1996 Private Pension Plan Bulletins Abstract of Form 5500 Annual Reports

Private Pension Plan Bulletin
Abstract of 1996 Form 5500 Annual Reports

U.S. Department of Labor
Pension and Welfare Benefits Administration
Office of Policy and Research
Number 9, Winter 2000

Introduction

This is the ninth edition of the Private Pension Plan Bulletin. The tabulations presented in this report contain data based on 1996 Form 5500 filings. Reports for 1996 plan years were filed by plans for fiscal years ending anywhere from December 31, 1996 to December 30, 1997. The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) processed 1996 filings from August 1997 through July 1999.

Form 5500 reports are filed annually with the IRS. Plans covering 100 or more participants must file a Form 5500 every year containing extensive financial, participant, and actuarial data. Plans covering fewer than 100 participants are required to file a less detailed report (known as a Form 5500 C/R).

The universe for this Bulletin consists of all private pension plans for which a Form 5500 or Form 5500 C/R has been filed with the IRS in accordance with Title I of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA). Such plans may be defined benefit or defined contribution plans. They generally cover private wage and salary employees and are sponsored either by employers or jointly by employers and unions.

The IRS processes the reports and provides computerized edited files to the Department of Labor's Pension and Welfare Benefits Administration. To produce this report, data on all plans covering 100 or more participants are combined with a 5 percent sample of small plan filers. This combined file is subjected to additional editing and weighted to represent the universe of private pension plans covering two or more participants.

Key findings from the 1996 filings are summarized in the Highlights on pages 2 and 3. The tabulations are organized into five sections. Section A contains summary data on plans, participants, assets, income and expenses. Section B contains more detailed data on plans and participants, showing distributions by different size measures. Section C contains balance sheets and income statements for the major types of pension plans. Section D contains detailed data on defined contribution plans. Section E contains historical data from 1977 to 1996. The organization of this Bulletin is similar to the previous edition with the exception of additional tables in Section E on aggregate rates of return of 401(k) type plans.

This publication was prepared by Richard Hinz, Helen Lawrence, David McCarthy, Deloris Penic-Stevens, Daniel Beller, Steve Donahue, and Phyllis Fernandez of the Office of Policy and Research. Although this Bulletin is not copyrighted, proper acknowledgment would be appreciated. The recommended citation is:

United States Department of Labor, Pension and Welfare Benefits Administration. Abstract of 1996 Form 5500 Annual Reports. Private Pension Plan Bulletin No. 9, Winter 1999-2000. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office, 1999.


Contents

  • Section A: Summary
    • Table A1: Number of Pension Plans, Total Participants, Active Participants, Assets, Contributions, and Benefits by type of plan, 1996
    • Table A2: Number of Participants in Pension Plans by type of plan entity, type of plan, and type of participant, 1996
    • Table A3: Balance Sheet of Pension Plans by type of plan, 1996
    • Table A4: Income Statement of Pension Plans by type of plan, 1996
    • Table A5: Amount of Assets in Pension Plans by type of plan and method of funding, 1996
    • Table A6: Collective Bargaining Status of Pension Plans, Participants, and Assets by type of plan, 1996
    • Figure A1: Distribution of Pension Plans and Participants by type of plan, 1996
    • Figure A2: Active Participants in Pension Plans by vesting status and type of plan, 1996
    • Figure A3: Distribution of Assets by method of funding, 1996
  • Section B: Plans and Participants
    • Table B1: Distribution of Pension Plans by number of participants, 1996
    • Table B2: Distribution of Pension Plans by amount of assets, 1996
    • Table B3: Distribution of Pension Plans by industry, 1996
    • Table B4: Distribution of Participants by number of participants, 1996
    • Table B5: Distribution of Participants by amount of assets, 1996
    • Table B6: Distribution of Participants by industry, 1996
    • Table B7: Distribution of Active Participants by type of plan, 1996
    • Table B8: Number of Plans by type of plan and method of funding, 1996
    • Table B9: Number of Participants by type of plan and method of funding, 1996
  • Section C: Financial
    • Table C1: Distribution of Assets by number of participants, 1996
    • Table C2: Distribution of Assets by asset size, 1996
    • Table C3: Distribution of Assets by industry, 1996
    • Table C4: Balance Sheet of Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants by type of plan, 1996
    • Table C5: Balance Sheet of Single Employer Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants by type of plan, 1996
    • Table C6: Balance Sheet of Multiemployer Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants by type of plan, 1996
    • Table C7: Percentage Distribution of Assets in Defined Benefit Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants by type of asset and size of plan, 1996
    • Table C8: Percentage Distribution of Assets in Defined Contribution Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants by type of asset and size of plan, 1996
    • Table C9: Income Statement of Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants by type of plan, 1996
    • Table C10: Income Statement of Single Employer Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants by type of plan, 1996
    • Table C11: Income Statement of Multiemployer Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants by type of plan, 1996
    • Table C12: Percentage Distribution of Income in Defined Benefit Plans with 100 or More Participants by source of income and size of plan, 1996
    • Table C13: Percentage Distribution of Income in Defined Contribution Plans with 100 or More Participants by source of income and size of plan, 1996
    • Figure C: Average Assets per Participant by plan size, 1996
  • Section D: Defined Contribution Plans
    • Table D1: Balance Sheet of Defined Contribution Plans with 100 or More Participants by type of plan, 1996
    • Table D2: Income Statement of Defined Contribution Plans with 100 or More Participants by type of plan, 1996
    • Table D3: Number of 401(k) Type Plans, Participants, Active Participants, Assets, Contributions, and Benefits by type of plan, 1996
    • Table D4: Number of 401(k) Type Plans by number of participants and primary or supplemental status, 1996
    • Table D5: Number of Active Participants in 401(k) Type Plans by number of participants and primary or supplemental status, 1996
    • Table D6: Balance Sheet of 401(k) Type Plans 1996
    • Table D7: Income Statement of 401(k) Type Plans 1996
    • Table D8: Balance Sheet of 401(k) Type Plans with 100 or More Participants 1996
    • Table D9: Income Statement of 401(k) Type Plans With 100 or More Participants 1996
    • Table D10: Number of Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOPs), Total Participants, Active Participants, Assets, Contributions, and Benefits by type of assets, 1996
    • Table D11: Number of Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOPs), Total Participants, Active Participants, Assets, Contributions, and Benefits by type of ESOP, 1996
    • Table D12: Number of Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOPs) by number of participants and primary or supplemental status, 1996
    • Table D13: Balance Sheet of Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOPs) with 100 or More Participants by leveraged status, 1996
    • Table D14: Income Statement of Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOPs) with 100 or More Participants by leveraged status, 1996
    • Figure D: Number of 401(k) Plans 1984-1996
  • Section E: Historical Tables
    • Table E1: Number of Pension Plans by type of plan, 1977-1996
    • Table E2: Number of Pension Plans with Fewer than 100 Participants by type of plan, 1977-1996
    • Table E3: Number of Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants by type of plan, 1977-1996
    • Table E4: Estimated Private Wage and Salary Worker Participation Rates Under Primary and Supplemental Pension Plans 1977-1996
    • Table E5: Number of Participants in Pension Plans by type of plan, 1977-1996
    • Table E6: Number of Participants in Pension Plans with Fewer than 100 Participants by type of plan, 1977-1996
    • Table E7: Number of Participants in Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants by type of plan, 1977-1996
    • Table E8: Number of Active Participants in Pension Plans by type of plan, 1977-1996
    • Table E9: Number of Active Participants in Pension Plans with Fewer than 100 Participants by type of plan, 1977-1996
    • Table E10: Number of Active Participants in Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants by type of plan, 1977-1996
    • Table E11: Pension Plan Assets by type of plan, 1977-1996
    • Table E12: Pension Plan Assets of Plans with Fewer than 100 Participants by type of plan, 1977-1996
    • Table E13: Pension Plan Assets of Plans with 100 or More Participants by type of plan, 1977-1996
    • Table E14: Pension Plan Contributions by type of plan, 1977-1996
    • Table E15: Pension Plan Contributions of Plans with Fewer than 100 Participants by type of plan, 1977-1996
    • Table E16: Pension Plan Contributions of Plans with 100 or More Participants by type of plan, 1977-1996
    • Table E17: Pension Plan Benefits Disbursed by type of plan, 1977-1996
    • Table E18: Pension Plan Benefits Disbursed From Plans with Fewer than 100 Participants by type of plan, 1977-1996
    • Table E19: Pension Plan Benefits Disbursed From Plans with 100 or More Participants by type of plan, 1977-1996
    • Table E20: Percentage Distribution of Active Participants in Plans with 100 or More Participants by vesting status, 1977-1996
    • Table E21: Percentage Distribution of Active Participants in Single Employer Plans with 100 or More Participants by vesting status, 1977-1996
    • Table E22: Percentage Distribution of Active Participants in Multiemployer Plans with 100 or More Participants by vesting status, 1977-1996
    • Table E23: Number of 401(k) Type Plans, Participants, Assets, Contributions, and Benefit Payments 1984-1996
    • Table E24: Aggregate Rates of Return Earned by Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants 1985-1996
    • Table E25: Aggregate Investment Performance of Private Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants 1985-1996
    • Table E26: Aggregate Rates of Return Earned by Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOPs) and 401(k) Plans with 100 or More Participants 1990-1996
    • Figure E1: Number of Pension Plans 1977-1996
    • Figure E2: Pension Plan Active Participants 1977-1996
    • Figure E3: Pension Coverage of Wage and Salary Workers 1977-1996
    • Figure E4: Pension Plan Assets 1977-1996
    • Figure E5: Pension Plan Contributions and Benefits 1977-1996
    • Figure E6: Rates of Return by type of plan, 1985-1996
    • Figure E7: Rates of Return for Single and Multiemployer Plans 1985-1996
    • Figure E8: Rates of Return for 401(k) Type Plans 1990-1996
    • Figure E9: Rates of Return for ESOPs 1990-1996
    • Figure E10: Assets Per Participant by type of plan, 1977-1996
    • Figure E11: Participants per Plan by type of plan, 1977-1996
    • Figure E12: Distribution of Pension Plans, Participants, and Assets by plan size, 1996

Highlights from the 1996 Form 5500 Reports

Assets held by private pension plans in 1996 totaled $3.1 trillion, a 15% increase from the $2.7 trillion reported in 1995. Defined contribution (DC) plan assets increased 17% in 1996 to $1.6 trillion while defined benefit (DB) plan assets increased 13% to $1.6 trillion.

Among plans with 100 or more participants, DC plans achieved a 15.0% aggregate rate of return (investment earnings and appreciation) in 1996, with additional asset growth arising from a positive cash flow of $16.2 billion (contributions minus benefit payout and administrative expenses). Defined benefit plans had a 14.8% aggregate rate of return in 1996, but achieved a lower overall rate of increase in total assets because of a negative cash flow of -$61.9 billion.

Aided by a large positive cash flow, assets held by 401(k) type plans continued to increase at a more rapid rate (23%) than other types of pension plans. The aggregate rate of return for medium and large 401(k) type plans, 80% of which permit participants to choose among investment options for their individual accounts, was 14.8% in 1996. This was about the same as the 14.9% average for all pension plans in 1996.

With the number of 401(k) type plans and active participants also increasing at a strong rate in 1996, 401(k) type plans now make up one-third of the pension plan universe, cover 45% of all active participants, and hold 34% of all plan assets.

Other findings from the Form 5500 series reports filed for 1996 plan years are summarized below:

  • The number of private pension plans increased from 693,400 in 1995 to 696,200 in 1996, a continuation of the gradual increase in the pension plan universe.
  • The 10 year downward trend in the number of DB plans continued in 1996, with an 8% decrease from 69,500 in 1995 to 63,700 in 1996.
  • Offsetting the decrease in DB plans, the number of DC plans increased 1% from 623,900 in 1995 to 632,600 in 1996. 401(k) type plans increased by 15% to 230,800, while non-401(k) DC plans decreased 5% to 401,800.
  • Part of the decrease in the number of non-401(k) DC plans from 1995 to 1996 resulted from conversions of existing non-401(k) DC plans to 401(k) status. Among plans with 100 or more participants, 905, or 2%, indicated that they had a 401(k) plan feature (containing a cash or deferred arrangement) in 1996 but not in 1995.
  • Total active participants in private pension plans increased by 3% in 1996 to 67.9 million in 1996. The long term patterns of decreases in DB plan active participants and increases in DC plan active participants continued in 1996, with the number of DB plan active participants decreasing by 1% to 23.3 million and the number of DC plan active participants increasing by 5% to 44.6 million.
  • Since 1980, the percentage of the private sector labor force with DB plan coverage has declined by an average of one percentage point per year. In 1996, an estimated 22% of the workforce received coverage under a DB plan, compared to about 38% under either a primary or supplemental DC plan.
  • Among pension covered workers, participation in a DB plan fell to 49% in 1996. The number participating in a DC plan in 1996 is estimated at 83%, with 51% covered only under one or more DC plans, and 32% covered under both a DB and a DC plan.
  • An estimated 65% of all pension covered workers (and about 30% of all private wage and salary workers) were in 401(k) type plans in 1996. For about half of all workers with 401(k) plan coverage, the 401(k) plan is their only plan. Among 401(k) participants with duel coverage, over four-fifths also participate in a DB plan.
  • The number of workers participating in 401(k) type plans increased by 2.8 million in 1996, including a 2.3 million increase among plans covering 100 or more participants. Among these larger plans, about 43% of the increase was due to conversions of existing DC plans to 401(k) type plans, 37% was due to the establishment of new 401(k) type plans, and the remaining 20% was due to increases in the number of workers covered by existing 401(k) type plans.
  • Benefit payments from plans to retirees, survivors, and terminating employees increased by 17% in 1996 to $213.4 billion. Benefits paid out by DB plans increased by 14% to $96.9 billion and benefit payments from DC plans increased 19% to $116.5 billion.
  • Total plan contributions increased 7% from $158.8 billion in 1995 to $169.5 billion in 1996.
  • Contributions to DB plans decreased by 14% from $41.4 billion in 1995 to $35.8 billion in 1996. Defined contribution plans received $133.7 billion in contributions during 1996, a 14% increase over the $117.4 billion received in 1995.
  • The percentage of total DC contributions made by plan participants has been steadily increasing over the last decade and in 1996 was 16% higher than employer contributions to DC plans.
  • Of total employer and employee contributions made to 401(k) plans, 66% were made by employees. For workers participating only in a 401(k), 61% of contributions were made by employees compared to 69% for workers participating in both a 401(k) plan and another plan sponsored by their employer.
  • Among plans with 100 or more participants the aggregate rate of return on ESOPs was 18.4% in 1996, compared with an aggregate rate of return of 14.9% for all plans.

Section A: Summary

Table A1: Number of Pension Plans, Total Participants, Active Participants, Assets, Contributions, and Benefits
by type of plan, 1996

Type of Plan

Number of Plans(1)

Total Participants
(thousands)(2)

Active Participants
(thousands)(3)

Total Assets
(millions)(4)

Total Contributions
(millions)(5)

Total Benefits
(millions)(6)

Total

696,224

91,716

67,888

$3,136,281

$169,540

$213,399

Defined benefit

63,657

41,111

23,262

1,585,397

35,803

96,914

Defined contribution

632,566

50,605

44,625

1,550,884

133,737

116,485

Profit sharing and thrift-savings

497,173

39,764

35,257

1,259,214

112,613

94,365

Stock bonus

4,612

3,562

3,041

97,190

6,497

7,849

Target benefit

5,905

147

132

4,777

280

421

Money purchase

98,875

4,759

4,131

125,342

9,097

9,146

Annuity-403(b)(1)

13,695

116

108

587

79

70

Custodial account-403(b)(7)

1,210

13

12

169

21

12

IRAs or annuities (Code 408)

787

33

25

935

46

41

Other defined contribution

10,310

2,212

1,919

62,671

5,104

4,582

Footnotes
  1. Excludes plans covering only one participant.
  2. Includes active, retired, and separated vested participants not yet in pay status. The number of participants also includes double counting of workers in more than one plan.
  3. Active participants include any workers currently in employment covered by a plan and who are earning or retaining credited service under a plan. Active participants also include nonvested former employees who have not yet incurred a break in service.
  4. Total asset amounts shown exclude funds held by life insurance companies under allocated group insurance contracts for payment of retirement benefits. These excluded funds make up roughly 10 to 15 percent of total pension fund assets.
  5. Includes both employer and employee contributions.
  6. Amounts shown include both benefits paid directly from trust funds and premium payments made by plans to insurance carriers. Amounts exclude benefits paid directly by insurance carriers.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1996.


Table A2: Number of Participants in Pension Plans
by type of plan entity, type of plan, and type of participant, 1996 (numbers in thousands)

Type of Participant

Total Plans
Total

Total Plans
Defined Benefit

Total Plans
Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans(1)
Total

Single Employer Plans(1)
Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans(1)
Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Total

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Defined Contribution

Total participants

91,716

41,111

50,605

80,841

32,467

48,374

10,876

8,644

2,231

Active participants(3)

67,888

23,262

44,625

61,417

18,681

42,736

6,470

4,581

1,889

Fully vested

48,429

15,912

32,517

44,268

13,485

30,782

4,161

2,427

1,734

Partially vested

7,475

297

7,178

7,367

217

7,150

108

79

29

Nonvested

11,983

7,053

4,930

9,782

4,978

4,804

2,201

2,075

126

Retired or separated participants receiving benefits

9,552

8,929

622

7,209

6,623

586

2,343

2,307

36

Separated part. with vested right to benefits

14,277

8,920

5,358

12,215

7,163

5,052

2,062

1,756

306

Footnotes
  1. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  2. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.
  3. Plans with less than 100 participants are required to provide only the total participant count. For these plans, which cover approximately 10 percent of all participants, the distribution of active, retired, and separated vested participants was assumed to be the same as for larger plans in each column.

Note: Excludes plans covering only one participant.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1996.


