Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Togo

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Togo

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2016, Togo made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government significantly increased its number of labor inspectors for the third year in a row, identified 246 cases of child labor, and removed 23 children from hazardous child labor. The Government also created a National Domestic Workers’ Trade Union that will combat child labor and protect domestic workers of legal working age. However, children in Togo perform dangerous tasks in agriculture. Children also engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in forced domestic work, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. The Government has not devoted sufficient resources to combat child labor, and enforcement of laws related to child labor remains weak. In addition, Togo's social programs to combat the worst forms of child labor do not match the scope of the problem and rely largely on nongovernmental and international organizations for implementation.

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Children in Togo perform dangerous tasks in agriculture. Children also engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in forced domestic work, sometimes as a result of human trafficking.(1-9) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Togo.

Table 1. Statistics on Children's Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

29.6

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

86.1

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

29.5

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

84.3

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2015, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(10)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children's Work Project's analysis of statistics from Demographic and Health Survey, 2013–2014.(4)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children's Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Working in agriculture, including exposure to pesticides,† harvesting cotton, cocoa, and coffee (3, 6, 8, 11)

Raising cattle† (3)

Industry

Working in quarries and sand mines, including excavating, crushing rocks, sifting gravel, and carrying heavy loads† (1, 3, 7, 12-14)

Working in carpentry† and tailoring (15)

Construction, activities unknown (1, 8, 11)

Services

Domestic work† (1, 4-9, 11, 13, 16, 17)

Carrying heavy loads† and small-scale vending in markets (1, 3, 6-8, 11, 13, 17)

Operating motorcycle taxis, auto and motorcycle repair (1, 11, 15)

Garbage scavenging (1, 11)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Forced begging (3, 14)

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1-3, 8, 13, 17)

Forced labor in agriculture, including coffee, cocoa, and cotton; domestic work; quarries; and markets, including carrying heavy loads; each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2, 3, 9, 18, 19)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Togo is a source and transit country for victims of human trafficking to neighboring countries, although the majority of child trafficking cases are domestic.(2, 8, 9, 16, 18, 20, 21) The customary practice of confiage, which involves sending a child to a relative or friend to attend school in a larger town or city, may place children at risk of exploitation by internal human trafficking.(3, 6, 8, 13, 17) Parents may be complicit in child trafficking as a result of confiage, and some traditional chiefs and leaders do not discourage the practice.(9, 22)

Although education is free and compulsory by law, parents are responsible for paying associated fees and buying uniforms and school supplies, which makes education prohibitive for many families.(23-25) Research also found that distance to school, birth registration requirements, and physical and sexual abuse in schools also posed barriers to education for some.(6, 11, 17, 24, 26, 27)

Togo has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Togo's legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Article 150 of the Labor Code; Article 262 of the Children's Code; Article 881.1a of the Penal Code (28-30)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 151 of the Labor Code; Articles 6–12 of Order N° 1464 MTEFP/DGTLS Determining the Work Prohibited to Children (28, 31)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Articles 6–12 of Order N° 1464 MTEFP/DGTLS Determining the Work Prohibited to Children; Articles 263–264 of the Children's Code; Articles 319.9 and 882 of the Penal Code; Article 151 of the Labor Code (28-31)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 4 and 151 of the Labor Code; Articles 264 and 411 of the Children's Code; Articles 150.3 and 151 of the Penal Code (28-30)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 151 of the Labor Code; Articles 2–6 of Law N° 2005-009 Suppressing Child Trafficking in Togo; Articles 264 and 411–414 of the Children's Code; Articles 150.3, 151, 317–323, and 882 of the Penal Code (28-30, 32)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 151 of the Labor Code; Articles 264, 276.f, and 387–390 of the Children's Code; Article 224 of the Penal Code (28-30)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 151 of the Labor Code; Articles 264, 276.i, and 405 of the Children's Code; Articles 317.7, 319.9, and 329.8 of the Penal Code (28-30)

