Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Togo

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Togo

2017 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2017, Togo made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The number of labor inspectors increased significantly for the fourth year in a row, and six additional inspectors are awaiting their appointment. The government also launched a new Safety Nets and Basic Services Project funded by the World Bank, provided cash transfers to 11,330 households through its National Fund for Inclusive Finance, and provided 42,317 children with school lunches. However, children in Togo engage in the worst forms of child labor in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Children also engage in child labor in domestic work. The government has not devoted sufficient resources to combat child labor, and labor inspectors are not authorized to assess penalties. In addition, Togo’s social programs to combat the worst forms of child labor do not match the scope of the problem and rely largely on nongovernmental and international organizations for implementation.

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Children in Togo engage in the worst forms of child labor in commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Children also engage in child labor in domestic work. (1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6; 7; 8; 9; 10) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Togo.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

29.6

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

86.1

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

29.5

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

82.9

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2015, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2018. (11)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project's analysis of statistics from Demographic and Health Survey, 2013–2014. (12)

 

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Working in agriculture (13; 8; 14; 15)

Industry

Working in quarries and sand mines, including excavating, crushing rocks, sifting gravel, and carrying heavy loads† (16; 17; 18; 19; 15; 20; 21)

Working in carpentry† and tailoring (22)

Construction (16; 13; 23)

Services

Domestic work† (24; 17; 13; 4; 19; 25; 8; 14; 15; 20)

Carrying heavy loads,† and small-scale vending in markets

Work as motorcycle repairmen (16; 15; 20)

Garbage scavenging (16; 15)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Forced begging (15; 21)

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (16; 13; 19; 26; 27; 15; 21)

Forced labor in agriculture, including coffee, cocoa, and cotton; domestic work; quarries; and markets, including carrying heavy loads; each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (4; 28; 27; 21)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

 

Togo is a source and transit country for victims of human trafficking to neighboring countries, primarily for domestic work, work in agriculture, and commercial sexual exploitation. (13; 4; 25; 29; 30) Parents may be complicit in child trafficking as a result of confiage, which involves sending a child to a relative or friend to attend school in a larger town or city, a practice that may place children at risk of exploitation as a result of internal human trafficking. (3; 5; 10; 30; 4)

Although education is free and compulsory by law, parents are responsible for paying associated fees and buying uniforms and school supplies, which makes education prohibitive for many families. (31; 32; 33; 34) Research found that long distances to schools, as well as physical and sexual abuse in schools, also posed barriers to education for some children. (10; 32; 35; 36; 34; 37) During the reporting period, some children may have been kept home from school or sent to stay with relatives in other towns to avoid ongoing political protests in the cities. (38)

Togo has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The government’s laws and regulations are in line with relevant international standards (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Article 150 of the Labor Code; Article 262 of the Children’s Code; Article 881.1a of the Penal Code (39; 40; 41)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 151 of the Labor Code; Articles 6–12 of Ministerial Order No. 1464 Determining the Work Prohibited to Children (39; 42)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Articles 6–12 of Ministerial Order No. 1464 Determining the Work Prohibited to Children; Articles 263–264 of the Children’s Code; Articles 319.9 and 882 of the Penal Code; Article 151 of the Labor Code (39; 40; 41; 42)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 4 and 151 of the Labor Code; Articles 264 and 411 of the Children’s Code; Articles 150.3 and 151 of the Penal Code (39; 40; 41)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 151 of the Labor Code; Articles 2–6 of Law No. 2005-009 Suppressing Child Trafficking in Togo; Articles 264 and 411–414 of the Children’s Code; Articles 150.3, 151, 317–323, and 882 of the Penal Code (39; 40; 41; 43)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 151 of the Labor Code; Articles 264, 276.f, and 387–390 of the Children’s Code; Article 224 of the Penal Code (39; 40; 41)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 151 of the Labor Code; Articles 264, 276.i, and 405 of the Children’s Code; Articles 317.7, 319.9, and 329.8 of the Penal Code (39; 40; 41)

Prohibition of Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

Yes*

18

Article 426 of the Children’s Code; Articles 146.14, 147.11, and 342 of the Penal Code (40; 41)

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Article 426 of the Children’s Code; Article 42 of Law No. 2007-010 Regarding the General Statute of the Togolese Armed Forces (40; 44)

