Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Turkey

Citrus Fruits
Citrus Fruits
Child Labor Icon
Cotton
Cotton
Child Labor Icon
Cumin
Cumin
Child Labor Icon
Furniture
Furniture
Child Labor Icon
Hazelnuts
Hazelnuts
Child Labor Icon
Peanuts
Peanuts
Child Labor Icon
Pulses (Legumes)
Pulses (Legumes)
Child Labor Icon
Sugar Beets
Sugar Beets
Child Labor Icon
Footwear
Footwear
Child Labor Icon
Garments
Garments
Child Labor Icon
Turkey
2018 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2018, Turkey made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The government signed a Joint Declaration on the Elimination of Child Labor, declaring 2018 as the Year of Elimination of Child Labor. In addition, 355 labor inspectors, 81 provincial directors, and 320 teachers were trained on child labor. The Integrated Model for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor in Seasonal Agriculture in Hazelnut Harvesting prevented 1,022 children from working in hazelnut harvesting and was extended to 2020. However, children in Turkey engage in the worst forms of child labor, including commercial sexual exploitation and recruitment by non-state armed groups. Children also perform dangerous tasks in seasonal agriculture and in small and medium manufacturing enterprises. Uneven enforcement resulted in insufficient protection of children employed in child labor. In addition, prohibition of compulsory recruitment of children by non-state armed groups does not meet international standards.

Children in Turkey engage in the worst forms of child labor, including commercial sexual exploitation and recruitment by non-state armed groups. Children also perform dangerous tasks in seasonal agriculture and in small and medium manufacturing enterprises. (1-6) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Turkey.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

6 to 14

2.6 (320,254)

Working children by sector

6 to 14

 

Agriculture

 

57.1

Industry

 

15.8

Services

 

27.1

Attending School (%)

6 to 14

92.4

Combining Work and School (%)

6 to 14

1.6

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

92.5

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2015, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2019. (7)
Source for all other data: International Labor Organization’s analysis of statistics from Child Labor Survey, 2006. (
8)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Production of cotton, hazelnuts, citrus fruits, sugar beets, cumin, peanuts, pulses, apricots, melons, and cherries (1-6,9-13)

Industry

Production of furniture, bricks, shoes, leather goods, and textiles (2,6,13-23)

Construction (1,24)

Mining† (4,25)

Services

Working in restaurants and small shops (6,13,14)

Street work, including vending small items, carrying bundles in market areas, cleaning car windshields, collecting recyclable materials, and begging (2,4,6,13-16,28-30)

Auto repair† (2,6,)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (28-30)

Recruitment of children by non-state armed groups for use in armed conflict (6,29,30,32)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Due to the seasonal nature of agricultural work throughout the country, children living in rural areas often migrate with their families and engage in agricultural work for up to 7 months of the year. Significant numbers of these children have limited access to health care and education as a result of migration. (1,3,5,6,28,33) Syrian refugee families working in agriculture tended to receive lower pay and live in worse conditions than Turkish workers, increasing the vulnerability of children to potential exploitation to child labor. (1,3,5,13,34)

There were over 4 million refugees and asylum seekers living in Turkey at the end of 2018. (35) Of the school-aged children in this population, approximately 35 percent (366,667) remain out of school. (6,36) Poverty and a lack of meaningful employment opportunities for adults contributed to an increase in child labor among refugee children. (1,5,6,26,27) Syrian refugee children engaged in child labor in agriculture, street begging, the service sector, and small and medium manufacturing enterprises. (1,2,6,30,34) Children in the manufacturing sector often worked long hours for up to 6 days per week and earned wages as little as half of what an employer would pay an adult. (1,2,16,17,20-23,34) Monitoring and collecting data on child labor in refugee communities and in enterprises remained a challenge. (1,6)

In 2018, the government alleged that the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK), designated a terrorist organization by Turkey and the U.S., recruited and forcibly abducted children for conscription. (6,30,36)

Syrian refugee children faced financial barriers to receiving education, including the informal tuition or other fees charged, and the cost of transportation. (1,2,6,14,21,36) Syrian children living in Turkey experienced issues with their registration documents, such as registering in a province other than the one in which they resided. (6) School administrators can enroll children without proper registration documents, but their performance cannot be recorded and they cannot receive school completion certificates. (6) The language barrier, discrimination, and lack of access to programs in which they could learn Turkish as a second language challenged Syrian student integration. (6,36)

