Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Togo

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Togo

2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2015, Togo made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government of Togo adopted a revised Penal Code that increased penalties for human trafficking violations and established penalties for the worst forms of child labor violations. Additionally, the National Committee for the Reception and Social Reinsertion of Trafficked Children officially endorsed a Protective Policy Document on Child Domestic Work and launched programs to assist vulnerable children and improve access to education. However, children in Togo are engaged in child labor in agriculture and in the worst forms of child labor, including in forced domestic work, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. The Government has not devoted sufficient resources to combat child labor, and enforcement of laws related to child labor remains weak. In addition, Togo’s social programs to combat the worst forms of child labor do not match the scope of the problem and rely largely on NGOs and international organizations for implementation.

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Children in Togo are engaged in child labor, including in agriculture. Children are also engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in forced domestic work, sometimes as a result of human trafficking.(1-12) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Togo.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

35.7 (616,132)

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

85.3

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

35.5

Primary completion rate (%):

85.1

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2014, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(13)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 4, 2010.(6)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Working in agriculture, including exposure to pesticides,* harvesting cotton,* cocoa,* and coffee* (4, 7, 9, 11)

Raising* and herding* cattle*† (3, 4)

Industry

Working in quarries and sand mines, including excavating,* crushing rocks,* sifting gravel,* and carrying heavy loads*† (1, 4, 10, 14-16)

Working in carpentry* and tailoring* (17)

Construction, activities unknown (1, 11, 18)

Services

Domestic work† (1, 5, 6, 8-12, 16, 18, 19)

Carrying heavy loads and small-scale vending in markets (1, 3, 4, 9-11, 16, 18)

Begging*† (3)

Operating motorcycle taxis,* auto and motorcycle repair* (1, 17, 18)

Garbage scavenging* (1, 18)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Forced begging* (2, 4)

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1-4, 11, 16, 18)

Forced labor in agriculture, domestic work, quarries,* and markets, including carrying heavy loads, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2-4, 12, 20)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Some boys, known as talibés, are sent to Koranic schools for education and subsequently forced by their teachers to beg in the streets.(2, 4, 21) Children were also victims of human trafficking to neighboring countries, although the majority of child trafficking victims were exploited within the country.(2, 3, 11, 12, 19, 20, 22) The customary practice of confiage, which involves sending a child to a relative or friend to attend school in a larger town or city, may place children at risk of exploitation by internal human trafficking.(4, 9, 11, 16) Parents are often complicit in child trafficking as a result of confiage, and many traditional chiefs and leaders do not discourage the practice.(12, 20)

Research found that many children in Togo are unable to access education due to a lack of schools and teachers, particularly in rural areas.(9, 23) During the 2014–2015 academic year, prolonged strikes prevented students at the primary and secondary levels from attending school for approximately 2 months.(24) Although education is free and compulsory by law, parents are responsible for paying associated fees and buying uniforms and school supplies, which makes education prohibitive to many families.(23, 25, 26) Approximately 20 percent of all children in Togo are not registered at birth due to the high cost, inaccessibility of registration centers, and the lack of awareness of its importance.(9, 20, 25, 27-29) Unable to prove their citizenship, nonregistered children are vulnerable to human trafficking and may have difficulty obtaining an education.(6, 9, 30) Research also found that children face widespread physical and sexual abuse in school.(9, 31, 32)

Togo has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Article 150 of the Labor Code; Article 262 of the Children’s Code; Article 881.1a of the Penal Code (33-35)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 151 the Labor Code; Articles 6–12 of Order N° 1464 MTEFP/DGTLS Determining the Work Prohibited to Children (33, 36)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations and/or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Articles 6–12 of Order N° 1464 MTEFP/DGTLS Determining the Work Prohibited to Children; Articles 263 and 264 of the Children’s Code; Articles 319.9 and 882 of the Penal Code; Article 151 of the Labor Code (18, 33-36)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 4 and 151 of the Labor Code; Article 264 of the Children’s Code; Articles 150.3 and 151 of the Penal Code (33-35)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 151 of the Labor Code; Articles 2–6 of Law N° 2005-009 Suppressing Child Trafficking in Togo; Articles 264 and 411–414 of the Children’s Code; Articles 150.3, 151, and 317–323 of the Penal Code (33-35, 37)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 151 of the Labor Code; Articles 264, 276.f, and 387–390 of the Children’s Code; Articles 224 of the Penal Code (33-35)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 151 of the Labor Code; Articles 264, 276.i, and 405 of the Children’s Code; Articles 317.7, 319.9, and 329.8 of the Penal Code (33, 34)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

