Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Uruguay

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Uruguay

2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2015, Uruguay made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government published and distributed a resource guide for police and investigators on responding to cases of human trafficking and child commercial sexual exploitation. The Anti-Trafficking Interagency Committee drafted an action plan for Ministry of the Interior officers and the Government continued to fund existing social programs to address the worst forms of child labor. However, children in Uruguay continue to engage in the worst forms of child labor in garbage scavenging and commercial sexual exploitation. The Government does not collect or publish comprehensive labor and criminal law enforcement statistics or implement sufficient programs to prevent and eliminate the worst forms of child labor.

Expand All

Children in Uruguay are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in garbage scavenging and commercial sexual exploitation.(1-12) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Uruguay.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

6.1 (31,955)

Working children by sector, ages 5 to 14 (%):

 

Agriculture

28.4

Industry

12.5

Services

59.1

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

97.8

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

6.5

Primary completion rate (%):

104.3

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2010, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(13)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Encuesta Nacional de Trabajo Infantil (MTI), 2009.(14)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Livestock raising,† activities unknown (1, 11, 15)

Fishing,*† activities unknown (1, 15)

Industry

Construction work† in buildings and roads (1, 4, 5, 9, 11, 12, 15, 16)

Manufacturing,*† activities unknown (1)

Services

Street work,† including begging† and street vending† (2-5, 9, 11, 12, 15, 17-19)

Garbage scavenging† and recycling† (5, 9, 11, 12, 15-17, 20)

Domestic work† (1-4, 7, 15)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Forced domestic work* (2)

Used in the production of child pornography* (9, 12)

Commercial sexual exploitation sometimes as a result of human trafficking (6-10, 12, 18, 21)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

The 2009 National Child Labor Survey found that 11.6 percent of children between ages 5 and 17 were engaged in some form of economic activity, and of these children, 8.5 percent were engaged in work considered to be hazardous. Children are more likely to work in rural areas, and children of Afro descent are more likely to be engaged in work, particularly hazardous work, than children of other ethnic groups in Uruguay.(1, 22, 23) Children from rural areas and Afro-descendant children are also subjected to discrimination in the education system and have high secondary school dropout rates.(15)

The Ministry of Social Development (MIDES) and the National Statistics Institute have estimated that approximately 20,000 children work with their parents in recycling activities derived from collecting and sorting garbage in the streets and at home.(17, 24) A March 2013 MIDES report revealed that children in 1,211 homes in Montevideo, where families sort garbage and recyclables, live in unsanitary and unhealthy conditions. More than 70 percent of these children live in chronic poverty.(5, 17)

Children are victims of commercial sexual exploitation, especially in tourist areas and near the borders of Uruguay with Argentina and Brazil. There are limited reports that minors engage in prostitution as a way to help provide income for their families.(2-4, 6) The Government identified the provinces of Canelones, Cerro Largo, Colonia, Lavalleja, Maldonado, Paysandú, Rio Negro, Rocha, San Jose, and Treinta y Tres, as well as the capital, Montevideo, as the primary areas of recruitment for trafficking in persons.(25)

Uruguay has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Article 162 of the Code for Children and Adolescents; Article 7 of the Youth Employment Law (26, 27)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 163 of the Code for Children and Adolescents; Article 93 of Decree No. 321/009; Article 7 of the Youth Employment Law (26-28)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Section A, Articles 1–7 of Resolution 1012/006 (29)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 15 of the Code for Children and Adolescents; Articles 7 and 53 of the Constitution; Articles 77–79 and 81 of the Migration Law; Article 6 of the Commercial or Non-Commercial Sexual Violence Committed Against Children Law (26, 30-32)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 15 of the Code for Children and Adolescents; Article 81 of the Migration Law; Article 6 of the Commercial or Non-Commercial Sexual Violence Committed Against Children Law (26, 31, 32)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 15 of the Code for Children and Adolescents; Article 81 of the Migration Law; Articles 1–6 of the Commercial or Non-Commercial Sexual Violence Committed Against Children Law; Articles 2, 26, and 30 of the Sex Work Law (26, 31-33)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 59 of the Narcotics Law (34, 35)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

N/A*

 

 

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

18

Article 4 of the Military Training Law (36)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