Table A3: Balance Sheet of Pension Plans
by type of plan, 1996 (amounts in millions)

Type of Asset or Liability

Total

Defined Benefit

Defined Contribution

Assets

Cash

$92,219

$29,227

$62,992

Receivables

55,027

23,957

31,070

Corporate debt and equity instruments

833,705

362,140

471,565

U.S. Government securities

165,105

114,251

50,853

Real estate and mortgages (other than to participants)

17,225

10,969

6,256

Mortgage loans to participants

1,441

144

1,297

Other loans to participants

24,148

476

23,671

Other investments and assets

1,946,985

1,043,948

903,037

Buildings and other property used in plan operations

428

285

143

Total Assets

3,136,281

1,585,397

1,550,884

Liabilities

Payables

15,615

7,677

7,937

Acquisition indebtedness

17,003

939

16,064

Other liabilities

27,966

12,712

15,254

Total Liabilities

60,584

21,329

39,255

Net Assets

3,075,697

1,564,068

1,511,629

Note: Total asset amounts shown exclude funds held by life insurance companies under allocated group insurance contracts for payment of retirement benefits. These excluded funds make up roughly 10 to 15 percent of total pension fund assets.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1996.


Table A4: Income Statement of Pension Plans
by type of plan, 1996 (amounts in millions)

Income and Expenses

Total

Defined Benefit

Defined Contribution

Income

Contributions received or receivable from:

Employers

$92,342

$34,486

$57,857

Participants

68,766

793

67,973

Others

7,856

441

7,415

Noncash contributions

576

83

493

Total contributions

169,540

35,803

133,737

Investment earnings(1)

51,338

24,163

27,175

Net gain (loss) on sale of assets

33,087

18,273

14,814

Other or unspecified income(2)

326,123

165,519

160,604

Total Income

580,089

243,758

336,331

Expenses

Benefit payments and payments to provide benefits

Direct benefits

204,828

92,458

112,371

Other benefits

8,571

4,457

4,115

Total payments

213,399

96,914

116,485

Total administrative expenses

8,650

6,255

2,395

Other or unspecified expenses

4,195

250

3,946

Total Expenses

226,244

103,418

122,826

Net Income

353,845

140,340

213,505

Footnotes
  1. Includes interest earnings, dividends, and rents.
  2. Includes net gain (loss) from pooled funds, unrealized appreciation (depreciation) of assets, and miscellaneous other income items.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1996.


Table A5: Amount of Assets in Pension Plans
by type of plan and method of funding, 1996 (amounts in millions)

Method of Funding

Total Plans
Total

Total Plans
Defined Benefit

Total Plans
Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans(1)
Total

Single Employer Plans(1)
Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans(1)
Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Total

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Defined Contribution

Funding arrangement for investment of Assets

Total

$3,136,281

$1,585,397

$1,550,884

$2,837,125

$1,316,599

$1,520,526

$299,156

$268,798

$30,358

Trust

1,963,090

1,006,083

957,007

1,791,744

853,965

937,779

171,346

152,118

19,228

Insurance

6,892

3,846

3,046

6,796

3,783

3,014

96

64

32

Trust and insurance

1,166,174

575,468

590,706

1,038,460

458,851

579,608

127,714

116,617

11,098

Other

125

0

125

125

0

125

0

0

0

Funding arrangement for payment of benefits

Total

$3,136,281

$1,585,397

$1,550,884

$2,837,125

$1,316,599

$1,520,526

$299,156

$268,798

$30,358

Trust

1,889,857

885,102

1,004,755

1,763,514

771,391

992,123

126,343

113,712

12,632

Insurance

69,157

37,834

31,323

67,173

36,386

30,787

1,984

1,448

536

Trust and insurance

1,165,847

660,623

505,224

995,542

507,436

488,105

170,305

153,186

17,119

Other

11,419

1,838

9,581

10,896

1,386

9,510

524

453

71

Footnotes
  1. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  2. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Note: Total asset amounts shown exclude funds held by life insurance companies under allocated group insurance contracts for payment of retirement benefits. These excluded funds make up roughly 10 to 15 percent of total pension fund assets.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1996.


Table A6: Collective Bargaining Status of Pension Plans, Participants, and Assets
by type of plan, 1996

Collective Bargaining Status

Total Plans
Number of Plans

Total Plans
Total Participants (thousands)

Total Plans
Total Assets (millions)(1)

Defined Benefit
Number of Plans

Defined Benefit
Total Participants (thousands)

Defined Benefit
Total Assets (millions)(1)

Defined Contribution
Number of Plans

Defined Contribution
Total Participants (thousands)

Defined Contribution
Total Assets (millions)(1)

Total

696,224

91,716

$3,136,281

63,657

41,111

$1,585,397

632,566

50,605

$1,550,884

Collectively bargained plans

16,298

28,730

1,068,864

8,311

19,614

813,765

7,987

9,116

255,100

Noncollectively bargained plans

679,926

62,987

2,067,416

55,346

21,497

771,632

624,579

41,490

1,295,784

Footnotes
  1. Asset amounts shown exclude funds held by life insurance companies under allocated insurance contracts for payment of retirement benefits. These excluded funds make up roughly 10 to 15 percent of total pension fund assets.

Note: Some collectively bargained plans cover nonbargaining unit employees under a separate non-negotiated benefit structure.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1996.


Figure A1 - Distribution of Pension Plans and Participants by type of plan, 1996


Figure A2 - Active Participants in Pension Plans by vesting status and type of plan, 1996


Figure A3 - Distribution of Assets by method of funding, 1996


Section B: Plans and Participants

Table B1: Distribution of Pension Plans by number of participants, 1996

Number of Participants

Total Plans
Total

Total Plans
Defined Benefit

Total Plans
Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans(1)
Total

Single Employer Plans(1)
Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans(1)
Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Total

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Defined Contribution

Total

696,224

63,657

632,566

692,957

61,790

631,167

3,267

1,867

1,399

None or not reported

57,083

6,312

50,771

57,009

6,286

50,722

75

26

49

2-9

309,611

21,746

287,865

309,534

21,697

287,836

78

49

28

10-24

141,183

8,371

132,812

141,183

8,371

132,812

-

-

-

25-49

77,276

5,288

71,988

77,183

5,238

71,945

94

51

43

50-99

47,366

5,386

41,980

47,161

5,349

41,812

205

37

168

100-249

30,716

5,304

25,411

30,317

5,093

25,224

398

211

187

250-499

13,830

3,561

10,269

13,313

3,274

10,039

517

287

230

500-999

8,076

2,732

5,344

7,471

2,381

5,090

605

351

254

1,000-2,499

6,080

2,524

3,556

5,422

2,123

3,299

658

401

257

2,500-4,999

2,403

1,088

1,315

2,110

904

1,206

293

184

109

5,000-9,999

1,353

672

681

1,185

547

638

168

125

43

10,000-19,999

681

341

340

592

270

322

89

71

18

20,000-49,999

395

217

178

341

172

169

54

45

9

50,000 or more

170

114

56

137

85

52

33

29

4

Footnotes
  1. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  2. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Note: Excludes plans covering only one participant.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1996.


Table B2: Distribution of Pension Plans by amount of assets, 1996

Amount of Assets

Total Plans
Total

Total Plans
Defined Benefit

Total Plans
Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans(1)
Total

Single Employer Plans(1)
Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans(1)
Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Total

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Defined Contribution

Total

696,224

63,657

632,566

692,957

61,790

631,167

3,267

1,867

1,399

None or not reported

81,465

14,994

66,471

81,394

14,972

66,422

72

22

50

$1-24K

36,860

490

36,370

36,799

462

36,337

61

28

33

25-49K

34,683

813

33,870

34,677

810

33,867

6

3

3

50-99K

58,148

2,044

56,103

58,094

2,039

56,054

54

5

49

100-249K

121,928

6,306

115,622

121,900

6,299

115,601

28

7

21

250-499K

111,572

7,205

104,367

111,505

7,194

104,310

67

11

56

500-999K

101,736

8,446

93,290

101,610

8,408

93,202

126

38

87

1-2.4M

85,111

8,925

76,186

84,904

8,865

76,039

207

60

147

2.5-4.9M

30,319

4,117

26,203

29,898

3,976

25,921

422

140

281

5-9.9M

14,650

2,820

11,830

14,249

2,600

11,649

400

219

181

10-24.9M

9,949

2,964

6,985

9,332

2,574

6,757

618

390

228

25-49.9M

4,048

1,637

2,411

3,639

1,352

2,287

409

285

124

50-74.9M

1,534

752

782

1,332

595

737

202

157

45

75-99.9M

882

417

465

756

320

436

126

97

29

100-149.9M

917

418

499

788

317

471

129

101

28

150-199.9M

525

268

257

441

199

242

84

69

15

200-249.9M

301

164

137

259

126

133

42

38

4

250-499.9M

735

381

354

624

282

342

111

99

12

500-999.9M

427

243

184

372

193

179

55

50

5

1-2.49B

289

162

127

256

129

127

33

33

-

2.5B or more

144

91

53

129

76

53

15

15

-

Footnotes
  1. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  2. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Note: Excludes plans covering only one participant. The letters K, M, and B denote thousands, millions, and billions, respectively.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1996.


Table B3: Distribution of Pension Plans by industry, 1996

Industry

Total Plans
Total

Total Plans
Defined Benefit

Total Plans
Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans(1)
Total

Single Employer Plans(1)
Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans(1)
Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Total

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Defined Contribution

Total

696,224

63,657

632,566

692,957

61,790

631,167

3,267

1,867

1,399

Agriculture

11,318

1,138

10,180

11,310

1,131

10,179

8

7

1

Mining

3,606

609

2,997

3,598

604

2,994

8

5

3

Construction

45,618

3,084

42,534

43,700

2,090

41,610

1,918

994

924

Manufacturing

92,111

13,643

78,468

91,803

13,407

78,395

309

236

73

Transportation

10,678

1,135

9,542

10,411

922

9,488

267

213

54

Communications and utilities

8,196

1,673

6,523

8,182

1,666

6,516

14

7

7

Wholesale trade

49,478

3,964

45,514

49,410

3,906

45,504

68

58

10

Retail trade

52,319

2,843

49,476

52,193

2,737

49,456

126

106

20

Finance, insurance and real estate

48,049

6,208

41,841

48,038

6,201

41,837

11

7

4

Services

324,052

18,097

305,955

323,553

17,866

305,687

499

231

268

Tax-exempt organizations

40,427

10,661

29,766

40,392

10,659

29,733

35

2

33

Industry not reported

10,372

602

9,770

10,368

600

9,768

4

2

2

Footnotes
  1. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  2. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Note: Excludes plans covering only one participant.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1996.


Table B4: Distribution of Participants by number of participants, 1996 (numbers in thousands)

Number of Participants

Total Plans
Total

Total Plans
Defined Benefit

Total Plans
Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans(1)
Total

Single Employer Plans(1)
Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans(1)
Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Total

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Defined Contribution

Total

91,716

41,111

50,605

80,841

32,467

48,374

10,876

8,644

2,231

2-9

1,375

96

1,280

1,375

95

1,280

(3)

(3)

(3)

10-24

2,211

130

2,081

2,211

130

2,081

-

-

-

25-49

2,685

182

2,503

2,681

180

2,501

3

2

2

50-99

3,301

386

2,914

3,284

384

2,900

17

3

14

100-249

4,933

879

4,055

4,865

841

4,023

69

37

31

250-499

4,816

1,262

3,555

4,627

1,155

3,472

189

106

83

500-999

5,685

1,940

3,745

5,251

1,687

3,565

433

253

180

1,000-2,499

9,491

3,977

5,515

8,438

3,328

5,110

1,053

648

405

2,500-4,999

8,342

3,811

4,531

7,314

3,161

4,152

1,028

650

378

5,000-9,999

9,379

4,669

4,709

8,222

3,801

4,420

1,157

868

289

10,000-19,999

9,543

4,802

4,741

8,307

3,813

4,494

1,236

989

247

20,000-49,999

12,237

6,479

5,759

10,535

5,098

5,437

1,702

1,381

321

50,000 or more

17,719

12,500

5,219

13,732

8,793

4,939

3,987

3,706

280

Footnotes
  1. Includes singte employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  2. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.
  3. Less than 500.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1996.


Table B5: Distribution of Participants by amount of assets, 1996 (numbers in thousands)

Amount of Assets

Total Plans
Total

Total Plans
Defined Benefit

Total Plans
Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans(1)
Total

Single Employer Plans(1)
Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans(1)
Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Total

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Defined Contribution

Total

91,716

41,111

50,605

80,841

32,467

48,374

10,876

8,644

2,231

None or not reported

1,404

378

1,026

1,369

347

1,022

35

31

4

$1-24K

318

8

310

314

7

307

4

0

3

25-49K

340

10

331

339

9

330

1

1

1

50-99K

682

28

654

676

26

650

6

2

4

100-249K

1,809

110

1,699

1,801

108

1,693

8

2

6

250-499K

2,252

183

2,069

2,233

178

2,054

19

5

15

500-999K

3,116

317

2,799

3,065

312

2,753

51

5

46

1-2.4M

5,117

796

4,321

4,999

774

4,225

119

22

96

2.5-4.9M

4,304

884

3,420

4,115

839

3,276

189

45

144

5-9.9M

4,585

1,265

3,321

4,339

1,162

3,177

246

103

143

10-24.9M

7,231

2,661

4,569

6,576

2,353

4,223

655

308

347

25-49.9M

6,502

2,730

3,773

5,793

2,302

3,491

709

427

282

50-74.9M

4,459

2,435

2,024

3,969

2,120

1,848

491

315

176

75-99.9M

2,864

1,446

1,417

2,487

1,185

1,302

377

262

115

100-149.9M

3,845

1,831

2,014

3,269

1,501

1,768

576

330

247

150-199.9M

3,290

1,578

1,713

2,638

1,156

1,482

652

422

231

200-249.9M

2,127

1,192

935

1,794

875

919

333

317

16

250-499.9M

7,589

4,031

3,558

6,335

2,966

3,369

1,254

1,065

188

500-999.9M

7,302

4,298

3,005

6,039

3,203

2,836

1,263

1,094

168

1-2.49B

10,416

5,806

4,610

8,943

4,333

4,610

1,473

1,473

-

2.5B or more

12,165

9,126

3,039

9,750

6,711

3,039

2,415

2,415

-

Footnotes
  1. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  2. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Notes: Excludes plans covering only one participant. The letters K, M, and B denote thousands, millions, and billions, respectively.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1996.


Table B6: Distribution of Participants by industry, 1996 (numbers in thousands)

Industry

Total Plans
Total

Total Plans
Defined Benefit

Total Plans
Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans(1)
Total

Single Employer Plans(1)
Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans(1)
Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Total

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Defined Contribution

Total

91,716

41,111

50,605

80,840

32,467

48,374

10,876

8,644

2,231

Agriculture

451

156

294

434

141

293

17

15

1

Mining

922

501

422

771

356

415

152

145

7

Construction

5,708

3,078

2,631

1,472

167

1,305

4,236

2,911

1,326

Manufacturing

33,994

17,402

16,592

32,617

16,231

16,386

1,377

1,171

206

Transportation

4,676

2,522

2,154

3,158

1,122

2,036

1,518

1,399

119

Communications and utilities

4,911

2,395

2,516

4,860

2,354

2,506

51

42

10

Wholesale trade

3,332

964

2,368

3,080

723

2,357

251

241

10

Retail trade

8,996

3,402

5,594

7,559

2,109

5,450

1,437

1,293

144

Finance, insurance and real estate

9,106

3,962

5,144

9,069

3,935

5,134

36

27

9

Services

17,141

5,640

11,502

15,355

4,244

11,112

1,786

1,396

390

Tax-exempt organizations

2,151

1,022

1,129

2,140

1,018

1,122

11

4

7

Industry not reported

328

68

260

324

67

257

4

1

2

Footnotes
  1. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  2. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1996.


Table B7: Distribution of Active Participants by type of plan, 1996(1) (numbers in thousands)

Type of Plan

Total Plans

Single Employer Plans(2)

Multiemployer Plans(3)

Total

67,888

61,417

6,470

Defined benefit

23,262

18,681

4,581

Defined contribution

44,625

42,736

1,889

Profit sharing and thrift-savings

35,256

34,961

295

Stock bonus

3,041

3,041

-

Target benefit

132

128

3

Money purchase

4,131

2,706

1,425

Annuity-403(b)(1)

108

95

13

Custodial account-403(b)7

12

12

-

IRAs or annuities (Code 408)

25

21

3

Other defined contribution

1,919

1,771

148

Footnotes
  1. Active participants include any workers currently in employment covered by a plan and who are earning or retaining credited service under a plan. Active participants also include any nonvested former employees who have not yet incurred a break in service.
  2. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  3. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1996.


Table B8: Number of Plans by type of plan and method of funding, 1996

Method of Funding

Total Plans
Total

Total Plans
Defined Benefit

Total Plans
Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans(1)
Total

Single Employer Plans(1)
Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans(1)
Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Total

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Defined Contribution

Funding arrangement for investment of Assets

Total

696,224

63,657

632,566

692,957

61,790

631,167

3,267

1,867

1,399

Trust

470,870

36,148

434,722

468,578

34,836

433,741

2,292

1,312

980

Insurance

14,655

2,955

11,700

14,636

2,945

11,691

19

10

9

Trust and insurance

167,302

16,620

150,681

166,384

16,076

150,308

918

544

373

Other

43,397

7,934

35,463

43,359

7,933

35,426

38

1

37

Funding arrangement for payment of benefits

Total

696,224

63,657

632,566

692,957

61,790

631,167

3,267

1,867

1,399

Trust

462,390

35,869

426,521

461,098

35,137

425,961

1,292

732

559

Insurance

48,644

7,850

40,794

48,499

7,781

40,717

145

69

76

Trust and insurance

126,178

11,772

114,406

124,419

10,734

113,686

1,759

1,038

721

Other

59,011

8,165

50,846

58,941

8,138

50,803

70

28

43

Footnotes
  1. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  2. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1996.


Table B9: Number of Participants by type of plan and method of funding, 1996 (numbers in thousands)

Method of Funding

Total Plans
Total

Total Plans
Defined Benefit

Total Plans
Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans(1)
Total

Single Employer Plans(1)
Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans(1)
Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Total

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Defined Contribution

Funding arrangement for investment of Assets

Total

91,716

41,111

50,605

80,841

32,467

48,374

10,876

8,644

2,231

Trust

57,564

26,273

31,292

50,975

21,296

29,679

6,589

4,977

1,613

Insurance

678

283

396

670

280

390

9

3

5

Trust and insurance

32,586

14,270

18,316

28,308

10,606

17,702

4,278

3,664

613

Other

888

285

602

888

285

602

0

0

0

Funding arrangement for payment of benefits

Total

91,716

41,111

50,605

80,841

32,467

48,374

10,876

8,644

2,231

Trust

55,227

24,080

31,147

50,733

20,488

30,244

4,494

3,591

903

Insurance

3,472

1,349

2,123

3,372

1,282

2,090

100

66

34

Trust and insurance

31,873

15,363

16,510

25,598

10,378

15,219

6,275

4,985

1,290

Other

1,145

320

825

1,139

318

821

6

2

4

Footnotes
  1. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  2. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1996.