18

 

Article 426 of the Children’s Code; Articles 146.14, 147.11, and 342 of the Penal Code (34, 35)

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

18

Article 426 of the Children’s Code; Article 42 of Law N° 2007-010 Regarding the General Statute of the Togolese Armed Forces (34, 38)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

15

Article 35 of the Constitution; Decree 2008-129/PR (26, 39)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 35 of the Constitution; Decree 2008-129/PR (26, 39)

 

In November 2015, the Government adopted a revision of the Penal Code that extended anti-human trafficking protection to adult victims, and significantly increased penalties for violators, ranging from 10 to 20 years in prison and fines ranging from $43,320 to $173,310 if the victim is a child.(20) The revision also established penalties ranging from 5 to 10 years in prison and fines ranging from $8,250 to $33,000 for the worst forms of child labor as defined by the Labor Code.(18) Order N° 1464 MTEFP/DGTLS Determining the Work Prohibited to Children sets the minimum age for employment in most hazardous activities at 18, with two exceptions. Children ages 16 and 17 may operate pulleys and winches, and girls ages 16 and 17 may be employed in external displays in stores, both of which may make children vulnerable to exploitative child labor.(36)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor, Employment and Social Security (MOL)

Enforce all labor laws, including child labor laws.(11) The Unit to Combat Child Labor (CELTE) in the MOL is responsible for withdrawing children from child labor situations, raising awareness, and collecting data.(4)

Ministry of Justice and Government Relations

Enforce criminal laws related to the worst forms of child labor, including child trafficking.(20, 21) The Anti-Trafficking Cell serves as a resource for law enforcement agencies combating child trafficking and collects information from prosecutors as part of Togo’s annual report to ECOWAS.(20)

Ministry of Social Action, Promotion of Women and Literacy (MASPFA)

Raise awareness, enforce laws against the worst forms of child labor, and act as the lead on human trafficking issues.(14, 20, 25) Provide technical assistance to regional and prefectural offices. The Directorate General for Child Protection in MASPFA designs, coordinates, and evaluates the Government’s child protection efforts. The Directorate also raises awareness about children’s rights and educates parents to ensure their children’s well-being.(11, 40) Operate the Allo 1011 hotline for reporting child abuse, including child trafficking.(2, 9, 11, 18, 40)

Child Protection Brigades

Investigate crimes involving child victims, including child trafficking. Present in all five regions of Togo and operates as part of the National Police.(14, 41)

National Commission of Human Rights

Receive complaints of human rights abuses, including the violation of children’s rights and forward such complaints to the children’s court.(25, 42)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2015, labor law enforcement agencies in Togo took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown* (7, 14)

Unknown* (18)

Number of Labor Inspectors

86 (7, 29)

109 (18)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (33)

No (33)

Training for Labor Inspectors

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (18)

Yes (18)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A

Unknown

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Labor Inspections

Unknown* (7)

Unknown* (18)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown* (7)

Unknown* (18)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown* (7)

Unknown* (18)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown* (7)

Unknown* (18)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown* (7)

Unknown* (18)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

Unknown* (7)

Unknown* (18)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Unknown

Unknown

Routine Inspections Targeted

Unknown

Unknown

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (33)

Yes (33)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Unknown

Unknown

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (2, 7, 25)

Yes (2, 18, 25, 40)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (2)

Yes (2, 40)

* The Government does not make this information publicly available.