17‡

Article 7 of the General Education Law (11, 37-39)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 71 of the Constitution; Articles 15 and 16 of the General Education Law (30, 37)

* No conscription (40)
‡ Age calculated based on available information (11, 37-39)

In July 2015, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs signed a cooperative memorandum with the IOM to draft a comprehensive anti-human trafficking law.(41)

Uruguay’s General Education Law establishes compulsory education for children from age 4 through secondary school. The Government of Uruguay has indicated that education is compulsory up to age 17, if the student does not fall behind.(11, 37, 39) Article 165 of the Code for Children and Adolescents allows the Institute for Adolescents and Children (INAU) to grant permission to children ages 13 to 15 to engage in light work. However, the Government of Uruguay has not specified what occupations constitute light work, or the hours and conditions in which this work can be undertaken.(20, 26) The Code for Children and Adolescents establishes a general prohibition against hazardous work for children under age 18, and Decree No. 321 identifies the agricultural sector as hazardous, prohibiting children under age 18 from working in this sector. Although Decree No. 321 establishes penalties for violations related to underage work in agriculture, research did not find information on penalties related to underage hazardous work outside the agricultural sector.(28, 29)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor and Social Security (MTSS)

Monitor the overall enforcement of labor laws and compliance with labor regulations, and issue penalties for violations. Responsible for the legal protection of workers, including identifying locations and conditions in which child labor may occur.(5, 17, 42-44) Inspectors refer child labor cases to the Institute for Adolescents and Children (INAU).(11)

INAU

Lead government efforts to assist children in Uruguay, including those employed within the informal sector.(2, 45) Enforce and implement policies to prevent child labor and provide training on child labor issues.(44) Evaluate permit requests and grant work permits, ensuring that children under age 18 are not employed in hazardous work. Support child welfare and protection, and coordinate services for children found in child labor.(5, 17, 44, 46) Work with the MTSS and the National Insurance Bank to investigate child labor complaints, and with the Ministry of the Interior (MOI) to prosecute cases when legal violations are found.(47) The responsibilities of INAU’s Department of Child Labor include (1) preventing and monitoring the participation of minors in work activities that might adversely affect welfare and development; (2) monitoring work conditions and environment, as well as legislation on minors; (3) investigating all accidents and complaints of irregularities at the national level; and (4) proposing amendments and regulations of current legislation regarding child labor.(48)

MOI

Investigate all organized crimes, including child trafficking, commercial sexual exploitation of children, and the use of children in narcotics operations. Gather evidence for a judge to make a ruling.(3, 21, 47) Children identified as victims of the worst forms of child labor through MOI investigations can be placed under the protection or custody of INAU.(3)

Specialized Court for Organized Crime

Mandate police investigations for cases related to organized crime. Operated by two judges in Montevideo and two public prosecutors.(3, 21, 49-51)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2015, labor law enforcement agencies in Uruguay took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$358,000,000 (11)

Unknown (11)

Number of Labor Inspectors

160 (20)

150 (11)

Number of Child Labor Dedicated Inspectors

10 (20)

7 (11)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (20)

Yes (11)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

No (11)

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

No (11)

Unknown

Number of Labor Inspections

20,063 (52)

17,102 (52)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown

Unknown

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown* (11)

Unknown* (11)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown* (11)

Unknown* (11)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

Unknown* (11)

Unknown* (11)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (53)

Yes (11)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (53)

Yes (11)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (20)

Yes (11)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (11)

Yes (11)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (11)

Yes (11)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (11)

Yes (11)

* The Government does not make this information publicly available.

Information regarding 2015 funding levels and training for the labor inspectorate will be released in 2016. The Government does not collect annual statistics related to the number of child labor violations, penalties, investigations, prosecutions, or convictions due to their low incidence.(11) The Ministry of Labor and Social Security classifies hotline complaints under child labor only if the phrase “child labor” is specifically mentioned, which may result in underreporting of child labor cases.(3)

The high number of inspections that each inspector conducts may compromise the effectiveness of the inspections. In addition, INAU conducts the majority of its inspections in Montevideo, the capital, despite evidence from the National Child Labor Survey indicating that most child labor occurs in rural areas.(3, 11, 17, 53)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2015, criminal law enforcement agencies in Uruguay took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

No (11)

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

No (11)

Yes (41)

Number of Investigations

Unknown* (20)

Unknown* (11)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown* (20)

Unknown* (11)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

5 (41)

16 (41)

Number of Convictions

Unknown* (20)

Unknown* (11)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (11)

Yes (11)

* The Government does not make this information publicly available.

