Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Uzbekistan

2014 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Uzbekistan

No Advancement - Efforts Made But Complicit

In 2014, Uzbekistan made efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor, but was also complicit in the use of forced child labor in the cotton sector. While the central Government made concerted efforts to prevent and to remediate forced child labor in cotton production, Uzbekistan is receiving an assessment of no advancement because of government complicity in forced child labor, particularly at the local level. Although there was no evidence of a large-scale, centrally-coordinated, forced mobilization of children, some local officials, in more than an isolated incident, continued to mobilize children during the cotton harvest.

In committing to end this practice, the Cabinet of Ministers declared its intent to ensure that no one under the age of 18 would participate in the cotton harvest; broadly communicated its new commitment through awareness-raising campaigns to prevent children from being forcibly mobilized to pick cotton; and sponsored after-school programs as an alternative to child labor. The Government also led a monitoring effort utilizing ILO methodology to observe the fall 2014 harvest in all cotton-growing regions of the country, finding 41 child laborers, assessing penalties to 19 school officials and farm managers for the use of child labor, and removing children from the fields.

Despite efforts to end the mobilization of children, in the course of widespread mobilization of third-year secondary school students (predominantly age 18) to pick cotton, an unknown number of 17-year-old students were also mobilized through this practice. Independent observers also reported some cases in several provinces in which younger students were mobilized. In a few instances, reports indicate that a local government authority such as a district or regional governing official (hokim) or town mayor may have directly ordered the mobilization of students under age 18.

In at least some cases, callers to hotlines for reporting labor violations in the harvest were unable to get through, leaving an important gap in the system for receiving and processing child labor complaints. The Government also maintained policies in the cotton sector that mandate regional harvest quotas and set crop prices at levels that create incentives for local administrators to forcibly mobilize labor, creating an ongoing risk of mobilized child labor. Several observers stated that any reduction in the mobilization of children was offset by an increase in the compulsory mobilization of adult labor, although this trend could not be confirmed. Some of these observers reported surveillance, intimidation, and detention by the local government authorities while attempting to gather information about labor practices in the cotton harvest.

 

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There is a lack of current data on child labor in Uzbekistan. To date, the Government has not conducted a national survey on child labor. However, evidence from multiple, independent sources shows that during the 2014 harvest, some local officials, in more than an isolated incident mobilized children to pick cotton, in contravention of the Government's official prohibition.(1-7) In addition, there have been limited reports that during the pre-harvest season, some children are forced to cultivate cotton.(8-10) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Uzbekistan.

Table 1. Statistics on Children's Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

4.3 (244,095)

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

84.1

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

5.0

Primary completion rate (%):

91.8

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2011, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(11)Source for all other data: Understanding Children's Work Project's analysis of statistics from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 3, 2006.(12)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children's Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Cultivating* and harvesting cotton† (1, 7-10, 13-16)

Cultivating and harvesting silkworms* (15, 17-19)

Services

Street vending and street begging (16, 20)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation sometimes as a result of human trafficking* (21)

Forced labor in cultivating* and harvesting cotton† (1, 14-16, 22-28)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown. † Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182. ‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a) — (c) of ILO C. 182.

In 2014, the Government-supported Coordination Council on Child Labor Issues (Coordination Council) reported that the monitoring exercise it had conducted found 41 children ages 9-17 picking cotton, and that all of those children reported having worked at the direction of their parents or of their own accord.(29)

