65,333

36,976

28,357

59,547

31,507

28,040

5,786

5,469

317

1984

79,086

46,513

32,573

72,510

40,269

32,241

6,576

6,244

332

1985

101,898

54,466

47,432

94,792

47,801

46,991

7,106

6,665

441

1986

130,483

67,974

62,509

122,613

60,612

62,000

7,870

7,361

579

1987

122,254

66,241

56,013

113,834

58,345

55,489

8,420

7,896

524

1988

118,645

60,450

58,195

109,446

51,910

57,535

9,200

8,540

660

1989

132,049

66,707

65,342

121,750

57,236

64,514

10,299

9,471

828

1990

129,405

66,363

63,042

118,227

56,079

62,147

11,178

10,284

894

1991

135,552

71,503

64,048

123,986

61,081

62,904

11,566

10,422

1,144

1992

152,441

77,853

74,588

139,247

66,287

72,960

13,194

11,566

1,628

1993

156,305

79,093

77,212

142,471

66,847

75,625

13,834

12,246

1,587

1994

163,934

82,625

81,309

149,035

69,417

79,617

14,899

13,207

1,692

1995

183,025

85,134

97,892

167,249

70,947

96,302

15,777

14,187

1,590

1996

213,399

96,914

116,485

196,224

81,436

114,788

17,176

15,478

1,698

1997

232,479

97,213

135,266

214,191

80,994

133,197

18,288

16,219

2,069

Footnotes
  1. Amounts shown include both benefits paid directly from trust funds and premium payments made by plans to insurance carriers. Amounts exclude benefits paid directly by insurance carriers.
  2. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  3. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for 1978-97 plan years.


Table E18: Pension Plan Benefits Disbursed From Plans with Fewer than 100 Participants
by type of plan, 1978-1997(1)(amounts in millions)

Year

Total Plans
Total

Total Plans
Defined Benefit

Total Plans
Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans (2)
Total

Single Employer Plans (2)
Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans (2)
Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans (3)
Total

Multiemployer Plans (3)
Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans (3)
Defined Contribution

1978

$3,387

$1,292

$2,095

$3,356

$1,271

$2,085

$31

$21

$10

1979

3,614

1,442

2,171

3,586

1,420

2,166

28

23

5

1980

5,123

2,076

3,047

5,086

2,044

3,042

37

32

5

1981

6,991

2,789

4,203

6,940

2,740

4,200

52

49

2

1982

10,736

5,782

4,954

10,679

5,736

4,943

56

46

10

1983

11,649

4,213

7,436

11,580

4,149

7,431

70

65

6

1984

14,311

6,290

8,021

14,237

6,225

8,012

74

65

9

1985

22,493

8,936

13,557

22,403

8,872

13,531

90

63

26

1986

38,484

14,730

24,527

38,355

14,604

23,749

129

125

5

1987

34,584

14,796

19,788

34,425

14,665

19,760

159

131

28

1988

33,718

12,069

21,649

33,657

12,018

21,639

61

51

10

1989

37,063

12,369

24,694

36,914

12,252

24,662

149

117

32

1990

34,238

10,798

23,439

34,098

10,737

23,361

139

61

78

1991

30,601

9,489

21,112

30,532

9,448

21,083

69

41

28

1992

30,763

7,929

22,834

30,720

7,912

22,808

43

17

26

1993

29,230

6,660

22,570

29,129

6,582

22,547

100

77

23

1994

25,900

4,860

21,040

25,743

4,737

21,007

157

124

33

1995

33,927

7,100

26,827

33,816

7,035

26,781

111

65

46

1996

36,376

7,057

29,320

36,247

6,965

29,282

129

92

37

1997

43,066

7,720

35,346

42,879

7,608

35,271

187

112

75

Footnotes
  1. Amounts shown include both benefits paid directly from trust funds and premium payments made by plans to insurance carriers. Amounts exclude benefits paid directly by insurance carriers.
  2. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  3. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for 1978-97 plan years.