Cases of commercial sexual exploitation of children are not investigated and prosecuted effectively in Uruguay.(15) In 2015, the Ministry of the Interior updated operational plans and drafted protocols for specialized police units to address human trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation of children. During the reporting period, the Government also published and distributed a resource guide for police and investigators on responding to cases of human trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation of children.(41)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

Committee for the Eradication of Child Labor (CETI)

Coordinate efforts between law enforcement bureaus and NGOs to develop a plan of action for child laborers and their families.(45) Led by the MTSS and INAU, chaired by the Inspector General, and coordinated by the Sub-Inspector General of the MTSS. Composed of government agencies, industry representatives, labor groups, and NGOs; meets every 2 weeks.(2, 17, 54, 55)

National Committee for the Eradication of Sexual Exploitation of Children and Adolescents (CONAPEES)

Implement actions to combat the sexual exploitation of children and adolescents.(2, 3) Develop public policies and a national plan of action on the commercial sexual exploitation of children and adolescents, taking into account Uruguay’s existing norms and international commitments. Led by INAU and composed of representatives from several government agencies, NGOs, and UNICEF.(54)

Interagency Committee to Prevent and Fight Human Trafficking

Coordinate Uruguay’s anti-human trafficking efforts. Chaired by the Ministry of Social Development (MIDES).(2, 3, 41) In May 2015, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and MOI sponsored a conference for 60 officials from both agencies to exchange experiences and discuss how to integrate their response to human trafficking and the commercial sexual exploitation of children. In August 2015, began working with a consultant to draft the new anti-human trafficking law.(41)

 

In 2015, increased coordination between the Ministry of Labor and Social Security and INAU resulted in systematic information sharing, including interconnected databases.(11)

The Government of Uruguay has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

Plan to Combat Child Labor (2010–2015)

Includes a range of programs intended to affect child labor. Major focus areas include social and labor inclusion, citizen participation, social and educational inclusion, awareness raising, and programs giving special benefits to youth and populations at risk.(11, 20) Implemented by MIDES.(11)

MERCOSUR Social Labor Declaration of 2015†

Aims to promote decent work and sustainable development in the five member states of MERCOSUR, in part through commitments to uphold core labor standards, including the elimination of forced labor, the prevention and elimination of child labor, and the protection of adolescent work. Signed in Brasilia, Brazil in July 2015.(56, 57)

MERCOSUR United Against Child Labor Campaign

Develops public awareness about the need to combat child labor in MERCOSUR. Addresses child labor in agriculture, domestic work, and sexual exploitation, with particular emphasis on communities along country borders.(58)

MERCOSUR Southern Child Initiative

Aims to defend the rights of children and adolescents in the region by raising awareness and seeking coordination among member states regarding child labor, including child trafficking and the commercial sexual exploitation of children, and migrant labor by harmonizing country legal frameworks with international conventions affecting children and by exchanging best practices.(59)

Second Presidential Declaration on the Prevention and Eradication of Child Labor in MERCOSUR

Promotes greater articulation among governmental agencies, levels of government, and civil society for MERCOSUR members.(60)

Declaration of the Regional Initiative: Latin America and the Caribbean Free of Child Labor (2014–2020)

Aims to increase regional cooperation on eradicating child labor by 2020 through signatories’ efforts to strengthen monitoring and coordination mechanisms, government programs, and South-South exchanges. Reaffirms commitments made in the Brasilia Declaration from the Third Global Conference on Child Labor (October 2013), and signed by Uruguay at the ILO’s 18th Regional Meeting of the Americas in Lima, Peru (October 2014).(61, 62)