While observers were unable to carry out formal third-party monitoring that could systematically check the validity of results reported by the Coordination Council, a number of independent observers attested that they did not see evidence of a centrally-coordinated, forced mobilization of children.(1, 30-33) A plan for the ILO to independently monitor for child labor and forced labor on farms and in communities associated with five World Bank projects was negotiated and received Government approval during the reporting period, however, there was insufficient lead time to implement the plan for the 2014 harvest. Instead, Bank staff and their Government counterparts conducted "intensified field supervision," which consisted of visiting cotton fields, reviewing work contracts, and asking basic questions of the workers.(32-34) The timing of these visits was determined by Government officials, and local authorities generally appeared to have been informed in advance.(32, 33) As it has done since 2009, a Germany-based NGO, the Uzbek-German Forum for Human Rights, coordinated efforts by local human rights advocates, farmers, teachers, and other community members to observe and report on labor practices across the cotton-growing regions. The group stated that the efforts of at least two advocates were hampered by restrictions on their access to the fields, and some of their observers reported that they experienced surveillance, intimidation, and detention by the authorities while attempting to gather information.(6) U.S. Embassy personnel who conducted informal observations of fields and schools throughout the harvest inconsistently encountered police near the fields during their visits as part of the broader local government oversight efforts.(2)

Multiple sources reported cases of local administrators, in several provinces, mobilizing children for the harvest. Available evidence suggests that across the country local administrators mobilized predominantly age 18, third-year secondary school students. However, in the course of doing so, an unknown number of 17 year-old third-year students were also mobilized through this practice.(1, 4, 7) Reports suggest that in at least one case, administrators checked the passports of third-year students to ensure that those under age 18 were not mobilized, however, research could not determine to what extent this practice occurred.(2, 6) Credible statistics are not available on the number of underage third-year students who may have been mobilized. Independent observers reported some cases within several provinces, in which school principals mobilized classes of first-year and second-year secondary school students (ages 15 to 17) or in some cases, sixth to ninth graders (ages 11 to 15), particularly during the last two weeks of the harvest period.(1, 2, 4, 5, 21, 35) In addition, there were a few reports from different locations that a local government authority such as a district or regional governing official (hokim) or town mayor may have directly ordered the mobilization of students under age 18.(2, 4, 7, 28, 36)

Observers stated that any reduction in the mobilization of children was offset by an increase in the compulsory mobilization of adult labor, including of teachers.(1, 31) Comparative data on the adult cotton-picking workforce were not available to confirm or disprove this observation. The practice of forcibly mobilizing people to work in the cotton fields creates an ongoing risk that children may be mobilized when labor demand is high, particularly the final weeks of the harvest when the fall rains threaten to ruin the crop. Sources indicate that for the majority of the harvest period, most local administrators kept secondary schools (colleges and lyceums) open. However, many teachers were obliged to pick cotton, which disrupted class schedules and, in a number of cases, closed secondary schools.(1, 3, 4)

Sources reported that workers were expected to pick between 66 and 176 pounds of cotton per day, with the weight requirements declining toward the end of the harvest.(10, 28) Research could not identify whether a similar quota was in place for child pickers.(6, 37) Reports on working hours for child pickers varied; some worked a partial day after a few hours of school, while others worked 9 or more hours per day, including on the weekend.(1, 6) Some workers picked without gloves or other protective gear.(1, 6, 37) The Coordination Council reported that adequate housing and meals were provided to all workers, and the U.S. Embassy observed a number of well-provisioned worker camps.(29, 37) However, researchers for the Uzbek-German Forum for Human Rights found that some workers lived in unsanitary, unheated facilities and paid the farmer for meager food.(1, 6) According to one report, children in grades below the third year of secondary education returned home at the end of each work day.(6) Reports suggest a diversity of housing arrangements for student pickers, from homestays with local families to school gymnasiums or worker camps.(38) Research could not determine the housing conditions for third year students that stayed overnight at the worksite.

Another form of child labor occurring in Uzbekistan is the trafficking of children for commercial sexual exploitation. Children are trafficked for this purpose internally and abroad, primarily to destinations across Asia.(39, 40)

