Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Uzbekistan

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Uzbekistan

2017 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2017, Uzbekistan made moderate efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. Uzbekistan is receiving an assessment of moderate advancement because, in contrast with previous years, the government took active measures to address the use of forced child labor in cotton harvest, and ILO monitoring, government monitoring, and monitoring by independent human rights activists each found that the systematic mobilization of children for the cotton harvest had ended. In 2017, President Shavkat Mirziyoyev expressed the government’s commitment to eradicating all forms of forced labor in cooperation with the international community. The Prime Minister subsequently issued an order removing the requirement that teachers and certain other employees must work in cotton fields during the 2017 harvest. ILO and government monitoring identified cases of child labor in the cotton harvest but found no evidence of forced child labor. Independent human rights activists and private citizens reported only a small number of cases of forced child labor, at least some of which the Ministry of Employment and Labor Relations publicly acknowledged, investigated, and remediated. In addition, the government established a Parliamentary Commission to monitor implementation of prohibitions on both child labor and forced labor, and adopted two new national policies that incorporated the goal of eliminating child labor. However, the government maintained a quota system, which holds regional government authorities responsible for mobilizing sufficient labor to meet production targets in multiple sectors, including cotton and silk, and led to the mobilization of adults for forced labor in 2017. Although enforcement of prohibitions on child labor in the cotton harvest was strong, the pressures on regional government authorities imposed by the continued use of the quota system may have created an ongoing risk of the use of child labor. There remain several gaps in labor law enforcement, including a lack of public awareness and low usage of the Feedback Mechanisms for reporting violations during the cotton harvest and an insufficient number of labor inspectors to cover the workforce adequately. Moreover, a Presidential Decree prohibiting unscheduled inspections in private businesses came into effect in 2017, which inhibited the ability of the Labor Inspectorate to detect child labor violations in the private sector.

Expand All

Although enforcement of prohibitions on child labor in the cotton harvest was strong, and the systematic use of forced child labor in the cotton harvest has ended, the pressures on regional government authorities imposed by the continued use of the quota system may have created an ongoing risk of child labor during the reporting period.(1; 2; 3) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Uzbekistan.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

4.3 (244,095)

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

84.1

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

5.0

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

97.7

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2017, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2018.(4)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 3, 2006.(5)

 

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Cultivating silk cocoons (6; 7; 8; 2)

Services

Street work, including vending and begging (9; 10; 11)

Collecting scrap metal (12; 13; 14; 15; 16)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (17; 18)

Forced labor in collecting scrap metal (12; 13; 14; 15; 16; 19; 20)

Forced labor in cultivating silk cocoons (6; 7; 8; 2)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

 

Cotton production in Uzbekistan is governed by a quota system, which holds regional and local government officials responsible for mobilizing sufficient labor to meet established production targets.(21) In past years, this practice led to the mass mobilization of children as young as 11 for forced child labor in the cotton harvest. However, in 2017, the use of child labor, including forced child labor, was reduced to an isolated incidence in the cotton harvest.(22; 3; 23) Only a small number of cases of the mobilization of classes of children in schools were reported, and at least some school officials were punished.(23; 24) The government and ILO monitoring found additional children in situations of child labor in which there was no evidence of force.(22; 25; 23). However, the quota system continued to impose pressure on regional and local government officials to meet production targets, which may have created an ongoing risk of exploitative labor practices, including child labor.(3; 1; 24)

In addition to the meaningful efforts made towards eliminating forced child labor, the Prime Minister also issued a decree forbidding the forcible use of teachers, healthcare workers, and adult students in the cotton harvest in September 2017.(22) Evidence still shows that government officials forced over 300,000 adults to pick cotton during the reporting period.(26; 27; 1; 24; 28) Limited evidence also suggests in isolated incidences school administrators required children to bring cotton to school; there is no evidence that suggests that it was children, not adults that picked the cotton in these cases.(24) However, observers reported that in contrast to previous years, schools were opertating without interruptions during the 2017 harvest.(23; 3)

In 2017, the government took steps to address child labor in the scrap metal collection and silk production sectors. In the scrap metal sector, reports indicate an increase in the procurement price of scrap metal has incentivized private citizens to collect and sell scrap metal and decreased the need for government mobilization of labor in this sector.(3) In addition, in December 2017, the President issued a decree prohibiting regional government authorities from tasking educational and medical institutions with the collection of scrap metal in 2018.(23; 29) In the silk sector, government efforts to modernize silk production and increase the procurement price of silk cocoons are reportedly also ongoing.(3)