Declaration of Cancún and Plan of Action (2015)†

In 2015, the Government of Uruguay participated in the XIX Inter-American Conference of Ministers of Labor to promote decent work with social inclusion throughout the Americas, held in Cancún, Mexico. Participating countries adopted the declaration, which aims in part to foster policies to eliminate labor exploitation, including child labor, and to promote education and vocational training for youth.(63, 64) Participating countries also adopted the Plan of Action, which prioritizes the elimination of child labor, including through data collection, enforcement of labor laws, and the development of social protection policies for children and families.(63, 65)

National Action Plan to End Child Labor in Garbage Scavenging

Seeks to combat child labor in garbage dumps through specific projects that involve education, health care, housing, and law enforcement agencies. Launched by CETI and implemented by government agencies, including the MTSS and MIDES.(5, 17) CETI members are finalizing a draft protocol of action for the detection and assistance of child laborers in garbage collection. In 2014, the plan was expanded to study child labor in rural areas to eliminate the worst forms of child labor in agriculture.(20)

CONAPEES National Plan for the Eradication of Commercial and Non-Commercial Child and Adolescent Exploitation

Works to eliminate the commercial sexual exploitation of children. Focuses on goals that include strengthening victims’ rights, improving protection measures for victims and witnesses, keeping children in school, reintegrating children who had previously left school, and developing alternative income strategies for families.(2, 3)

Presidential Decree: Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children and Adolescents: Obligations of Tourism Operators

Requires tourism operators to raise awareness, take preventive actions, and report incidents of commercial sexual exploitation of children to the Ministry of Tourism and CONAPEES.(25, 66)

National Strategy for Childhood and Adolescence (2010–2030)*

Identifies goals to be achieved by 2030. Developed by government agencies, political parties, civil society, and private-sector organizations; recognized as a roadmap for policies on children.(2, 67)

* Child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy.
† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

In 2015, members of the Anti-Trafficking Interagency Committee drafted an action plan for Ministry of the Interior officers.  The plan is currently under ministerial level review.(41, 68)

In 2015, the Government of Uruguay funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Pro-Child (Pro-Niño)†

Program implemented by Telefónica Foundation focused on prevention and eradication of child labor. Established in 2000; has more than 10,000 active youth participants nationwide.(2, 69)

MIDES Youth Affairs Bureau Programs†

MIDES Youth Affairs Bureau implements three programs intended to help eliminate the worst forms of child labor: (1) Participation, Citizenship, and Culture; (2) Education and Educational Integration; and (3) Training and Work.(20)

Regional Project to End Child Labor in Latin America

(2011–2015)

$4.5 million Government of Spain-funded, 3-year project implemented by ILO-IPEC to combat child labor.(70)

Uruguay, a country of good treatment (2014–2015)

Ministry of Tourism and NGO Claves joint awareness-raising campaign to eliminate commercial sexual exploitation of children and educate on the rights of children and adolescents, while promoting their protection in tourist areas.(71)

Southern Child Initiative/MERCOSUR (Niñ@ Sur)

MERCOSUR initiative that includes public campaigns against child labor, including child trafficking and the commercial sexual exploitation of children; mutual technical assistance in raising domestic legal frameworks to international standards on those issues; and the exchange of best practices related to victim protection and assistance.(72, 73)

Regional Action Group for the Americas (Grupo de Acción Regional para las Américas)

Regional program that conducts prevention and awareness-raising campaigns to combat the commercial sexual exploitation of children in Latin America. Members include Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela.(72, 74)

National Plan of Equality†

Institute for Social Security program that mandates that beneficiaries have their children attend school and receive medical services. Established the Family Allocations Program, a conditional cash transfer program to reduce national poverty levels and assist working families with their children, as well as families in need.(75-77)

† Program is funded by the Government of Uruguay.

Although the Government of Uruguay has adopted plans to address child labor in garbage scavenging, agriculture, and commercial sexual exploitation, research did not find evidence of any existing or planned social programs to assist working children in these or other sectors.(17, 20) In particular, there are insufficient programs and services available to assist child victims of commercial sexual exploitation.(10) In 2015, the Government continued to fund social programs to eliminate poverty and increase social inclusion to eliminate child labor, however, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem.(20)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Uruguay (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that the laws governing light work identify the activities that children between ages 13 and 15 can undertake, and regulate the hours and conditions permissible for light work to ensure that children are not exposed to hazardous labor.