Non-state

Yes

18

Article 426 of the Children’s Code; Articles 146.14, 147.11, and 342 of the Penal Code (40; 41)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

15

Article 35 of the Constitution; Article 255 of the Children’s Code (40; 45)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 35 of the Constitution (45)

* No conscription (44)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the authority of the Ministry of Civil Service, Labor, and Administrative Reform (MOL) that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Civil Service, Labor, and Administrative Reform (MOL)

Enforce all labor laws, including child labor laws. (13; 31) Through its Unit to Combat Child Labor (CELTE), withdraw children from child labor situations, raise awareness, and collect data. (46) Focal points within the inspectorate are located in each of the five regions to monitor child labor issues and raise awareness at the local level. (47)

Ministry of Justice and Government Relations

Enforce criminal laws related to the worst forms of child labor, and prosecute violations. (23)

Ministry of Social Action, Promotion of Women and Literacy (MASPFA), Director General for the Protection of Children

Raise awareness of child labor issues, enforce laws against the worst forms of child labor, provide technical assistance, and lead government efforts to combat human trafficking. (13; 48; 20) Operate the Allo 1011 hotline for reporting child abuse, including child trafficking. (13; 48; 49; 50; 27; 20) In 2017, piloted foster family program through an NGO with 27 initial families. (20)

Ministry of Security’s Division of Drugs, Morals, and Pimping

Investigate crimes involving child victims, including child trafficking. In all five regions of Togo, operate as part of the National Police. (51)

 

In 2017, the National Domestic Workers’ Trade Union submitted a set of specifications to the government, including advocating better protections for domestic workers, issuance of birth certificates for all domestic workers, and ratification of ILO C. 189, Domestic Workers Convention. (46)

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2017, labor law enforcement agencies in Togo took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the operations of MOL that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including conducting inspections in all relevant sectors.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown* (52)

Unknown* (23)

Number of Labor Inspectors

167 (52)

191 (23)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (39)

No (39)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (52)

Yes (23)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

Unknown* (52)

500 (23)

Number Conducted at Worksites

Unknown* (52)

Unknown* (23)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

246 (52)

66 (23)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties were Imposed

Unknown* (52)

0 (23)

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that were Collected

Unknown* (52)

N/A

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (52)

Yes (23)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Unknown

Unknown* (23)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (39)

Yes (39)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Unknown

Yes (23)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (52)

Yes (23)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (52)

Yes (23)

* The government does not publish this information.

 

The number of labor inspectors has increased significantly for the fourth year in a row, and six additional inspectors are awaiting their appointment. Unlike previous years, MOL had adequate resources and vehicles to conduct site visits outside the main cities. (23) However, MOL reported that the current number of labor inspectors is still insufficient to pursue cases of child labor, which primarily occurs in the informal sector. (31; 23) In addition, the Labor Code makes labor inspectors responsible for reconciliation and arbitration in collective disputes, which may detract from their primary duties of conducting inspections and enforcing the Labor Code. (39; 53)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2017, criminal law enforcement agencies in Togo took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including training for criminal investigators and prosecution.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (54)

Yes (54)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown (52)

No (23)

Number of Investigations

Unknown* (52)

Unknown* (23)

Number of Violations Found

50 (55)

3 (23)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown (52)

Unknown* (23)

Number of Convictions

Unknown (52)

Unknown* (23)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (52)

Yes (23)

* The government does not publish this information.

 

Investigators lacked financial and physical resources to adequately enforce the law, and the Ministry of Justice was unable to offer refresher courses on child trafficking to magistrates, judges, and police inspectors during the reporting period due to a lack of funding. (7; 56) Research also indicates that poor record keeping, a shortage of physical copies of existing child labor laws throughout the country, and high turnover results in gaps of knowledge and enforcement capacity. (57; 58; 56) Cases involving child trafficking may be settled outside of court due to difficulties gathering evidence, and judges may be reluctant to impose fines or prison sentences for parents due to a fear of perpetuating the poverty that originally led them to violate child trafficking laws. (27; 21)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including efforts to address all forms of child labor.