The Labor Code makes labor inspectors responsible for reconciliation and arbitration in collective disputes, which may detract from their primary duties of conducting inspections and enforcing the Labor Code.(33, 43) Both NGOs and the Ministry of Labor (MOL) believe that the current number of labor inspectors is insufficient, despite the increase of 23 inspectors since 2014 and an additional 31 inspectors who are in the final stages of training at the National Administration School.(7, 18)

The MOL also acknowledges that it lacks resources for transportation, which hinders its ability to conduct investigations; however, it was able to carry out some inspections through site visits in 2015, although these primarily focused on the formal sector in urban areas, which excludes the majority of working children.(18, 20, 25, 26, 44) The National Committee for the Reception and Social Reinsertion of Trafficked Children (CNARSEVT) coordinates with the police and other agencies to refer child victims to shelters for assistance, including victims who were returned from abroad.(2, 7, 14) It is unknown how many cases of child labor were identified as a result of calls to the Allo 1011 hotline.(18)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2015, criminal law enforcement agencies in Togo took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown

Unknown

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown

Yes (18, 20)

Number of Investigations

Unknown* (7)

Unknown* (18)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown* (7)

Unknown* (18)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown* (7)

Unknown* (18)

Number of Convictions

Unknown* (7)

Unknown* (18)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (2)

Yes (2)

* The Government does not make this information publicly available.

Inspectors and law enforcement officials often lack the necessary resources and skills to effectively enforce the law. Research also indicates that some law enforcement officials in regional offices do not have copies of existing child labor laws.(4, 14, 17, 25)

Research indicates that it is rare for cases involving child trafficking to be heard in court because prosecutors often have difficulty gathering evidence. Judges may be reluctant to impose fines or prison sentences for parents due to a fear of perpetuating the poverty that originally led them to violate child trafficking laws.(9, 18, 20) In December 2015, the Government repatriated 20 victims of child trafficking who had been sent to Gabon for forced labor.(20)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Committee for the Reception and Social Reinsertion of Trafficked Children (CNARSEVT)

Serve as the primary focal coordinating agency for child trafficking issues, maintaining a presence in all regions, prefectures, and villages.(11, 14, 26, 45, 46) Compile information and statistics on trafficking, raise awareness of child trafficking issues, and coordinate actions against the worst forms of child labor.(20) MOL’s CELTE functions as the CNARSEVT’s secretariat.(11) In 2015, officially endorsed the Protective Policy Document on Child Domestic Work, which will be integrated into the National Action Plan on Child Labor. Recommendations in the document include passing a decree to allow labor inspectors access to households or a decree to protect child domestic workers.(47, 48)

National Steering Committee for the Prohibition and Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor (CDN)

Led by the CELTE, the CDN includes 13 ministries, NGOs, and private sector organizations combating child labor. Coordinate and oversee all government efforts to combat child labor, including the approval of all action plans for the abolition of child labor.(11, 14) Raise awareness, promote child labor legislation, and collect data.(4)

Local Vigilance Committees

Child Protection Committees and Local Committees Against Child Trafficking located throughout Togo to raise awareness at the community level. Committees identify child victims or children at risk, and share information on human trafficking trends and prevention efforts with the MASPFA, which enforces laws regarding child labor.(7, 11, 20)

 

In 2015, an overall lack of funds hindered efforts to reduce the worst forms of child labor and record keeping was inadequate in many government agencies.(20) The Unit to Combat Child Labor (CELTE) and the CNARSEVT had limited ability to carry out activities due to limited funding and were unable to fulfill their coordination role as a result.(29) Although some Local Vigilance Committees were very active during the reporting period, those that lacked regular engagement with the Government were less effective.(20)

The Government of Togo has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Action Plan on Child Labor (2012–2015)

Served as the primary government policy instrument to prevent and eliminate child labor in Togo.(14, 49)

National Strategy on Elimination of Child Labor Through Education, Training, and Apprenticeship

Aims to reduce child labor through education, training, and apprenticeship.(50)

National Employment Policy (2013–2017)

Aims to eliminate child labor, build the capacity of the labor inspectorate, and increase vocational training and apprenticeship opportunities in support of the Decent Work Program.(16, 51, 52) Includes a pilot cash transfer program for 8,000 vulnerable children.(51) The accompanying Strategic Plan on Youth Employment (PSNEJ) aims to maintain children in the education system and reduce their early entry into the labor force by improving the employability of youth and their access to funding.(16, 52, 53)