In 2017, detention of human rights activists monitoring in the cotton harvest and other sectors continued.(30; 31) However, the government formally engaged human rights activists at two roundtables in 2017, following a pledge at the Fourth Global Conference on the Sustained Eradication of Child Labor in Argentina to work with civil society groups and independent activists to eliminate forced labor risks in Uzbekistan.(22) Monitors reported positive engagement with the government and an improved monitoring environment in 2017, adding additional credibility to reports of progress in the 2017 cotton harvest.(23; 3)

Uzbekistan has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Uzbekistan’s legal framework to adequately protect children from the worst forms of child labor, including commercial sexual exploitation and minimum age for non-state compulsory recruitment.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

16

Article 77 of the Labor Code; Article 20 of the Law on the Guarantees of the Rights of the Child; Article 49-1 of the Administrative Code (32; 33; 34; 35)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Articles 241 and 245 of the Labor Code (34)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Decree on Adoption of the List of Occupations with Unfavorable Working Conditions to Which It Is Forbidden to Employ Persons Under Eighteen Years of Age; Decree on Approval of Provision on Requirements on Prohibition of Use of Minors’ Labor (36; 37)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 37 of the Constitution; Article 7 of the Labor Code; Article 51 of the Administrative Code; Articles 135 and 138 of the Criminal Code (33; 34; 35; 38; 39)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 14 of the Law on Guarantees of the Rights of the Child; Article 135 of the Criminal Code (33; 39)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

No

 

Article 10 of the Law on Guarantees of the Rights of the Child; Articles 130 and 135 of the Criminal Code (33; 39)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 10 of the Law on Guarantees of the Rights of the Child; Articles 127, 270, 273, and 276 of the Criminal Code (33; 39)

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

Yes

18

Articles 4 and 46 of the Law on Universal Military Service (40; 41)

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Article 24 of the Law on Universal Military Service (41)

Non-state

No

 

 

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

18‡

Article 3 of the Law on Education (42)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 4 of the Law on Education; Article 41 of the Constitution (38; 42)

‡ Age calculated based on available information (42)

 

The government took several regulatory measures to prohibit the use of child and forced labor in cotton production. In September 2017, Prime Minister Aripov issued an order against the use of educational and medical sector employees in the cotton harvest, which led to a recall of these employees from the cotton fields throughout Uzbekistan.(23) Although, the Law on Guarantees of the Rights of the Child requires that the State protect children from involvement in prostitution, no law criminally prohibits the use of children in prostitution.(33; 35; 39)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the authority of the Ministry of Employment and Labor Relations (MOELR) that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Employment and Labor Relations (MOELR)

Conduct labor inspections, including inspections for compliance with child labor laws.(43; 23)

Ministry of Interior Office for Combating Trafficking

Investigate crimes related to child trafficking, which may then be prosecuted by the Prosecutor General’s Office.(44)

Prosecutor General’s Office

Prosecute criminal violations involving the worst forms of child labor, including human trafficking, forced labor, and commercial sexual exploitation.(44)

Ministry of Public Education, Ministry of Higher and Secondary Special Education, and Center for Secondary and Vocational Education

Monitor elementary through secondary school students to prevent forced child labor, including in cotton production. Monitor employment of all graduates of all educational institutions for two years after graduation.(45; 46)

Youth Union

Monitor school attendance to ensure students do not miss class during the cotton harvest.(23)

Women’s Committee of Uzbekistan

Monitor school attendance through the academic year, especially during the cotton harvest.(45) In 2017, conducted awareness-raising information seminars on the importance of education for girls.