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role and Description

National Steering Committee for the Prohibition and Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor (CDN)

Coordinate and oversee all government efforts to combat child labor, including the approval of all action plans for the abolition of child labor. (13; 15) Comprises representatives from 17 ministries and NGOs; MOL’s CELTE serves as the permanent secretariat. (15)

MASPFA’s Anti-Trafficking in Persons Cell (CNARSEVT)

Coordinate government efforts to combat human trafficking. (13; 30; 27) (13; 30; 27) Compile statistics on human trafficking and serve as the point of contact for repatriated child victims. (27) Comprises representatives from NGOs and six ministries, including MOL and MASPFA. (15)

Local Vigilance Committees

Raise awareness at the community level, identify child victims or children at risk, track returnees, and share information on human trafficking trends and prevention efforts with MASPFA’s Anti-Trafficking in Persons Cell. (13; 27; 59) Some local vigilance committees were active during the reporting period. (23)

 

All coordinating bodies were active during the reporting period. (15)

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including covering all worst forms of child labor.

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor‡

Policy

Description

National Employment Policy (2013–2017)

Aims to eliminate child labor, build the capacity of the Labor Inspectorate, and increase vocational training and apprenticeship opportunities in support of the Decent Work Program. (19; 60; 61) Includes a pilot cash transfer program for 8,000 vulnerable children. (60) The accompanying Strategic Plan on Youth Employment (PSNEJ) aims to reduce children’s early entry into the labor force by retaining them in school and improving the employability of older youth and their access to funding. (19; 61; 62)

Strategy to Increase Growth and Promote Employment (SCAPE) (2013–2017)

Serves as the primary national anti-poverty plan, which includes components on child labor and education. (13; 63)

National Policy of Social Protection

MASPFA policy that aims to improve social safety nets, strengthen mechanisms to combat the exploitation of children, and promote systematic birth registration. (64)

Multilateral Agreements to Combat Child Trafficking

Quadripartite agreement among the governments of Benin, Gabon, Ghana, and Togo that works to prevent child trafficking along the countries’ shared borders. Multilateral accords for West and Central Africa promote cooperation among regional states to combat child trafficking. (13; 34; 27; 46)

‡ The government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor. (65)

 

A National Plan of Action Against Child Labor is undergoing technical validation, but has yet to be adopted. (34) The Ministry of Social Action, Promotion of Women and Literacy’s Anti-Trafficking in Persons Cell (CNARSEVT) intends to draft a new national action plan to combat human trafficking following the creation of the 2017 ECOWAS Trafficking in Persons Action Plan. (59) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement any policy during the reporting period, and only policy documents specific to labor and social protection include indicators related to child labor. (19) The government has not included child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the Education Sector Plan (2010–2020). (66) At the IV Global Conference on the Sustained Eradication of Child Labor, the government pledged to incorporate child labor issues into its National Development Plan, which is currently being drafted. (67)

In 2017, the government funded and participated in programs that may contribute to preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including adequacy of programs to address the full scope of the problem.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

World Bank-Funded Programs

Projects that combat child labor by improving social safety nets for vulnerable families and increasing access to education. Includes Togo Community Development and Safety Nets Project (2012–2017), a $26.1 million project that delivered 11,670,982 school meals and constructed 370 primary school classrooms in the Kara and Savanes regions; Cash Transfer Program for Vulnerable Children in Northern Togo (2013–2017),† a $2.55 million project implemented by MASPFA that provided conditional cash transfers to 17,655 households in northern Togo; Education and Institutional Strengthening Project 2 (2015–2018), a $27.8 million project that aims to revise course textbooks for grades 1 and 2, provide teacher training, identify recipients of school grants, and select 80 sites for promoting girls’ education; and the Safety Nets and Basic Services Project (2017–2020),* a $29 million project implemented by MASPFA and the Ministry of Grassroots Development that aims to provide social safety nets to poor communities. (68; 69; 70; 71; 72; 73; 20) By the end of 2017, the Education and Instutional Strengthening Project 2 distributed 599,231 textbooks, provided 1,650 school grants, and trained 14,549 teachers. (74)

Plan International-Funded Projects

Projects that aim to support youth development, including Monitoring Children’s Rights (2015–2018), a $393,000 Plan Sweden-funded, 3-year MASPFA project in support of SCAPE that aims to strengthen the institutional capacity of these organizations to better protect children in Benin, Burkina Faso, and Togo; and Gender-Sensitive and Violence-Free Education, a 3.5-year project co-funded by the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency that aims to reduce violence in schools by eliminating corporal punishment and promoting children’s rights in the Central and Plateau regions. (36; 75; 76; 77)