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

Yes*

18

Article 426 of the Children's Code; Articles 146.14, 147.11, and 342 of the Penal Code (29, 30)

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Article 426 of the Children's Code; Article 42 of Law N° 2007-010 Regarding the General Statute of the Togolese Armed Forces (29, 33)

Non-state Compulsory

Yes

18

Article 426 of the Children's Code; Articles 146.14, 147.11, and 342 of the Penal Code (29, 30)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

15

Article 35 of the Constitution; Article 255 of the Children's Code (29, 34)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 35 of the Constitution (34)

*No Conscription (33)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor law enforcement and criminal law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Civil Service, Labor, and Administrative Reform (MOL)

Enforce all labor laws, including child labor laws.(8, 23) Through its Unit to Combat Child Labor (CELTE), withdraw children from child labor situations, raise awareness, and collect data.(3) Focal points within the inspectorate are located in each of the five regions to monitor child labor issues and raise awareness at the local level.(35)

Ministry of Justice and Government Relations

Enforce criminal laws related to the worst forms of child labor and prosecute violations.(11) Through its Anti-Trafficking Cell, serve as a resource for law enforcement agencies combating child trafficking and collect information from prosecutors as part of Togo's annual report to ECOWAS.(20)

Ministry of Social Action, Promotion of Women and Literacy (MASPFA), Director General for the Protection of Children

Raise awareness of child labor issues, enforce laws against the worst forms of child labor, provide technical assistance, and lead government efforts to combat human trafficking.(8, 22, 36) Operate the Allo 1011 hotline for reporting child abuse, including child trafficking.(2, 6, 8, 22, 36, 37)

Ministry of Security's Child Protection Brigades

Investigate crimes involving child victims, including child trafficking. Present in all five regions of Togo and operate as part of the National Police.(11)

National Commission of Human Rights

Receive complaints of human rights abuses, including the violation of children's rights, and forward such complaints to the children's court.(38)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, labor law enforcement agencies in Togo took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown* (39)

Unknown* (11)

Number of Labor Inspectors

109 (39)

167 (11)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (28)

No (11)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (39)

Yes (11)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Unknown

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Labor Inspections

Unknown* (39)

Unknown* (11)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown* (39)

Unknown* (11)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown* (39)

Unknown* (11)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown* (39)

246 (11)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown* (39)

Unknown* (11)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

Unknown* (39)

Unknown* (11)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Unknown

Yes (11)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Unknown

Unknown

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (28)

Yes (11)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Unknown

Unknown

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (2, 36, 39)

Yes (11)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (2, 36)

Yes (11)

* The Government does not publish this information.

The Labor Code makes labor inspectors responsible for reconciliation and arbitration in collective disputes, which may detract from their primary duties of conducting inspections and enforcing the Labor Code.(28, 40) Although the number of labor inspectors has grown significantly over the past three years, NGOs and the Ministry of Public Service, Labor, and Administrative Reform (MOL) believe that the current number of labor inspectors is still insufficient.(23, 39)

The MOL also acknowledges that it lacks resources for transportation, which hinders its ability to conduct investigations, particularly outside Lomé and the regional capitals. In addition, inspections are primarily focused on the formal sector in urban areas, which excludes the majority of working children.(11, 14, 23) During the reporting period, the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Cell identified 246 children in child labor and removed 23 children from hazardous working conditions.(11) Although the Allo 1011 hotline received more than 40,000 calls in 2016, it is unknown how many cases of child labor were identified as a result of these calls.(37, 39)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in Togo took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Yes (14)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (20, 39)

Unknown (11)

Number of Investigations

Unknown* (39)

Unknown* (11)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown* (39)

50 (25)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown (19)

Unknown (11)

Number of Convictions

Unknown (19)

Unknown (11)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (2)

Yes (11)

* The Government does not publish this information.