Ministry of Employment and Labor Relations Human Trafficking Hotlines

Receive reports of incidents of human trafficking and refer reports to the relevant agencies.(47)

Feedback Mechanism

Receive complaints on the violation of workers’ rights and labor laws through two telephone hotlines: one MOELR hotline that refers cases to the Labor Inspectorate and the Prosecutor General’s Office, and one Federation of Trade Unions hotline that focuses on mediation of individual workers’ rights complaints.(48; 23)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2017, labor law enforcement agencies in Uzbekistan took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the authority of the MOELR that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including labor inspectors’ inability to conduct unannounced inspections (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown (48)

Unknown (25)

Number of Labor Inspectors

328 (49)

168 (23)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (50)

Yes (25)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Yes (25)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A

Yes (25)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (49)

Yes (25)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

Unknown

4,141 (25)

Number Conducted at Worksite

498 (49)

4,141 (25)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

13 (51)

18 (23)

Number of Child Labor Violations for which Penalties were Imposed

Unknown

Unknown (25)

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed That were Collected

Unknown

Unknown (25)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (48)

Yes (25)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (48)

Yes (25)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (48)

No (25)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (48)

No (25)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (48)

Yes (25)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (48)

Yes (25)

 

In 2017, following the reorganization of the Ministry of Labor into the MOELR, the number of labor inspectors decreased by almost half.(25) However, MOELR officials report that there was also an increase in occupational safety and health inspectors at the regional level.(3) Despite this, the number of labor inspectors is likely insufficient for the size of Uzbekistan’s workforce, which includes over 17.8 million workers. According to the ILO’s technical advice of a ratio approaching 1 inspector for every 20,000 workers in transitioning economies, Uzbekistan’s Labor Inspectorate would employ about 890 inspectors.(52; 53; 54) In addition, in January 2017, a Presidential Decree prohibiting unscheduled inspections of the private sector, including labor inspections, went into effect. However, unannounced inspections continued in the cotton sector.(23) Both national and regional labor inspectors received training from the ILO on child and forced labor during the reporting period.(23)

In addition to the MOELR-led inspections, there were also three separate mechanisms to monitor the cotton harvest in 2017. The Coordination Council on Decent Work (Coordination Council) led the government’s harvest monitoring exercise.(25) Independent human rights activists conducted their own independent monitoring of the cotton harvest. The Uzbek-German Forum for Human Rights, a Berlin-based NGO, coordinates the publication of the findings of many independent activists, while others self-publish information.(1) Finally, the ILO conducted Third-Party Monitoring (TPM) of the cotton harvest, in collaboration with the Federation of Trade Unions of Uzbekistan (FTUU).(22) There has been some criticism of the TPM monitoring methodology, because ILO monitors travel with FTUU representatives to gain access to monitoring sites in Uzbekistan. In response to criticism that the presence of government-affiliated FTUU representatives had intimidated cotton pickers in previous years, FTUU officials recused themselves from monitoring interviews in 2017.(22)

In 2017, Coordination Council monitors discovered 18 children in the cotton fields.(23) The government issued administrative penalties in the amount of $107 for using child labor.(23) A total of 14 local government officials and heads of institutions were sanctioned for labor violations during the harvest. Three regional governors were dismissed, while other officials were disciplined or encouraged to retire early.(22)

The ILO TPM mechanism identified an additional 12 children ages 10-14 in one field in Karakalpakstan. Local authorities immediately removed the children from the field, and the local mahalla leader, the local Ministry of Education representative, the district prosecutor, and the district hokim investigated.(22) Following the investigation, ILO monitors were confident that it was an isolated incident, and that children had not been forced to work.(22)

In 2017, independent human rights activists and private citizens reported few cases of child labor. For instance, one activist observed two cases of children forcibly mobilized by their schools in the Andijan region.(55; 24) In one of these cases in Andijan, children ages 11 and 12, from a school class were observed picking cotton in November and reported being mobilized by their school director.(55; 24) In contrast to previous years, when the activist reported this event to the MOELR, the government investigated the allegation, found it to be credible, and imposed penalties on the responsible party.(3)

In addition to monitoring of the cotton harvest, both the MOELR and the FTUU operated separate Feedback Mechanism (FBM) hotlines during the 2017 harvest, which workers and human rights activists could use to register complaints about child labor, forced labor, and other labor law violations.(22) The MOELR-supported hotline received 7,339 calls on various labor-related issues during the harvest, an 800 percent increase over 2016.(23) In addition to its FBM hotline, the FTUU also maintained a legal clinic to assist workers with resolving complaints. (22) The FTUU reports that no calls received during the harvest were related to child labor, although activists report using the hotline to provide information on the cases of child labor they observed.(3) An ILO-conducted telephone poll indicated that only about a quarter of the population is aware of the FBM hotlines.(22) Observers agreed that a lack of public confidence, in part due to reprisals against those who made use of the FBM in past years, inhibited the functioning of the hotlines during past harvests.(21; 56)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2017, criminal law enforcement agencies in Uzbekistan took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, limited information on the activities of criminal law enforcement authorities was available.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (46)