Section C: Financial

Table C1: Distribution of Assets by number of participants, 1996 (amounts in millions)

Number of Participants

Total Plans
Total

Total Plans
Defined Benefit

Total Plans
Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans(1)
Total

Single Employer Plans(1)
Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans(1)
Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Total

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Defined Contribution

Total

$3,136,281

$1,585,397

$1,550,884

$2,837,125

$1,316,599

$1,520,526

$299,156

$268,798

$30,358

None or not reported

3,047

895

2,152

2,981

853

2,127

66

41

25

2-9

119,260

11,122

108,138

118,865

10,730

108,136

395

392

2

10-24

88,727

3,885

84,842

88,727

3,885

84,842

-

-

-

25-49

71,908

4,588

67,320

71,741

4,433

67,308

167

154

12

50-99

77,042

8,087

68,955

76,560

7,969

68,592

482

119

363

100-249

102,897

18,261

84,636

100,805

16,875

83,930

2,092

1,385

706

250-499

99,625

28,300

71,325

93,980

24,136

69,843

5,645

4,164

1,482

500-999

128,569

47,817

80,752

114,962

37,844

77,118

13,607

9,973

3,633

1,000-2,499

238,037

109,407

128,630

206,600

84,620

121,980

31,436

24,787

6,650

2,500-4,999

236,535

117,524

119,011

204,459

91,813

112,646

32,076

25,711

6,366

5,000-9,999

318,264

166,327

151,937

284,050

135,077

148,973

34,213

31,250

2,963

10,000-19,999

345,356

189,295

156,061

306,652

153,946

152,706

38,704

35,349

3,355

20,000-49,999

530,161

271,123

259,039

484,100

229,304

254,796

46,062

41,819

4,243

50,000 or more

776,854

608,768

168,086

682,643

515,113

167,529

94,211

93,654

557

Footnotes
  1. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  2. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1996.


Table C2: Distribution of Assets by asset size, 1996 (amounts in millions)

Amount of Assets

Total Plans
Total

Total Plans
Defined Benefit

Total Plans
Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans(1)
Total

Single Employer Plans(1)
Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans(1)
Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Total

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Defined

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Defined Contribution

Total

$3,136,281

$1,585,397

$1,550,884

$2,837,125

$1,316,599

$1,520,526

$299,156

$268,798

$30,358

1-24K

485

5

480

484

4

480

1

1

(3)

25-49K

1,296

32

1,264

1,296

32

1,264

(3)

(3)

(3)

50-99K

4,282

153

4,129

4,278

152

4,126

4

(3)

4

100-249K

20,574

1,104

19,470

20,569

1,103

19,466

5

1

3

250-499K

40,530

2,678

37,852

40,506

2,674

37,832

24

4

20

500-999K

72,147

6,113

66,034

72,053

6,085

65,968

94

29

66

1-2.4M

130,725

13,951

116,774

130,377

13,843

116,534

348

108

241

2.5-4.9M

105,722

14,538

91,184

104,229

14,029

90,200

1,493

509

984

5-9.9M

101,750

19,993

81,757

98,837

18,400

80,437

2,913

1,594

1,319

10-24.9M

152,578

47,418

105,160

142,388

40,863

101,525

10,190

6,555

3,634

25-49.9M

142,132

57,465

84,667

127,506

47,327

80,179

14,626

10,138

4,488

50-74.9M

93,583

45,874

47,709

81,203

36,161

45,042

12,380

9,713

2,667

75-99.9M

76,300

36,060

40,239

65,432

27,658

37,773

10,868

8,402

2,466

100-149.9M

112,011

51,039

60,971

96,103

38,529

57,574

15,908

12,510

3,398

150-199.9M

91,122

46,819

44,303

76,487

34,837

41,651

14,635

11,983

2,652

200-249.9M

66,958

36,434

30,523

57,678

28,023

29,655

9,280

8,411

869

250-499.9M

257,741

134,427

123,313

220,569

101,289

119,280

37,172

33,138

4,033

500-999.9M

302,103

172,232

129,870

261,430

135,073

126,357

40,673

37,160

3,513

1-2.49B

446,559

247,205

199,354

401,852

202,498

199,354

44,707

44,707

-

2.5B or more

917,685

651,855

265,830

833,849

568,019

265,830

83,836

83,836

-

Footnotes
  1. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporatiions, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  2. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.
  3. Less than $500,000.

Note: Excludes plans covering only one participant. The letters K, M, and B denote thousands, millions, and billions, respectively.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1996.


Table C3: Distribution of Assets by industry, 1996 (amounts in millions)

Industry

Total Plans
Total

Total Plans
Defined Benefit

Total Plans
Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans(1)
Total

Single Employer Plans(1)
Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans(1)
Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Total

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Defined Contribution

Total

$3,136,281

$1,585,397

$1,550,884

$2,837,125

$1,316,599

$1,520,526

$299,156

$268,798

$30,358

Agriculture

9,304

3,075

6,229

9,112

2,888

6,224

192

187

5

Mining

36,603

19,115

17,488

29,712

12,354

17,358

6,891

6,761

130

Construction

182,904

124,116

58,788

39,375

4,438

34,937

143,530

119,678

23,851

Manufacturing

1,363,870

749,006

614,864

1,343,262

729,533

613,728

20,608

19,473

1,135

Transportation

153,649

106,707

46,942

92,257

47,193

45,065

61,391

59,514

1,877

Communications and utilities

311,683

211,417

100,266

309,492

209,296

100,197

2,191

2,121

70

Wholesale trade

88,595

21,956

66,639

84,846

18,300

66,546

3,748

3,655

93

Retail trade

126,121

44,925

81,196

104,099

23,291

80,808

22,021

21,633

388

Finance, insurance and real estate

332,026

140,284

191,742

331,391

139,702

191,689

635

582

53

Services

470,550

130,446

340,104

432,979

95,402

337,577

37,571

35,044

2,527

Tax-exempt organizations

55,894

33,023

22,871

55,601

32,881

22,721

293

142

150

Industry not reported

5,083

1,328

3,755

4,998

1,321

3,677

85

7

78

Footnotes
  1. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  2. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1996.


Table C4: Balance Sheet of Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants by type of plan, 1996 (amounts in millions)

Type of Asset or Liability

Total

Defined Benefit

Defined Contribution

Assets

Receivables

Employer contributions

$23,437

$10,945

$12,491

Participant contributions

1,583

37

1,546

Income receivables

4,757

3,044

1,713

Other receivables

14,421

8,905

5,516

Less allowance for doubtful accounts

162

153

9

Total receivables (net)

44,035

22,778

21,257

General Investments

Interest-bearing cash

55,392

23,872

31,520

Certificates of deposit

4,048

1,355

2,692

U.S. Government securities

141,699

112,113

29,586

Corporate debt instruments: Preferred

33,201

25,368

7,832

Corporate debt instruments: All other

57,011

43,925

13,086

Preferred stock

15,128

2,492

12,636

Common stock

381,555

274,468

107,087

Partnership/joint venture interests

12,000

11,207

792

Income-producing real estate

6,398

5,940

458

Nonincome-producing real estate

545

460

85

Residential loans (other than to participants) secured by mortgages

1,440

944

496

Commercial loans secured by mortgages

3,400

3,093

307

Mortgage loans to participants

1,047

128

919

Other loans to participants

19,354

79

19,274

Other loans

1,477

762

715

Value of interest in common/collective trusts

190,998

100,133

90,865

Value of interest in pooled separate accounts

89,351

49,399

39,952

Value of interest in master trusts

1,034,309

763,777

270,532

Value of interest in 103-12 investment entities

4,104

1,756

2,348

Value of interest in registered investment companies

286,043

46,480

239,563

Value of funds held in insurance company general account

117,398

27,565

89,833

Other or unspecified general investments

75,348

31,701

43,647

Total general investments

2,531,245

1,527,018

1,004,227

Employer securities

193,886

5,381

188,506

Employer real property

860

62

797

Unspecified investments

3,096

32

3,064

Total noninterest-bearing cash

2,894

1,275

1,618

Buildings and other property used in plan operations

282

275

7

Total Assets

2,776,297

1,556,821

1,219,476

Liabilities

Benefit claims payable

5,778

1,136

4,642

Operating payables

9,107

6,440

2,666

Acquisition indebtedness

16,011

936

15,076

Other liabilities

25,886

11,888

13,998

Total Liabilities

56,782

20,400

36,382

Net Assets

2,719,515

1,536,421

1,183,094

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1996.


Table C5: Balance Sheet of Single Employer Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants by type of plan, 1996(1) (amounts in millions)

Type of Asset or Liability

Total

Defined Benefit

Defined Contribution

Assets

Receivables

Employer contributions

$22,034

$9,783

$12,252

Participant contributions

1,569

33

1,536

Income receivables

3,424

1,868

1,556

Other receivables

12,872

7,500

5,372

Less allowance for doubtful accounts

12

6

5

Total receivables (net)

39,887

19,177

20,709

General Investments

Interest-bearing cash

44,979

14,824

30,155

Certificates of deposit

2,844

781

2,063

U.S. Government securities

79,240

57,737

21,504

Corporate debt instruments: Preferred

17,503

10,627

6,876

Corporate debt instruments: All other

36,916

26,389

10,527

Preferred stock

14,256

1,660

12,596

Common stock

278,612

175,737

102,874

Partnership/joint venture interests

11,085

10,305

780

Income-producing real estate

2,844

2,441

403

Nonincome-producing real estate

290

215

74

Residential loans (other than to participants) secured by mortgages

865

457

408

Commercial loans secured by mortgages

1,090

848

241

Mortgage loans to participants

906

4

902

Other loans to participants

19,052

53

18,999

Other loans

712

10

702

Value of interest in common/collective trusts

157,678

69,327

88,351

Value of interest in pooled separate accounts

84,205

44,880

39,325

Value of interest in master trusts

1,033,638

763,336

270,302

Value of interest in 103-12 investment entities

2,574

806

1,769

Value of interest in registered investment companies

276,974

39,273

237,702

Value of funds held in insurance company general account

107,928

21,166

86,761

Other or unspecified general investments

64,511

22,936

41,575

Total general investments

2,238,701

1,263,813

974,888

Employer securities

193,250

4,747

188,503

Employer real property

856

58

797

Unspecified investments

3,087

32

3,055

Total noninterest-bearing cash

2,461

895

1,566

Buildings and other property used in plan operations

9

7

2

Total Assets

2,478,251

1,288,729

1,189,521

Liabilities

Benefit claims payable

5,573

1,048

4,525

Operating payables

8,260

5,648

2,612

Acquisition indebtedness

15,819

749

15,069

Other liabilities

23,679

9,825

13,854

Total Liabilities

53,331

17,271

36,060

Net Assets

2,424,919

1,271,458

1,153,461

Footnotes
  1. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1996.


Table C6: Balance Sheet of Multiemployer Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants by type of plan, 1996(1) (amounts in millions)

Type of Asset or Liability

Total

Defined Benefit

Defined Contribution

Assets

Receivables

Employer contributions

$1,403

$1,163

$240

Participant contributions

15

5

10

Income receivables

1,333

1,175

158

Other receivables

1,549

1,404

144

Less allowance for doubtful accounts

(150)

(147)

(4)

Total receivables (net)

4,148

3,600

548

General Investments

Interest-bearing cash

10,413

9,047

1,366

Certificates of deposit

1,204

574

630

U.S. Government securities

62,458

54,376

8,082

Corporate debt instruments: Preferred

15,698

14,741

956

Corporate debt instruments: All other

20,095

17,536

2,559

Preferred stock

872

832

40

Common stock

102,944

98,731

4,213

Partnership/joint venture interests

915

902

12

Income-producing real estate

3,553

3,499

55

Nonincome-producing real estate

256

245

11

Residential loans (other than to participants) secured by mortgages

575

487

88

Commercial loans secured by mortgages

2,310

2,244

66

Mortgage loans to participants

141

124

17

Other loans to participants

302

26

276

Other loans

766

752

13

Value of interest in common/collective trusts

33,320

30,805

2,514

Value of interest in pooled separate accounts

5,146

4,519

627

Value of interest in master trusts

672

441

230

Value of interest in 103-12 investment entities

1,530

950

579

Value of interest in registered investment companies

9,068

7,208

1,861

Value of funds held in insurance company general account

9,470

6,399

3,071

Other or unspecified general investments

10,837

8,765

2,072

Total general investments

292,544

263,205

29,339

Employer securities

636

634

2

Employer real property

4

4

(2)

Unspecified investments

9

(2)

9

Total noninterest-bearing cash

433

380

52

Buildings and other property used in plan operations

273

268

4

Total Assets

298,047

268,092

29,955

Liabilities

Benefit claims payable

205

87

117

Operating payables

846

792

54

Acquisition indebtedness

193

186

7

Other liabilities

2,207

2,063

144

Total Liabilities

3,451

3,128

322

Net Assets

294,596

264,963

29,633

Footnotes
  1. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.
  2. Less than $500,000.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1996.


Table C7: Percentage Distribution of Assets in Defined Benefit Plans with 100 or More Participants by type of asset and size of plan, 1996

Type of Asset

Total

$1-.9M

$1.0M-9.9M

$10.0M-249.9M

$250.0M-999.9M

$1.0B or more

Total Assets

100

100

100

100

100

100

Cash

2

8

5

3

2

1

Receivables

1

8

3

2

1

1

U.S. Government securities

7

4

8

10

9

5

Corporate debt instruments: Preferred

2

(1)

1

2

2

2

Corporate debt instruments: All other

3

2

3

4

3

2

Corporate stocks

18

6

14

22

20

16

Real estate and mortgages (other than to participants)

1

(1)

(1)

(1)

1

1

Other loans to participants

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

0

Value of interest in common/collective trusts

6

10

11

8

5

6

Value of interest in pooled separate accounts

3

6

8

4

2

3

Value of interest in master trusts

49

20

20

33

46

57

Value of interest in registered investment companies

3

11

12

7

4

1

Value of funds held in insurance company general account

2

15

11

3

2

1

Employer securities

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

Other investments

3

9

4

3

3

3

Footnotes
  1. Less than one percent.

Note: The letters M and B in the column headings denote millions and billions, respectively. Percentage distribution may not add up to 100 because of rounding.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1996.


Table C8: Percentage Distribution of Assets in Defined Contribution Plans with 100 or More Participants by type of asset and size of plan, 1996

Type of Asset

Total

$1-.9M

$1.0M-9.9M

$10.0M-249.9M

$250.0M-999.9M

$1.0B or More

Total Assets

100

100

100

100

100

100

Cash

3

6

5

4

3

2

Receivables

2

5

3

2

2

1

U.S. Government securities

2

2

3

4

2

2

Corporate debt instruments: Preferred

1

4

1

1

(1)

1

Corporate debt instruments: All other

1

1

1

1

1

1

Corporate stocks

10

3

7

9

9

12

Real estate and mortgages (other than to participants)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

Other loans to participants

2

1

2

2

2

1

Value of interest in common/collective trusts

7

6

9

10

6

6

Value of interest in pooled separate accounts

3

21

14

4

1

1

Value of interest in master trusts

22

1

2

11

24

35

Value of interest in registered investment companies

20

25

30

30

20

8

Value of funds held in insurance company general account

7

10

10

7

7

7

Employer securities

15

3

5

11

20

20

Other investments

4

11

7

4

4

4

Footnotes
  1. Less than one percent.

Note: The letters M and B in the column headings denote millions and billions, respectively. Percentage distribution may not add up to 100 because of rounding.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1996.


Table C9: Income Statement of Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants by type of plan, 1996 (amounts in millions)

Income and Expenses

Total

Defined Benefit

Defined Contribution

Income

Contributions received or receivable from:

Employers

$72,687

$32,624

$40,063

Participants

60,090

777

59,313

Other administrative expenses

5,400

379

5,021

Noncash contributions

561

80

481

Total contributions

138,738

33,860

104,877

Interest earnings:

Interest-bearing cash

6,204

2,301

3,903

Certificates of deposit

315

138

177

Other administrative expenses

7,864

6,353

1,512

Corporate debt instruments

5,134

4,027

1,107

Mortgage loans

304

238

66

Other loans

1,115

93

1,023

Other or unspecified interest

12,860

4,547

8,313

Total interest earnings

33,796

17,695

16,101

Dividends:

Preferred stock

1,771

273

1,499

Common stock

14,853

5,673

9,181

Total dividend income

16,626

5,945

10,681

Rents

422

345

77

Net gain (loss) on sale of assets

27,349

17,725

9,624

Unrealized appreciation (depreciation) of assets

87,761

35,616

52,145

Net investment gain (loss) from common/collective trusts

18,923

10,645

8,278

Net investment gain (loss) from pooled separate accounts

9,449

4,733

4,716

Net investment gain (loss) from master trusts

134,240

103,934

30,306

Net investment gain (loss) from 103-12 investment entities

$425

$190

$234

Net investment gain (loss) from registered investment companies

26,402

3,589

22,813

Other or unspecified income

6,235

2,465

3,771

Total Income

500,366

236,744

263,622

Expenses

Benefit payments and payments to provide benefits:

Direct benefits

171,845

86,264

85,581

Payments to insurance carriers

3,326

2,926

399

Other benefits

1,853

667

1,185

Total payments

177,023

89,858

87,166

Interest expense

2,201

14

2,187

Administrative expenses:

Salaries and allowances

268

224

43

Accounting fees

130

83

46

Actuarial fees

409

390

19

Contract administrator fees

484

320

164

Investment advisory and management fees

3,173

2,646

527

Legal fees

141

110

31

Valuation/appraisal fees

37

31

6

Trustee fees/expenses

621

396

226

Other administrative expenses

2,140

1,666

474

Total administrative expenses

7,402

5,866

1,535

Other or unspecified expenses

59

-5

64

Total Expenses

186,685

95,733

90,952

Net Income

313,681

141,011

172,670

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1996.