Shelters for Vulnerable Children†

MASPFA-funded center that provides temporary shelter and services for victims, including those referred by the Allo 1011 hotline. (31; 48; 50; 27; 20) Victims may be transferred to NGO-run shelters for longer-term support. (50; 27; 20)

National Fund for Inclusive Finance†

Government program administered by the State Secretariat to the Presidency of the Republic that provides loans of up to $60 to women in rural areas of Northern Togo, aiming to reduce the demand for income provided by engaging in child labor. (78; 23) In 2017, provided cash transfers to 11,330 households in 93 villages. (79; 23)

National Plan for Registering Births in Togo (2013–2017)†

MASPFA, MOJ, and Ministry of Territorial Administration plan that aims to increase documentation of births by simplifying the process, educating families on the importance of birth registration, and increasing accessibility to birth registration in rural areas. (54; 80) In 2017, conducted outreach activities and worked with UNICEF and NGOs to deliver birth certificates in Kara and Savannes. (46; 20)

School Feeding Program†

Provides school lunches in rural areas to promote school enrollment, particularly for girls. (34; 20; 37) In 2017, provided food to 42,317 children at 143 schools. (79; 23)

Forum of Traditional and Religious Chiefs of Togo on the Harmful Social and Cultural Practices That Affect Children†

MASPFA-funded program that aims to eliminate traditional practices that may contribute to child trafficking by educating local leaders on child labor issues and the importance of education. (23)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Togo.

 

Social programs focus on poverty alleviation and promoting education rather than targeting specific sectors of child labor, such as domestic work, and the government relies heavily on NGOs and international organizations for implementation. (23; 59) A shortage of funds also hinders program implementation. (59) As a result, the scope of existing programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem, and many of these interventions may not be sustainable over the long term.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Togo (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Enforcement

Publish information about the amount of funding the labor inspectorate receives, the number of inspections conducted at worksites, number of routine inspections targeted and data related to criminal law enforcement, including the number of investigations conducted, prosecutions initiated, and convictions made.

2010 – 2017

Strengthen the Labor Inspectorate by authorizing the inspectorate to assess penalties.

2014 – 2017

Ensure that both labor inspectors and criminal investigators receive refresher courses, and ensure that all regional offices have copies of relevant laws related to child labor.

2009 – 2017

Enforce penalties for labor violations according to the law.

2014 – 2017

Increase the number of labor inspectors and ensure that they are able to carry out their primary duties of inspection and monitoring of labor laws throughout the country, including in the informal sector.

2009 – 2017

Ensure that criminal investigators have sufficient financial and physical resources to effectively enforce criminal laws against child labor.

2017

Government Policies

Ensure that policies are implemented as intended and that child labor indicators are included in all relevant policies.

2016 – 2017

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the Education Sector Plan.

2013 – 2017

Social Programs

Increase access to education by eliminating school-related fees; ensuring that schools are free from sexual and physical violence; and increasing the number of schools, especially in rural areas.

2010 – 2017

Ensure that social protection programs to combat child labor receive adequate funding, are sufficient to address the scope of the problem in all relevant sectors, and promote the long-term sustainability of project initiatives.

2009 – 2017

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2. Direction Générale de la Statistique et de la Comptabilité Nationale de la Republique Togolaise. Rapport Final de l'Enquête Nationale sur le Travail des Enfants au Togo. Geneva: ILO-IPEC. 2010: RAF/06/06/FRA. [Source on file].

3. UCW. Togo: comprendre le travail des enfants et l’emploi des jeunes. Rome. November 2013. http://www.ucw-project.org/attachment/Togo_travail_enfants_emploi_jeunes20131118_130728.pdf.

4. Plan Togo. Remember the Real Cinderellas. March 27, 2015. [Source on file].

5. UCW. Priorités et rôles des acteurs publics dans la lutte contre le travail des enfants. Rome. June 2015. http://www.ucw-project.org/attachment/18052016738Priorit%C3%A9s_r%C3%B4les_acteurs_publics_lutte_travail_enfants_Togo_rev.pdf.

6. Adjovi, L. The plight of Togo's trafficked children; London: British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). August 19, 2015. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-33984149.

7. U.S. Embassy- Lome. Reporting, January 29, 2018.

8. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Togo (ratification: 1984) Published: 2017. Accessed November 14, 2017. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3289901.