Table E19: Pension Plan Benefits Disbursed From Plans with 100 or More Participants
by type of plan, 1978-1997(1)(amounts in millions)

Year

Total Plans
Total

Total Plans
Defined Benefit

Total Plans
Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans (2)
Total

Single Employer Plans (2)
Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans (2)
Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans (3)
Total

Multiemployer Plans (3)
Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans (3)
Defined Contribution

1978

$23,129

$16,369

$6,760

$19,877

$13,214

$6,663

$3,252

$3,155

$97

1979

25,066

17,246

7,820

21,686

13,966

7,720

3,380

3,279

101

1980

30,157

20,072

10,085

26,399

16,480

9,919

3,758

3,592

166

1981

37,762

24,545

13,217

33,341

20,247

13,094

4,421

4,298

123

1982

44,571

28,093

16,478

39,540

23,221

16,319

5,032

4,872

160

1983

55,693

32,763

22,920

47,967

27,358

20,609

5,715

5,404

311

1984

64,775

40,223

24,552

58,273

34,044

24,229

6,502

6,179

322

1985

79,405

45,530

33,875

72,389

38,929

33,460

7,016

6,602

415

1986

91,999

53,244

38,754

84,258

46,008

38,250

7,741

7,236

504

1987

87,680

51,445

36,225

79,409

43,680

35,729

8,262

7,765

496

1988

84,926

48,381

36,546

75,787

39,892

35,896

9,139

8,489

650

1989

94,987

54,339

40,648

84,836

44,984

39,852

10,151

9,355

796

1990

95,167

55,564

39,603

84,128

45,342

38,786

11,039

10,222

816

1991

104,951

62,014

42,937

93,454

51,633

41,821

11,497

10,381

1,116

1992

121,678

69,924

51,755

108,527

58,374

50,153

13,151

11,549

1,602

1993

127,076

72,433

54,643

113,342

60,264

53,078

13,734

12,169

1,565

1994

138,034

77,764

60,269

123,291

64,681

58,611

14,742

13,084

1,659

1995

149,099

78,034

71,065

133,433

63,912

69,521

15,666

14,122

1,544

1996

177,023

89,858

87,166

159,976

74,471

85,505

17,047

15,386

1,660

1997

198,413

89,493

99,920

171,312

73,386

97,926

18,101

16,107

1,994

Footnotes
  1. Amounts shown include both benefits paid directly from trust funds and premium payments made by plans to insurance carriers. Amounts exclude benefits paid directly by insurance carriers.
  2. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  3. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for 1978-97 plan years.


Table E20: Percentage Distribution of Active Participants in Plans with 100 or More Participants
by vesting status, 1978-1997

Year

All Plans
Total

All Plans
Fully Vested

All Plans
Partially Vested

All Plans
Not Vested

Defined Benefit Plans
Total

Defined Benefit Plans
Fully Vested

Defined Benefit Plans
Partially Vested

Defined Benefit Plans
Not Vested

Defined Contribution Plans
Total

Defined Contribution Plans
Fully Vested

Defined Contribution Plans
Partially Vested

Defined Contribution Plans
Not Vested

1978

100

46

12

43

100

40

6

55

100

58

25

17

1979

100

46

12

42

100

40

6

54

100

58

25

17

1980

100

45

12

42

100

38

6

56

100

58

25

17

1981

100

46

13

41

100

40

6

55

100

58

25

17

1982

100

48

13

39

100

41

5

54

100

60

24

17

1983

100

53

12

35

100

43

5

52

100

65

21

14

1984

100

55

12

32

100

44

6

51

100

68

20

13

1985

100

57

12

31

100

44

5

51

100

69

19

12

1986

100

58

12

30

100

45

5

50

100

70

19

11

1987

100

58

12

30

100

46

5

49

100

69

19

12

1988

100

60

11

30

100

49

4

47

100

69

18

13

1989

100

65

9

26

100

58

2

40

100

71

14

14

1990

100

67

9

24

100

60

2

38

100

72

14

14

1991

100

67

9

24

100

61

2

37

100

71

14

15

1992

100

68

10

22

100

64

2

34

100

71

14

15

1993

100

69

10

21

100

66

2

32

100

72

14

14

1994

100

70

9

21

100

67

2

31

100

72

14

14

1995

100

69

10

21

100

68

2

31

100

70

14

16

1996

100

71

11

18

100

68

1

30

100

73

16

11

1997

100

67

11

22

100

67

1

32

100

68

15

17

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for 1978-97 plan years.


Table E21: Percentage Distribution of Active Participants in Single Employer Plans with 100 or More Participants
by vesting status, 1978-1997