Table C10: Income Statement of Single Employer Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants by type of plan, 1996 (amounts in millions)

Income and Expenses

Total

Defined Benefit

Defined Contribution

Income

Contributions received or receivable from:

Employers

$60,690

$23,113

$37,578

Participants

59,840

711

59,129

Others

5,372

359

5,013

Noncash contributions

561

80

481

Total contributions

126,463

24,263

102,200

Interest earnings:

Interest-bearing cash

5,455

1,648

3,807

Certificates of deposit

237

109

128

U.S. Government securities

4,069

3,033

1,036

Corporate debt instruments

2,811

1,925

887

Mortgage loans

97

44

53

Other loans

1,074

71

1,002

Other or unspecified interest

11,194

3,191

8,003

Total interest earnings

24,938

10,021

14,917

Dividends:

Preferred stock

1,711

217

1,494

Common stock

12,898

3,824

9,074

Total dividend income

14,610

4,041

10,569

Rents

247

173

74

Net gain (loss) on sale of assets

21,368

11,983

9,385

Unrealized appreciation (depreciation) of assets

73,960

22,348

51,612

Net investment gain (loss) from common/collective trusts

14,791

6,682

8,109

Net investment gain (loss) from pooled separate accounts

8,945

4,285

4,661

Net investment gain (loss) from master trusts

134,182

103,889

30,293

Net investment gain (loss) from 103-12 investment entities

225

80

144

Net investment gain (loss) from registered investment companies

26,022

3,363

22,659

Other or unspecified income

5,914

2,183

3,731

Total Income

451,665

193,312

258,354

Expenses

Benefit payments and payments to provide benefits:

Direct benefits

156,007

72,057

83,950

Payments to insurance carriers

2,172

1,777

395

Other benefits

1,798

638

1,161

Total payments

159,976

74,471

85,505

Interest expense

2,198

11

2,187

Administrative expenses:

Salaries and allowances

94

63

31

Accounting fees

82

45

37

Actuarial fees

344

328

16

Contract administrator fees

318

177

141

Investment advisory and management fees

2,301

1,846

455

Legal fees

46

27

18

Valuation/appraisal fees

35

29

6

Trustee fees/expenses

598

375

222

Other administrative expenses

1,759

1,329

430

Total administrative expenses

5,576

4,220

1,356

Other or unspecified expenses

59

-5

64

Total Expenses

167,810

78,697

89,112

Net Income

283,856

114,614

169,241

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1996.


Table C11: Income Statement of Multiemployer Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants by type of plan, 1996 (amounts in millions)

Income and Expenses

Total

Defined Benefit

Defined Contribution

Income

Contributions received or receivable from:

Employers

$11,997

$9,512

$2,485

Participants

250

66

185

Others

28

20

8

Noncash contributions

(1)

0

(1)

Total contributions

12,275

9,598

2,677

Interest earnings:

Interest-bearing cash

749

652

96

Certificates of deposit

78

29

49

U.S. Government securities

3,795

3,320

475

Corporate debt instruments

2,322

2,102

220

Mortgage loans

207

193

13

Other loans

42

22

20

Other or unspecified interest

1,666

1,357

309

Total interest earnings

8,859

7,675

1,184

Dividends:

Preferred stock

60

56

5

Common stock

1,956

1,848

107

Total dividend income

2,016

1,904

112

Rents

175

172

3

Net gain (loss) on sale of assets

5,981

5,742

239

Unrealized appreciation (depreciation) of assets

13,800

13,268

533

Net investment gain (loss) from common/collective trusts

4,132

3,963

169

Net investment gain (loss) from pooled separate accounts

503

448

55

Net investment gain (loss) from master trusts

58

45

13

Net investment gain (loss) from 103-12 investments entities

200

110

90

Net investment gain (loss) from registered investment companies

379

226

154

Other or unspecified income

321

282

40

Total Income

48,700

43,432

5,268

Expenses

Benefit payments and payments to provide benefits:

Direct benefits

15,838

14,207

1,632

Payments to insurance carriers

1,154

1,150

4

Other benefits

55

30

25

Total payments

17,047

15,386

1,660

Interest expense

3

3

(1)

Administrative expenses:

Salaries and allowances

174

161

12

Accounting fees

48

39

9

Actuarial fees

65

62

3

Contract administrator fees

166

143

23

Investment advisory and management fees

872

800

72

Legal fees

95

83

12

Valuation/appraisal fees

2

2

(1)

Trustee fees/expenses

24

20

3

Other administrative expenses

381

337

44

Total administrative expenses

1,825

1,646

179

Total Expenses

18,876

17,036

1,840

Net Income

29,825

26,397

3,428

Footnotes
  1. Less than $500,000.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1996.


Table C12: Percentage Distribution of Income of Defined Benefit Plans with 100 or More Participants by source of income and size of plan, 1996

Income and Expenses

Total

$1-.9M

$1.0M- 9.9M

$10.0M- 249.9M

$250.0M- 999.9M

$1.0B or More

Total Income

100

100

100

100

100

100

Contributions received or receivable from:

Employers

14

58

34

20

14

10

Participants

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

Others

(1)

1

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

Total contributions

14

59

34

21

15

11

Interest earnings:

Interest-bearing cash

1

3

2

2

1

1

Certificates of deposit

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

U.S. Government securities

3

1

3

4

3

2

Corporate debt instruments

2

1

1

2

2

2

Mortgage loans

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

Other loans

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

Other or unspecified interest

2

7

5

2

2

2

Total interest earnings

7

12

11

10

9

6

Total dividend income

3

2

3

3

3

2

Net gain (loss) on sale of assets

7

5

6

10

8

7

Unrealized appreciation (depreciation) of assets

15

3

13

19

19

12

Net investment gain (loss) from common/collective trusts

4

3

6

5

3

5

Net investment gain (loss) from pooled separate accounts

2

2

5

3

1

2

Net investment gain (loss) from master trusts

44

8

14

25

41

54

Net investment gain (loss) from registered investment companies

2

3

6

4

2

(1)

Other or unspecified income

1

3

3

2

1

1

Footnotes
  1. Less than one percent.

Note: Percentage distributions may not add to 100 because of rounding.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1996.


Table C13: Percentage Distribution of Income of Defined Contribution Plans with 100 or More Participants by source of income and size of plan, 1996

Income and Expenses

Total

$1-.9M

$1.0M- 9.9M

$10.0M- 249.9M

$250.0M- 999.9M

$1.0B or More

Total Income

100

100

100

100

100

100

Contributions received or receivable from:

Employers

15

26

22

19

15

10

Participants

22

49

33

25

21

18

Others

2

5

4

2

2

1

Total contributions

40

80

59

46

38

29

Interest earnings:

Interest-bearing cash

1

1

2

2

1

1

Certificates of deposit

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

U.S. Government securities

1

(1)

1

1

1

(1)

Corporate debt instruments

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

Mortgage loans

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

Other loans

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

Other or unspecified interest

3

1

2

3

3

3

Total interest earnings

6

3

5

6

6

6

Total dividend income

4

1

2

3

5

5

Net gain (loss) on sale of assets

4

1

2

4

4

4

Unrealized appreciation (depreciation) of assets

20

(1)

7

14

19

30

Net investment gain (loss) from common/collective trusts

3

1

3

4

3

3

Net investment gain (loss) from pooled separate accounts

2

5

6

2

(1)

1

Net investment gain (loss) from master trusts

12

(1)

1

6

14

19

Net investment gain (loss) from registered investment companies

9

5

11

13

9

3

Other or unspecified income

2

3

4

2

2

(1)

Footnotes
  1. Less than one percent.

Note: Percentage distributions may not add to 100 because of rounding.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1996.


Figure C - Average Assets per Participant by plan size, 1996


Section D: Defined Contribution Plans

Table D1: Balance Sheet of Defined Contribution Plans with 100 or More Participants by type of plan, 1996 (amounts in millions)

Type of Asset or Liability

Total Defined Contribution Plans

Profit Sharing and Thrift- Savings Plans

Stock Bonus Plans

Target Benefit Plans

Money Purchase Plans

Other Defined Contribution Plans

Assets

Receivables

Employer contributions

$12,491

$10,064

$1,070

$31

$1,098

$228

Participant contributions

1,546

1,388

37

5

33

83

Income receivables

1,713

1,280

97

5

222

109

Other receivables

5,516

3,886

466

32

195

937

Less allowance for doubtful accounts

9

2

(1)

0

6

1

Total receivables (net)

21,257

16,616

1,671

72

1,543

1,356

General Investments

Interest-bearing cash

31,520

24,593

2,325

50

2,602

1,950

Certificates of deposit

2,692

1,772

25

1

753

141

U.S. Government securities

29,586

18,693

467

82

8,668

1,677

Corporate debt instruments: Preferred

7,832

6,375

33

15

1,137

272

Corporate debt instruments: All other

13,086

9,081

343

29

3,125

508

Preferred stock

12,636

11,677

643

1

105

210

Common stock

107,087

78,790

12,437

174

10,963

4,724

Partnership/joint venture interests

792

608

3

2

152

28

Income-producing real estate

458

243

2

(1)

177

35

Nonincome-producing real estate

85

68

(1)

(1)

9

8

Residential loans (other than to participants) secured by mortgages

496

367

2

1

123

3

Commercial loans secured by mortgages

307

232

2

(1)

70

4

Mortgage loans to participants

919

796

1

(1)

15

106

Other loans to participants

19,274

16,818

1,165

4

429

858

Other loans

715

684

3

(1)

21

8

Value of interest in common/collective trusts

90,865

79,476

1,976

111

4,249

5,053

Value of interest in pooled separate accounts

39,952

36,036

203

23

2,453

1,236

Value of interest in master trusts

270,532

232,688

17,629

874

8,916

10,425

Value of interest in 103-12 investment entities

2,348

1,913

73

0

235

127

Value of interest in registered investment companies

239,563

211,173

5,013

323

11,724

11,329

Value of funds held in insurance company general account

89,833

77,935

1,246

64

6,819

3,769

Other or unspecified general investments

43,647

35,884

2,494

16

3,416

1,836

Total general investments

1,004,227

845,903

46,086

1,770

66,160

44,308

Employer securities

188,506

127,176

45,758

8

1,206

14,358

Employer real property

797

795

3

0

(1)

0

Unspecified investments

3,064

3,055

(1)

(1)

9

(1)

Total noninterest-bearing cash

1,618

1,126

34

1

129

328

Buildings and other property used in plan operations

7

1

0

(1)

4

2

Total Assets

1,219,476

994,672

93,551

1,850

69,051

60,353

Liabilities

Benefit claims payable

4,642

3,195

802

7

311

327

Operating payables

2,666

1,848

658

1

60

100

Acquisition indebtedness

15,076

8,112

5,460

0

57

1,447

Other liabilities

13,998

9,019

3,848

26

193

912

Total Liabilities

36,382

22,173

10,768

33

620

2,787

Net Assets

1,183,094

972,498

82,783

1,816

68,430

57,566

Footnotes
  1. Less than $500,000.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1996.


Table D2: Income Statement of Defined Contribution Plans with 100 or More Participants by type of plan, 1996 (amounts in millions)

Income and Expenses

Total Defined Contribution Plans

Profit Sharing and Thrift- Savings Plans

Stock Bonus Plans

Target Benefit Plans

Money Purchase Plans

Other

Income

Contributions received or receivable from:

Employers

$40,063

$29,626

$3,435

$99

$5,123

$1,780

Participants

59,313

53,308

2,593

3

625

2,784

Others

5,021

4,762

69

2

70

118

Noncash contributions

481

313

150

0

2

16

Total contributions

104,877

88,008

6,246

104

5,820

4,699

Interest earnings:

Interest-bearing cash

3,903

3,192

178

4

345

184

Certificates of deposit

177

129

1

(1)

38

8

U.S. Government securities

1,512

956

8

4

449

94

Corporate debt instruments

1,107

829

3

2

233

40

Mortgage loans

66

48

(1)

(1)

17

1

Other loans

1,023

907

48

(1)

29

38

Other or unspecified interest

8,313

7,218

206

8

522

359

Total interest earnings

16,101

13,279

444

19

1,634

724

Dividends:

Preferred stock

1,499

1,012

368

1

25

94

Common stock

9,181

7,101

1,159

5

346

569

Total dividend income

10,681

8,113

1,528

6

371

663

Rents

77

62

(1)

0

12

3

Net gain (loss) on sale of assets

9,624

7,451

921

12

677

563

Unrealized appreciation (depreciation) of assets

52,145

40,466

6,638

38

1,692

3,311

Net investment gain (loss) from common/collective trusts

8,278

7,221

217

6

353

481

Net investment gain (loss) from pooled separate accounts

4,716

4,302

8

3

293

110

Net investment gain (loss) from master trusts

30,306

25,726

2,230

76

1,007

1,269

Net investment gain (loss) from 103-12 investment entities

234

203

(1)

0

20

11

Net investment gain (loss) from registered investment companies

22,813

20,048

510

34

1,287

934

Other or unspecified income

3,771

2,746

729

3

238

56

Total Income

263,622

217,624

19,471

300

13,404

12,824

Expenses

Benefit payments and payments to provide benefits

Direct benefits

85,581

70,863

6,554

94

4,128

3,943

Payments to insurance carriers

399

139

49

3

175

33

Other benefits

1,185

789

298

(1)

44

54

Total payments

87,166

71,791

6,901

97

4,347

4,030

Interest expense

2,187

1,289

708

(1)

4

186

Administrative expenses:

Salaries and allowances

43

22

(1)

(1)

17

3

Accounting fees

46

31

2

(1)

9

3

Actuarial fees

19

13

1

(1)

3

2

Contract administrator fees

164

117

4

(1)

33

9

Investment advisory and management fees

527

386

12

2

101

25

Legal fees

31

16

1

(1)

11

3

Valuation/appraisal fees

6

5

1

0

(1)

(1)

Trustee fees/expenses

226

189

13

1

13

10

Other administrative expenses

474

372

18

(1)

54

30

Total administrative expenses

1,535

1,153

52

3

242

86

Other or unspecified expenses

64

64

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

Total Expenses

90,952

74,296

7,661

100

4,593

4,303

Net Income

172,670

143,327

11,810

200

8,811

8,521

Footnotes
  1. Less than $500,000.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1996.


Table D3: Number of 401(k) Type Plans, Participants, Active Participants, Assets, Contributions, and Benefits by type of plan, 1996

Type of Plan

Number of Plans(1)

Total Participants (thousands)(2)

Active Participants (thousands)(3)

Total Assets (millions)

Total Contributions (millions)(4)

Total Benefits (millions)(5)

Total

0,808

34,935

30,843

$1,061,493

$103,973

$78,481

Profit sharing and thrift-savings

225,786

32,307

28,522

960,054

95,792

71,041

Stock bonus

398

1,060

917

52,643

3,641

3,956

Target benefit

55

2

2

37

8

9

Money purchase

1,612

299

277

6,631

799

536

Annuity-403(b)(1)

142

4

3

11

5

1

Custodial account-403(b)(7)

31

2

2

54

8

5

IRAs or annuities (Code 408)

125

6

6

98

17

7

Other defined contribution

2,657

1,254

1,114

41,965

3,702

2,927

Footnotes
  1. Excludes plans covering only one participant.
  2. Includes active, retired, and separated vested participants not yet in pay status. The number of participants also includes double counting of workers in more than one plan.
  3. Active participants include any workers currently in employment covered by a plan and who are earning or retaining credited service under a plan. Active participants also include nonvested former employees who have not yet incurred a break in service.
  4. Includes both employer and employee contributions.
  5. Amounts shown include both benefits paid directly from trust funds and premium payments made by plans to insurance carriers. Amounts exclude benefits made directly by insurance carriers.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1996.


Table D4: Number of 401(k) Type Plans by number of participants and primary or supplemental status, 1996

Number of Participants

Total

401(k) Plan is Only Plan Sponsored by Employer

Employer Sponsoring 401(k) Plan Also Sponsors Another Pension Plan(s)

Total

230,808

202,522

28,286

None or not reported

10,996

8,619

2,377

2-9

42,398

38,635

3,763

10-24

67,138

62,548

4,590

25-49

47,389

43,589

3,800

50-99

28,287

25,384

2,903

100-249

18,826

14,730

4,096

250-499

7,550

5,142

2,408

500-999

3,830

2,161

1,669

1,000-2,499

2,547

1,166

1,381

2,500-4,999

940

340

600

5,000-9,999

485

134

351

10,000-19,999

246

52

194

20,000-49,999

137

18

119

50,000 or more

38

3

35

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1996.


Table D5: Number of Active Participants in 401(k) Type Plans by number of participants and primary or supplemental status, 1996 (numbers in thousands)

Number of Participants

Total

401(k) Plan is Only Plan Sponsored by Employer

Employer Sponsoring 401(k) Plan also Sponsors Another Pension Plan(s)

Total

30,843

14,124

16,719

2-9

246

226

20

10-24

1,045

971

74

25-49

1,592

1,466

126

50-99

1,881

1,683

198

100-249

2,678

2,072

606

250-499

2,335

1,571

764

500-999

2,401

1,328

1,072

1,000-2,499

3,499

1,565

1,934

2,500-4,999

2,859

1,027

1,832

5,000-9,999

2,936

811

2,125

10,000-19,999

2,935

637

2,297

20,000-49,999

3,724

494

3,229

50,000 or more

2,714

273

2,441

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1996.


Table D6: Balance Sheet of 401(k) Type Plans, 1996 (amounts in millions)

Type of Asset or Liability

Total

401(k) Plan is Only Plan Sponsored by Employer

Employer Sponsoring 401(k) Plan Also Sponsors Another Pension Plan(s)

Assets

Cash

$32,243

$13,334

$18,909

Receivables

17,143

7,543

9,600

Corporate debt and equity instruments

245,053

59,419

185,634

U.S. Government securities

16,762

6,757

10,004

Real estate and mortgages (other than to participants)

1,286

867

419

Mortgage loans to participants

935

182

753

Other loans to participants

19,656

5,835

13,822

Other investments and assets

728,412

199,160

529,252

Buildings and other property used in plan operations

3

3

0

Total Assets

1,061,493

293,100

768,393

Liabilities

Payables

5,140

1,156

3,984

Acquisition indebtedness

7,427

434

6,993

Other liabilities

9,459

729

8,730

Total Liabilities

22,026

2,319

19,707

Net Assets

1,039,467

290,781

748,685

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1996.