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Uzbekistan has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard Yes/No Age Related Legislation
Minimum Age for Work Yes 16 Article 77 of the Labor Code; Article 20 of the Law on the Guarantees of the Rights of the Child (16, 41, 42)
Minimum Age for Hazardous Work Yes 18 Article 241 of Labor Code (43)
Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children Yes   Decree on Adoption of the List of Occupations with Unfavorable Working Conditions to Which it is Forbidden to Employ Persons under Eighteen Years of Age; Decree on Approval of Provision on Requirements on Prohibition of Use of Minors' Labor (44, 45)
Prohibition of Forced Labor Yes   Constitution; Article 7 of the Labor Code; Articles 51 and 491 of the Administrative Code; Articles 135 and 138 of the Criminal Code (46-49)
Prohibition of Child Trafficking Yes   Law on the Guarantees of the Rights of the Child; Article 135 of the Criminal Code (42, 49)
Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children Yes   Article 10 of the Law on the Guarantees of the Rights of the Child; Article 135 of the Criminal Code (42, 49)
Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities Yes   Article 10 of the Law on the Guarantees of the Rights of the Child (42)
Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment Yes 18 Law on Universal Military Service (50)
Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service Yes 18 Law on Universal Military Service (50, 51)
Compulsory Education Age Yes 18 Law on Education (52)
Free Public Education Yes   Law on Education (52)

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The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor and Social Protection

Conduct labor inspections, including inspections for compliance with child labor laws.(16, 53)

Ministry of Interior Office for Combating Trafficking

Investigate crimes related to child trafficking, which may then be prosecuted by the Prosecutor General's Office.(40)

Prosecutor General's Office

Prosecute criminal violations involving the worst forms of child labor, including human trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation.(40)

Ministry of Public Education, Ministry of Higher and Secondary Special Education, and Center for Secondary and Vocational Education

Monitor elementary through secondary school students to prevent forced child labor, including in cotton. Monitor employment of all graduates of all educational institutions.(3, 54)

Coordination Council on Child Labor Issues (Coordination Council)

Monitor all forms of child labor.(24, 54) Comprises representatives from the Federation of Trade Unions (which serves as its Chair); the Chamber of Commerce and Industry; the Ministries of Labor and Social Protection, Public Education, Foreign Affairs, Health, and Interior; the Employer's Union; the Women's Committee; the Center for Human Rights; the Center for Secondary and Vocational Education; and NGOs.(3, 13, 29)

Women's Committee of Uzbekistan

Monitor school attendance through the academic year, especially during the cotton harvest. A total of 14 regional and 194 district branches of the Women's Committee involved in monitoring school attendance.(54)

Law enforcement agencies in Uzbekistan took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms.

Labor Law Enforcement

The Ministry of Labor and Social Protection employs approximately 300 labor inspectors, about half of whom investigate legal rights in the workplace, while the rest conduct technical inspections on occupational health and safety requirements.(3, 53) Either inspectorate may address child labor, depending on the nature of the violation.(35) Information was not available regarding the total number of inspections that the Government carried out in 2014 for the purpose of enforcing child labor laws.

The Government, along with local administrators, continued its enforcement efforts to keep children in school and out of the fields during the cotton harvest.(29, 30) The Government-supported Coordination Council conducted a national monitoring effort during the fall harvest. In contrast to 2013, in which an ILO high-level mission organized, trained, and led the monitoring teams, the ILO played a supporting role to the Coordination Council in 2014 by training monitors and advising on the methodology for monitoring.(13, 29) Through this consultation, the Coordination Council decided to intensify its monitoring of children ages 16 to 18 by focusing on school visits to secondary-level institutions and selecting cotton pickers up to age 20 for interview. As in the 2013 ILO mission, site visits were to be unannounced.(3, 29)

The monitoring exercise took place from September 18 through October 25, 2014. Similarly to the 2013 ILO-led mission, it included eight monitoring units that were responsible for monitoring eight zones, which covered all the cotton-producing areas of Uzbekistan.(29) Each monitoring unit consisted of eight members, comprising representatives from the Trade Union Federation, the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection, the Chamber of Commerce and Industry, and the Women's Committees of Trade Unions. In 2014, several local community youth, health, and women's groups joined the monitoring units.(29) The monitoring teams conducted 714 site visits.(3)