2012 – 2015

Ensure there are legal penalties for violations related to all hazardous occupations prohibited for children.

2010 – 2015

Enforcement

Make publicly available information on the labor inspectorate’s funding, the training system for labor inspectors, the number of labor inspections conducted at worksites and by desk review, and the number of child labor violations found and for which penalties were imposed and collected.

2015

Institute systematic recordkeeping of child labor cases.

2009 – 2015

Provide MTSS hotline operators with more comprehensive guidelines to allow proper classification of calls regarding child labor.

2011 – 2015

Employ sufficient labor inspectors who are responsible for enforcing laws related to child labor to provide adequate coverage of the workforce without compromising the quality of inspections.

2013 – 2015

Increase the number of inspections in rural areas where child labor violations are likely to occur.

2011 – 2015

Make publicly available information on the training system for criminal investigators as well as the number of investigations, violations, prosecutions, and convictions related to the worst forms of child labor.

2013 – 2015

Strengthen government capacity to identify, investigate, and prosecute cases of commercial sexual exploitation of children.

2015

Government Policies

Integrate child labor prevention and elimination strategies into the National Strategy for Childhood and Adolescence.

2014 – 2015

Social Programs

Conduct research to determine the nature of activities carried out by children working with livestock, in fishing, and in manufacturing to inform policies and programs.

2013 – 2015

Implement programs to eliminate discrimination in the education system and promote secondary school completion for children from rural areas and Afro-descendant children.

2015

Implement programs to provide assistance to child laborers, including those engaged in agricultural work, garbage scavenging, and commercial sexual exploitation.

2010 – 2015

 

1.         ILO-IPEC and National Statistical Institute of Uruguay. Magnitud y Características del Trabajo Infantil en Uruguay; 2011. http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/viewProduct.do?productId=17355.

2.         U.S. Embassy- Montevideo. reporting, January 31, 2013.

3.         U.S. Embassy- Montevideo. reporting, January 20, 2012.

4.         Diario Cambio. "Explotación Infantil." diariocambio.com.uy [online] September 2, 2012 [cited April 29, 2014]; http://www.diariocambio.com.uy/index.php?id=25642.

5.         U.S. Department of State. "Uruguay," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2013. Washington, DC; February 27, 2014; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm#wrapper

6.         Cariboni, D. "Child Sex Crimes: Uruguay’s Ugly Hidden Face." ipsnews.net [online] January 5, 2015 [cited November 15, 2015]; http://www.ipsnews.net/2015/01/child-sex-crimes-uruguays-ugly-hidden-face/.

7.         "Trabajo infantil: unos 67.000 menores trabajan en Uruguay." La Republica, Montevideo, June 20, 2015. http://www.republica.com.uy/67000-menores/522306/.

8.         U.S. Department of State. "Uruguay," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015. Washington, DC; July 27, 2015; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/243562.pdf.

9.         U.S. Department of State. "Uruguay," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2014. Washington, DC; June 25, 2015; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/236934.pdf.

10.       UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Concluding observations on the initial report submitted by Uruguay under article 12, paragraph 1, of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography. Geneva; March 6, 2015. Report No. CRC/C/OPSC/URY/CO/1. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fOPSC%2fURY%2fCO%2f1&Lang=en.

11.       U.S. Embassy- Montevideo. reporting, January 11, 2016.

12.       U.S. Department of State. "Uruguay," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2015. Washington, DC; April 13, 2016; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/253259.pdf.

13.       UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed December 16, 2015]; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. Because the calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age), the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

14.       UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Encuesta Nacional de Trabajo Infantil (MTI), 2009. Analysis received December 18, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

15.       UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Concluding observations on the combined third to fifth periodic reports of Uruguay. Geneva; March 5, 2015. Report No. CRC/C/URY/CO/3-5. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fURY%2fCO%2f3-5&Lang=en.

16.       INAU. Memoria Anual INAU 2013. Montevideo; January 2014. http://www.inau.gub.uy/index.php/memorias-anuales/item/download/50_d6bdbffebaa02c0e8b7debd9828cd285.