Table D7: Income Statement of 401(k) Type Plans, 1996 (amounts in millions)

Income and Expenses

Total

401(k) Plan is Only Plan Sponsored by Employer

Employer Sponsoring 401(k) Plan Also Sponsors Another Pension Plan(s)

Income

Contributions received or receivable from:

Employers

$32,878

$14,603

$18,275

Participants

64,501

23,009

41,493

Others

6,288

3,753

2,535

Noncash contributions

307

100

207

Total contributions

103,973

41,463

62,510

Investment earnings(1)

20,702

3,810

16,892

Net gain (loss) on sale of assets

8,621

2,266

6,355

Other or unspecified income(2)

106,677

29,245

77,433

Total Income

239,973

76,783

163,190

Expenses

Benefit payments and payments to provide benefits

Direct benefits

77,086

23,069

54,017

Other benefits

1,395

603

792

Total payments

78,481

23,672

54,810

Total administrative expenses

1,270

601

669

Other or unspecified expenses

1,874

555

1,319

Total Expenses

81,626

24,828

56,798

Net Income

158,347

51,955

106,392

Footnotes
  1. Includes interest earnings, dividends, and rents.
  2. Includes net gain (loss) from pooled funds, unrealized appreciation (depreciation) of assets, and miscellaneous other income items.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1996.


Table D8: Balance Sheet of 401(k) Type plans with 100 or More Participants 1996 (amounts in millions)

Type of Asset or Liability

Total

401(k) Plan is Only Plan Sponsored by Employer

Employer Sponsoring 401(k) Plan Also Sponsors Another Pension Plan(s)

Assets

Receivables

Employer contributions

$6,993

$3,294

$3,699

Participant contributions

1,430

512

918

Income receivables

1,119

242

877

Other receivables

4,830

969

3,860

Less allowance for doubtful accounts

1

(1)

(1)

Total receivables (net)

14,371

5,017

9,354

General Investments

Interest-bearing cash

24,040

7,586

16,454

Certificates of deposit

1,378

416

962

U.S. Government securities

13,343

4,149

9,195

Corporate debt instruments: Preferred

5,412

2,058

3,354

Corporate debt instruments: All other

6,675

2,259

4,416

Preferred stock

3,404

515

2,889

Common stock

57,755

13,973

43,782

Partnership/joint venture interests

303

254

49

Income-producing real estate

150

101

49

Nonincome-producing real estate

37

25

12

Residential loans (other than to participants) secured by mortgages

266

34

232

Commercial loans secured by mortgages

116

85

31

Mortgage loans to participants

861

113

748

Other loans to participants

17,519

3,858

13,662

Other loans

654

140

514

Value of interest in common/collective trusts

$76,699

$17,988

$58,710

Value of interest in pooled separate accounts

35,254

17,296

17,958

Value of interest in master trusts

230,297

14,743

215,553

Value of interest in 103-12 investment entities

1,540

335

1,204

Value of interest in registered investment companies

207,002

70,952

136,050

Value of funds held in insurance company general account

76,033

14,097

61,936

Other or unspecified general investments

35,303

7,914

27,389

Total general investments

794,043

178,892

615,151

Employer securities

139,117

12,740

126,378

Employer real property

688

314

373

Unspecified investments

3,015

197

2,818

Total noninterest-bearing cash

1,276

557

719

Buildings and other property used in plan operations

1

(1)

(1)

Total Assets

952,511

197,716

754,794

Liabilities

Benefit claims payable

3,053

619

2,434

Operating payables

1,917

412

1,505

Acquisition indebtedness

7,417

426

6,991

Other liabilities

9,088

565

8,523

Total Liabilities

21,475

2,021

19,454

Net Assets

931,035

195,695

735,341

Footnotes
  1. Less than $500,000.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1996.


Table D9: Income Statement of 401(k) Type Plans with 100 or More Participants 1996 (amounts in millions)

Income and Expenses

Total

401(k) Plan is Only Plan Sponsored by Employer

Employer Sponsoring 401(k) Plan Also Sponsors Another Pension Plan(s)

Income

Contributions received or receivable from:

Employers

$26,079

$8,552

$17,527

Participants

56,396

15,904

40,492

Others

4,628

2,390

2,239

Noncash contributions

304

98

206

Total contributions

87,406

26,942

60,464

Interest earnings:

Interest-bearing cash

3,101

947

2,154

Certificates of deposit

92

20

72

U.S. Government securities

636

211

425

Corporate debt instruments

640

174

466

Mortgage loans

35

11

24

Other loans

923

198

725

Other or unspecified interest

6,905

1,118

5,787

Total interest earnings

12,332

2,679

9,653

Dividends:

Preferred stock

791

61

730

Common stock

7,304

963

6,341

Total dividend income

8,095

1,024

7,072

Rents

41

38

4

Net gain (loss) on sale of assets

7,174

1,206

5,968

Unrealized appreciation (depreciation) of assets

33,615

5,275

28,340

Net investment gain (loss) from common/collective trusts

7,103

1,630

5,472

Net investment gain (loss) from pooled separate trusts

4,230

2,060

2,169

Net investment gain (loss) from master trusts

25,635

1,618

24,017

Net investment gain (loss) from 103-12 investment entities

124

45

79

Net investment gain (loss) from registered investment companies

19,683

7,051

12,632

Other or unspecified income

2,567

1,104

1,464

Total Income

208,004

50,672

157,332

Expenses

Benefit payments and payments to provide benefits:

Direct benefits

66,883

15,116

51,768

Payments to insurance carriers

138

62

76

Other benefits

834

184

650

Total payments

67,855

15,362

52,493

Interest expense

1,208

65

1,142

Administrative expenses:

Salaries and allowances

18

10

8

Accounting fees

27

12

14

Actuarial fees

11

3

8

Contract administrator fees

118

48

70

Investment advisory and management fees

311

124

187

Legal fees

12

3

10

Valuation/appraisal fees

4

1

3

Trustee fees/expenses

173

60

113

Other administrative expenses

335

115

220

Total administrative expenses

1,009

377

632

Other or unspecified expenses

64

1

63

Total Expenses

70,136

15,806

54,331

Net Income

137,868

34,866

103,002

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1996.


Table D10: Number of Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOPs), Total Participants, Active Participants, Assets, Contributions, and Benefits by type of plan, 1996

Type of Plan

Number of Plans(1)

Total Participants (thousands)(2)

Active Participants (thousands)(3)

Total Assets (millions)

Total Contributions (millions)(4)

Total Benefits (millions)(5)

Total

8,871

7,517

6,447

$313,963

$17,554

$22,910

Profit sharing and thrift-savings

3,359

3,984

3,425

218,117

11,796

15,487

Stock bonus

4,218

2,938

2,513

76,931

4,836

6,072

Target benefit

2

3

3

53

4

4

Money purchase

244

59

51

2,084

107

155

Annuity-403(b)(1)

1

0

0

0

0

0

403(b)(7)

3

2

2

55

7

5

IRAs or annuities (Code 408)

2

2

2

11

0

1

Other defined contribution

1,042

529

451

16,713

804

1,186

Footnotes
  1. Excludes plans covering only one participant.
  2. Includes active, retired, and separated vested participants not yet in pay status. The number of participants also includes double counting of workers in more than one plan.
  3. Active participants include any workers currently in employment covered by a plan and who are earning or retaining credited service under a plan. Active participants also include nonvested former employees who have not yet incurred a break in service.
  4. Includes both employer and employee contributions.
  5. Amounts shown include both benefits paid directly from trust funds and premium payments made by plans to insurance carriers. Amounts exclude benefits directly by insurance carriers.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1996.


Table D11: Number of Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOPs), Total Participants, Active Participants, Assets, Contributions, and Benefits by type of ESOP, 1996

Type of Plan

Number of Plans(1)

Total Participants (thousands)(2)

Active Participants (thousands)(3)

Total Assets (millions)

Total Contributions (millions)(4)

Total Benefits (millions)(5)

Total ESOPs

8,871

7,517

6,447

$313,963

$17,554

$22,910

Nonleveraged ESOPs

5,455

3,659

3,157

77,317

5,203

6,953

Leveraged ESOPs

3,417

3,858

3,290

236,646

12,351

15,957

Footnotes
  1. Excludes plans covering only one participant.
  2. Includes active, retired, and separated vested participants not yet in pay status. The number of participants also includes double counting of workers in more than one plan.
  3. Active participants include any workers currently in employment covered by a plan and who are earning or retaining credited service under a plan. Active participants also include nonvested former employees who have not yet incurred a break in service.
  4. Includes both employer and employee contributions.
  5. Amounts shown include both benefits paid directly from trust funds and premium payments made by plans to insurance carriers. Amounts exclude benefits made directly by insurance carriers.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1996.


Table D12: Number of Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOPs) by number of participants and primary or supplemental status, 1996

Number of Participants

Total

ESOP Plan is Only Plan Sponsored by Employer

Employer Sponsoring ESOP Plan Also Sponsors Another Pension Plan(s)

Total

8,871

5,243

3,628

None or not reported

796

420

376

2-9

897

683

214

10-24

1,383

1,065

317

25-49

1,461

1,160

301

50-99

1,472

985

487

100-249

1,166

540

626

250-499

591

182

409

500-999

394

91

303

1,000-2,499

306

79

227

2,500-4,999

149

21

128

5,000-9,999

118

10

108

10,000-19,999

61

2

59

20,000-49,999

57

4

53

50,000 or more

20

1

19

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1996.


Table D13: Balance Sheet of Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOPs) with 100 or More Participants by leveraged status, 1996 (amounts in millions)

Type of Asset or Liability

Total ESOPs

Nonleveraged ESOPs

Leveraged ESOPs

Assets

Receivables

Employer contributions

$2,102

$897

$1,205

Participant contributions

203

78

125

Income receivables

459

75

385

Other receivables

923

641

282

Allowance for doubtful accounts

(1)

0

(1)

Total receivables (net)

3,686

1,690

1,996

General Investments

Interest-bearing cash

3,546

1,726

1,820

Certificates of deposit

213

36

178

U.S. Government securities

3,383

454

2,929

Corporate debt instruments: Preferred

2,597

101

2,496

Corporate debt instruments: All other

1,280

352

928

Preferred stock

10,510

1,399

9,111

Common stock

34,789

5,853

28,936

Partnership/joint venture interests

17

15

2

Income-producing real estate

17

13

3

Nonincome-producing real estate

1

1

(1)

Residential loans (other than to participants) secured by mortgages

6

2

4

Commercial loans secured by mortgages

6

5

1

Mortgage loans to participants

61

10

52

Other loans to participants

3,765

914

2,851

Other loans

1

1

1

Value of interest in common/collective trusts

15,244

5,220

10,023

Value of interest in pooled separate accounts

1,807

308

1,499

Value of interest in master trusts

71,982

13,189

58,793

Value of interest in 103-12 investment entities

358

196

162

Value of interest in registered investment companies

18,928

5,123

13,805

Value of funds held in insurance company general account

11,216

2,368

8,848

Other or unspecified general investments

6,883

2,346

4,537

Total general investments

186,611

39,630

146,981

Employer securities

112,734

32,155

80,580

Employer real property

375

3

371

Unspecified investments

2,656

(1)

2,656

Total noninterest-bearing cash

118

42

76

Buildings and other property used in plan operations

0

0

0

Total Assets

306,180

73,520

232,659

Liabilities

Benefit claims payable

1,385

786

599

Operating payables

1,501

106

1,395

Acquisition indebtedness

14,761

978

13,783

Other liabilities

11,727

507

11,219

Total Liabilities

29,373

2,377

26,996

Net Assets

276,807

71,144

205,663

Footnotes
  1. Less than $500,000.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1996.


Table D14: Income Statement of Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOPs) with 100 or More Participants by leveraged status, 1996 (amounts in millions)

Income and Expenses

Total ESOPs

Nonleveraged ESOPs

Leveraged ESOPs

Income

Contributions received or receivable from:

Employers

$7,683

$2,391

$5,292

Participants

8,844

2,256

6,588

Others

262

160

102

Noncash contributions

225

150

76

Total contributions

17,015

4,957

12,058

Interest earnings:

Interest-bearing cash

570

316

254

Certificates of deposit

17

6

11

U.S. Government securities

133

13

120

Corporate debt instruments

216

9

207

Mortgage loans

2

1

1

Other loans

177

44

132

Other or unspecified interest

936

164

772

Total interest earnings

2,051

554

1,497

Dividends:

Preferred stock

1,205

127

1,078

Common stock

3,256

840

2,415

Total dividend income

4,461

968

3,493

Rents

4

4

(1)

Net gain (loss) on sale of assets

2,540

722

1,818

Unrealized appreciation (depreciation) of assets

25,652

5,911

19,742

Net investment gain (loss) from common/collective trusts

1,842

632

1,210

Net investment gain (loss) from pooled separate accounts

304

20

284

Net investment gain (loss) from master trusts

8,539

1,522

7,017

Net investment gain (loss) from 103-12 investment emtities

$27

$17

$10

Net investment gain (loss) from registered investment companies

1,550

506

1,044

Other or unspecified income

934

149

785

Total Income

64,920

15,961

48,958

Expenses

Benefit payments and payments to provide benefits:

Direct benefits

21,138

6,231

14,907

Payments to insurance carriers

51

2

49

Other benefits

503

125

378

Total payments

21,692

6,358

15,334

Interest expense

2,118

119

1,999

Administrative expenses:

Salaries and allowances

4

1

3

Accounting fees

5

2

3

Actuarial fees

2

1

1

Contract administrator fees

22

6

15

Investment advisory and management fees

45

19

26

Legal fees

1

(1)

1

Valuation/appraisal fees

2

1

1

Trustee fees/expenses

34

11

23

Other administrative expenses

132

22

110

Total administrative expenses

246

62

183

Other or unspecified expenses

62

(1)

62

Total Expenses

24,119

6,540

17,579

Net Income

40,801

9,421

31,380

Footnotes
  1. Less than $500,000.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for plan years beginning in 1996.


Figure D - Number of 401(k) Plans 1984-1996


Section E: Historical Tables

 

Table E1: Number of Pension Plans by type of plan, 1977-1996

Year

Total Plans
Total

Total Plans
Defined Benefit

Total Plans
Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans(1)
Total

Single Employer Plans(1)
Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans(1)
Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Total

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Defined Contribution

1977

402,627

121,655

280,972

400,134

119,525

280,609

2,493

2,130

363

1978

442,998

128,407

314,591

440,443

126,238

314,205

2,555

2,169

386

1979

470,921

139,489

331,432

468,265

137,243

331,022

2,656

2,246

410

1980

488,901

148,096

340,805

486,142

145,764

340,378

2,759

2,332

427

1981

545,611

167,293

378,318

542,789

165,042

377,747

2,822

2,252

570

1982

594,456

174,998

419,458

591,417

172,662

418,755

3,039

2,336

703

1983

602,848

175,143

427,705

599,822

172,843

426,979

3,026

2,300

726

1984

604,434

168,015

436,419

601,413

165,732

435,681

3,021

2,283

738

1985

632,135

170,172

461,963

629,069

167,911

461,158

3,066

2,261

805

1986

717,627

172,642

544,985

714,563

170,431

544,132

3,063

2,210

853

1987

733,029

163,065

569,964

729,909

160,904

569,005

3,112

2,157

955

1988

729,922

145,952

583,971

726,648

143,833

582,815

3,275

2,119

1,156

1989

731,356

132,467

598,889

728,276

130,472

597,804

3,080

1,995

1,085

1990

712,308

113,062

599,245

709,404

111,251

598,153

2,904

1,812

1,092

1991

699,294

101,752

597,542

696,300

99,931

596,369

2,994

1,821

1,173

1992

708,335

88,621

619,714

705,226

86,797

618,429

3,109

1,824

1,285

1993

702,097

83,596

618,501

698,918

81,737

617,180

3,179

1,859

1,320

1994

690,344

74,422

615,922

687,158

72,555

614,603

3,186

1,867

1,319

1995

693,404

69,492

623,912

690,265

67,682

622,584

3,139

1,810

1,328

1996

696,224

63,657

632,566

692,957

61,790

631,167

3,267

1,867

1,399

Footnotes
  1. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  2. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for 1977-96 plan years.


Table E2: Number of Pension Plans with Fewer Than 100 Participants by type of plan, 1977-1996

Year

Total Plans
Total

Total Plans
Defined Benefit

Total Plans
Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans(1)
Total

Single Employer Plans(1)
Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans(1)
Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Total

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Defined Contribution

1977

372,010

101,258

270,752

371,719

101,038

270,681

291

220

71

1978

408,665

105,474

303,191

408,401

105,323

303,078

265

151

113

1979

435,334

116,143

319,191

435,053

115,954

319,099

281

189

92

1980

451,046

123,591

327,455

450,740

123,340

327,400

306

251

55

1981

505,368

142,304

363,064

505,109

142,165

362,944

259

139

120

1982

552,258

149,600

402,658

551,899

149,391

402,508

359

309

150

1983

558,146

149,164

408,982

557,847

148,955

408,892

299

209

90

1984

558,943

142,912

416,031

558,649

142,699

415,950

293

213

81

1985

583,476

145,430

438,046

583,171

145,292

437,879

305

138

167

1986

666,669

148,168

518,501

666,424

148,005

518,419

245

163

82

1987

681,238

139,644

541,594

680,921

139,472

541,449

310

169

141

1988

675,525

123,146

552,378

675,117

122,962

552,154

408

184

224

1989

675,706

111,048

564,658

675,470

110,941

564,529

236

107

129

1990

659,144

93,821

565,323

658,848

93,730

565,118

296

91

205

1991

645,517

83,298

562,218

645,182

83,181

562,001

334

117

217

1992

650,282

69,883

580,399

649,924

69,778

580,146

358

104

253

1993

642,615

64,937

577,678

642,196

64,799

577,396

419

137

282

1994

628,707

56,322

572,385

628,307

56,134

572,173

399

188

212

1995

631,117

52,405

578,712

630,780

52,311

578,469

337

94

243

1996

632,520

47,104

585,416

632,069

46,941

585,128

451

163

288

Footnotes
  1. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  2. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for 1977-96 plan years.