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

Unknown

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (57)

Unknown

Number of Investigations

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Violations Found

12 (57)

Unknown

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Convictions

Unknown

Unknown

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (48)

Yes (48)

 

In March 2017, police officers raided car washes and bazaars in Tashkent, removing 1,400 children from child labor situations.(23)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including coordination between levels of government.

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role and Description

Coordination Council on Decent Work (Coordination Council)

Coordinate efforts to address child labor issues, including monitoring the cotton harvest; chaired by the FTUU.(49; 57) In 2017, led national child labor monitoring activities and collaborated with the ILO to host capacity-building seminars for government ministries, regional government authorities, and farmers on the implementation of national and international labor standards.(23) Previously the Coordination Council on Child Labor, in 2017 was renamed and expanded to include oversight on issues of forced labor.(23)

Parliamentary Commission on Ensuring Guaranteed Labor Rights of Citizens*

Monitor and regularly report to the Senate on the activities of central and local-level government bodies involved in ensuring the labor rights of citizens, including prevention of forced labor. Oversee implementation of the ILO Conventions on Decent Work, Child Labor, and Forced Labor.(23)

Interagency Working Group

Coordinate efforts to address labor rights issues, including child labor.(43; 58) Report to the ILO on the government’s implementation of ratified conventions and its efforts to prevent forced labor and protect working minors. Headed by the MOELR.(58; 59; 60)

National Interagency Commission to Combat Trafficking in Persons

Oversee efforts to combat human trafficking, including by improving interagency cooperation, raising public awareness, and drafting legislation.(61) Chaired by the Prosecutor General.(44)

* Mechanism to coordinate efforts to address child labor was created during the reporting period.

 

According to the TPM report, the prohibition on the use of forced labor is widely understood, and the systematic use of forced child labor has ended. However, considering the speed of the reform, the ILO notes the need for continued coordination and capacity building to ensure that governments at the regional and district level are consistently enforcing national prohibitions on forced labor of adults, including teachers.(22) In pursuit of this goal, the ILO in collaboration with the government held four regional roundtables to engage local government officials and members of the Farmer’s Council, Women’s Committee and Youth Union. These roundtables reached 330 stakeholders at the regional level.(22)

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including implementation.

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

MOU Between the ILO and the Republic of Uzbekistan (2014–2020)

Establishes terms of agreement between the ILO and the government on cooperation to implement the Decent Work Country Program in Uzbekistan.(62) Represents an important step toward implementation of the ILO’s technical advice, including using ILO technical assistance and continuing to work with the ILO or other credible third parties to observe cotton harvests.(63; 64) In March 2017, the government signed an extension of the MOU through 2020.(22)

Senate Resolution on Measures to Ensure Guaranteed Labor Rights to the Citizens of Uzbekistan†

Establishes a plan to harmonize national legislation with the requirements of ILO conventions, including through developing relevant organizational structures and national programs; strengthening state and civil society capacity to guarantee the provision of labor rights; and carrying out an information campaign to inform citizens of their rights.(49)

National Development Strategy (2017–2021)†

Outlines measures for economic liberalization and modernization, including through a decrease in cotton production, an increased focus on the production of finished goods, and a reduction of the state regulation. Includes objectives for poverty reduction; development of education and social protection measures; capacity building for civil society and the press; and increased efficacy in anti-corruption measures.(25)

National Action Plan for the Application of ILO Conventions

Establishes a framework for implementing ILO Conventions 138 and 182 by coordinating the activities of ministries, departments, and local government authorities.(48; 65) Includes activities for the annual monitoring of the cotton harvest, which took place during the reporting period.(49; 65)

Action Plan on Improving Working Conditions, Employment, and Social Protection of Workers in Agriculture (2016–2018)

Demonstrates the government’s commitment to improving conditions for hiring of workers in agriculture; strengthening the FBM and national monitoring to prevent child and forced labor, providing increased information and guidance to advance decent work, increasing mechanization of agriculture, and improving social protection of workers in agriculture.(66; 67; 68)