17.       U.S. Embassy- Montevideo. reporting, January 17, 2014.

18.       International Trade Union Confederation. Internationally recognised core labour standards in Uruguay: report for the WTO General Council review of the trade policies of Uruguay. Geneva; April 2012. http://www.hrw.org/news/2012/05/01/uruguay-first-ratify-domestic-workers-convention.

19.       U.S. Department of State. "Uruguay," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2012. Washington, DC; April 19, 2013; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm#wrapper

20.       U.S. Embassy- Montevideo. reporting, January 12, 2015.

21.       U.S. Department of State. "Uruguay," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2012. Washington, DC; June 19, 2012; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/192598.pdf.

22.       Fundacion Telefonica. Trabajo infantil en niños, niñas y adolescentes Afrodescendientes en Uruguay: Descubriendo horizontes de integración; 2012. http://demo.tensai.com.uy/gurises_dev/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/TI_en_nios_nias_y_adolescentes_afrodescendientes_en_Uruguay._descubriendo_horizontes_de_integracin.pdf.

23.       Diario La República. En Uruguay trabajan unos 27.000 niños afrodescendientes, República, [online] [cited May 19, 2014]; http://www.republica.com.uy/trabajo-infantil-2/.

24.       U.S. Embassy- Montevideo official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 8, 2015.

25.       U.S. Embassy- Montevideo. reporting, February 18, 2015.

26.       Government of Uruguay. Código de la niñéz y la adolescencia, enacted August 9, 2004. http://archivo.presidencia.gub.uy/ley/2004090801.htm.

27.       Government of Uruguay. Ley Nº 19.133 Empleo Juvenil, enacted September 11, 2013. http://www.parlamento.gub.uy/leyes/AccesoTextoLey.asp?Ley=19133&Anchor=.

28.       Government of Uruguay. Decreto Nº 321/009, enacted July 9, 2009. http://www.impo.com.uy/descargas/decreto%20321_009.pdf.

29.       Government of Uruguay. Resolución 1012/006 del directorio de INAU, enacted May 29, 2006. http://cetiuruguay.org/normativa/resoluciones/40-resolucion-1012006-del-directorio-de-inau.html.

30.       Government of Uruguay. Constitución de la República, enacted 2004. http://www.parlamento.gub.uy/constituciones/const004.htm.

31.       Government of Uruguay. Ley Nº 18.250 Migración enacted January 6, 2008. http://www.oas.org/dil/esp/Ley_Migraciones_Uruguay.pdf.

32.       Government of Uruguay. Ley Nº 17.815 violencia sexual comercial no cometida contra niños, adolescentes o incapaces, enacted September 6, 2004. http://www.oas.org/juridico/spanish/cyb_uru_Ley%2017815_Viol_Sexual.pdf.

33.       Government of Uruguay. Ley Nº 17.515 Trabajo Sexual, enacted July 4, 2002. http://docs.uruguay.justia.com/nacionales/leyes/ley-17515-jul-4-2002.pdf.

34.       Government of Uruguay. Se regula su comercializacion y uso y se establecen medidas contra el comercio ilicito de las drogas, Ley No 14.294, enacted November 11, 1974.

35.       Government of Uruguay. Díctanse normas referentes a estupefacientes y sustancias que determinen física o psíquica, Ley No 17.016, enacted October 28, 1998.

36.       Government of Uruguay. Ley Nº 9.943 Instruccion Militar, enacted July 20, 1940. http://www.parlamento.gub.uy/leyes/AccesoTextoLey.asp?Ley=09943&Anchor.

37.       Government of Uruguay. Ley General de Educación, 18.437, enacted December 12, 2008. http://www.parlamento.gub.uy/leyes/AccesoTextoLey.asp?Ley=18437&Anchor.

38.       Ministerio de Educación y Cultura. Anuario Estadístico de Educación 2013. Montevideo; December 2014. http://educacion.mec.gub.uy/innovaportal/file/927/1/anuario_2013.pdf

39.       U.S. Embassy- Montevideo official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 12, 2015.

40.       Government of Uruguay. Ley Nº 18.650 ley marco de defensa nacional, enacted February 19, 2010. http://www.parlamento.gub.uy/leyes/AccesoTextoLey.asp?Ley=18650&Anchor.