Table E3: Number of Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants by type of plan, 1977-1996

Year

Total Plans
Total

Total Plans
Defined Benefit

Total Plans
Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans(1)
Total

Single Employer Plans(1)
Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans(1)
Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Total

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Defined Contribution

1977

30,617

20,397

10,220

28,415

18,487

9,928

2,202

1,910

292

1978

34,333

22,933

11,400

32,042

20,915

11,127

2,290

2,018

273

1979

35,587

23,346

12,241

33,212

21,289

11,923

2,375

2,057

318

1980

37,855

24,505

13,350

35,402

22,424

12,978

2,453

2,081

372

1981

40,243

24,989

15,254

37,680

22,877

14,803

2,563

2,113

450

1982

42,198

25,398

16,800

39,518

23,271

16,247

2,680

2,127

553

1983

44,702

25,979

18,723

41,975

23,888

18,087

2,727

2,091

636

1984

45,491

25,103

20,388

42,763

23,033

19,731

2,728

2,070

657

1985

48,658

24,742

23,917

45,897

22,619

23,279

2,761

2,123

638

1986

50,958

24,474

26,484

48,139

22,426

25,713

2,818

2,047

771

1987

51,791

23,421

28,370

48,988

21,432

27,556

2,802

1,988

814

1988

54,397

22,805

31,593

51,530

20,870

30,661

2,867

1,935

932

1989

55,650

21,419

34,231

52,807

19,531

33,275

2,844

1,888

956

1990

53,164

19,242

33,922

50,556

17,521

33,035

2,608

1,721

887

1991

53,777

18,454

35,324

51,118

16,750

34,368

2,660

1,704

956

1992

58,053

18,738

39,315

55,302

17,019

38,283

2,751

1,719

1,032

1993

59,482

18,660

40,822

56,722

16,938

39,784

2,760

1,722

1,038

1994

61,638

18,100

43,538

58,851

16,421

42,430

2,787

1,679

1,108

1995

62,287

17,087

45,200

59,486

15,371

44,115

2,802

1,716

1,086

1996

63,704

16,553

47,150

60,888

14,849

46,039

2,815

1,704

1,111

Footnotes
  1. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  2. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for 1977-96 plan years.


Table E4: Estimated Private Wage and Salary Worker Participation Rates Under Primary and Supplemental Pension Plans 1977-1996(1) (workers in thousands)

Year

Number of Wage and Salary Workers

Workers Covered by a Primary Defined Benefit Plan
Number

Workers Covered by a Primary Defined Benefit Plan
Percent

Workers Covered by a Primary Defined Contribution Plan
Number

Workers Covered by a Primary Defined Contribution Plan
Percent

Workers Covered by a Supplemental Defined Contribution Plan(s)
Number

Workers Covered by a Supplemental Defined Contribution Plan(s)
Percent

1977

73,254

27,655

38

5,141

7

7,623

10

1978

75,939

28,613

38

5,424

7

8,258

11

1979

78,058

29,008

37

5,790

7

9,368

12

1980

78,349

29,736

38

6,203

8

10,134

13

1981

80,282

29,687

37

7,224

9

10,629

13

1982

82,318

29,361

36

8,120

10

12,087

15

1983

84,410

29,576

35

9,395

11

14,191

17

1984

86,732

29,812

34

9,902

11

15,303

18

1985

88,293

28,894

33

11,550

13

16,018

18

1986

90,267

28,536

32

12,672

14

16,188

18

1987

91,559

28,347

31

13,437

15

16,110

18

1988

93,012

27,864

30

14,106

15

15,180

16

1989

94,448

27,240

29

15,485

16

15,242

16

1990

94,772

26,323

28

16,116

17

15,671

17

1991

94,959

25,701

27

17,133

18

15,287

16

1992

96,577

25,318

26

19,474

20

16,300

17

1993

97,749

25,091

26

19,780

20

16,621

17

1994

101,077

24,591

24

20,948

21

16,516

16

1995

102,162

23,531

23

23,038

23

16,482

16

1996

104,313

23,262

22

24,173

23

17,199

16

Footnotes
  1. For workers covered under both a defined benefit and a defined contribution plan, the defined benefit plan is designated as the primary plan unless the plan name indicates it provides supplemental or only past service benefits.

Sources: Number of workers taken from Employment and Earnings, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. These numbers include both employed (full and part-time) and unemployed wage and salary workers. The number of workers in primary and supplemental plans are estimates derived from annual Form 5500 reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for 1977-96 plan years.


Table E5: Number of Participants in Pension Plans by type of plan, 1977-1996 (numbers in thousands)

Year

Total Plans
Total

Total Plans
Defined Benefit

Total Plans
Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans(1)
Total

Single Employer Plans(1)
Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans(1)
Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Total

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Defined Contribution

1977

50,236

34,997

15,239

41,637

26,754

14,884

8,598

8,243

355

1978

52,371

36,103

16,268

43,665

27,762

15,903

8,707

8,341

365

1979

55,097

36,810

18,287

46,085

28,275

17,810

9,013

8,536

477

1980

57,903

37,979

19,924

48,910

29,555

19,354

8,993

8,423

570

1981

60,564

38,903

21,661

51,326

30,331

20,995

9,238

8,572

666

1982

63,243

38,633

24,610

54,105

30,289

23,816

9,138

8,343

794

1983

69,147

40,025

29,122

59,645

31,405

28,240

9,501

8,620

881

1984

73,895

40,980

32,915

64,244

32,329

31,915

9,651

8,651

1,000

1985

74,665

39,692

34,973

65,414

31,436

33,978

9,251

8,256

995

1986

76,672

39,989

36,682

67,069

31,676

35,392

9,603

8,313

1,290

1987

78,223

39,958

38,265

68,550

31,650

36,900

9,673

8,308

1,365

1988

77,685

40,722

36,963

67,734

32,386

35,348

9,951

8,336

1,615

1989

76,405

39,958

36,447

65,964

31,248

34,716

10,441

8,710

1,731

1990

76,924

38,832

38,091

67,003

30,522

36,481

9,921

8,311

1,611

1991

77,662

39,027

38,634

67,583

30,683

36,900

10,079

8,344

1,735

1992

81,914

39,531

42,383

71,783

31,395

40,388

10,131

8,136

1,995

1993

83,870

40,267

43,603

73,770

32,151

41,619

10,100

8,116

1,983

1994

85,117

40,338

44,778

74,940

32,197

42,743

10,177

8,142

2,035

1995

87,452

39,736

47,716

76,969

31,341

45,629

10,483

8,395

2,088

1996

91,716

41,111

50,605

80,841

32,467

48,374

10,876

8,644

2,231

Footnotes
  1. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  2. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for 1977-96 plan years.


Table E6: Number of Participants in Pension Plans with Fewer Than 100 Participants by type of plan, 1977-1996 (numbers in thousands)

Year

Total Plans
Total

Total Plans
Defined Benefit

Total Plans
Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans(1)
Total

Single Employer Plans(1)
Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans(1)
Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Total

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Defined Contribution

1977

5,116

1,993

3,124

5,104

1,985

3,120

12

8

4

1978

5,143

1,828

3,316

5,127

1,820

3,307

16

7

9

1979

5,389

1,802

3,587

5,372

1,792

3,580

17

10

7

1980

5,741

1,995

3,746

5,725

1,980

3,744

17

15

2

1981

6,298

2,154

4,143

6,283

2,148

4,135

15

6

9

1982

6,877

2,155

4,722

6,854

2,144

4,710

23

11

12

1983

6,872

2,154

4,718

6,855

2,144

4,711

17

10

7

1984

6,886

2,013

4,873

6,869

2,013

4,856

17

12

5

1985

7,553

2,059

5,495

7,537

2,052

5,486

16

8

9

1986

7,926

2,033

5,893

7,914

2,025

5,889

12

8

4

1987

8,413

2,008

6,405

8,400

2,000

6,400

13

8

5

1988

8,345

1,720

6,625

8,329

1,713

6,616

16

8

9

1989

8,200

1,396

6,804

8,188

1,392

6,796

12

4

8

1990

8,268

1,279

6,989

8,251

1,275

6,976

17

4

13

1991

8,441

1,226

7,215

8,424

1,218

7,206

17

8

8

1992

9,076

1,129

7,946

9,059

1,125

7,934

17

5

12

1993

9,087

1,030

8,057

9,067

1,024

8,043

20

6

14

1994

9,152

944

8,208

9,132

935

8,197

20

9

11

1995

9,373

893

8,480

9,359

890

8,469

14

3

11

1996

9,571

794

8,777

9,551

789

8,762

21

5

16

Footnotes
  1. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  2. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for 1977-96 plan years.


Table E7: Number of Participants in Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants by type of plan, 1977-1996 (numbers in thousands)

Year

Total Plans
Total

Total Plans
Defined Benefit

Total Plans
Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans(1)
Total

Single Employer Plans(1)
Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans(1)
Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Total

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Defined Contribution

1977

45,120

33,004

12,115

36,533

24,769

11,764

8,586

8,235

351

1978

47,228

34,275

12,953

38,537

25,941

12,596

8,691

8,334

357

1979

49,708

35,008

14,700

40,713

26,483

14,230

8,996

8,526

470

1980

52,162

35,984

16,178

43,185

27,575

15,610

8,977

8,408

568

1981

54,266

36,748

17,518

45,043

28,183

16,861

9,223

8,565

657

1982

56,366

36,446

19,920

47,248

28,112

19,136

9,118

8,332

785

1983

62,275

37,871

24,404

52,790

29,261

23,529

9,485

8,610

875

1984

67,009

38,967

28,042

57,375

30,316

27,059

9,634

8,640

995

1985

67,112

37,633

29,478

57,877

29,384

28,493

9,235

8,248

986

1986

68,746

37,956

30,790

59,155

29,651

29,503

9,591

8,305

1,286

1987

69,810

37,950

31,860

60,150

29,650

30,500

9,660

8,300

1,360

1988

69,340

39,002

30,338

59,404

30,673

28,732

9,935

8,326

1,606

1989

68,205

38,562

29,643

57,776

29,856

27,920

10,429

8,705

1,724

1990

68,655

37,553

31,102

58,752

29,247

29,505

9,904

8,306

1,598

1991

69,221

37,801

31,420

59,157

29,465

29,694

10,063

8,336

1,727

1992

72,838

38,402

34,436

62,724

30,270

32,454

10,114

8,132

1,982

1993

74,783

39,237

35,546

64,703

31,127

33,576

10,080

8,110

1,969

1994

75,964

39,394

36,570

65,807

31,262

34,546

10,157

8,133

2,024

1995

78,079

38,843

39,236

67,610

30,450

37,160

10,469

8,392

2,076

1996

82,145

40,317

41,828

71,290

31,677

39,613

10,855

8,640

2,215

Footnotes
  1. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  2. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for 1977-96 plan years.


Table E8: Number of Active Participants in Pension Plans by type of plan, 1977-1996 (numbers in thousands)

Year

Total Plans
Total

Total Plans
Defined Benefit

Total Plans
Defined Contribution

Single employer Plans(1)
Total

Single employer Plans(1)
Defined Benefit

Single employer Plans(1)
Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Total

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Defined Contribution

1977

42,659

28,058

14,600

35,681

21,414

14,267

6,977

6,644

333

1978

44,664

29,036

15,628

37,717

22,433

15,284

6,947

6,603

344

1979

46,929

29,440

17,489

39,799

22,757

17,041

7,130

6,683

447

1980

49,026

30,133

18,893

42,079

23,705

18,374

6,947

6,428

519

1981

50,826

30,082

20,743

43,821

23,701

20,120

7,005

6,381

623

1982

53,204

29,756

23,448

46,344

23,630

22,714

6,860

6,126

734

1983

57,808

29,964

27,844

50,911

23,877

27,034

6,897

6,087

810

1984

60,775

30,172

30,603

54,044

24,315

29,729

6,732

5,857

875

1985

62,268

29,024

33,244

55,778

23,465

32,313

6,491

5,559

931

1986

63,290

28,670

34,620

56,723

23,270

33,453

6,566

5,400

1,167

1987

63,392

28,432

34,959

56,846

23,170

33,676

6,546

5,262

1,284

1988

62,142

28,081

34,062

55,464

22,867

32,596

6,678

5,213

1,465

1989

61,294

27,304

33,990

54,300

21,892

32,408

6,994

5,412

1,582

1990

61,831

26,344

35,488

55,409

21,386

34,022

6,422

4,957

1,465

1991

61,517

25,747

35,771

55,048

20,833

34,215

6,469

4,914

1,555

1992

64,231

25,362

38,868

57,940

20,771

37,170

6,290

4,592

1,699

1993

64,746

25,127

39,619

58,596

20,670

37,926

6,150

4,458

1,692

1994

64,972

24,615

40,357

58,889

20,215

38,674

6,083

4,400

1,682

1995

66,193

23,531

42,662

59,894

19,005

40,889

6,299

4,525

1,773

1996

67,888

23,262

44,625

61,417

18,681

42,736

6,470

4,581

1,889

Footnotes
  1. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  2. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Note: The number of participants includes double counting of workers in more than one plan.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for 1977-96 plan years.


Table E9: Number of Active Participants in Pension Plans with Fewer than 100 Participants by type of plan, 1977-1996 (numbers in thousands)

Year

Total Plans
Total

Total Plans
Defined Benefit

Total Plans
Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans(1)
Total

Single Employer Plans(1)
Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans(1)
Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Total

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Defined Contribution

1977

4,885

1,835

3,050

4,874

1,828

3,046

11

7

4

1978

4,934

1,675

3,259

4,918

1,668

3,250

16

7

9

1979

5,103

1,641

3,462

5,087

1,632

3,455

16

8

7

1980

5,406

1,828

3,578

5,392

1,816

3,576

14

12

2

1981

5,996

1,957

4,039

5,982

1,952

4,031

14

5

8

1982

6,463

1,974

4,489

6,447

1,966

4,481

16

8

8

1983

6,381

1,861

4,520

6,365

1,852

4,513

15

9

6

1984

6,591

1,841

4,750

6,576

1,831

4,745

16

11

5

1985

7,227

1,880

5,348

7,213

1,874

5,340

14

6

8

1986

7,583

1,849

5,734

7,573

1,843

5,731

10

7

3

1987

7,793

1,672

6,121

7,778

1,666

6,113

15

6

8

1988

7,715

1,525

6,189

7,699

1,519

6,180

16

6

10

1989

8,033

1,301

6,731

8,022

1,297

6,725

11

4

7

1990

7,944

1,162

6,783

7,928

1,158

6,770

16

4

13

1991

8,183

1,114

7,069

8,167

1,107

7,061

16

7

9

1992

7,707

1,022

7,685

8,692

1,019

7,673

15

4

12

1993

8,727

935

7,792

8,709

930

7,779

18

5

13

1994

8,790

856

7,935

8,771

847

7,924

19

9

10

1995

8,992

806

8,186

8,979

804

8,175

13

2

11

1996

9,182

717

8,465

9,163

712

8,450

19

4

15

Footnotes
  1. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  2. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Note: The number of participants inculdes double counting of workers in more than one plan.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for 1977-96 plan years.


Table E10: Number of Active Participants in Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants by type of plan, 1977-1996 (numbers in thousands)

Year

Total Plans
Total

Total Plans
Defined Benefit

Total Plans
Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans(1)
Total

Single Employer Plans(1)
Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans(1)
Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Total

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Defined Contribution

1977

37,774

26,223

11,551

30,807

19,586

11,221

6,966

6,637

329

1978

39,730

27,361

12,369

32,798

20,765

12,033

6,931

6,596

335

1979

41,826

27,779

14,027

34,712

21,125

13,586

7,115

6,675

440

1980

43,620

28,305

15,315

36,687

21,889

14,798

6,933

6,416

517

1981

44,830

28,125

16,704

37,839

21,749

16,090

6,991

6,376

615

1982

46,741

27,782

18,959

39,897

21,664

18,233

6,844

6,118

726

1983

51,428

28,104

23,324

44,546

22,025

22,520

6,882

6,078

804

1984

54,184

28,331

25,853

47,468

22,484

24,984

6,716

5,846

870

1985

55,041

27,145

27,896

48,564

21,591

26,973

6,476

5,553

923

1986

55,706

26,820

28,886

49,150

21,427

27,723

6,556

5,393

1,163

1987

55,599

26,760

28,838

49,067

21,504

27,563

6,531

5,256

1,275

1988

54,428

26,555

27,872

47,765

21,348

26,417

6,663

5,207

1,456

1989

53,262

26,004

27,258

46,278

20,595

25,683

6,983

5,409

1,574

1990

53,887

25,182

28,705

47,481

20,228

27,252

6,406

4,954

1,453

1991

53,334

24,633

28,701

46,881

19,726

27,155

6,453

4,907

1,546

1992

55,224

24,340

31,184

49,249

19,752

29,497

6,275

4,588

1,687

1993

56,019

24,192

31,827

49,887

19,739

30,148

6,132

4,453

1,679

1994

56,181

23,759

32,422

50,118

19,368

30,750

6,064

4,392

1,672

1995

57,201

22,724

34,477

50,916

18,202

32,714

6,285

4,523

1,762

1996

58,706

22,546

36,160

52,255

17,968

34,286

6,451

4,577

1,873

Footnotes
  1. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  2. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Note: The number of participants includes double counting of workers in more than one plan.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for 1977-96 plan years.