National Plan of Action on Child Trafficking

Improves services for victims of child trafficking and conducts awareness-raising activities for local communities and border officials.(4) Promotes the education of children and improvement of livelihoods for families, and calls for the establishment of structures to monitor the trafficking of children.(54)

ECOWAS Regional Action Plan on Child Labor (2012–2015)

With 14 other ECOWAS countries, implemented a regional action plan on child labor, especially its worst forms. Aimed to eliminate the worst forms of child labor in West Africa by 2015 and continue progress toward the total elimination of child labor.(55, 56)

Bilateral and Multilateral Agreements to Combat Child Trafficking

Quadripartite Agreement among the Governments of Benin, Ghana, Niger, and Togo works to prevent child trafficking along the countries’ shared borders, and facilitate the repatriation of trafficked children and the extradition of traffickers.(11, 20, 46) Multilateral accords for West and Central Africa promote cooperation among regional states to combat child trafficking.(11, 20)

Strategy to Increase Growth and Promote Employment (SCAPE) (2013–2017)

Serves as the primary national anti-poverty plan, which includes components on child labor and education.(11, 14, 57)

Education Sector Plan (2010–2020)*

Aims to achieve universal quality primary education by 2020 through the elimination of school fees, improving educational quality, providing school meals, providing school kits to impoverished families, and offering alternative educational opportunities.(11, 16) Aims to halve the illiteracy rate among people ages 15–45, with priority given to out-of-school youth ages 9–14, through the development of alternative models of non-formal education.(16)

Social Protection Policy of 2012

Aims to improve the employability of youth ages 15 to 17, prevent children from entering the labor force before the minimum working age, and promote decent work for youth. Aligned with SCAPE.(16)

* Child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy.

Although numerous policies have been passed in the last 3 years, many have yet to be fully institutionalized, and only policy documents specific to labor and social protection include indicators related to child labor.(16)

In 2015, the Government of Togo funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues

USDOL-funded project implemented by the ILO in approximately 40 countries to support the priorities of the Roadmap for Achieving the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor by 2016 established by The Hague Global Child Labor Conference in 2010. Aims to build the capacity of the national government and develop strategic policies to eliminate child labor, improve the evidence base on child labor through data collection and research, and strengthen legal protections and social services delivery for child domestic workers.(58)

Cash Transfer Program for Vulnerable Children in Northern Togo (2013–2017)†

$2.55 million World Bank-funded, 5-year program implemented by the MASPFA that aims to prevent child labor and child trafficking in rural communities in Northern Togo by providing conditional cash transfers to high-risk families with young children.(18, 20, 59, 60) Participating families must attend training sessions and ensure that their children have birth certificates and attend school. Between September 2014 and October 2015, 8,918 beneficiaries in 121 villages in the Kara and Savanes region received 13 monthly transfers of $10 per month.(18, 20, 29, 51, 61) In 2015, the Government wholly funded 96 conditional cash transfers.(18)

Forum of Traditional and Religious Chiefs of Togo on the Harmful Social and Cultural Practices That Affect Children†

MASPFA-funded program that educates local leaders on child labor issues and the importance of education through training workshops at the community level.(18, 20) Works to eliminate traditional practices that may contribute to child trafficking.(20)

Decent Work Program (2010–2015)

Promoted decent work conditions with a focus on creating job opportunities for youth and extending social protection for all.(62)

Monitoring Children’s Rights (2015–2018)*

$393,000 Plan-Sweden-funded, 3-year project implemented by Plan-Togo, the MASPFA, and four civil society organizations that aims to strengthen the institutional capacity of these organizations to better protect children in Benin, Burkina Faso, and Togo.(63, 64) This project supports SCAPE through the collection of information and the monitoring of vulnerable children.(65)

Shelters for Vulnerable Children†

MASPFA-funded centers that provide shelter and services for victims referred by the Allo 1011 hotline.(2, 20, 25, 40) The Tokoin Community Center temporarily shelters children until they are transferred to NGO-managed centers; a variety of NGOs provide legal, medical, and social services, and temporary housing and psychological care.(2, 20, 40)