Cabinet of Ministers Order 909F

Outlines steps to ensure decent working conditions by preventing child and forced labor. Lays out the government’s intentions to improve monitoring and feedback mechanisms, and to continue working with the ILO and World Bank to develop information materials and conduct public awareness campaigns on child and forced labor.(48)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

 

In 2017, the government began to introduce policies aimed at attracting a greater volume of voluntary workers. This included raising wages for cotton pickers, by increasing the price per kg of cotton from 61 percent for the first pass to 150 percent for the third pass.(22) However, the government maintained cotton production policies that mandate harvest quotas that offer strong incentives for local administrators to mobilize forced labor, which in turn creates an ongoing risk that children may be mobilized if local authorities do not adhere to national legislation including bans on child labor.(57; 1)

In 2017, the government funded and participated in programs that included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including adequacy of programs to address the full scope of the problem.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor‡

Program

Description

Support for the Decent Work Country Program in Uzbekistan (2014–2019)

$6 million USDOL-funded project awarded in December 2014 to the ILO to enhance the capacity of the government and workers’ and employers’ representatives to prevent and reduce child and forced labor and promote decent work in Uzbekistan.(69; 70) In 2017, developed tailored training on preventing child and forced labor for national and local stakeholders, and provided training on child and forced labor to 6,300 people from organizations involved recruiting cotton pickers.(23)

Efforts to Prevent Child Labor in the Cotton Harvest†

Includes initiatives to provide extracurricular activities for students who might otherwise participate in the cotton harvest after school, and raise awareness about the prohibition of child labor in the harvest.(49) In 2017, as part of the ILO TPM project, the ILO and government partners distributed 44,500 posters to education institutions with information on the prohibition of child labor and the availability of the FBM hotlines, and 100,000 flyers disseminated to farmers and employers.(23; 22)

Global Partnership for Education

Multilateral initiative to coordinate the efforts of developing countries, donors, international organizations, teachers, NGOs, and the private sector to secure universal access to quality education in developing countries.(71; 72)

School Assistance†

Ministry of Public Education program to provide winter clothes and other educational resources for needy families to support school attendance.(48)

Family Support Assistance†

Government program provides an allowance to low-income families on the condition that their children continue their education up to age 18.(48)

Child Protection Assistance

UNICEF program with the government to develop a national child protection system to prevent child abuse, exploitation, and violence and respond to children who are victims or at risk.(73)

National Rehabilitation Center†

Ministry of Labor-operated shelter provides human trafficking victims with emergency medical and social services and assists in social rehabilitation.(49)

Fund for Community Works*†

Established in October 2017 under the Ministry of Employment and Labor Relations, offers the unemployed opportunities for paid public works, including seasonal agricultural work. Matches job seekers with labor needs in the cotton harvest to reduce the risk of forced labor.(74)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Uzbekistan.
‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms.(75; 51)

 

The government has implemented programs to combat child labor in the cotton harvest and to address human trafficking.(55; 23; 76; 77; 12; 78; 79; 21; 80) However, research did not find evidence of programs designed to address the potential of child labor concerns in other sectors.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Uzbekistan (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Criminally prohibit and penalize the use of a child for prostitution.

2015 – 2017

Criminally prohibit the recruitment of children under 18 by non-state armed groups.

2016 – 2017

Enforcement

Continue to allow independent observers unrestricted access to monitor labor conditions during the cotton harvest through unannounced site visits. Punish officials who threaten or detain observers or require children to bring cotton to school.

2017

Publish information about the Labor Inspectorate’s funding, number of child labor violations for which penalties were imposed, and number of penalties imposed that were collected.

2015 – 2017

Continue to build public trust in the FBM hotlines and other mechanisms for receiving child labor complaints, especially by ensuring individuals who use these mechanisms do not experience retaliation.

2017

Increase the number of labor inspectors to meet the ILO’s technical advice.

2015 – 2017

Ensure that labor inspectors are permitted to conduct unannounced inspections in all sectors.

2016 – 2017

Publish all data on criminal law enforcement efforts related to child labor.

2011 – 2017

Coordination

Increase coordination efforts directed at regional and district governments to ensure they are aware of and committed to implementing the laws and policies prohibiting child labor, and ensure that appropriate remediation action is taken when they are not.