The monitoring teams identified 41 children, ages 9 to 17, who were working in the cotton fields during the harvest in violation of Uzbekistan's labor laws. Children were found picking cotton in six of the eight zones, with nearly half of these cases in Samarkand Province.(29) As a result of these violations, the Government reported that the children were immediately removed from the fields and that warnings or fines were issued to 11 school principals, 3 farmers, and 6 foremen. Fines ranged from 3 to 10 times the individual's monthly salary.(29) No local government officials were cited in these cases, and the monitors did not identify any cases in which an entire school class was mobilized.(29)

A key finding of the ILO's 2013 monitoring mission report was that recordkeeping at schools and on district lists of cotton pickers were not maintained consistently across all zones.(13) Research did not find evidence that the Government took action to address this issue in advance of the 2014 harvest. The Government's official report on the 2014 harvest monitoring stated that attendance at secondary schools averaged 91 percent.(29) However, observers who independently reviewed attendance records at a sampling of schools found great disparity in attendance rates among institutions.(3)

Differences previously noted between monitoring results reported by the Government and reporting by independent observers indicate that the Government's current monitoring and enforcement regime does not sufficiently investigate, identify, and punish the range of reported violations. Among the reported violations inadequately addressed by the Government are the mobilization of entire classes of schoolchildren, the closure of secondary schools to mobilize students, and the potential involvement of local or regional government authorities (such as hokim or town mayors) in such mobilization.(3-7) In December, Government officials stated that they were also following up on published reports of child labor in the harvest from independent sources.(55) Besides the cases identified during the monitoring exercise, there were no other reported sanctions or prosecutions during the reporting period against those responsible for engaging children to work in the cotton harvest or in any form of child labor.

Criminal Law Enforcement

The Government provided statistics on human trafficking law enforcement, but did not disaggregate data on cases involving children. The Government reported that in 2014 it investigated 1,016 criminal cases of human trafficking, prosecuted 641 individuals and convicted 583 individuals.(56) In 2014, the Ministry of Interior (MOI) converted an existing law enforcement unit in Tashkent to a section focused on the prevention of human trafficking of Uzbekistani citizens planning to go abroad.(3, 35)

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The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

Coordination Council

Coordinate efforts to address child labor issues, including monitoring of the cotton harvest.(13, 29) In 2014, the Coordination Council received monitor training from the ILO, monitored the cotton harvest with ILO consultation, and cooperated in planning for a national survey on labor recruitment in agriculture.(29, 48)

Interagency Working Group

Coordinate efforts to address labor rights issues, including child labor.(53, 57, 58) Report to the ILO on the Government's implementation of ratified conventions, prevent forced labor, and protect working minors.(57-61)

Interagency Commission on Combating Trafficking in Persons

Oversee efforts to combat trafficking.(40, 62) Chaired by the Prosecutor General and includes representatives from other government entities, such as the Ministries of Labor and Social Protection, Interior, and Foreign Affairs; the National Security Service; and the State Customs Committee.(40)

Local interagency committees

Monitor human trafficking at the provincial, regional, and municipal levels.(40)

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The Government of Uzbekistan has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 7).

Table 7. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

Memorandum of Understanding Between the International Labor Organization and the Republic of Uzbekistan†

Establishes terms of agreement between the ILO and the Government on cooperation to implement a Decent Work Country Program in Uzbekistan from 2014-2016.(63) This agreement represents an important step toward implementation of recommendations of the ILO supervisory bodies, including utilizing ILO technical assistance and continuing to work with the ILO or other credible third parties to observe cotton harvests.(22, 64)

National Action Plan for the Application of ILO Conventions

Includes a National Policy on child labor issues.(16, 60, 65) Also covers forced labor.(48)

Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers No. 132 on Additional Measures to Ensure the Implementation of ILO Conventions†

Establishes actions and efforts to be taken to address the worst forms of child labor, and forced labor. Outlines additional activities to be implemented in 2014-2016 in response to ILO Convention requirements, including awareness-raising, monitoring of the cotton harvest, legal reform, data collection, and activities on the worst forms of child labor targeting government ministries, international organizations, students, trade unions, and employers.(66) Ministry of Labor and Social Protection is charged with implementation.(3)

National Plan of Action Against Trafficking in Persons (2013 — 2014)

Includes activities to enact legal reforms; conduct public awareness-raising; strengthen victim protections; and increase capacity for law enforcement bodies, ministries, agencies, and NGOs to combat human trafficking. (56)

Education Sector Plan (2013 — 2017)*

Defines the 5-year development strategy for the education sector and aims to ensure equal opportunities and quality education for all.(67)

* Child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy. † Policy was approved during the reporting period.