Turkey has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Turkey’s legal framework to adequately protect children from the worst forms of child labor, including the application of the minimum age for work to all children.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

16

Article 71 of the Labor Act (37)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Articles 71–73 of the Labor Act; Annex 3 of the Regulation on the Principles and Procedures Governing the Employment of Children and Young Workers (37,38)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

The Regulation on the Principles and Procedures Governing the Employment of Children and Young Workers (38)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 80 and 117 of the Criminal Code (39)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 80 of the Criminal Code (39)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 77, 103, 226, and 227 of the Criminal Code (39)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Articles 37, 38, and 188 of the Criminal Code (39)

Minimum Age for Voluntary State Military Recruitment

N/A*

   

Prohibition of Compulsory Recruitment of Children by (State) Military

Yes

 

Article 2 of the Law on Military Service (40)

Prohibition of Military Recruitment by Non-state Armed Groups

No

   

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

17‡

Article 3 of the Primary Education Law; Education Reform Law (41,42)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 2 of the Primary Education Law; Article 42 of the Constitution of the Republic of Turkey (42,43)

* No voluntary military service (44)
‡ Age calculated based on available information (
41,42)

The National Program for the Elimination of Child Labor identifies both seasonal migratory agricultural work and work in small and medium industrial enterprises as worst forms of child labor. (6) However, the Regulation on the Principles and Procedures Governing the Employment of Children and Young Workers allows children to do fruit and vegetable picking as light work, and does not prohibit seasonal migratory agriculture. The Regulation also allows children ages 16 and older to participate in many manufacturing tasks, including manufacturing of clothing, despite work in industrial enterprises being categorized as a worst form of child labor. (38) This inconsistency between national law and policy on child labor creates confusion regarding the minimum age for hazardous work in the agriculture and manufacturing sectors, and the jobs within these sectors that are legally prohibited for children. (45,46)

In addition, while the Criminal Code criminalizes forming and commanding organized criminal groups, there is a lack of specific provisions related to the recruitment of children by non-state armed groups. (39) Also, the Law on Military Service only criminalizes illegal criminal entities rather than addressing the recruitment of children. (40)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the operations of the Ministry of Family, Labor, and Social Services (MOFLSS) that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Family, Labor, and Social Services (MOFLSS)*

Enforces child labor laws. (6) Coordinates and provides services to children living or working on the street through the Directorate General of Child Services. Operates a hotline to receive complaints about child rights violations, including child labor. (4) The Ministry of Labor and Social Security (MOLSS) and Ministry of Family and Social Policies (MOFSP) combined in 2018 to become the Ministry of Family, Labor, and Social Services (MOFLSS). Accommodates children who are victims of human trafficking in 102 different shelters. (30)

Directorate General of Labor within MOFLSS*

Coordinates all work related to the elimination of child labor, including implementing policies and programs. Currently implementing the National Program on the Elimination of Child Labor. (6)

Labor Guidance and Inspection Presidency*

Implements laws on child labor and hazardous child labor, including regulating work environments and conditions for children. Monitors the implementation of the Labor Law provisions in workplaces under its jurisdiction. (1) Receives complaints about labor law violations, including child labor, through a hotline. (1) Previously known as the Inspection Board of the former MOFSP and Labor Inspection Board MOFLSS. (6)

Social Security Board Guidance and Inspection Presidency within MOFLSS

Monitors compliance with laws related to social security of all workers, including child workers. (4,6) Part of the Social Security Board (SSB). (6) The Guidance and Inspection Boards are organized in each city and exceed 1,000 containers in total. (6,36)

Turkish National Police and Gendarmerie General Command (Jandarma)

Enforces the Criminal Code, including criminal laws related to the worst forms of child labor. (4,47) Increases efforts to identify and prevent human trafficking of refugees through the Anti-Migrant Smuggling and Trafficking Bureau within the National Police. (32) The Gendarmerie General Command (Jandarma) enforces laws in rural areas that are outside of the jurisdiction of the National Police. (13,47)

Department for Protection of Victims of Human Trafficking within the Directorate General for Migration Management (DGMM)

Coordinates the identification of human trafficking victims, including victims of child trafficking, with MOFLSS, Ministry of Education, and Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. (6) Works with law enforcement, judges, and partner ministries in the country's 81 provinces. (6) Manages a hotline providing 24-hour, toll-free support in multiple languages for human trafficking victims. (48) In 2018, increased interpretation staff to assist non-Turkish speaking callers. (30)

Ministry of Justice

Prosecutes cases of child labor and child exploitation. (4,30) Directly involved in providing case input into child labor cases. (6)

*Agency responsible for child labor enforcement was created during the reporting period.