2015 – 2017

Government Policies

Revise policies that mandate cotton harvest quotas and that set purchase prices below market value to help prevent forced involvement of children under age 18 in the cotton harvest.

2012 – 2017

Social Programs

Collect and publish data on the extent and nature of child labor to inform policies and programs.

2013 – 2017

Expand programs to address the worst forms of child labor in sectors other than cotton harvesting.

2009 – 2017

1. Uzbek-German Forum for Human Rights. Cotton Harvest 2017: Summary of Key Findings. March 2018. [Source on file].

2. —. Silk Loop for Uzbek Farmers. September 12, 2015. http://uzbekgermanforum.org/report-silk-loop-for-uzbek-farmers/.

3. USDOL Official. Trip Report. May 2018.

4. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed March 3, 2018. http://data.uis.unesco.org/ For more information, please see “Children’s Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

5. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 4, 2012-2013. Analysis received January 12, 2018. Please see “Children’s Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

6. Uzbek-German Forum for Human Rights. Human Rights Due Diligence and World Bank Funding in Uzbekistan's Agricultural Sector. June 2014. http://uzbekgermanforum.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/UGF-World-Bank-Loans-to-Uzbekistan.pdf.

7. Ferghana Information Agency. The Great Silk Road, or a Second Slavery for Uzbek Farmers. December 31, 2013. http://www.fergananews.com/articles/7998.

8. Najibullah, Farangis, and Sadriddin Ashurov. Uzbeks Toil To Keep Silk Industry's Traditions Alive. March 12, 2013. http://www.rferl.org/content/uzbekistan-silk-industry/24926469.html.

9. U.S. Department of State. "Uzbekistan," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2014. Washington, D.C. June 25, 2015. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/236868.pdf.

10. UNCRC. Concluding observations on the combined third and fourth periodic reports of Uzbekistan, adopted by the Committee at its sixty-third session (27 May-14 June 2013). July 10, 2013. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/crc/docs/co/CRC-C-UZB-CO-3-4.pdf.

11. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning ILO Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Uzbekistan (ratification: 2008) Published: 2015. Accessed January 5, 2016. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3188557:NO.

12. Uzbek-German Forum for Human Rights. The Cover-up: Whitewashing Uzbekistan's White Gold. March 2016. http://uzbekgermanforum.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/Cotton-Report-2015.pdf.

13. Ozodlik. In Uzbekistan, students who don't turn in scrap metal are threatened with expulsion. October 1, 2015. http://www.ozodlik.org/content/article/26785683.html.

14. —. Students in Uzbekistan are locked up for not turning in scrap metal. February 25, 2015. http://www.ozodlik.org/content/article/26867626.html.

15. Institute for War and Peace Reporting. Uzbek Children Forced to Collect Scrap Metal. March 25, 2011 2015. https://iwpr.net/global-voices/uzbek-children-forced-collect-scrap-metal.

16. Ahurov, Sadriddin, and Farruh Yusupov. Out Of The Uzbek Cotton Fields, On To The Scrap Yard. February 16, 2015. http://www.rferl.org/content/uzbekcottonpickingscrapyard/26852654.html.

17. U.S. Department of State. "Uzbekistan," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015. Washington, D.C. July 27, 2015. http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2015/243561.htm.

18. U.S. Embassy- Tashkent. Reporting, February 16, 2016.

19. Ozodlik. Parents Purchase Scrap Metal to Save their Children from Humiliation in School. February 11, 2016. http://rus.ozodlik.org/a/27544509.html.

20. —. Uzbek Students Dig in the Trash and Walk the Gutters in Search of Scrap Metal. October 24, 2016. http://rus.ozodlik.org/a/28070485.html.

21. Uzbek-German Forum for Human Rights. Forced Labor in Uzbekistan's Cotton Sector: Preliminary Findings from the 2016 Harvest. December 2016.

22. ILO. Third-Party Monitoring of Measures Against Child Labor and Forced Labor During the 2017 Cotton Harvest in Uzbekistan. February 1, 2018. http://www.ilo.org/ipec/Informationresources/WCMS_543130/lang--en/index.htm.