Table E11: Pension Plan Assets by type of plan, 1977-1996(1)(amounts in millions)

Year

Total Plans
Total

Total Plans
Defined Benefit

Total Plans
Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans(2)
Total

Single Employer Plans(2)
Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans(2)
Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans(3)
Total

Multiemployer Plans(3)
Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans(3)
Defined Contribution

1977

$325,074

$233,609

$91,465

$295,179

$204,781

$90,399

$29,895

$28,829

$1,066

1978

377,195

272,684

104,511

343,183

239,884

103,299

34,012

32,800

1,211

1979

445,430

319,595

125,835

404,724

280,326

124,398

40,706

39,269

1,437

1980

563,551

401,455

162,096

514,583

353,967

160,616

48,968

47,488

1,480

1981

628,916

444,376

184,540

572,101

389,846

182,615

56,814

54,890

1,924

1982

788,987

553,419

235,567

716,281

483,536

232,744

72,706

69,883

2,823

1983

923,470

642,359

281,111

843,693

566,369

277,323

79,777

75,990

3,788

1984

1,044,592

700,669

343,922

947,373

608,703

338,670

97,212

91,966

5,246

1985

1,252,739

826,117

426,622

1,136,417

716,107

420,310

116,322

110,010

6,312

1986

1,382,910

895,073

487,837

1,251,034

772,205

478,830

131,876

122,868

9,008

1987

1,402,488

877,269

525,219

1,266,694

751,475

515,219

135,794

125,794

10,000

1988

1,503,635

911,982

591,653

1,351,845

772,381

579,464

151,790

139,601

12,189

1989

1,675,597

987,971

687,626

1,505,319

832,148

673,171

170,278

155,822

14,455

1990

1,674,139

961,904

712,236

1,496,300

798,167

698,133

177,839

163,737

14,102

1991

1,936,271

1,101,987

834,284

1,743,190

926,424

816,766

193,080

175,562

17,518

1992

2,094,087

1,146,798

947,289

1,879,033

955,621

923,412

215,053

191,177

23,877

1993

2,316,272

1,248,180

1,068,092

2,091,468

1,049,915

1,041,553

224,804

198,265

26,540

1994

2,298,556

1,210,856

1,087,700

2,070,804

1,010,275

1,060,529

227,752

200,581

27,171

1995

2,723,735

1,402,079

1,321,657

2,458,153

1,163,416

1,294,737

265,582

238,663

26,920

1996

3,136,281

1,585,397

1,550,884

2,837,125

1,316,599

1,520,526

299,156

268,798

30,358

Footnotes
  1. Asset amounts shown exclude funds held by life insurance companies under allocated group insurance contracts for payment of retirement benefits. These excluded funds make up roughly 10 to 15 percent of total private fund assets.
  2. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  3. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for 1977-96 plan years.


Table E12: Pension Plan Assets of Plans with Fewer than 100 Participants by type of plan, 1977-1996(1) (amounts in millions)

Year

Total Plans
Total

Total Plans
Defined Benefit

Total Plans
Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans(2)
Total

Single Employer Plans(2)
Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans(2)
Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans(3)
Total

Multiemployer Plans(3)
Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans(3)
Defined Contribution

1977

$42,953

$12,459

$30,494

$42,828

$12,368

$30,463

$124

$92

$32

1978

52,023

15,661

36,362

51,727

15,471

36,255

297

190

106

1979

64,021

19,498

44,523

63,725

19,271

44,453

296

227

69

1980

86,785

31,498

55,287

86,101

30,872

55,229

684

626

58

1981

104,006

38,792

65,214

103,220

38,081

65,139

785

711

74

1982

129,263

46,971

82,292

128,895

46,649

82,246

369

323

46

1983

155,214

60,594

94,620

154,626

60,064

94,562

58

530

58

1984

176,847

62,904

113,943

176,103

62,231

113,873

743

673

70

1985

211,665

67,745

143,920

210,666

66,878

143,789

999

867

132

1986

232,718

66,276

166,442

231,481

65,132

166,350

1,237

1,143

93

1987

228,244

65,232

163,012

227,048

64,277

162,771

1,196

955

241

1988

240,867

54,652

186,215

239,393

53,389

186,004

1,474

1,263

211

1989

236,459

44,570

191,889

236,016

44,243

191,773

443

327

116

1990

242,068

44,192

197,876

241,224

43,599

197,624

844

592

252

1991

264,329

40,161

224,168

263,967

40,033

223,934

362

128

234

1992

261,359

30,396

230,963

260,922

30,199

230,723

437

197

239

1993

291,912

33,166

258,746

291,238

32,770

258,468

675

396

278

1994

278,555

25,384

253,171

277,644

24,687

252,958

911

698

213

1995

323,751

26,455

297,295

323,066

26,210

296,855

685

245

440

1996

359,984

28,576

331,407

358,874

27,870

331,005

1,110

707

403

Footnotes
  1. Asset amounts shown exclude funds held by life insurance companies under allocated group insurance contracts for payment of retirement benefits. These excluded funds make up roughly 10 to 15 percent of total private fund assets.
  2. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  3. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for 1977-96 plan years.


Table E13: Pension Plan Assets of Plans with 100 or More Participants by type of plan, 1977-1996(1) (amounts in millions)

Year

Total Plans
Total

Total Plans
Defined Benefit

Total Plans
Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans(2)
Total

Single Employer Plans(2)
Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans(2)
Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans(3)
Total

Multiemployer Plans(3)
Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans(3)
Defined Contribution

1977

$282,121

$221,150

$60,971

$252,350

$192,413

$59,936

$29,771

$28,737

$1,034

1978

325,172

257,023

68,149

291,456

224,413

67,044

33,715

32,610

1,105

1979

381,409

300,097

81,312

340,999

261,055

79,945

40,410

39,042

1,368

1980

476,766

369,957

106,809

428,482

323,095

105,387

48,284

46,862

1,422

1981

524,910

405,584

119,326

468,881

351,405

117,476

56,029

54,179

1,850

1982

659,724

506,448

153,276

587,386

436,887

150,499

72,337

69,560

2,777

1983

768,256

581,765

186,491

689,066

506,305

182,761

79,190

75,460

3,730

1984

867,745

637,765

229,979

771,270

546,472

224,797

96,469

91,293

5,176

1985

1,041,074

758,372

282,702

925,751

649,229

276,521

115,523

109,143

6,180

1986

1,150,192

828,797

321,395

1,019,553

707,073

312,480

130,639

121,725

8,915

1987

1,174,244

812,037

362,207

1,039,646

687,198

352,448

134,598

124,839

9,759

1988

1,262,768

857,330

405,438

1,112,452

718,992

393,460

150,316

138,338

11,978

1989

1,439,138

943,401

495,737

1,269,303

787,905

481,398

169,835

155,496

14,339

1990

1,432,072

917,712

514,360

1,255,076

754,567

500,509

176,995

163,145

13,851

1991

1,671,942

1,061,826

610,116

1,479,224

886,391

592,832

192,718

175,434

17,284

1992

1,832,728

1,116,401

716,326

1,618,111

925,422

692,689

214,617

190,979

23,637

1993

2,024,360

1,215,014

809,346

1,800,230

1,017,145

783,085

224,130

197,869

26,261

1994

2,020,001

1,185,471

834,529

1,793,159

985,588

807,572

226,841

199,884

26,958

1995

2,399,984

1,375,623

1,024,361

2,135,087

1,137,206

997,881

264,897

238,417

26,480

1996

2,776,297

1,556,821

1,219,476

2,478,251

1,288,729

1,189,521

298,047

268,092

29,955

Footnotes
  1. Asset amounts shown exclude funds held by life insurance companies under allocated group insurance contracts for payment of retirement benefits. These excluded funds make up roughly 10 to 15 percent of total private fund assets.
  2. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  3. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for 1977-96 plan years.


Table E14: Pension Plan Contributions type of plan, 1977-1996 (amounts in millions)

Year

Total Plans
Total

Total Plans
Defined Benefit

Total Plans
Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans(1)
Total

Single Employer Plans(1)
Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans(1)
Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Total

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Defined Contribution

1977

$47,061

$31,197

$15,864

$41,931

$26,229

$15,702

$5,130

$4,968

$162

1978

55,943

37,591

18,353

49,793

31,602

18,191

6,151

5,989

162

1979

61,279

40,585

20,694

54,217

33,738

20,479

7,061

6,847

214

1980

66,157

42,626

23,531

58,718

35,524

23,194

7,439

7,102

337

1981

75,374

46,985

28,389

67,191

39,187

28,004

8,183

7,798

385

1982

79,502

48,438

31,064

71,320

40,807

30,513

8,182

7,631

551

1983

82,447

46,313

36,134

74,022

38,677

35,345

8,425

7,636

789

1984

90,625

47,197

43,428

81,553

38,990

42,563

9,072

8,207

865

1985

95,188

41,996

53,192

85,927

33,794

52,133

9,261

8,202

1,059

1986

91,503

33,161

58,342

82,190

25,142

57,049

9,313

8,020

1,293

1987

92,070

29,793

62,277

82,834

21,993

60,841

9,235

7,800

1,436

1988

91,248

26,300

64,948

81,612

18,352

63,261

9,636

7,948

1,688

1989

97,920

24,723

73,197

88,049

16,684

71,365

9,871

8,039

1,832

1990

98,792

23,026

75,766

89,834

15,709

74,125

8,958

7,317

1,641

1991

111,124

30,146

80,978

102,224

22,952

79,272

8,899

7,194

1,705

1992

128,795

35,174

93,621

119,682

27,964

91,718

9,114

7,210

1,904

1993

153,642

52,123

101,519

143,944

44,521

99,423

9,698

7,602

2,096

1994

144,353

39,031

105,322

133,844

30,829

103,015

10,509

8,203

2,307

1995

158,832

41,423

117,409

147,621

32,600

115,021

11,210

8,823

2,387

1996

169,540

35,803

133,737

157,204

26,174

131,030

12,335

9,629

2,707

Footnotes
  1. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  2. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Note: Includes both employer and employee contributions.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for 1977-96 plan years.


Table E15: Pension Plan Contributions of Plans with Fewer than 100 Participants by type of plan, 1977-1996 (amounts in millions)

Year

Total Plans
Total

Total Plans
Defined Benefit

Total Plans
Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans(1)
Total

Single Employer Plans(1)
Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans(1)
Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Total

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Defined Contribution

1977

$8,236

$2,616

$5,620

$8,213

$2,598

$5,615

$22

$18

$5

1978

9,644

3,303

6,342

9,602

3,271

6,330

43

31

12

1979

11,542

4,323

7,219

11,495

4,290

7,205

46

33

13

1980

13,545

5,870

7,675

13,490

5,830

7,660

55

40

15

1981

16,406

7,163

9,242

16,304

7,079

9,225

101

84

17

1982

16,094

7,672

9,422

16,047

7,641

9,406

47

31

16

1983

17,357

7,593

9,764

17,288

7,537

9,751

69

56

13

1984

18,561

7,850

10,712

18,487

7,788

10,700

74

62

12

1985

21,575

7,404

14,171

21,489

7,339

14,150

86

65

21

1986

21,543

5,659

15,884

21,475

5,607

15,868

68

52

16

1987

19,963

4,296

15,667

19,895

4,239

15,656

67

57

11

1988

18,964

3,015

15,948

18,909

2,981

15,929

54

34

20

1989

20,995

2,763

18,232

20,961

2,742

18,219

34

21

13

1990

21,687

2,608

19,079

21,642

2,590

19,052

44

18

26

1991

21,908

2,420

19,488

21,881

2,413

19,468

27

7

21

1992

25,214

2,229

22,985

25,185

2,223

22,962

29

6

23

1993

25,959

2,451

23,508

25,904

2,418

23,486

55

33

22

1994

23,933

1,918

22,015

23,688

1,693

21,995

245

225

20

1995

28,150

2,406

25,744

28,111

2,392

25,719

39

14

25

1996

30,802

1,943

28,860

30,742

1,911

28,830

60

31

29

Footnotes
  1. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  2. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Note: Includes both employer and employee contributions.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for 1977-96 plan years.


Table E16: Pension Plan Contributions of Plans with 100 or More Participants by type of plan, 1977-1996 (amounts in millions)

Year

Total Plans
Total

Total Plans
Defined Benefit

Total Plans
Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans(1)
Total

Single Employer Plans(1)
Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans(1)
Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Total

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans(2)
Defined Contribution

1977

$38,825

$28,580

$10,244

$33,718

$23,631

$10,087

$5,107

$4,950

$157

1978

46,299

34,288

12,010

40,191

28,331

11,861

6,108

5,958

150

1979

49,737

36,262

13,475

42,722

29,448

13,274

7,015

6,814

201

1980

52,612

36,756

15,856

45,228

29,694

15,534

7,384

7,062

322

1981

58,968

39,822

19,147

50,887

32,108

18,779

8,082

7,714

368

1982

62,408

40,766

21,642

54,273

33,166

21,108

8,135

7,600

535

1983

65,090

38,720

26,370

56,734

31,140

25,594

8,356

7,580

776

1984

72,064

39,347

32,717

63,066

31,203

31,863

8,997

8,145

853

1985

73,613

34,592

39,021

64,438

26,455

37,983

9,175

8,137

1,038

1986

69,960

27,502

42,458

60,715

19,535

41,180

9,245

7,968

1,277

1987

72,107

25,497

46,610

62,939

17,754

45,185

9,168

7,743

1,425

1988

72,286

23,285

49,000

62,703

15,371

47,332

9,582

7,914

1,668

1989

76,925

21,960

54,965

67,088

13,942

53,146

9,837

8,018

1,819

1990

77,105

20,418

56,687

68,192

13,119

55,073

8,914

7,299

1,614

1991

89,215

27,726

61,489

80,343

20,539

59,804

8,872

7,187

1,684

1992

103,581

32,945

70,636

94,497

25,741

68,756

9,084

7,204

1,880

1993

127,683

49,672

78,011

118,040

42,103

75,937

9,643

7,569

2,074

1994

120,420

37,113

83,307

110,155

29,135

81,020

10,265

7,978

2,287

1995

130,682

39,017

91,665

119,510

30,208

89,302

11,172

8,809

2,363

1996

138,738

33,860

104,877

126,463

24,263

102,200

12,275

9,598

2,677

Footnotes
  1. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  2. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Note: Includes both employer and employee contributions.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for 1977-96 plan years.


Table E17: Pension Plan Benefits Disbursed by type of plan, 1977-1996(1) (amounts in millions)

Year

Total Plans
Total

Total Plans
Defined Benefit

Total Plans
Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans(2)
Total

Single Employer Plans(2)
Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans(2)
Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans(3)
Total

Multiemployer Plans(3)
Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans(3)
Defined Contribution

1977

$22,950

$15,249

$7,702

$19,957

$12,353

$7,604

$2,993

$2,896

$98

1978

26,516

17,661

8,855

23,333

14,485

8,748

3,283

3,176

108

1979

28,680

18,688

9,991

25,272

15,386

9,886

3,408

3,302

106

1980

35,280

22,148

13,132

31,485

18,524

12,961

3,795

3,624

171

1981

44,753

27,334

17,420

40,281

22,987

17,294

4,473

4,347

125

1982

55,307

33,875

21,432

50,219

28,957

21,263

5,088

4,918

170

1983

65,333

36,976

28,357

59,547

31,507

28,040

5,786

5,469

317

1984

79,086

46,513

32,573

72,510

40,269

32,241

6,576

6,244

332

1985

101,898

54,466

47,432

94,792

47,801

46,991

7,106

6,665

441

1986

130,483

67,974

62,509

122,613

60,612

62,000

7,870

7,361

579

1987

122,254

66,241

56,013

113,834

58,345

55,489

8,420

7,896

524

1988

118,645

60,450

58,195

109,446

51,910

57,535

9,200

8,540

660

1989

132,049

66,707

65,342

121,750

57,236

64,514

10,299

9,471

828

1990

129,405

66,363

63,042

118,227

56,079

62,147

11,178

10,284

894

1991

135,552

71,503

64,048

123,986

61,081

62,904

11,566

10,422

1,144

1992

152,441

77,853

74,588

139,247

66,287

72,960

13,194

11,566

1,628

1993

156,305

79,093

77,212

142,471

66,847

75,625

13,834

12,246

1,587

1994

163,934

82,625

81,309

149,035

69,417

79,617

14,899

13,207

1,692

1995

183,025

85,134

97,892

167,249

70,947

96,302

15,777

14,187

1,590

1996

213,399

96,914

116,485

196,224

81,436

114,788

17,176

15,478

1,698

Footnotes
  1. Amounts shown include both benefits paid directly from trust funds and premium payments made by plans to insurance carriers. Amounts exclude benefits paid directly by insurance carriers.
  2. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  3. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for 1977-96 plan years.


Table E18: Pension Plan Benefits Disbursed From Plans with Fewer than 100 Participants by type of plan, 1977-1996(1) (amounts in millions)

Year

Total Plans
Total

Total Plans
Defined Benefit

Total Plans
Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans(2)
Total

Single Employer Plans(2)
Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans(2)
Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans(3)
Total

Multiemployer Plans(3)
Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans(3)
Defined Contribution

1977

$2,720

$1,043

$1,678

$2,683

$1,007

$1,675

$38

$35

$2

1978

3,387

1,292

2,095

3,356

1,271

2,085

31

21

10

1979

3,614

1,442

2,171

3,586

1,420

2,166

28

23

5

1980

5,123

2,076

3,047

5,086

2,044

3,042

37

32

5

1981

6,991

2,789

4,203

6,940

2,740

4,200

52

49

2

1982

10,736

5,782

4,954

10,679

5,736

4,943

56

46

10

1983

11,649

4,213

7,436

11,580

4,149

7,431

70

65

6

1984

14,311

6,290

8,021

14,237

6,225

8,012

74

65

9

1985

22,493

8,936

13,557

22,403

8,872

13,531

90

63

26

1986

38,484

14,730

24,527

38,355

14,604

23,749

129

125

5

1987

34,584

14,796

19,788

34,425

14,665

19,760

159

131

28

1988

33,718

12,069

21,649

33,657

12,018

21,639

61

51

10

1989

37,063

12,369

24,694

36,914

12,252

24,662

149

117

32

1990

34,238

10,798

23,439

34,098

10,737

23,361

139

61

78

1991

30,601

9,489

21,112

30,532

9,448

21,083

69

41

28

1992

30,763

7,929

22,834

30,720

7,912

22,808

43

17

26

1993

29,230

6,660

22,570

29,129

6,582

22,547

100

77

23

1994

25,900

4,860

21,040

25,743

4,737

21,007

157

124

33

1995

33,927

7,100

26,827

33,816

7,035

26,781

111

65

46

1996

36,376

7,057

29,320

36,247

6,965

29,282

129

92

37

Footnotes
  1. Amounts shown include both benefits paid directly from trust funds and premium payments made by plans to insurance carriers. Amounts exclude benefits paid directly by insurance carriers.
  2. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  3. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for 1977-96 plan years.