National Fund for Inclusive Finance†

Government program that provides loans of up to approximately $60 to small groups of men and women for income-generating activities.(18, 66) Loans target villages in rural Northern Togo, with a secondary effect of reducing child labor.(18, 20)

Togo Community Development and Safety Nets Project (2012–2016)

$14 million World Bank-funded, 5-year program that aims to improve access to socioeconomic infrastructure and provide social safety nets for vulnerable populations.(67)

National School Feeding Program (2014–2022)†

Ministry of Primary and Secondary Education and Professional Training; Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, and Water; and World Bank-funded program that aims to improve access to education, particularly for girls, and increase retention rates by providing free school lunches.(68) Aligned with the Education Sector Plan.(16)

National Plan for Registering Births in Togo (2013–2017)†

Aims to increase documentation of births by simplifying the process, educating families on the importance of birth registration, and increasing accessibility to birth registration in rural areas.(45, 69)

Education and Institutional Strengthening Project 2 (2015–2018)*

$27.8 million World Bank-funded 3-year program that aims to improve the quality of teaching and learning in primary schools, and strengthen access to primary education, particularly in areas with poor educational infrastructure.(23, 70)

Gender-Sensitive and Violence-Free Education

Plan International Togo and Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency-funded, 3.5-year project that aims to reduce violence in schools by eliminating corporal punishment and promoting children’s rights in the Central and Plateau regions.(32) In 2015, developed community charters for the promotion of education and the protection of children against abuse.(71)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Togo.

Although Togo has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem.(9, 26) Many programs rely largely on NGOs and international organizations for implementation. As a result, many of these interventions may not be sustainable over the long term.(20)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Togo (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that all children under age 18 are prohibited from engaging in hazardous occupations or activities.

2014 – 2015

Enforcement

Make information about the training system for labor investigators publically available and ensure that both labor inspectors and investigators receive training on new laws related to child labor.

2009 – 2015

Strengthen the labor inspectorate by authorizing the inspectorate to assess penalties.

2014 – 2015

Make information publically available about whether routine and unannounced inspections are conducted, and whether routine inspections are targeted.

2015

Make statistics regarding the enforcement of child labor laws publically available, including the labor inspectorate’s funding, the number and type of labor inspections conducted, violations found, penalties imposed, criminal investigations conducted, prosecutions initiated, and convictions obtained.

2010 – 2015

Significantly increase the number of labor inspectors responsible for enforcing laws related to child labor in accordance with the ILO’s recommendation.

2009 – 2015

Establish a mechanism to log all calls to the child protection hotline and track cases of child labor for referral to law enforcement or social services providers.

2014 – 2015

Ensure that labor inspectors and law enforcement officials have the necessary resources to fulfill their mandate, including access to reliable transportation and copies of relevant child labor laws.

2009 – 2015

Enforce penalties for labor violations according to the law.

2014 – 2015

Coordination

Provide coordinating bodies with sufficient resources to implement their mandates to combat child labor, including its worst forms.

2009 – 2015

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the Education Sector Plan.

2013 – 2015

Social Programs

Increase access to education by eliminating school-related fees; ensuring that schools are free from sexual and physical violence; and increasing the number of schools and teachers, especially in rural areas.

2010 – 2015

Expand access to birth registration, including through the National Plan for Registering Births in Togo, by eliminating the cost of birth registration, establishing additional registration centers in rural areas, and educating families on the importance of birth registration.

2011 – 2015

Ensure that social protection programs to combat the worst forms of child labor are sufficient to address the scope of the problem and promote the long-term sustainability of project initiatives.

2009 – 2015

 

1.         Direction Generale de la Statistique et de la Comptabilite Nationale de la Republique Togolaise. Enquete de Base sur le Travail des Enfants au Togo: Rapport Final. Geneva, ILO-IPEC; 2010.

2.         U.S. Department of State. "Togo," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015. Washington, DC; July 27, 2015; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2015/index.htm.