41.       U.S. Embassy- Montevideo. reporting, February 10, 2016.

42.       MTSS. Inspección General del Trabajo y de la Seguridad Social, MTSS, [online] [cited April 21, 2016]; http://www.mtss.gub.uy/web/mtss/inspeccion-general-del-trabajo-y-la-seguridad-social.

43.       MTSS. Inspecciónes, MTSS, [online] [cited April 21, 2016]; http://www.mtss.gub.uy/web/mtss/inspecciones.

44.       ITUC-CSI. "INFORME PARA EL EXAMEN POR PARTE DEL CONSEJO GENERAL DE LA OMC DE LAS POLÍTICA S COMERCIALES DE URUGUAY," in Normas fundamentales del trabajo internacionalmente reconocidos en Uruguay; April 25 and 27, 2012; Geneva: CSI; http://www.ituc-csi.org/IMG/pdf/final_uruguay_tpr_es.pdf.

45.       U.S. Department of State official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 21, 2012.

46.       INAU. Historia, INAU, [online ] May 12, 2014 [cited April 21, 2016]; http://www.inau.gub.uy/index.php/institucional/historia.

47.       U.S. Embassy- Montevideo official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 18, 2014.

48.       INAU. Manual de Funciones. Montevideo, INAU; April 2010. http://www.inau.gub.uy/index.php/institucional/marco-normativo/item/1654-manual-de-funciones.

49.       U.S. Embassy- Montevideo official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 15, 2015.

50.       U.S. Embassy- Montevideo official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 23, 2013.

51.       Poder Judicial. Juzgados y sus competencias, Poder Judicial, [online] [cited February 19, 2016]; http://www.poderjudicial.gub.uy/institucional/poder-judicial/juzgados-y-tribunales.html.

52.       Secretaría del Trabajo y Previsión Social Banco de Buenas Practicas Sobre Inspección Laboral en Iberoamérica. Uruguay - Ficha de país; accessed July 14, 2016; http://bancoinspeccioniberoamerica.stps.gob.mx/Publico/Index.aspx.

53.       INAU. Memoria Anual INAU 2014. Montevideo; January 2015. http://www.inau.gub.uy/index.php/memorias-anuales.

54.       CONAPEES. CONAPEES - Explotación sexual comercial de niñas, niños y adolescentes en Uruguay, CETI, [online] [cited March 19, 2014]; http://www.nohayexcusas.org.uy/conapees.html.

55.       MTSS. MTSS Organización y Estructura, MTSS, [online] [cited April 21, 2016]; http://www.mtss.gub.uy/web/mtss/unidades-organizativas-igtss.

56.       Las Presidentas y los Presidentes de los Estados Partes del Mercado Común del Sur. "Declaración Sociolaboral del MERCOSUR del 2015." July 17, 2015 [cited May 25, 2016]; http://www.mercosur.int/innovaportal/file/4506/1/es_declaracion-sociolaboral.pdf.

57.       MERCOSUR. "Cumbre MERCOSUR aprueba nueva Declaración Sociolaboral." [online] July 17, 2015 [cited June 8, 2016]; http://www.mercosur.int/innovaportal/v/6936/2/innova.front/cumbre-mercosur-aprueba-nueva-declaracion-sociolaboral.

58.       ILO. "El MERCOSUR unido contra el trabajo infantil." ilo.org [online] April 13, 2012 [cited May 15, 2014]; http://www.ilo.org/global/about-the-ilo/newsroom/news/WCMS_178923/lang--es/index.htm.

59.       Secretaria de Derechos Humanos, Ministerio de Justicia y Derechos Humanos, and UNICEF Oficina de Argentina. Iniciativa Niñ@Sur- Recomendaciones sobre derechos y asistencia a las niñas, niños, y adolescentes víctimas de trata, tráfico, explotación sexual y/o venta. Buenos Aires, UNICEF; 2014. http://www.unicef.org/argentina/spanish/iniciativa_ninio_sur.pdf.

60.       ILO. Tercer Programa de Trabajo Decente por País para Argentina, período 2012 a 2015. Buenos Aires, ILO; 2013. http://www.ilo.org/buenosaires/programas-trabajo-decente-argentina/WCMS_206417/lang--es/index.htm.