9. Direction Générale de la Statistique et de la Comptabilité Nationale de la République Togolaise. Rapport Final de l'Enquête de Base sur le Travail des Enfants au Togo. Geneva: ILO-IPEC. 2010: TOG/07/01P/USA. http://ilo.org/ipec/Informationresources/WCMS_IPEC_PUB_13873/lang--fr/index.htm.

10. UN Human Rights Council. Compilation prepared by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights in accordance with paragraph 15 (b) of the annex to Human Rights Council resolution 5/1 and paragraph 5 of the annex to Council resolution 16/21 - Togo. Geneva. August 22, 2016: A/HRC/WG.6/26/TGO/2. https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G16/184/93/PDF/G1618493.pdf?OpenElement.

11. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed March 3, 2018. http://data.uis.unesco.org/. For more information, please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

12. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Demographic and Health Survey, 2013-2014. Analysis received January 12, 2018. Please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

13. —. Comprende le travail des enfants et l’emploi des jeunes au Togo. November 2013. http://www.ucw-project.org/attachment/Togo_travail_enfants_emploi_jeunes20131118_130728.pdf.

14. Labor Union Officials. Interview with USDOL Official. June 26, 2018.

15. CDN and CNARSEVT Officials. Interview with USDOL Official. June 25, 2018.

16. ILO-IPEC, Direction Générale de la Statistique et de la Comptabilité Nationale de la République Togolaise. Enquete de Base sur le Travail des Enfants au Togo 2010. 2010: Final Report. http://ilo.org/ipec/Informationresources/WCMS_IPEC_PUB_13873/lang--fr/index.htm.

17. ILO-IPEC, Direction Générale de la Statistique et de la Comptabilité Nationale de la Republique Togolaise. Rapport Final de l'Enquête Nationale sur le Travail des Enfants au Togo. 2010: RAF/06/06/FRA. [Source on file].

18. N’Diaye, F.C. Genre et travail des enfants dans les mines et carrières au Burkina Faso, au Mali et au Togo: Synthèse des études de cas. ILO. October 2013. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---africa/---ro-addis_ababa/---sro-dakar/documents/publication/wcms_228135.pdf.

19. UCW. Priorités et rôles des acteurs publics dans la lutte contre le travail des enfants. June 2015. http://www.ucw-project.org/attachment/18052016738Priorit%C3%A9s_r%C3%B4les_acteurs_publics_lutte_travail_enfants_Togo_rev.pdf.

20. MASPFA Official. Interview with USDOL Official. June 26, 2018.

21. MOJ Official. Interview with USDOL Official. June 27, 2018.

22. U.S. Embassy- Lomé official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 22, 2015.

23. U.S. Embassy- Lomé. Reporting, January 29, 2018.

24. WAO-Afrique. Analyse de l'estimation rapide du travail des enfants dans le travail domestique au Togo. July 2013. [Source on file].

25. Adjovi, L. The plight of Togo's trafficked children. August 19, 2015. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-33984149.

26. UN Human Rights Council. Compilation prepared by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights in accordance with paragraph 15 (b) of the annex to Human Rights Council resolution 5/1 and paragraph 5 of the annex to Council resolution 16/21 - Togo. August 22, 2016: A/HRC/WG.6/26/TGO/2. https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G16/184/93/PDF/G1618493.pdf?OpenElement.

27. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2017: Togo. Washington, DC. June 27, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2017/271299.htm.

28. U.S. Embassy- Lomé official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 22, 2016.

29. Modern Ghana. IOM Helps Togolese Girls Trafficked in Gabon to Return Home. November 20, 2015. http://www.modernghana.com/news/657075/1/iom-helps-togolese-girls-trafficked-in-gabon-to-re.html.

30. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Togo (ratification: 2000) Published: 2017. Accessed November 14, 2017. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3289894.

31. U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2016: Togo. Washington, DC. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265524.pdf.

32. Education Global Practice - Africa Region. Implementation Completion and Results Report (TF-97340) on a Grant from the Education for All - Fast Track Initiative Catalytic Fund in the Amount of US$45 Million to the Republic of Togo for an Education and Institutional Strengthening Project (PERI). Washington, DC: World Bank. 2015. http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2015/11/09/090224b0831a5372/1_0/Rendered/PDF/Togo000Educati0ening0Project00PERI0.pdf.