3.         USDOL. Trip Report to Togo. Washington, DC; July 26-31, 2011.

4.         International Trade Union Confederation. Report for the WTO General Council Review of the Trade Policies of Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea-Bissau and Togo. Geneva; July 2012. http://www.ituc-csi.org/report-for-the-wto-general-council,11652.html?lang=en.

5.         WAO-Afrique. Le travail domestique des enfants ne devrait plus exister au Togo, [previously online] [cited May 4, 2011]; http://horizoninfo.wordpress.com/2011/05/04/wao-afriquele-travail-domestique-des-enfants-ne-devrait-plus-exister-au-togo/  [source on file].

6.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from MICS 4, 2010. Analysis received December 18, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

7.         U.S. Embassy- Lome. reporting, January 15, 2015.

8.         WAO-Afrique. Analyse de l'estimation rapide du travail des enfants dans le travail domestique au Togo. Brussels; July 2013.

9.         UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 44 of the Convention: Concluding Observations: Togo. Geneva; March 8, 2012. Report No. CRC/C/TGO/CO/3-4. http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G12/413/00/PDF/G1241300.pdf?OpenElement.

10.       Direction Generale de la Statistique et de la Comptabilite Nationale de la Republique Togolaise. Enquete Nationale sur le Travail des Enfants au Togo: Rapport Final. Geneva, ILO-IPEC; 2010.

11.       UCW. Togo: comprendre le travail des enfants et l’emploi des jeunes. Rome; November 2013. http://www.ucw-project.org/attachment/Togo_travail_enfants_emploi_jeunes20131118_130728.pdf.

12.       Plan Togo. "Remember the real Cinderellas." (March 27, 2015); http://www.plan-uk.org/news/news-and-features/remember-the-real-cinderellas/.

13.       UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed December 16, 2015]; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. Because the calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age), the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

14.       U.S. Embassy- Lome. reporting, January 23, 2014.

15.       N’Diaye, FC. Genre et travail des enfants dans les mines et carrières au Burkina Faso, au Mali et au Togo. Dakar, ILO; 2013. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---africa/---ro-addis_ababa/---sro-dakar/documents/publication/wcms_228135.pdf.

16.       UCW. Priorités et rôles des acteurs publics dans la lutte contre le travail des enfants. Rome; June 2015. http://www.ucw-project.org/attachment/Priorit%C3%A9s_r%C3%B4les_acteurs_publics_lutte_travail_enfants_Togo20150710_111630.pdf.

17.       U.S. Embassy- Lome official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 22, 2015.

18.       U.S. Embassy- Lome. reporting, January 21, 2016.

19.       Adjovi, L. "The plight of Togo's trafficked children," Togo: BBC; August 19, 2015; 2:44, news broadcast; [December 8, 2015]; http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-33984149.

20.       U.S. Embassy- Lome. reporting, February 1, 2016.

21.       U.S. Embassy- Lome. reporting, February 2, 2012.

22.       "IOM Helps Togolese Girls Trafficked in Gabon to Return Home." Modern Ghana, (November 20, 2015); http://www.modernghana.com/news/657075/1/iom-helps-togolese-girls-trafficked-in-gabon-to-re.html.

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41.       UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Liste de points appelant des informations complémentaires et actualisées (CRC/C/TGO/Q/3-4) en vue de l’examen des troisième et quatrième rapports périodiques du Togo soumis en un seul document (CRC/C/TGO/3-4) Geneva; November 2, 2011. Report No. CRC/C/TGO/Q/3-4/Add.1. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/crc/docs/CRC.C.TGO.Q.3-4.Add.1_fr.pdf.

42.       ACPF. The African Report on Children with Disabilities: Promising starts and persisting challenges. Addis Ababa, The African Child Policy Forum (ACPF); 2014. https://app.box.com/s/21wsqdeaioycztxsffnv.

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44.       ILO-IPEC. Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues: Atelier de formation des organisations syndicales de travailleurs pour le renforcement de leur rôles dans la lutte contre le travail des enfants et la promotion du travail décents pour les travailleurs domestiques, en particulier pour les jeunes de 15 à 17 ans. Technical Progress Report. Geneva; June 23-24, 2014.