61.       ILO. "18th American Regional Meeting - Latin America and Caribbean Sign a Declaration to Free the Region from Child Labour." [online] October 17, 2014 [cited December 1, 2014]; http://www.ilo.org/caribbean/WCMS_314428/lang--en/index.htm.

62.       United Nations News Centre. "At UN-backed forum, Latin American, Caribbean nations pledge robust efforts against child labour." un.org [online] October 15, 2014 [cited 2015]; http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=49082#.VHyeYdLF98E.

63.       Organization of American States. Meeting of the XIX Inter-American Conference of Ministers of Labor (IACML) - List of Participants, [previously online] [cited December 15, 2015]; http://www.oas.org/en/sedi/dsi/labor_and_employment/pages/cpo_trab_IIPreparatoryXIX_IACML.asp [source on file].

64.       Organization of American States. Meeting of the XIX Inter-American Conference of Ministers of Labor (IACML) - Declaration of Cancún 2015: "Achieving Decent Work with Social Inclusion and Sustainable Development in the Americas", [previously online] [cited December 15, 2015]; https://www.oas.org/en/sedi/dsi/labor_and_employment/pages/cpo_trab_XIX_cimt.asp#DOCUMENTS1 [source on file].

65.       Organization of American States. Meeting of the XIX Inter-American Conference of Ministers of Labor (IACML) - Plan of Action of Cancún: "Achieving Decent Work with Social Inclusion and Sustainable Development in the Americas", [previously online] [cited December 15, 2015]; https://www.oas.org/en/sedi/dsi/labor_and_employment/pages/cpo_trab_XIX_cimt.asp#DOCUMENTS1 [source on file].

66.       Government of Uruguay. Explotación sexual comercial de niñas, niños y adolescentes. Obligaciones de los operadores turísticos., Decree 398/013, enacted December 13, 2013. http://www.impo.com.uy/descargas/decreto%20321_009.pdf.

67.       José Mujica, Pedro Bordaberry, Pablo Mieres, and Luis Alberto Lacalle. Declaration for childhood and adolescence in Uruguay Montevideo; October 2009.

68.       U.S. Embassy- Montevideo official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 2, 2016.

69.       Lima, ME. "Escolares Piden a Mujica Que "Rete a Los Padres de Niños Que Trabajan"." elpais.com [online] June 13, 2012 [cited April 29, 2014]; http://www.elpais.com.uy/120613/pciuda-646056/ciudades/Ninos-le-entregan-20-ideas-a-Mujica/.

70.       ILO-IPEC Geneva official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. January 9, 2015.

71.       Buentrato.org. Uruguay, País de Buentrato, Claves, [online] [cited February 19, 2016]; http://www.buentrato.org.uy/pais-de-buentrato/.

72.       Mercosur. Reunión de la Comisión Permanente para la Coordinación e Implementación de las Acciones Relativas a la Iniciativa Niñ@ Sur para la Protección y Promoción de los Derechos de los Niños y Niñas y Adolescentes. previously online http://www.niniosur.com/pdf/actabsas.pdf [source on file].

73.       Niñ@Sur. Quienes Participan?, Niñ@Sur, [previously online] [cited February 13, 2013]; http://www.niniosur.com/index2.asp?id=124 [source on file].

74.       Grupo de Acción Regional de las Américas. Paises Participantes, Grupo de Acción Regional de las Américas, Grupo de Acción Regional de las Américas, [online] [cited April 21, 2016]; http://www.grupodeaccionregional.gob.ec/.

75.       Veronica Amarante, Mery Ferrando, and Andrea Vigorito. School Attendance, Child Labor and Cash Transfers. An Impact Evaluation of PANES. Quebec, Poverty & Economic Research Network; December 2011. portal.pep-net.org/documents/download/id/18233.

76.       Republica Oriental del Uruguay. Plan de Equidad; February 22, 2010. http://www.mides.gub.uy/innovaportal/file/913/1/plan_equidad_def.pdf.

77.       Social Security Bank. Asignaciones Familiares, Social Security Bank, [online] [cited April 29, 2014]; http://www.bps.gub.uy/5470/asignacion_familiar.html.

Related Content