33. UN Human Rights Council. Summary prepared by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights in accordance with paragraph 15 (c) of the annex to Human Rights Council resolution 5/1 and paragraph 5 of the annex to Council resolution 16/21 - Togo. Geneva. August 17, 2016: A/HRC/WG.6/26/TGO/3. https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G16/183/12/PDF/G1618312.pdf?OpenElement.

34. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Togo (ratification: 2000) Published: 2017. Accessed November 14, 2017. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3289898.

35. Associated Press. Togolese children suffer violence at school [News clip]; Youtube. July 30, 2015. [Source on file].

36. Togo Breaking News. Education sensible au genre et sans violence: Plan international s’investit dans les régions Centrale et des Plateaux. September 23, 2015. [Source on file].

37. Ministry of Education Official. Interview with USDOL Official. June 29, 2018.

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40. —. LOI No. 2007-017 portant code de l'enfant. Enacted: July 6, 2007. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/SERIAL/81964/95152/F1737117949/code%20enfant.pdf.

41. —. LOI No. 2015-010 portant nouveau code pénal. Enacted: November 24, 2015. https://www.globalintegrity.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/Togo-Code-pe%CC%81nal-2015-.pdf.

42. —. ARRETE No. 1464 - Déterminant les travaux interdits aux enfants conformement au point 4 de l'article 151 de la loi n°2006-010 du 13 décembre 2006 portant code du travail. Enacted: November 12, 2007. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/MONOGRAPH/77627/82451/F-576214523/TGO-77627.pdf.

43. —. Loi No. 2005-009 relative au trafic d'enfants au Togo. Enacted: August 3, 2005. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/SERIAL/72058/72983/F1981134441/trafic%20enfants.pdf.

44. —. LOI No. 2007-010 portant statut général des personnels militaires des forces armées togolaises. Enacted: February 2007. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/SERIAL/77509/82181/F1787162033/TGO-77509.pdf.

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48. Focus Infos. Près de 5000 enfants de rue au Togo: la prise en charge est-elle efficace. February 12, 2015. http://www.manationtogo.com/pres-de-5000-enfants-de-rue-au-togo-la-prise-en-charge-est-elle-efficace/.

49. Palacios, A. The return of a child slave. March 27, 2017. http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/inpictures/2017/03/return-child-slave-170309083245536.html.

50. iciLome.com. Les enfants de la rue : De la délinquance infantile à l'irresponsabilité parentale Lomé. June 19, 2017. https://togotribune.com/news/les-enfants-de-la-rue-de-la-delinquance-infantile-a-lirresponsabilite-parentale/.

51. Ministry of Security and Civil Protection Official. Interview with USDOL Official. June 28, 2018.

52. U.S. Embassy- Lomé. Reporting, February 1, 2017.

53. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Labour Inspection Convention, 1947 (No. 81) Togo (ratification: 2012) Published: 2015. Accessed November 5, 2015. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3189536.

54. U.S. Embassy- Lomé official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 7, 2017.

55. UN Human Rights Council. Summary prepared by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights in accordance with paragraph 15 (c) of the annex to Human Rights Council resolution 5/1 and paragraph 5 of the annex to Council resolution 16/21 - Togo. August 17, 2016: A/HRC/WG.6/26/TGO/3. https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G16/183/12/PDF/G1618312.pdf?OpenElement.

56. U.S. Embassy- Lome. Reporting, February 9, 2018.

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58. —. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 22, 2015.

59. U.S. Embassy- Lomé. Reporting, February 9, 2018.

60. Government of the Republic of Togo, Ministère du Travail, de l'Emploi et de la Sécurité Sociale. POLITIQUE NATIONALE DE L'EMPLOI (PNE). September 2012. https://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/MONOGRAPH/94656/111123/F-999531201/TGO-94656.pdf.

61. Government of the Republic of Togo. Decret No. 2014-089/PR Portant Approbation de la Politique Nationale de l'Emploi et du Plan Strategique National pour l'Emploi des Jeunes. Enacted: March 31, 2014. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/98784/117627/F1814265019/TGO-98784.pdf.

62. —. PLAN STRATEGIQUES POUR L'EMPLOI DES JEUNES (PSNEJ): ORIENTATIONS STRATEGIQUES. September 2013. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/MONOGRAPH/98783/117624/F792224279/TGO-98783.pdf.