Year

All Plans
Total

All Plans
Fully Vested

All Plans
Partially Vested

All Plans
Not Vested

Defined Benefit Plans
Total

Defined Benefit Plans
Fully Vested

Defined Benefit Plans
Partially Vested

Defined Benefit Plans
Not Vested

Defined Contribution Plans
Total

Defined Contribution Plans
Fully Vested

Defined Contribution Plans
Partially Vested

Defined Contribution Plans
Not Vested

1978

100

47

12

40

100

41

5

53

100

57

25

18

1979

100

48

13

39

100

41

6

53

100

58

26

17

1980

100

47

14

39

100

40

6

54

100

58

25

17

1981

100

48

14

38

100

41

5

54

100

57

26

17

1982

100

49

14

36

100

42

5

53

100

59

25

17

1983

100

54

14

33

100

43

6

51

100

64

22

14

1984

100

56

14

30

100

44

6

50

100

67

20

13

1985

100

57

14

29

100

43

6

51

100

68

20

12

1986

100

58

14

28

100

44

6

50

100

70

19

11

1987

100

58

13

28

100

46

6

49

100

68

20

12

1988

100

60

12

28

100

50

4

46

100

68

19

13

1989

100

67

10

24

100

61

2

37

100

71

15

14

1990

100

68

9

23

100

62

2

36

100

72

14

14

1991

100

68

10

22

100

65

2

33

100

70

15

15

1992

100

69

10

21

100

67

2

32

100

70

15

15

1993

100

70

10

19

100

69

2

29

100

71

15

14

1994

100

71

10

19

100

71

1

28

100

71

14

15

1995

100

70

11

20

100

71

1

27

100

69

15

16

1996

100

72

12

16

100

72

1

27

100

72

17

11

1997

100

68

12

21

100

70

1

29

100

67

16

17

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for 1978-97 plan years.


Table E22: Percentage Distribution of Active Participants in Multiemployer Plans with 100 or More Participants
by vesting status, 1978-1997

Year

All Plans
Total

All Plans
Fully Vested

All Plans
Partially Vested

All Plans
Not Vested

Defined Benefit Plans
Total

Defined Benefit Plans
Fully Vested

Defined Benefit Plans
Partially Vested

Defined Benefit Plans
Not Vested

Defined Contribution Plans
Total

Defined Contribution Plans
Fully Vested

Defined Contribution Plans
Partially Vested

Defined Contribution Plans
Not Vested

1978

100

37

7

56

100

34

7

59

100

90

4

7

1979

100

38

7

55

100

35

7

59

100

90

4

7

1980

100

35

6

59

100

32

6

63

100

78

3

19

1981

100

41

6

53

100

36

6

57

100

88

3

9

1982

100

42

4

53

100

38

4

58

100

82

3

15

1983

100

47

4

48

100

42

5

54

100

86

3

11

1984

100

48

5

47

100

42

6

52

100

87

2

12

1985

100

51

3

46

100

45

4

52

100

89

2

9

1986

100

53

3

44

100

46

3

51

100

88

2

10

1987

100

53

4

43

100

45

3

52

100

86

6

9

1988

100

55

3

42

100

46

3

52

100

89

2

8

1989

100

54

2

44

100

45

2

53

100

86

2

12

1990

100

57

2

41

100

48

3

50

100

87

2

11

1991

100

57

3

40

100

47

3

50

100

88

2

11

1992

100

59

3

37

100

50

4

46

100

84

2

14

1993

100

61

3

36

100

52

3

45

100

85

3

12

1994

100

62

3

35

100

52

3

45

100

88

3

9

1995

100

63

2

35

100

53

2

45

100

89

2

9

1996

100

64

2

34

100

53

2

45

100

92

2

7

1997

100

64

2

34

100

53

2

45

100

90

2

8

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for 1978-97 plan years.


Table E23: Number of 401(k) Type Plans, Participants, Assets, Contributions, and Benefit Payments
1984-1997

Year

Number of Plans

Active Participants
(thousands)

Assets
(millions)

Contributions
(millions)

Benefits
(millions)

1984

17,303

7,540

$91,754

$16,291

$10,617

1985

29,869

10,339

143,939

24,322

16,399

1986

37,420

11,559

182,784

29,226

22,098

1987

45,054

13,131

215,477

33,185

22,215

1988

68,121

15,203

276,995

39,412

25,235

1989

83,301

17,337

357,015

46,081

30,875

1990

97,614

19,548

384,854

48,998

32,028

1991

111,394

19,126

440,259

51,533

32,734

1992

139,704

22,404

552,959

64,345

43,166

1993

154,527

23,138

616,316

69,322

44,206

1994

174,945

25,206

674,681

75,878

50,659

1995

200,813

28,061

863,918

87,416

62,163

1996

230,808

30,843

1,061,493

103,973

78,481

1997

265,251

33,865

1,264,168

115,673

93,070

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for 1984-97 plan years.