23. U.S. Embassy- Tashkent. Reporting. January 9, 2018.

24. Uzbek-German Forum for Human Rights. We Pick Cotton Out of Fear: systematic forced labor and the accountability gap in Uzbekistan. May 2018. http://uzbekgermanforum.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/We_pick_cotton_out_of_fear.pdf.

25. Government of Uzbekistan. Response to FRN. On File.

26. Uzbek-German Forum for Human Rights Official. Interview with a Teacher of a Secondary School, Sirdarya Region. November 3, 2017. http://harvestreport.uzbekgermanforum.org/interview-with-a-teacher-of-a-secondary-school-sirdarya-region/.

27. Uzbek-German Forum for Human Rights. Doctors and Teachers from Andijan Picking Cotton in Tashkent Region. November 21, 2017. http://harvestreport.uzbekgermanforum.org/doctors-and-teachers-from-andijan-picking-cotton-in-tashkent-region/.

28. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Person Report - 2018: Uzbekistan. Washington, DC. June 28, 2018. https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2018/282778.htm.

29. Government of Uzbekistan. On Measures for the Provision of Scrap Metal, and Production and Consumption of Ferrous Metals in 2018. December 12, 2018. http://lex.uz/Pages/GetPdfView.aspx?lact_id=3463494.

30. Connell, Tula. Uzbek Human Rights Activist Elena Urlaeva Released. March 24, 2017. https://www.solidaritycenter.org/uzbek-human-rights-activist-elena-urlaeva-released/.

31. Uzbek-German Forum for Human Rights. Human Rights Activists Detained in Samarkand. October 19, 2017. http://harvestreport.uzbekgermanforum.org/human-rights-activists-detained-in-samarkand/.

32. Government of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Law No. ZRU-239 to amend the Labour Code of the Republic of Uzbekistan and Law on Child's Rights Guarantees, UZB-2009-L-85547. Enacted: 2009. http://www.oit.org/dyn/natlex/natlex_browse.details?p_lang=en&p_isn=85547.

33. —. Law No. ZRU-139 on Guarantees of the Rights of the Child, UZB-2008-L-85548. Enacted: 2008. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex_browse.details?p_lang=en&p_isn=85548.

34. —. Law No. ZRU-365 Labor Code of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Enacted: 1996. http://fmc.uz/legisl.php?id=k_trud.

35. —. Law No. 2015-XII Administrative Code of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Enacted: 1994. http://fmc.uz/legisl.php?id=k_adm.

36. —. Decree on Approval of Provision on Requirements on Prohibition of Use of Minors' Labor. Enacted: 2010. Source on file.

37. —. Decree on Adoption of the List of Occupations with Unfavorable Working Conditions to which it is forbidden to Employ Persons under Eighteen Years of Age. Enacted: 2009.

38. —. Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Enacted: 1992. http://gov.uz/en/constitution/.

39. —. Criminal Code of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Enacted: 1994. http://www.legislationline.org/documents/section/criminal-codes/country/55.

40. Child Soldiers International. Louder than words: An agenda for action to end state use of child soldiers. 2012. http://www.child-soldiers.org/user_uploads/pdf/louderthanwordsseptember20124903558.pdf.

41. Government of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Law on Universal Military Service. Enacted: 2002. http://lex.uz/pages/getpage.aspx?lact_id=78721.

42. —. Law on Education. Enacted: 1997. http://www.lex.uz/pages/GetAct.aspx?lact_id=15622.

43. U.S. Embassy- Tashkent. Reporting, January 31, 2013.

44. —. Reporting, February 15, 2013.

45. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Uzbekistan official. Written communication to U.S. Department of State official. February 17, 2014.

46. U.S. Embassy- Tashkent. Reporting, January 15, 2015.

47. Government of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Information on anti-TIP efforts carried out in Uzbekistan in 2014. 2015.

48. U.S. Embassy-Tashkent. Reporting, January 13, 2016.

49. Government of Uzbekistan. Response to TDA Questionnaire. January 25, 2017.

50. U.S. Embassy- Tashkent. Reporting, March 2, 2016.

51. —. Reporting, January 13, 2017.