In August 2014, the Cabinet of Ministers affirmed in its internal meeting that the participation of children under age 18 in the cotton harvest was strictly prohibited, and this was broadly communicated through an awareness-raising campaign, including trainings for local officials, a public speech by the Prime Minister, posted announcements in schools, and school administrators' meetings with parents (although no official decree was published).(3, 7, 29, 30, 68) However, there are indications that such communications lacked a clear explanation of the legal standards and consequences for not observing the ban.(2) For example, at one college, parents were reportedly instructed to sign a letter pledging that their child would participate voluntarily in cotton picking.(7, 30)

Additionally, the national Government maintained cotton production policies that mandate harvest quotas and set crop prices at levels that offer strong incentives for local administrators to organize and impose forced labor, which create an ongoing risk that children may be mobilized.(1, 64, 69)

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In 2014, the Government of Uzbekistan funded and participated in programs that included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms. The Government has other programs that may have an impact on child labor, including its worst forms. (Table 8)

Table 8. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

After-School Programming†

Ministry of Public Education-implemented program during the cotton harvest to provide extracurricular sports and hobbies for students in order to prevent the use of child labor.(29)

Support to the Decent Work Country Program of the Republic of Uzbekistan†

USDOL-funded $2 million project awarded in December 2014 to the ILO to enhance the capacity of the Government and workers' and employers' representatives to prevent and reduce child labor and forced labor, and to promote decent work in Uzbekistan. (29, 70)

Global Partnership for Education†

Multilateral initiative to coordinate the efforts of developing countries, donors, international organizations, teachers, NGOs, and the private sector to secure universal access to quality education in the least-developed countries.(71, 72) In 2014, the Partnership endorsed the Government's Education Sector Plan and awarded a $50 million grant to Uzbekistan for its implementation in coordination with UNICEF and the World Bank. The program will promote child literacy and math skills; develop teachers' classroom skills; expand access to quality early childhood care and education in rural areas; raise the quality of secondary education; and increase the capacity of the Ministry of Public Education to monitor the education system.(71)

School Assistance*‡

Ministry of Public Education program that provides winter clothes and other educational resources to needy families to support their school attendance.(73)

Family Support Assistance*‡

Government of Uzbekistan program that provides an allowance to low-income families to be paid if their children continue their education up to age 18.(73)

Child Protection Assistance*

UNICEF program that engages with the Government of Uzbekistan to support the development of a national child protection system that will prevent and respond to children who are at risk of or have been subject to child abuse, exploitation, and violence.(74)

Child Rights Monitoring

UNICEF program that partners with local and regional governments, NGOs, and civil service training institutions to strengthen Uzbekistan's application and monitoring of obligations under the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.(75)

Shelter Support‡

Ministry of Labor and Social Protection operates a shelter for trafficking victims that provides victims with medical, psychological, legal, and vocational training.(21)

Awareness-raising‡

Government broadcasts developed in partnership with an anti-human- trafficking NGO to raise awareness of labor trafficking.(21)

Human Trafficking Hotlines‡

Ministry of Labor and Social Protection operates hotlines for reporting incidents of trafficking.(56)

Labor Hotlines‡

Trade unions and Ministry of Labor and Social Protection operate hotlines for workers to report labor violations.(3) There were indications during the reporting period that some hotlines were not operational, leaving gaps in the system for receiving and processing child labor complaints.(3, 5)

Cotton Picking Machine Provisions*‡

Government program that rents harvesting machines to farmers to help reduce the need for human cotton pickers.(3, 54) In 2014, a limited number of harvesters were available for rent.(3)

* The impact of this program on child labor does not appear to have been studied. † Program was approved during the reporting period. ‡ Program is funded by the Government of Uzbekistan.