Table E24: Aggregate Rates of Return Earned by Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants
1985-1997

Year(1)

Total Plans
Total

Total Plans
Defined Benefit

Total Plans
Defined Contribution

Single Employer
Total

Single Employer
Defined Benefit

Single Employer
Defined Contribution

Multiemployer
Total

Multiemployer
Defined Benefit

Multiemployer
Defined Contribution

Total 401(k)

Total ESOP

1985

19.6%

20.1%

18.4%

20.0%

20.6%

18.5%

16.8%

17.0%

12.7%

n/a

n/a

1986

13.9

14.1

13.3

14.1

14.4

13.4

12.5

12.6

10.3

n/a

n/a

1987

4.6

4.4

4.8

4.7

4.6

4.8

3.7

3.5

6.4

n/a

n/a

1988

12.4

12.1

13.1

12.6

12.2

13.2

11.6

11.8

9.5

n/a

n/a

1989

11.2

12.1

9.4

11.9

13.2

9.7

6.0

6.4

1.8

n/a

n/a

1990

3.5

3.5

3.5

3.1

2.8

3.4

6.8

6.7

7.4

3.6

-1.3

1991

17.5

18.8

15.1

17.8

19.6

15.2

14.9

15.2

12.0

14.7

14.7

1992

8.8

8.3

9.8

8.8

8.0

9.8

9.3

9.4

8.7

10.3

13.4

1993

10.2

10.5

9.8

10.6

11.1

9.9

7.4

7.5

6.2

9.8

12.8

1994

2.9

2.2

3.8

2.7

1.8

3.8

4.4

4.5

3.9

3.7

4.1

1995

20.8

21.4

20.0

21.0

21.6

20.3

19.5

20.5

11.8

20.5

22.9

1996

14.9

14.8

15.0

15.0

14.9

15.2

13.8

14.3

9.6

14.8

18.4

1997

17.9

16.8

19.3

18.0

16.6

19.5

17.1

17.5

13.6

18.2

17.0

Geometric mean(2)

1985-97

12.0

12.1

11.8

12.2

12.2

11.9

10.9

11.2

8.7

n/a

n/a

1993-97

13.2

13.0

13.4

13.3

13.0

13.6

12.3

12.7

9.0

11.7

14.1

1995-97

17.9

17.6

18.1

18.0

17.7

18.3

16.8

17.4

11.6

12.8

14.8

Standard deviation(3)

1985-97

5.8

6.0

5.5

5.9

6.3

5.5

5.0

5.2

3.4

n/a

n/a

1993-97

6.3

6.5

6.1

6.4

6.6

6.2

5.7

6.0

3.5

5.6

6.3

1995-97

2.4

2.8

2.2

2.4

2.8

2.2

2.3

2.5

1.7

7.0

8.0

Footnotes
  1. The 1994 row, for example, represents all plan years that began in 1994. About 77 percent of these plan years began on January 1, 1994.
  2. Geometric mean computed by adding one to the aggregate rate of return for each of the n years, taking the product of the sums, and taking the nth root of the product, and subtracting one.
  3. Standard deviation formula uses a denominator definition of n, not n-1.

Note: Rates of return have been derived directly from tables C4-C11 and from similar published summary tables for prior years. The rate of return formula is the same as that described in Chapter 12 of the 1989 DOL volume entitled "Trends in Pensions," except that the return formula used here refines the treatment of receivables. The receivable line item called "income receivables, which first appeared on the 1988 form, is not deducted from total assets because such assets may produce investment income. The formula makes no adjustment for reporting periods other than one year, which are reported on approximately 3 percent of Form 5500 filings. Because the form 5500 does not provide information on the timing of cash flows during the year, a time weighted rate of return cannot be derived. The formula used assumes that all cash flows occur in the middle of the plan's reporting period. The cash flow for which this assumption is most uncertain is contributions. The overall 1994 rate of return reported as 2.9 percent could be as low as 2.80 percent or as high as 2.98 percent depending on the assumption regarding the timing of contributions during the year. The overall 1995 rate of return reported as 20.8 percent could be as low as 20.15 percent or as high as 21.53 percent.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for 1985-97 plan years.