Inspectors and law enforcement officials often lack the necessary skills and resources to effectively enforce the law, including transportation.(11) Research also indicates that some law enforcement officials in regional offices do not have copies of existing child labor laws, and high turnover results in gaps of knowledge and enforcement capacity.(3, 14, 15) It is rare for cases involving child trafficking to be heard in court because prosecutors often have difficulty gathering evidence. Judges may be reluctant to impose fines or prison sentences for parents due to a fear of perpetuating the poverty that originally led them to violate child trafficking laws.(2, 6, 22) Although the Ministry of Justice investigated 101 individuals for human trafficking and found 60 individuals guilty, it is not known how many of these cases were related to children.(41)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Steering Committee for the Prohibition and Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor (CDN)

Coordinate and oversee all government efforts to combat child labor, including the approval of all action plans for the abolition of child labor.(8, 14) Raise awareness, promote child labor legislation, and collect data.(3) Led by CELTE, the CDN includes 13 ministries, NGOs, and private sector organizations combating child labor.

Anti-Trafficking in Persons Cell (formerly CNARSEVT)

Coordinate government efforts to combat human trafficking, including by rescuing and referring victims to shelters for social services and reintegration.(2, 8, 11, 14) Compile statistics on human trafficking and serve as the point of contract for repatriated child victims.(22) Comprises representatives from five ministries and chaired by MOL's Committee for Social Reintegration of Children.(11, 14) In 2016, expanded its scope to include adults and changed its name from the National Committee for the Reception and Social Reinsertion of Trafficked Children.(22)

Local Vigilance Committees

Raise awareness at the community level through Child Protection Committees and Local Committees Against Child Trafficking located throughout Togo. Committees identify child victims or children at risk and share information on human trafficking trends and prevention efforts with the MASPFA, which enforces laws regarding child labor.(8, 22)

 

Although the 2007 Children’s Code provided for a coordinating body to implement the Children’s Code and oversee the promotion and protection of children’s rights in Togo, including by strengthening the legal framework, it has yet to be created.(29) Although some Local Vigilance Committees were very active during the reporting period, those that lacked regular engagement with the Government were less effective.(22) Research was unable to determine whether any coordinating bodies met in 2016 or whether they carried out any activities.(14)

The Government has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Employment Policy (2013–2017)

Aims to eliminate child labor, build the capacity of the labor inspectorate, and increase vocational training and apprenticeship opportunities in support of the Decent Work Program.(13, 42, 43) Includes a pilot cash transfer program for 8,000 vulnerable children.(42) The accompanying Strategic Plan on Youth Employment (PSNEJ) aims to reduce children’s early entry into the labor force by retaining them in school and improving the employability of older youth and their access to funding.(13, 43, 44)

Strategy to Increase Growth and Promote Employment (SCAPE) (2013–2017)

Serves as the primary national anti-poverty plan, which includes components on child labor and education.(8, 45)

Social Protection Policy of 2012

Aims to improve the employability of youth ages 15 to 17, prevent children from entering the labor force before the minimum working age, and promote decent work for youth. Aligned with SCAPE.(13)

Bilateral and Multilateral Agreements to Combat Child Trafficking

Quadripartite agreement among the Governments of Benin, Ghana, Niger, and Togo that works to prevent child trafficking along the countries' shared borders and facilitate the repatriation of trafficked children and the extradition of traffickers. Multilateral accords for West and Central Africa promote cooperation among regional states to combat child trafficking.(8, 19, 20) In 2016, funded and facilitated the repatriation of 99 Togolese victims of child trafficking from Côte d'Ivoire, Gabon, and Nigeria, an increase of 79 repatriations from the 20 repatriated in 2015.(19)

 

In 2016, the Government co-drafted a Charter on Maritime Security and Development in Africa that aims to combat transnational crime, including child trafficking.(46, 47) Although the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Cell recognizes the need to create a new national action plan to combat human trafficking, it has yet to do so.(14, 22) Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement any policy during the reporting period, and only policy documents specific to labor and social protection include indicators related to child labor.(13) The Government has not included child labor elimination and prevention strategies in the Education Sector Plan (2010–2020).(48)

In 2016, the Government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues

USDOL-funded project implemented by the ILO in approximately 40 countries to support the priorities of the Roadmap for Achieving the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor by 2016 established by The Hague Global Child Labor Conference in 2010.(49) In 2016, established a National Domestic Workers' Trade Union that will combat child labor and protect domestic workers of legal working age.(50) Additional information is available on the USDOL Web site.