Table E19: Pension Plan Benefits Disbursed From Plans with 100 or More Participants by type of plan, 1977-1996(1) (amounts in millions)

Year

Total Plans
Total

Total Plans
Defined Benefit

Total Plans
Defined Contribution

Single Employer Plans(2)
Total

Single Employer Plans(2)
Defined Benefit

Single Employer Plans(2)
Defined Contribution

Multiemployer Plans(3)
Total

Multiemployer Plans(3)
Defined Benefit

Multiemployer Plans(3)
Defined Contribution

1977

$20,230

$14,206

$6,024

$17,274

$11,345

$5,929

$2,956

$2,860

$95

1978

23,129

16,369

6,760

19,877

13,214

6,663

3,252

3,155

97

1979

25,066

17,246

7,820

21,686

13,966

7,720

3,380

3,279

101

1980

30,157

20,072

10,085

26,399

16,480

9,919

3,758

3,592

166

1981

37,762

24,545

13,217

33,341

20,247

13,094

4,421

4,298

123

1982

44,571

28,093

16,478

39,540

23,221

16,319

5,032

4,872

160

1983

55,693

32,763

22,920

47,967

27,358

20,609

5,715

5,404

311

1984

64,775

40,223

24,552

58,273

34,044

24,229

6,502

6,179

322

1985

79,405

45,530

33,875

72,389

38,929

33,460

7,016

6,602

415

1986

91,999

53,244

38,754

84,258

46,008

38,250

7,741

7,236

504

1987

87,680

51,445

36,225

79,409

43,680

35,729

8,262

7,765

496

1988

84,926

48,381

36,546

75,787

39,892

35,896

9,139

8,489

650

1989

94,987

54,339

40,648

84,836

44,984

39,852

10,151

9,355

796

1990

95,167

55,564

39,603

84,128

45,342

38,786

11,039

10,222

816

1991

104,951

62,014

42,937

93,454

51,633

41,821

11,497

10,381

1,116

1992

121,678

69,924

51,755

108,527

58,374

50,153

13,151

11,549

1,602

1993

127,076

72,433

54,643

113,342

60,264

53,078

13,734

12,169

1,565

1994

138,034

77,764

60,269

123,291

64,681

58,611

14,742

13,084

1,659

1995

149,099

78,034

71,065

133,433

63,912

69,521

15,666

14,122

1,544

1996

177,023

89,858

87,166

159,976

74,471

85,505

17,047

15,386

1,660

Footnotes
  1. Amounts shown include both benefits paid directly from trust funds and premium payments made by plans to insurance carriers. Amounts exclude benefits paid directly by insurance carriers.
  2. Includes single employer plans, plans of controlled groups of corporations, and multiple-employer noncollectively bargained plans.
  3. Includes multiemployer plans and multiple-employer collectively bargained plans.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for 1977-96 plan years.


Table E20: Percentage Distribution of Active Participants in Plans with 100 or More Participants by vesting status, 1977-1996

Year

All Plans
Total

All Plans
Fully Vested

All Plans
Partially Vested

All Plans
Not Vested

Defined Benefit Plans
Total

Defined Benefit Plans
Fully Vested

Defined Benefit Plans
Partially Vested

Defined Benefit Plans
Not Vested

Defined Contribution Plans
Total

Defined Contribution Plans
Fully Vested

Defined Contribution Plans
Partially Vested

Defined Contribution Plans
Not Vested

1977

100

46

12

43

100

40

6

55

100

59

24

17

1978

100

46

12

43

100

40

6

55

100

58

25

17

1979

100

46

12

42

100

40

6

54

100

58

25

17

1980

100

45

12

42

100

38

6

56

100

58

25

17

1981

100

46

13

41

100

40

6

55

100

58

25

17

1982

100

48

13

39

100

41

5

54

100

60

24

17

1983

100

53

12

35

100

43

5

52

100

65

21

14

1984

100

55

12

32

100

44

6

51

100

68

20

13

1985

100

57

12

31

100

44

5

51

100

69

19

12

1986

100

58

12

30

100

45

5

50

100

70

19

11

1987

100

58

12

30

100

46

5

49

100

69

19

12

1988

100

60

11

30

100

49

4

47

100

69

18

13

1989

100

65

9

26

100

58

2

40

100

71

14

14

1990

100

67

9

24

100

60

2

38

100

72

14

14

1991

100

67

9

24

100

61

2

37

100

71

14

15

1992

100

68

10

22

100

64

2

34

100

71

14

15

1993

100

69

10

21

100

66

2

32

100

72

14

14

1994

100

70

9

21

100

67

2

31

100

72

14

14

1995

100

69

10

21

100

68

2

31

100

70

14

16

1996

100

71

11

18

100

68

1

30

100

73

16

11

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for 1977-96 plan years.


Table E21: Percentage Distribution of Active Participants in Single Employer Plans with 100 or More Participants by vesting status, 1977-1996

Year

All Plans
Total

All Plans
Fully Vested

All Plans
Partially Vested

All Plans
Not Vested

Defined Benefit Plans
Total

Defined Benefit Plans
Fully Vested

Defined Benefit Plans
Partially Vested

Defined Benefit Plans
Not Vested

Defined Contribution Plans
Total

Defined Contribution Plans
Fully Vested

Defined Contribution Plans
Partially Vested

Defined Contribution Plans
Not Vested

1977

100

47

12

40

100

41

5

53

100

58

24

18

1978

100

47

12

40

100

41

5

53

100

57

25

18

1979

100

48

13

39

100

41

6

53

100

58

26

17

1980

100

47

14

39

100

40

6

54

100

58

25

17

1981

100

48

14

38

100

41

5

54

100

57

26

17

1982

100

49

14

36

100

42

5

53

100

59

25

17

1983

100

54

14

33

100

43

6

51

100

64

22

14

1984

100

56

14

30

100

44

6

50

100

67

20

13

1985

100

57

14

29

100

43

6

51

100

68

20

12

1986

100

58

14

28

100

44

6

50

100

70

19

11

1987

100

58

13

28

100

46

6

49

100

68

20

12

1988

100

60

12

28

100

50

4

46

100

68

19

13

1989

100

67

10

24

100

61

2

37

100

71

15

14

1990

100

68

9

23

100

62

2

36

100

72

14

14

1991

100

68

10

22

100

65

2

33

100

70

15

15

1992

100

69

10

21

100

67

2

32

100

70

15

15

1993

100

70

10

19

100

69

2

29

100

71

15

14

1994

100

71

10

19

100

71

1

28

100

71

14

15

1995

100

70

11

20

100

71

1

27

100

69

15

16

1996

100

72

12

16

100

72

1

27

100

72

17

11

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for 1977-96 plan years.


Table E22: Percentage Distribution of Active Participants in Multiemployer Plans with 100 or More Participants by vesting status, 1977-1996

Year

All Plans
Total

All Plans
Fully Vested

All Plans
Partially Vested

All Plans
Not Vested

Defined Benefit Plans
Total

Defined Benefit Plans
Fully Vested

Defined Benefit Plans
Partially Vested

Defined Benefit Plans
Not Vested

Defined Contribution Plans
Total

Defined Contribution Plans
Fully Vested

Defined Contribution Plans
Partially Vested

Defined Contribution Plans
Not Vested

1977

100

36

7

57

100

34

7

59

100

88

4

8

1978

100

37

7

56

100

34

7

59

100

90

4

7

1979

100

38

7

55

100

35

7

59

100

90

4

7

1980

100

35

6

59

100

32

6

63

100

78

3

19

1981

100

41

6

53

100

36

6

57

100

88

3

9

1982

100

42

4

53

100

38

4

58

100

82

3

15

1983

100

47

4

48

100

42

5

54

100

86

3

11

1984

100

48

5

47

100

42

6

52

100

87

2

12

1985

100

51

3

46

100

45

4

52

100

89

2

9

1986

100

53

3

44

100

46

3

51

100

88

2

10

1987

100

53

4

43

100

45

3

52

100

86

6

9

1988

100

55

3

42

100

46

3

52

100

89

2

8

1989

100

54

2

44

100

45

2

53

100

86

2

12

1990

100

57

2

41

100

48

3

50

100

87

2

11

1991

100

57

3

40

100

47

3

50

100

88

2

11

1992

100

59

3

37

100

50

4

46

100

84

2

14

1993

100

61

3

36

100

52

3

45

100

85

3

12

1994

100

62

3

35

100

52

3

45

100

88

3

9

1995

100

63

2

35

100

53

2

45

100

89

2

9

1996

100

64

2

34

100

53

2

45

100

92

2

7

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for 1977-96 plan years.


Table E23: Number of 401(k) Type Plans, Participants, Assets, Contributions, and Benefit Payments 1984-1996

Year

Number of Plans

Active Participants (thousands)

Assets(millions)

Contributions(millions)

Benefits (millions)

1984

17,303

7,540

$91,754

$16,291

$10,617

1985

29,869

10,339

143,939

24,322

16,399

1986

37,420

11,559

182,784

29,226

22,098

1987

45,054

13,131

215,477

33,185

22,215

1988

68,121

15,203

276,995

39,412

25,235

1989

83,301

17,337

357,015

46,081

30,875

1990

97,614

19,548

384,854

48,998

32,028

1991

111,394

19,126

440,259

51,533

32,734

1992

139,704

22,404

552,959

64,345

43,166

1993

154,527

23,138

616,316

69,322

44,206

1994

174,945

25,206

674,681

75,878

50,659

1995

200,813

28,061

863,918

87,416

62,163

1996

230,808

30,843

1,061,493

103,973

78,481

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for 1984-96 plan years.


Table E24: Aggregate Rates of Return Earned by Private Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants 1985-1996

Year(1)

Total Plans
Total

Total Plans
Defined Benefit

Total Plans
Defined Contribution

Single Employer
Total

Single Employer
Defined Benefit

Single Employer
Defined Contribution

Multiemployer
Total

Multiemployer
Defined Benefit

Multiemployer
Defined Contribution

Total 401(k)

Total ESOP

1985

19.6%

20.1%

18.4%

20.0%

20.6%

18.5%

16.8%

17.0%

12.7%

n/a

n/a

1986

13.9

14.1

13.3

14.1

14.4

13.4

12.5

12.6

10.3

n/a

n/a

1987

4.6

4.4

4.8

4.7

4.6

4.8

3.7

3.5

6.4

n/a

n/a

1988

12.4

12.1

13.1

12.6

12.2

13.2

11.6

11.8

9.5

n/a

n/a

1989

11.2

12.1

9.4

11.9

13.2

9.7

6.0

6.4

1.8

n/a

n/a

1990

3.5

3.5

3.5

3.1

2.8

3.4

6.8

6.7

7.4

3.6

-1.3

1991

17.5

18.8

15.1

17.8

19.6

15.2

14.9

15.2

12.0

14.7

14.7

1992

8.8

8.3

9.8

8.8

8.0

9.8

9.3

9.4

8.7

10.3

13.4

1993

10.2

10.5

9.8

10.6

11.1

9.9

7.4

7.5

6.2

9.8

12.8

1994

2.9

2.2

3.8

2.7

1.8

3.8

4.4

4.5

3.9

3.7

4.1

1995

20.8

21.4

20.0

21.0

21.6

20.3

19.5

20.5

11.8

20.5

22.9

1996

14.9

14.8

15.0

15.0

14.9

15.2

13.8

14.3

9.6

14.8

18.4

Geometric mean(2)

1985-96

11.5

11.7

11.2

11.7

11.9

11.3

10.4

10.7

8.3

n/a

n/a

1992-96

11.4

11.3

11.5

11.4

11.3

11.7

10.8

11.1

8.0

11.7

14.1

1994-96

12.6

12.5

12.7

12.6

12.5

12.9

12.4

12.9

8.4

12.8

14.8

Standard deviation(3)

1985-96

5.8

6.1

5.2

6.0

6.4

5.3

4.9

5.1

3.2

n/a

n/a

1992-96

6.0

6.4

5.5

6.1

6.6

5.6

5.3

5.6

2.7

5.6

6.3

1994-96

7.5

7.9

6.8

7.6

8.2

6.9

6.2

6.6

3.3

7.0

8.0

Footnotes
  1. The 1994 row, for example, represents all plan years that began in 1994. About 77 percent of these plan years began on January 1, 1994.
  2. Geometric mean computed by adding one to the aggregate rate of return for each of the n years, taking the product of the sums, and taking the nth root of the product, and subtracting one.
  3. Standard deviation formula uses a denominator definition of n, not n-1.

Note: Rates of return have been derived directly from tables C4-C11 and from similar published summary tables for prior years. The rate of return formula is the same as that described in Chapter 12 of the 1989 DOL volume entitled "Trends in Pensions," except that the return formula used here refines the treatment of receivables. The receivable line item called "income receivables, which first appeared on the 1988 form, is not deducted from total assets because such assets may produce investment income. The formula makes no adjustment for reporting periods other than one year, which are reported on approximately 3 percent of Form 5500 filings. Because the form 5500 does not provide information on the timing of cash flows during the year, a time weighted rate of return cannot be derived. The formula used assumes that all cash flows occur in the middle of the plan's reporting period. The cash flow for which this assumption is most uncertain is contributions. The overall 1994 rate of return reported as 2.9 percent could be as low as 2.80 percent or as high as 2.98 percent depending on the assumption regarding the timing of contributions during the year. The overall 1995 rate of return reported as 20.8 percent could be as low as 20.15 percent or as high as 21.53 percent.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for 1985-96 plan years.


Table E25: Aggregate Investment Perfomance of Private Pension Plans with 100 or More Participants 1985-1996

Year

Average Investable(1)

Investment Income(2)

Appreciation
Realized

Appreciation
Unrealized

Appreciation
Total

Total DFE(3) Income

Total(4)

Total Rate of Return(5)

Growth of Average Investable Assets(6)

1985

$852,433

$49,936

$41,170

$68,007

$109,177

$8,042

$167,155

19.6%

-

1986

1,007,303

55,572

65,830

15,924

81,754

2,922

140,248

13.9

18.2%

1987

1,118,764

58,359

49,825

-58,758

-8,933

1,511

50,937

4.6

11.1

1988

1,135,950

47,509

13,609

30,597

44,206

49,613

141,328

12.4

1.5

1989

1,268,455

12,484

23,197

38,963

62,160

67,305

141,949

11.2

11.7

1990

1,395,262

49,855

1,995

-16,810

-14,815

13,866

48,906

3.5

10.0

1991

1,411,538

49,457

15,435

73,766

89,201

108,288

246,946

17.5

1.2

1992

1,658,785

45,325

9,126

30,378

39,504

61,706

146,535

8.8

17.5

1993

1,808,728

45,340

15,142

30,099

45,241

93,800

184,381

10.2

9.0

1994

1,961,820

43,012

1,871

-10,567

-8,696

22,283

56,599

2.9

8.5

1995

1,975,258

48,331

32,145

120,317

152,462

210,447

411,240

20.8

0.7

1996

2,383,830

50,844

27,349

87,761

115,110

189,439

355,393

14.9

20.7

Geometric mean(7)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

11.5

9.8

Footnotes
  1. Average of beginning-of-year and end-of-year levels of all assets except contributions receivable and value of buildings and other property used in plan operations minus one-half of total return.
  2. Sum of interest, dividends, rents, and (for years 1985-87) royalties.
  3. DFE means direct filing entities including common/collective trusts, pooled separate accounts, master trusts, 103-12 investment entities, and registered investment companies.
  4. Sum of investment income, total appreciation, and total DFE income.
  5. Total return as a percentage of average investable assets. See note for previous table.
  6. Percentage increase in average investable assets (column 1) from previous year to current year.
  7. The geometric mean computed by adding one to the percentage change for each of the n years, taking the product of the sums, taking the nth root of the product, and subtracting one.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for 1985-96 plan years.


Table E26: Aggregate Rates of Return Earned by Employee Stock Ownership Plans and 401(k) Plans with 100 or More Participants 1990-1996

Year

401(k) Plans
Total

401(k) Plans
Sole plan(1)

401(k) Plans
Not sole plan(2)

Employee Stock Ownership Plans
Total

Employee Stock Ownership Plans
Leveraged

Employee Stock Ownership Plans
Nonleveraged

1990

3.6%

4.5%

3.5%

-1.3%

-1.0%

-1.5%

1991

14.7

14.6

14.7

14.7

18.9

12.6

1992

10.3

9.0

10.5

13.4

15.1

12.3

1993

9.8

8.8

10.0

12.8

10.6

14.3

1994

3.7

3.4

3.7

4.1

4.4

4.0

1995

20.5

18.5

20.9

22.9

17.5

24.7

1996

14.8

14.3

15.0

18.4

18.2

18.5

Geometric mean(3)

1990-96

10.9

10.3

11.0

11.9

11.7

11.8

1992-96

11.7

10.7

11.9

14.1

13.0

14.6

1994-96

12.8

11.9

13.0

14.9

13.2

15.4

Standard deviation(4)

1990-96

5.7

5.2

5.8

7.6

7.1

8.1

1992-96

5.6

5.2

5.7

6.3

5.1

6.8

1994-96

7.0

6.4

7.1

8.0

6.4

8.7

Footnotes
  1. 401(k) plan is only plan sponsored by the employer.
  2. Employer sponsoring 401(k) plan also sponsors other pension plan(s).
  3. Computed by adding one to the aggregate rate of return for each of the n years, taking the product of the sums, and taking the nth root of the product, and subtracting one.
  4. Standard deviation formula uses a denominator definition of n, not n-1.

Source: Form 5500 series reports filed with the Internal Revenue Service for 1990-96 plan years.


Figure E1 - Number of Pension Plans 1977-1996


Figure E2 - Pension Plan Active Participants 1977-1996


Figure E3 - Pension Coverage of Wage and Salary Workers 1977-1996


Figure E4 - Pension Plan Assets 1977-1996


Figure E5 - Pension Plan Contributions and Benefits 1977-1996


Figure E6 - Rates of Return by type of plan, 1985-1996


Figure E7 - Rates of Return for Single and Multiemployer Plans 1985-1996


Figure E8 - Rates of Return for 401(k) Type Plans 1990-1996


Figure E9 - Rates of Return for ESOPs 1990-1996


Figure E10 - Assets Per Participant by type of plan, 1977-1996


Figure E11 - Participants per Plan by type of plan, 1977-1996


Figure E12 - Distribution of Pension Plans, Participants, and Assets by plan size, 1996