As part of the consolidation of ministries following the June 2018 general elections, the Ministry of Labor and Social Security (MOLSS) and Ministry of Family and Social Policies (MOFSP) merged to become the Ministry of Family, Labor, and Social Services (MOFLSS). (6) The Guidance and Inspection Presidency is now responsible for child labor inspections and child protection. In addition, the Social Security Board (SSB)'s Guidance and Inspection Presidency can now identify and refer cases of child labor to social services or MOLFSS. (34) The SSB's Guidance and Inspection Presidency may play a more significant role through its SSB Controllers in coordinating against child labor, particularly at the local levels. (6,34) However, this role is yet to be defined, which has added confusion to the Ministry's new structure. (6,30)

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2018, labor law enforcement agencies in Turkey took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the operations of the MOFLSS that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including human resource allocation.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2017

2018

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown (1)

Unknown (6)

Number of Labor Inspectors

1,021 (1)

991‡ (34)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (1)

Yes (6)

Initial Training for New Labor Inspectors

Yes (1)

Yes (34)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Yes (1)

N/A (36)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (1)

Yes (6)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

14,204 (1)

15,180‡ (34)

Number Conducted at Worksite

14,204 (1)

15,180‡ (34)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

21 (1)

50‡ (34)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

21 (1)

50‡ (34)

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that Were Collected

Unknown

50‡ (34)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (1)

Yes (34)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (1)

Yes (34)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (1)

Yes (6)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (1)

Yes (34)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (1)

Yes (6)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (1)

Yes (6)

‡ Data are from January 2018 to November 2018.

Labor inspectors spend the first 3 years of their careers as assistant inspectors. They receive on-the-job training that includes modules to raise their awareness of child labor and of the legal provisions and enforcement mechanisms that exist to address it, and annual continuing education on new laws. (1,34,44) In 2018, the number of labor inspectors was likely insufficient for the size of Turkey’s workforce, which includes more than 31 million workers. According to the ILO’s technical advice of a ratio approaching 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in industrializing economies, Turkey would employ about 2,066 labor inspectors. (34, 49-51) The number of inspections reported by the government increased in 2018; however, limited government statistics and a change in the methodology by which the labor inspectorate counted discrete site visits rendered it difficult to assess trends regarding the overall number of worksites inspected in 2018 relative to 2017. (34)

The amounts of fine charged for child labor violations are adjusted annually and have undergone small increases in recent years, but remain insufficient to deter violations. (34)

Research found that children discovered to be working illegally during the course of inspections were generally referred for social services. (6,34) Reciprocal referral mechanisms remain underutilized and inspectors cannot monitor the referred cases once they pass them to social services. (36)

During the reporting period, the Guidance and Inspection Presidency and UNICEF trained 364 labor inspectors. (6) The training reviewed the legal and political framework for combatting child labor by outlining best practices and greater coordination and collaboration with relevant entities. (34) In addition, as part of the Children's Rights and Work Principles Training, the Confederation of Craftsmen and Tradesmen (TESK), MOFLSS, UNICEF, and the Ministry of National Education trained 355 labor inspectors, 81 provincial directors responsible for vocational training and apprenticeships, and 320 teachers on child labor. (6,30) The program advanced vocational training and apprenticeships for youth between the ages of 15 to 18. (6)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2018, criminal law enforcement agencies in Turkey took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of criminal law enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate enforcement, including prosecution planning.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2017

2018

Initial Training for New Criminal Investigators

Unknown

Unknown (6)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

Unknown (6)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (32)

Unknown (6)

Number of Investigations

Unknown

Unknown (6)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown

Unknown (6)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown

Unknown (6)

Number of Convictions

Unknown

Unknown (6)

Imposed Penalties for Violations Related to The Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown

Unknown (36)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (1)

Yes (6)