63. —. STRATEGIE DE CROISSANCE ACCELEREE ET DE PROMOTION DE L'EMPLOI (SCAPE) 2013-2017. August 2013: Version définitive. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/95034/111729/F-973837252/TGO-95034.pdf.

64. Ministère de l'Action Sociale de la Promotion de la Femme et de l'Alphabétisation. Politique Nationale de l’Action Sociale. January 2014. [Source on file].

65. Government of the Republic of Togo. AFRICAN CHARTER ON MARITIME SECURITY AND SAFETY AND DEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA (LOMÉ CHARTER). October 15. 2016. https://au.int/sites/default/files/treaties/33128-treaty-0060_-_lome_charter_e.pdf.

66. —. PLAN SECTORIEL DE L’EDUCATION PSE 2014-2025 - AMELIORATION DE L'ACCES, DE L'EQUITE ET DE LA QUALITE DE L'EDUCATION AU TOGO. January 2014. http://www.globalpartnership.org/fr/content/plan-sectoriel-education-togo.

67. —. IV GLOBAL CONFERENCE on the Sustained Eradication of Child Labour: PLEDGES. November 16, 2017. http://www.childlabour2017.org/en/resources/updates/pledges.

68. World Bank. Cash Transfer Program for Vulnerable Children in Northern Togo 2013-2017. January 25, 2014. http://www.worldbank.org/projects/P144484/cash-transfer-program-vulnerable-children-northern-togo?lang=en.

69. —. TOGO Community Development and Safety Nets Project 2013-2015. Accessed January 28, 2014. http://www.worldbank.org/projects/P127200/togo-community-development-safety-net-project-pdsplus?lang=en.

70. —. Education and Institutional Strengthening Project 2 (P146294). June 9, 2016: Implementation Status & Results Report. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/779031468302081206/pdf/ISR-Disclosable-P146294-06-09-2016-1465455941435.pdf.

71. —. Cash Transfer Program for Vulnerable Children in Northern Togo (P144484). April 17, 2017: Implementation Status & Results Report - Sequence 04. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/355761492465611248/pdf/ISR-Disclosable-P144484-04-17-2017-1492465599695.pdf.

72. —. Proposed Restructuring and Additional Credit in the Amount of SDR 7.9 Million (US$12.1 Million Equivalent) to the Republic of Togo for the Community Development and Safety Nets Project. February 11, 2014: PROJECT PAPER. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/587671468312909243/pdf/PAD7500P127200010Box382145B00OUO090.pdf.

73. —. Proposed Grant in the Amount of 21.4 Million (US$29 Million Equivalent) to the Republic of Togo for a Safety Nets and Basic Services Project. February 28, 2017: Project Appraisal Document. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/291621488823421945/pdf/Project-Appraisal-Document-PAD-P157038-03022017.pdf.

74. —. Togo - Education and Institutional Strengthening Project 2 (P146294). December 27, 2017: Implementation Status & Results Report - Sequence 05. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/772141514396669958/pdf/Disclosable-Version-of-the-ISR-TOGO-Education-and-Institutional-Strengthening-Project-2-P146294-Sequence-No-05.pdf.

75. Manabe, E. Le Foddet lance un projet pour appuyer des acteurs oeuvrant dans la protection des enfants. Togotopnews. May 15, 2015. http://www.icilome.com/articles/?idnews=806451&t=Le-Foddet-lance-pour-appuyer--des-acteurs-%C5%93uvrant-dans-la-protection-des-enfants.

76. Togo Actualité. Observatoire des droits de l'enfant au Togo. May 16, 2015. Source on file.

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78. Agboh, Anani Elom Kokouvi. Fonds National de la Finance Inclusive : L’APSEF officiellement lancé samedi prochain. Savoir News. April 24, 2014. http://news.alome.com/h/17271.html.

79. World Bank. TOGO Community Development and Safety Nets Project (P127200). April 4, 2017: Implementation Status & Results Report - Sequence 10. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/108701491345953013/pdf/ISR-Disclosable-P127200-04-04-2017-1491345940984.pdf.

80. Government of the Republic of Togo, and UNICEF. PLAN STRATEGIQUE DE L'ENREGISTREMENT DES NAISSANCES AU TOGO 2013 - 2017. November 2012. http://www.stat-togo.org/contenu/pdf/pb/pb-snen-naissance-tg-2012.pdf.

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