World Bank-Funded Programs

Projects that combat child labor by improving social safety nets for vulnerable families and increasing access to education. Includes Togo Community Development and Safety Nets Project (2012–2017), a $14 million project that provided conditional cash transfers, school meals, and 346 primary school classrooms in the Kara and Savanes regions by the end of July 2016; Education and Institutional Strengthening Project 2 (2015–2018), a $27.8 million project that revised course textbooks for grades 1 and 2, provided teacher training, identified recipients of school grants, and selected 80 sites for promoting girls' education; and the Cash Transfer Program for Vulnerable Children in Northern Togo (2013–2017),† a $2.55 million project implemented by the MASPFA that provides conditional cash transfers in northern Togo.(51-55)

Plan International-Funded Projects

Projects that aim to support youth development. Includes Monitoring Children's Rights (2015–2018), a $393,000 Plan Sweden-funded, 3-year MASPFA project in support of SCAPE that aims to strengthen the institutional capacity of these organizations to better protect children in Benin, Burkina Faso, and Togo; and Gender-Sensitive and Violence-Free Education, a 3.5-year project co-funded by the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency that aims to reduce violence in schools by eliminating corporal punishment and promoting children's rights in the Central and Plateau regions.(27, 56-58)

Shelters for Vulnerable Children†

Two MOL- and MASPFA-funded centers that provide temporary shelter and services for victims, including those referred by the Allo 1011 hotline.(2, 19, 23, 36) Victims may be transferred to NGO-run shelters for longer term support.(19)

National Fund for Inclusive Finance†

Government program that provides loans of up to $60 to women in rural areas of Northern Togo that aims to reduce the demand for income provided by engaging in child labor.(11, 59)

National Plan for Registering Births in Togo (2013–2017)†

Plan to increase documentation of births by simplifying the process, educating families on the importance of birth registration, and increasing accessibility to birth registration in rural areas.(14, 60) In 2016, distributed birth certificates with the assistance of Care International and a local NGO.(14)

† Program is funded by the Government of Togo.
‡ The Government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms.(11, 60)

The scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem, however, and the Government relies heavily on NGOs and international organizations for implementation.(6, 22) As a result, many of these interventions may not be sustainable over the long term.(11)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Togo (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Enforcement

Strengthen the labor inspectorate by authorizing the inspectorate to assess penalties.

2014 – 2016

Ensure that both labor inspectors and investigators receive refresher courses.

2009 – 2016

Publish information about the number and type of investigations conducted, penalties imposed and collected, prosecutions initiated, and convictions made.

2010 – 2016

Increase the number of labor inspectors and ensure that they have sufficient resources, skills, and transportation to carry out their primary duties of inspection and monitoring labor laws throughout the country, including in the informal sector.

2009 – 2016

Enforce penalties for labor violations according to the law.

2014 – 2016

Coordination

Ensure that coordinating bodies are functional and are able to implement their mandates to combat child labor as intended.

2009 – 2016

Government Policies

Ensure that policies are implemented as intended and child labor indicators are included in all relevant policies.

2016

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies in the Education Sector Plan.

2013 – 2016

Social Programs

Increase access to education by eliminating school-related fees; making additional efforts to provide all children with birth registration; ensuring that schools are free from sexual and physical violence; and increasing the number of schools, especially in rural areas.

2010 – 2016

Ensure that social protection programs to combat the worst forms of child labor are sufficient to address the scope of the problem and promote the long-term sustainability of project initiatives.

2009 – 2016

1.         Direction Générale de la Statistique et de la Comptabilité Nationale de la République Togolaise. Rapport Final de l'Enquête de Base sur le Travail des Enfants au Togo. Geneva, ILO-IPEC; 2010. Report No. Projet TOG/07/01P/USA. http://ilo.org/ipec/Informationresources/WCMS_IPEC_PUB_13873/lang--fr/index.htm.