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48.       ILO-IPEC. Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues. Technical Progress Report. Geneva; October 2015.

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51.       Government of Togo. Politique Nationale de l'Emploi, enacted March 31, 2014. https://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/MONOGRAPH/94656/111123/F-999531201/TGO-94656.pdf.

52.       Government of Togo. Portant Approbation de la Politique Nationale de l'Emploi et du Plan Strategique National pour l'Emploi des Jeunes, Decret N° 2014-089/PR enacted March 31, 2014. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/98784/117627/F1814265019/TGO-98784.pdf.

53.       Government of Togo. Plan Strategique National por l'Emploi des Jeunes (PSNEJ) Orientations Strategiques, enacted March 31, 2014. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/MONOGRAPH/98783/117624/F792224279/TGO-98783.pdf.

54.       Government of Togo. Plan National d'Action de Lutte Contre La Traite des Enfants a des Fins d'Exploitation de Leur Travail. Lome; October 4, 2004.

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57.       Government of Togo. Strategy to Increase Growth and Promote Employment 2013-2017. Lome; January 2013. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/95034/111729/F-973837252/TGO-95034.pdf.

58.       ILO-IPEC. Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues. Technical Progress Report. Geneva; October 2014.

59.       World Bank. Cash Transfer Program for Vulnerable Children in Northern Togo 2013-2017. Washington; January 25, 2014. http://www.worldbank.org/projects/P144484/cash-transfer-program-vulnerable-children-northern-togo?lang=en.

60.       Van Dyck, J. Cash Transfer Program for Vulnerable Children in Northern Togo 2013-2017 Implementation Status & Results Report. Washington, DC, World Bank; December 30, 2014. http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/AFR/2014/12/30/090224b0829695e4/1_0/Rendered/PDF/Togo000Cash0Tr0Report000Sequence002.pdf.

61.       Van Dyck, J. Cash Transfer Program for Vulnerable Children in Northern Togo 2013-2017 Implementation Status & Results Report. Washington, DC, World Bank; November 19, 2015. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2015/11/25477848/togo-cash-transfer-program-vulnerable-children-northern-togo-p144484-implementation-status-results-report-sequence-03.

62.       Government of Togo, and ILO. Programme Pays de promotion du Travail Décent au TOGO 2010 - 2015 May 2010. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/bureau/program/dwcp/download/togo.pdf.

63.       Manabe, E. "Le Foddet lance un projet pour appuyer des acteurs oeuvrant dans la protection des enfants." Togo Top News, (2015); http://www.togotopnews.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=600:togo-le-foddet-lance-un-projet-pour-appuyer-des-acteurs-uvrant-dans-la-protection-des-enfants&catid=81:societe&Itemid=86.

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66.       Agboh, AEK. "Fonds National de la Finance Inclusive : l’APSEF officiellement lancé samedi prochain." Africa Time, Lome, April 24, 2014. http://fr.africatime.com/togo/articles/fonds-national-de-la-finance-inclusive-lapsef-officiellement-lance-samedi-prochain.

67.       Wold Bank. Togo Community Development and Safety Nets Project 2013-2015, World Bank, [online] [cited January 28, 2014]; http://www.worldbank.org/projects/P127200/togo-community-development-safety-net-project-pdsplus?lang=en.

68.       World Bank. Togo Community Development and Safety Nets Project 2012-2016 Status Report. Washington,  February 17, 2015. http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/AFR/2015/02/17/090224b082ad46b0/1_0/Rendered/PDF/Togo000TOGO0Co0Report000Sequence006.pdf.

69.       Government of Togo, and UNICEF. Plan Strategique de l'Enregistrement des Naissances au Togo 2013 - 2017; November 2012. http://www.stat-togo.org/contenu/pdf/pb/pb-snen-naissance-tg-2012.pdf.

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71.       Pao, G. "Stop à la violence contre les enfants à l'école et dans les communautés." Santé-Education, (2015); http://www.sante-education.tg/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=846:stop-a-la-violence-contre-les-enfants-a-l-ecole-et-dans-les-communautes&catid=89&Itemid=1441.

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