During the reporting period, UNICEF and the Union of Municipalities of Turkey developed municipal police training modules on child labor and provided trainings on how to respond to child labor to 100 municipal police from Ankara. (6) In addition, the Department for Protection of Victims of Human Trafficking within the Directorate General for Migration Management (DGMM) trained law enforcement on human trafficking identification, the national referral system, and interview techniques. (30) DGMM also conducted outreach with local community leaders, particularly in the southeast where there is a significant migrant and refugee population at risk of human trafficking. (30)

However, lack of experience and specialization among prosecutors and judges regarding human trafficking limited the ability and means to adequately prosecute complex human trafficking-related crimes. (30,34,36) The government does not publicly release information on its labor/criminal law enforcement efforts.

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the adequate coordination of efforts to address child labor, including coordination efforts.

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

Child Labor Branch of the Employment Policies Directorate

Coordinates all child labor programs and efforts of the Ministry of National Education, the Child Services Directorate General in MOFLSS, the Ministry of the Interior, the Ministry of Justice, the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Youth and Sports, the Ministry of Agriculture and Forest, and other institutions and organizations. (6) Under the Directorate General of Labor within MOFLSS. (6)

Monitoring and Evaluation Board for Child Labor

Plans and monitors implementation of the National Program to Combat Child Labor, including through biannual meetings. (6) Held the Second Monitoring and Evaluation Board Meeting in December 2018 and announced focal points for combating child labor in each province. (6,52)

Directorate General For Migration Management (DGMM)

Coordinates the implementation of migration law, including laws related to irregular migration, refugees, and human trafficking. (53,54) Active in 2018 and produced public reports on human trafficking. (30)

Anti-Trafficking Coordination Commission

Coordinates policy on human trafficking. Chaired by the Undersecretary of the Minister of Interior. (30) This commission was founded to replace the National Task Force on Combating Human Trafficking and met in March 2018. (30,32)

With the merging of the Ministry of Labor with the Ministry of Family and Social Police, there remain separate local level organizations that in some cases are redundant; at this time it is unclear if they will be merged or exist concurrently. (6,36) Coordination between central and provincial levels of government has varied significantly and sources have highlighted the need for greater coordination between governmental bodies charged with combating child labor on all levels. (6,30)

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including implementation.

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Program on the Elimination of Child Labor (2017–2023)

Identifies seasonal migratory agriculture, street work, and work in small and medium industrial enterprises as priority sectors for government efforts to combat child labor. Outlines a series of nationwide interventions aimed at eliminating child labor, including combating poverty, inclusive education, and increasing social awareness. (1,6,52) In 2018, the government continued its implementation. (6,30,55)

Joint Declaration of the Elimination of Child Labor†

In 2018, the government contributed to the National Program on the Elimination of Child Labor objectives by signing a Joint Declaration of the Elimination of Child Labor, declaring 2018 as the Year of Elimination of Child Labor. (6,30,55)

Second National Action Plan on Combating Human Trafficking

Outlines Turkey’s strategy for the prevention of human trafficking. Identifies children as an exceptionally vulnerable group and calls for special security precautions for children at shelters for victims, and increased international cooperation on preventing child trafficking. (48,58)

National Employment Strategy (2014–2023)

Aims to identify and solve labor market issues, with the goal of job creation and sustained economic growth. Includes the prevention of child labor, especially hazardous work in agriculture, as a focus of the plan. Advocates for increased access to education and strengthened social services as a means of preventing child labor. (59) Initiatives in the new action plans include requiring Provincial Employment and Occupational Education Boards to evaluate progress in combating child labor locally and organizing activities to raise awareness about child labor in connection with the World Day Against Child Labor. (1) The Monitoring and Evaluation Board met in 2018 to review actions taken against child labor. (6)

Tenth Development Plan (2014–2018)

Identifies Turkey’s strategy and goals for economic development. Includes the priorities of alleviating child poverty and increasing equal opportunity in education. Includes provisions for the prevention of the worst forms of child labor. (44)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

During the reporting period, the MOFLSS composed a report on the status of activities undertaken as part of the National Program on the Elimination of Child Labor. However, outcome indicators and outputs for each activity are not clear. (6,52)

Research was unable to determine which activities were undertaken to meet the child labor-related objectives of the Tenth Development Plan during the reporting period. (34,36)