Table E25: Aggregate Investment Performance of Private Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants
1985-1997

Year

Average Investable(1) Assets

Investment Income(2)

Appreciation
Realized

Appreciation
Unrealized

Appreciation
Total

Total DFE(3) Income

Total(4)

Total Rate of Return(5)

Growth of Average Investable Assets(6)

1985

$852,433

$49,936

$41,170

$68,007

$109,177

$8,042

$167,155

19.6%

-

1986

1,007,303

55,572

65,830

15,924

81,754

2,922

140,248

13.9

18.2%

1987

1,118,764

58,359

49,825

-58,758

-8,933

1,511

50,937

4.6

11.1

1988

1,135,950

47,509

13,609

30,597

44,206

49,613

141,328

12.4

1.5

1989

1,268,455

12,484

23,197

38,963

62,160

67,305

141,949

11.2

11.7

1990

1,395,262

49,855

1,995

-16,810

-14,815

13,866

48,906

3.5

10.0

1991

1,411,538

49,457

15,435

73,766

89,201

108,288

246,946

17.5

1.2

1992

1,658,785

45,325

9,126

30,378

39,504

61,706

146,535

8.8

17.5

1993

1,808,728

45,340

15,142

30,099

45,241

93,800

184,381

10.2

9.0

1994

1,961,820

43,012

1,871

-10,567

-8,696

22,283

56,599

2.9

8.5

1995

1,975,258

48,331

32,145

120,317

152,462

210,447

411,240

20.8

0.7

1996

2,383,830

50,844

27,349

87,761

115,110

189,439

355,393

14.9

20.7

1997

2,699,052

53,862

51,788

122,825

174,613

254,663

483,138

17.9

13.2

Geometric mean(7)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

12.0

10.1

Footnotes
  1. Average of beginning-of-year and end-of-year levels of all assets except contributions receivable and value of buildings and other property used in plan operations minus one-half of total return.
  2. Sum of interest, dividends, rents, and (for years 1985-87) royalties.
  3. DFE means direct filing entities including common/collective trusts, pooled separate accounts, master trusts, 103-12 investment entities, and registered investment companies.
  4. Sum of investment income, total appreciation, and total DFE income.
  5. Total return as a percentage of average investable assets. See note for previous table.
  6. Percentage increase in average investable assets (column 1) from previous year to current year.
  7. The geometric mean computed by adding one to the percentage change for each of the n years, taking the product of the sums, taking the nth root of the product, and subtracting one.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for 1985-97 plan years.


Table E26: Aggregate Rates of Return Earned by Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOPs) and 401(k) Plans with 100 or More Participants
1990-1997

Year

401(k) Plans
Total

401(k) Plans
Sole plan(1)

401(k) Plans
Not sole plan(2)

Employee Stock Ownership Plans
Total

Employee Stock Ownership Plans
Leveraged

Employee Stock Ownership Plans
Nonleveraged

1990

3.6%

4.5%

3.5%

-1.3%

-1.0%

-1.5%

1991

14.7

14.6

14.7

14.7

18.9

12.6

1992

10.3

9.0

10.5

13.4

15.1

12.3

1993

9.8

8.8

10.0

12.8

10.6

14.3

1994

3.7

3.4

3.7

4.1

4.4

4.0

1995

20.5

18.5

20.9

22.9

17.5

24.7

1996

14.8

14.3

15.0

18.4

18.2

18.5

1997

19.4

18.3

19.7

23.8

24.7

23.5

Geometric mean(3)

1990-97

11.9

11.3

12.1

13.3

13.2

13.2

1993-97

13.5

12.5

13.7

16.2

14.8

16.7

1995-97

18.2

17.0

18.5

21.7

20.1

22.24

Standard deviation(4)

1990-97

6.0

5.5

6.1

8.1

7.9

8.4

1993-97

6.3

5.8

6.4

7.3

7.0

7.5

1995-97

2.4

1.9

2.6

2.4

3.2

2.7

Footnotes
  1. 401(k) plan is only plan sponsored by the employer.
  2. Employer sponsoring 401(k) plan also sponsors other pension plan(s).
  3. Computed by adding one to the aggregate rate of return for each of the n years, taking the product of the sums, and taking the nth root of the product, and subtracting one.
  4. Standard deviation formula uses a denominator definition of n, not n-1.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for 1990-97 plan years.


Figure E1 - Number of Pension Plans 1978-1997


Figure E2 - Number of Defined Contribution Plans 1984-1997


Figure E3 - Pension Plan Active Participants 1978-1997


Figure E4 - Participants per Plan by type of plan, 1978-1997


Figure E5 - Ratio of Active to retired Participants in Defined Benefit Plans 1978-1997


Figure E6 - Pension Coverage of Wage and Salary Workers 1978-1997


Figure E7 - Pension Plan Assets 1978-1997


Figure E8 - Assets Per Participant by type of plan, 1978-1997


Figure E9 - Pension Plan Contributions and Benefits 1977-1997


Figure E10 - Rates of Return by type of plan, 1985-1997


Figure E11 - Rates of Return for Single and Multiemployer Plans 1985-1997


Figure E12 - Rates of Return for 401(k) Type Plans 1990-1997


Figure E13 - Rates of Return for ESOPs 1990-1997