Although the Government has implemented programs to combat child labor in the cotton harvest and to address human trafficking, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem.

During the reporting period, the Government engaged with international organizations in their efforts to develop a system for monitoring and remediating forced labor or child labor in the cotton sector among beneficiaries of agricultural and rural development projects. In response to international concerns about the risk that its portfolio of projects in Uzbekistan could incidentally support or use these prohibited forms of labor, the World Bank committed to create a mechanism for third-party monitoring and a feedback channel for child labor and forced labor complaints.(33, 76, 77) The Government actively participated in discussions regarding the design of these mechanisms and stated it would ensure labor standards are maintained during project implementation. Methodologies for forced labor monitoring and the feedback mechanism for child labor and forced labor complaints were still in a nascent state at the end of the year.(32, 76)

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Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Uzbekistan (Table 9).

Table 9. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Enforcement

 

Target labor and criminal inspections in areas where hazardous child labor is known to occur, especially in the cotton sector.

2011 — 2014

Allow independent observers unrestricted access to monitor the cotton harvest through unannounced site visits, and punish officials who threaten or detain observers in order to suppress information about labor violations.

2014

Publish updated information on investigations and convictions related to the worst forms of child labor and trafficking of children.

2011 — 2014

Strengthen recordkeeping in educational institutions and maintain up to date records of cotton workers' ages on district lists.

2013 — 2014

Establish a comprehensive cotton harvest monitoring and enforcement system that investigates worker complaints and third-party reports of school closings and mobilization of children under age 18 to work in the cotton harvest or other forms of child labor, and applies sanctions against responsible individuals, including local or regional government authorities (such as hokim or town mayors).

2012 -- 2014

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the Education Sector Plan.

2014

Strengthen efforts to raise awareness of the ban on child labor in the cotton harvest by developing and disseminating presentation materials that clearly explain the legal definition of prohibited child labor and the consequences of failing to abide by the law.

2014

Revise policies that mandate cotton harvest quotas to help prevent forced involvement of children under age 18 in the cotton harvest.

2012 — 2014

Conduct a national child labor survey.

2013 — 2014

Social Programs

Expand programs to address the worst forms of child labor, with a particular focus on children involved in cotton production.

2009 — 2014

Ensure that hotlines for child labor, forced labor, and other concerns about cotton harvest labor practices are fully operational and hotline personnel are trained and ready to provide assistance.

2014

Assess the impact that school assistance and family support programs may have on addressing child labor.

2011 — 2014

 

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1.Uzbek-German Forum for Human Rights. Preliminary Report on Forced Labor During Uzbekistan's 2014 Cotton Harvest November 7, 2014.

2.U.S. Department of Labor's Office of Child Labor, FL, and Human Trafficking,. Notes from discussion with U.S. Embassy-Tashkent official. Washington: March 18, 2015

3.U.S. Embassy- Tashkent. reporting, January 15, 2015.

4.U.S. Embassy- Tashkent. reporting, October 10, 2014

5.U.S. Embassy- Tashkent. reporting, October 24, 2014.

6.Uzbek-German Forum for Human Rights. "The Government's Riches, the People's Burden: Human Rights Violations in Uzbekistan's 2014 Cotton Harvest." (2015);

7.Rahmatullayev, T. "Cotton Campaign Chronicle in Uzbekistan: The issue of involving children in cotton picking remains unresolved." Central Asia News.

8.IWPR. "Child Labour Persists in Uzbek Cotton Industry." Turkish Weekly, Ankara, September 24, 2011.

9. "Uzbek Schoolchildren Forced to Weed Cotton Fields." Uznews.net. "Uzbek Schoolchildren Forced to Weed Cotton Fields." [source on file] May 16, 2013 [cited March 10, 2014];

10.Uzbek-German Forum for Human Rights. Chronicle of Forced Labor of Children and Adults: Issue 1. Berlin; June 5, 2013.