In 2018, the Government of Turkey funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including with regard to adequate funding of programs to address the full scope of the problem in seasonal agriculture and manufacturing.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Conditional Education and Health Care Assistance Program†

Government-funded program that aims to reduce poverty through cash transfers. Provides milk to all primary school children and distributes books free of charge. Active in 2018. (36)

Piloting the USDA Guidelines in the Hazelnut Supply Chain in Turkey

$4.87 million USDOL-funded, 31-month project implemented by the Fair Labor Association in partnership with Nestle and two of its main hazelnut suppliers, Olam-Progida and Balsu. Piloted a sustainable program to implement the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Guidelines for Eliminating Child and Forced Labor in Agricultural Supply Chains in 1,000 hazelnut gardens in Duzce, Ordu, and Sakarya, with additional interventions implemented in the environs of Sanliurfa and Mardin, the sources of most seasonal agricultural labor in Turkey. (62) Enhanced the transparency of the companies' hazelnut supply chain, enabled the collection of extensive information for risk identification, management, and mitigation, and implemented innovation remediation strategies in cooperation with non-governmental organizations and local authorities. Additional information is available on the USDOL website.

Integrated Model for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor in Seasonal Agriculture in Hazelnut Harvesting (2012–2020)*

Association of Chocolate, Biscuit, and Confectionery Industries of Europe (CAOBISCO)-funded 8-year project implemented by the ILO and MOLSS. Project aims to take an integrated approach to preventing children from working by increasing access to education and improving living conditions of children vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor in hazelnut harvesting, building capacity of local and national institutions to prevent child labor, and raising awareness among industry stakeholders and the public. (6) In 2018, the project was extended through 2020 with a budget of $879,000. During the reporting period, 1,022 children were prevented from working in hazelnut harvesting, and 668 families who work in seasonal hazelnut harvesting were provided with counseling. (6)

Programs for Syrian Refugee Children†

Government initiatives, in partnership with various international organizations and foreign governments, designed to fund schools for Syrian refugee children and provide Syrian refugee child laborers with additional educational and social services. (13) In 2018, under the program, UNICEF, MOFLSS, and the Turkish Red Crescent introduced conditional cash transfers for refugees. (6,30) During the year 410,740 children benefited from conditional cash transfers, and 4,452 children received referrals for specialized services. (6)

Programs focused on Human Trafficking*†

EU-funded projects, both co-managed by the DGMM, which aim to improve human trafficking victim identification and protection through training and capacity building. (63) The government also funds shelters for human trafficking victims that provide social services and legal help to victims. (6,30,32,48,63) In 2018, delivered trainings to government, NGOs, law enforcement, prosecutors, and migration experts. (6)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Turkey.
‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. (
6,30)

The MOFLSS partnered with the Ministry of Interior and Ministry of National Education to expand measures to prevent child labor in seasonal agriculture in the ongoing Seasonal Agricultural Workers Project (METIP). (6) Under METIP, the government developed and distributed introductory textbooks on child labor for public school teachers during the reporting period. (6) In addition, Turkey made a global pledge to improve children's well-being at the UN, which includes protecting children from conflict and commercial sexual exploitation. (64)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Turkey (Table 11).

Table 11.Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

 

Legal Framework

Ensure the law adequately prohibits work the government has identified as hazardous for children, such as work in small and medium manufacturing enterprises.

2017 – 2018

 

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under age 18 by non-state armed groups.

2015 – 2018

 

Enforcement

Clearly define the Social Security Board’s Guidance and Inspection Presidency in the elimination of child labor, particularly at the local levels.

2018

 

Publish information on the labor inspectorate’s funding.

2015 – 2018

 

Increase the number of labor inspectors to meet the ILO's technical advice.

2014 – 2018

 

Publish data relating to the criminal law enforcement of child labor laws including on the initial training for new employees, number of investigations, violations, prosecutions, convictions, and imposed penalties related to the worst forms of child labor.

2014 – 2018

 

Train the judiciary so that human trafficking cases can be properly prosecuted and sentenced according to the law.

2018

 

Ensure that laws prohibiting the trafficking of children are adequately enforced and that the reciprocal referral mechanisms are properly utilized.

2015 – 2018

 

Coordination

Increase coordination between the governmental bodies charged with combating child labor at all levels.

2018

 

Government Policies

Clearly define outcome indicators and outputs within the status report under the National Program on the Elimination of Child Labor.