52. CIA. The World Factbook. Accessed March 18, 2017. https://www.cia.gov/Library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2095rank.html. Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

53. ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

54. UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2017 Statistical Annex. 2017. https://www.un.org/development/desa/dpad/wp-content/uploads/sites/45/publication/2017wesp_full_en.pdf. Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

55. Uzbek-German Forum for Human Rights. Children At the Age Of 11-12 Picking Cotton. November 8, 2017. http://harvestreport.uzbekgermanforum.org/%d1%81hildren-at-the-age-of-11-12-picking-cotton/.

56. ILO. Third Party Monitoring of measures against child labour and forced labour during the 2016 Cotton Harvest in Uzbekistan. January 2017. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_norm/---ipec/documents/publication/wcms_543130.pdf.

57. U.S. Embassy- Tashkent. Reporting, February 13, 2017.

58. Embassy of the Republic of Uzbekistan- Washington official. Written communication to U.S. Department of State official. April 13, 2011.

59. U.S. Embassy- Tashkent. Reporting, January 4, 2012.

60. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Uzbekistan official. Written communication to U.S. Department of State official. March 12, 2013.

61. Government of Uzbekistan. Response to TIP Questionnaire. 2016.

62. ILO and the Republic of Uzbekistan. Memorandum of Understanding. 2014. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/bureau/program/dwcp/download/uzbekistan.pdf.

63. ILO Committee of Experts. Report of the Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_norm/---relconf/documents/meetingdocument/wcms_174843.pdf.

64. —. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Uzbekistan (ratification: 2008) Published: 2013. Accessed January 14, 2014. http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/english/iloquery.htm.

65. Government of the Republic of Uzbekistan. National Action Plan for the Application of ILO Conventions. Enacted: May 27, 2014. http://www.fbm.uz/ru/lex/national/.

66. ILO. Third Party Monitoring of the use of child labour and forced labour during the Uzekistan 2015 Cotton Harvest. November 20, 2015. http://pubdocs.worldbank.org/pubdocs/publicdoc/2015/11/307241448038866033/Uzbek-2015-TPM-Report-20112015.pdf.

67. Government of Uzbekistan. Cooperation with the ILO and World Bank on Eliminating Forced and Child Labor. January 15, 2016. http://www.fbm.uz/ru/pages/news/354/.

68. Government of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Government Action Plan on for improving labor conditions, employment and social protection of workers in agricultural sector in 2016-2018. Enacted: January 7, 2016. http://www.fbm.uz/en/lex/convention/.

69. U.S. Department of Labor's Office of Child Labor Forced Labor and Human Trafficking. Notice of Intent to Fund the Decent Work Country Program in Uzbekistan. 2014.

70. Coordination Council for the Problems of Child Labor in the Republic of Uzbekistan. Minutes No. 5 About the Results of the National Monitoring of Child Labour in Cotton Harvest in 2014 and the Recommendations for the Governmental Authorities, Ministries, Agencies and Civil Society Institutes. November 3, 2014.

71. Global Partnership for Education. Global Partnership for Education: Uzbekistan. January 14, 2015. http://www.globalpartnership.org/country/uzbekistan.

72. —. Global Partnership for Education: About GPE. January 14, 2015. http://www.globalpartnership.org/about-GPE.

73. UNICEF. UNICEF Uzbekistan: Child Protection: Social Work. January 14, 2015. http://unicef.uz/en/programmes/child-protection/social-work.

74. U.S. Embassy Tashkent- official. Email communication to USDOL official. July 3, 2018.

75. Government of Uzbekistan. ILO Cooperation and Measures of Uzbekistan 2016. 2017.

76. Uzbek-German Forum for Human Rights official. Interview with USDOL official. April 2, 2016.

77. Human Rights Activists in Uzbekistan. Interview with Official. March 28, 2016.

78. Ozodlik. In a region of Uzbekistan that does not specialize in cotton production 60kg is demanded from every harvest worker daily. September 14, 2015. http://www.ozodlik.org/content/article/27246510.html.

79. —. In Uzbekistan, Underage Children are Once Again Being Sent to the Cotton Fields. September 3, 2015. http://www.ozodlik.org/content/article/27224618.html.

80. Ferghana Information Agency. Uzbekistan: Human Rights Defenders Say Forced Child Labor is Being Used in the Cotton Harvest. October 1, 2015. http://www.fergananews.com/news.php?id=23956.

App

Want this report plus over a thousand pages of research in the palm of your hand? Download ILAB's Sweat & Toil App Today!