11.UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed April 8, 2014]; . Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. For more information, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.

12.UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from MICS3 Survey, 2006. Analysis received February 13, 2014. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children's work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.

13.ILO. ILO High Level Mission Report on the Monitoring of Child Labor. Geneva; December 2013.

14.Jong Chul Kim, Sejin Kim, and Il Lee. 2013 Field Investigation Report: Uzbekistan Seoul, Advocates for Public Interest Law; December 13, 2013.

15.Uzbek-German Forum for Human Rights. Human Rights Due Diligence and World Bank Funding in Uzbekistan's Agricultural Sector June 2014.

16.U.S. Department of State. "Uzbekistan," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2013. Washington, DC; February 27, 2014; .

17.Central Asia Economy Newswire. "Uzbek Children Breed Silkworms Despite Child Labor Ban." [online] September 6, 2010 [cited December 8, 2014]; .

18.Mirovalev, M. "Smooth as Silk? Not for Uzbekistan Farm Kids." Washington, DC, September 9, 2010; World News.

19.Farangis Najibullah, and Sadriddin Ashurov. "Uzbeks Toil To Keep Silk Industry's Traditions Alive." [online] March 12, 2013 [cited January 2, 2014]; .

20.UNCRC. Concluding observations on the combined third and fourth periodic reports of Uzbekistan, adopted by the Committee at its sixty-third session (27 May-14 June 2013). Geneva; July 10, 2013.

21.U.S. Embassy- Tashkent. reporting, February 18, 2015.

22.ILO Committee of Experts. "Report of the Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations," in International Labour Conference, 101st Session 2012; Geneva; .

23.Human Rights Watch. Uzbekistan: Forced Labor Widespread in Cotton Harvest, Human Rights Watch, [online] January 26, 2013 [cited January 16, 2014]; .

24.Uzbek-German Forum for Human Rights, Cotton Campaign. Review of the 2012 Cotton Harvest in Uzbekistan. Berlin; December 20, 2012.http://www.cottoncampaign.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/Review2012_CottonHarvestUzbekistan.pdf.

25.Responsible Sourcing Network. From the Field: Travels of Uzbek Cotton through the Value Chain. Oakland; 2012. .

26.ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Uzbekistan (ratification: 2008) Published: 2012; accessed March 10, 2015; .

27.New York Times. "In Uzbekistan, the Practice of Forced Labor Lives on During the Cotton Harvest." New York, December 17, 2013.

28.U.S. Embassy- Tashkent. reporting, February 14, 2014.

29.Coordination Council for the Problems of Child Labor in the Republic of Uzbekistan. Minutes No. 5 About the Results of the National Monitoring of Child Labour in Cotton Harvest in 2014 and the Recommendations for the Governmental Authorities, Ministries, Agencies and Civil Society Institutes. Tashkent, November 3, 2014.

30.U.S. Embassy- Tashkent. reporting, September 19, 2014.

31.U.S. Department of Labor's Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking. Summary of Interviews with Human Rights Advocates in Uzbekistan. December 4, 2014

32.U.S. Department of Labor's Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking. Summary of Interview with World Bank staffperson. December 3, 2014

33.World Bank Inspection Panel. Republic of Uzbekistan: Second Rural Enterprise Support Project (P109126) and Additional Financing for the Second Rural Enterprise Support Project (P126962): Final Eligibility Report and Recommendation on a Request for Inspection; 2015 December 19, 2014. .

34.Office of Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Human Trafficking. Notes from discussion with World Bank staffperson. May 8, 2015

35.U.S. Embassy- Tashkent. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 16, 2015

36.U.S. Embassy- Tashkent. reporting, September 26, 2014.

37.U.S. Embassy- Tashkent official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 28, 2015

38.Office of Child Labor, FL, and Human Trafficking,. Notes from Discussion with U.S. Embassy- Tashkent official. June 18, 2015

39.U.S. Department of State. "Uzbekistan," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2014. Washington, D.C.; June 20, 2014; .

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