2018

 

Provide an assessment of the Tenth Development Plan.

2018

 

Social Programs

Monitor and collect data on child labor in refugee communities and in enterprises.

2018

 

Continue to institute programs to increase access to education and health care for children working in migrant, seasonal agriculture.

2014 – 2018

 

Continue to grant education opportunities for Syrian refugee children, including by enforcing national directives affording Syrian children access to the Turkish school system at the local level. Ensure that these children do not experience discrimination and have teachers in their native languages.

2014 – 2018

 

1

U.S. Embassy- Ankara. Reporting. January 16, 2018.

2

Human Rights Watch. When I Picture My Future, I See Nothing. New York: November 2015.
https://www.hrw.org/report/2015/11/08/when-i-picture-my-future-i-see-nothing/barriers-education-syrian-refugee-children.

3

Support to Life. Seasonal Agricultural Work in Turkey, Survey Report 2014. Istanbul: 2014.
http://hayatadestek.org/yayinlarimiz/Seasonal Agricultural Work In Turkey _Survey Report _2014.pdf.

4

U.S. Embassy- Ankara. Reporting. January 22, 2016.

5

Development Workshop. Fertile Lands Bitter Lives: Situation Analysis Report on Syrian Seasonal Agricultural Workers in the Adana Plain. Ankara: November 2016.
https://www.academia.edu/30811191/Fertile_Lands_Bitter_Lives_THE_SITUATION_ANALYSIS_REPORT_ON_SYRIAN_SEASONAL_AGRICULTURAL_WORKERS_IN_THE_ADANA_PLAIN.

6

U.S. Embassy- Ankara. Reporting. February 8, 2019.

7

UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed March 16, 2019. Please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.
http://data.uis.unesco.org/.

8

ILO. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Child Labor Survey, 2006. Analysis received March 12, 2019. Please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

9

Today's Zaman. 42 Turkish child workers killed in first nine months of 2014. November 20, 2014. Source on file.

10

Fair Labor Association. Independent External Monitoring of the Nestle, Olam, and Balsu Hazelnut Supply Chain in Turkey: 2014–2015. Washington, DC: 2015.
http://www.fairlabor.org/sites/default/files/documents/reports/may-2015-hazelnuts-executive-summary.pdf.

11

Soguel, Dominique. How Turkey is tackling child labor in hazelnut harvesting. September 7, 2015.
https://www.csmonitor.com/World/Middle-East/2015/0907/How-Turkey-is-tackling-child-labor-in-hazelnut-harvesting.

12

Support to Life. Frequently Asked Questions About Seasonal Agricultural Child Labor in Turkey. Hayata Destek, 2014. Source on file.

13

U.S. Embassy- Ankara. Reporting. January 18, 2017.

14

Al-Hayat (Pan Arab). Syrian children forced to work in Turkey. November 13, 2014.
http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/ar/culture/2014/11/syria-child-labor-turkey-schools-refugees.html.

15

Onur Burcak Belli. Syrian child workers 'left behind in life.' September 16, 2014.
https://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2014/06/syrian-child-workers-left-behind-life-20146228011456956.html.

16

Save the Children, and UNICEF. Small Hands, Heavy Burden: How the Syria Conflict Is Driving More Children into the Workforce. New York: July 2, 2015.
file:///C:/Users/Ruckel-Jo-A/US Department of Labor - DOL/ILAB Report - 2018 Source Folders/Philippines/14-Save the Children, and UNICEF. Small Hands, Heavy Burden (2015).pdf.

17

Didem Tali. As refugees pour in, child labor booms in Turkey. January 4, 2016.
http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2016/1/4/as-refugees-pour-in-child-labor-booms-in-turkey.html.

18

Jain, Sreenivasan. Children of Kobane: Escaped from ISIS, Into 'Slavery.' NDTV, September 29, 2015.
http://www.ndtv.com/world-news/children-of-kobane-escaped-from-isis-into-slavery-1224303.

19

U.S. Embassy- Ankara. Reporting. February 23, 2016.

20

Williams, Holly. Refugee children forced into labor in Turkey. September 22, 2015.
https://www.cbsnews.com/news/refugee-children-forced-into-labor-in-turkey/.

21

Stockmans, Pieter. Syrian child labour, a ticket to Europe. February 26, 2015.
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