2.         U.S. Department of State. "Togo," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016. Washington, DC; June 30, 2016; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2016/index.htm.

3.         International Trade Union Confederation. Report for the WTO General Council Review of the Trade Policies of Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea-Bissau and Togo. Geneva; July 2012. http://www.ituc-csi.org/report-for-the-wto-general-council,11652.html?lang=en.

4.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Demographic and Health Survey, 2013-2014. Analysis received April 13, 2017. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information,  please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

5.         WAO-Afrique. Analyse de l'estimation rapide du travail des enfants dans le travail domestique au Togo. Brussels; July 2013. http://globalmarch.org/Child-Labour-Domestic/togo/images/Rapide%20assessment%20analysis_Togo.pdf.

6.         UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 44 of the Convention: Concluding Observations: Togo. Geneva; March 8, 2012. Report No. CRC/C/TGO/CO/3-4. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC/C/TGO/CO/3-4&Lang=En.

7.         Direction Générale de la Statistique et de la Comptabilité Nationale de la Republique Togolaise. Rapport Final de l'Enquête Nationale sur le Travail des Enfants au Togo. Geneva, ILO-IPEC; 2010. Report No. Project RAF/06/06/FRA. [Source on file].

8.         UCW. Togo: comprendre le travail des enfants et l’emploi des jeunes. Rome; November 2013. http://www.ucw-project.org/attachment/Togo_travail_enfants_emploi_jeunes20131118_130728.pdf.

9.         Plan Togo. Remember the Real Cinderellas, [previously online] March 27, 2015 [cited December 14, 2015]; [source on file].

10.       UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed December 16, 2016; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary education. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. The calculation includes all new entrants to the last grade (regardless of age). Therefore, the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

11.       U.S. Embassy- Lome. reporting, February 1, 2017.

12.       N’Diaye, FC. Genre et travail des enfants dans les mines et carrières au Burkina Faso, au Mali et au Togo. Dakar, ILO; 2013. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---africa/---ro-addis_ababa/---sro-dakar/documents/publication/wcms_228135.pdf.

13.       UCW. Priorités et rôles des acteurs publics dans la lutte contre le travail des enfants. Rome; June 2015. http://www.ucw-project.org/attachment/Priorit%C3%A9s_r%C3%B4les_acteurs_publics_lutte_travail_enfants_Togo20150710_111630.pdf.

14.       U.S. Embassy- Lome official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 7, 2017.

15.       U.S. Embassy- Lome official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 22, 2015.

16.       Adjovi, L. "The plight of Togo's trafficked children," London: British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC); August 19, 2015; 2 min., 44 sec., television broadcast; [cited December 8, 2015]; http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-33984149.

17.       UN Human Rights Council. Compilation prepared by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights in accordance with paragraph 15 (b) of the annex to Human Rights Council resolution 5/1 and paragraph 5 of the annex to Council resolution 16/21 - Togo. Geneva; August 22, 2016. Report No. A/HRC/WG.6/26/TGO/2. https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G16/184/93/PDF/G1618493.pdf?OpenElement.

18.       U.S. Embassy- Lome official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 22, 2016.

19.       U.S. Embassy- Lome official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 10, 2017.

20.       U.S. Embassy- Lome. reporting, February 1, 2016.

21.       Modern Ghana. "IOM Helps Togolese Girls Trafficked in Gabon to Return Home." modernghana.com [online] November 20, 2015 [cited December 10, 2015]; http://www.modernghana.com/news/657075/1/iom-helps-togolese-girls-trafficked-in-gabon-to-re.html.

22.       U.S. Embassy- Lome. reporting, February 24, 2017.

23.       U.S. Department of State. "Togo," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2016. Washington, DC; March 3, 2017; https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265524.pdf.

24.       Education Global Practice  - Africa Region. Implementation Completion and Results Report (TF-97340) on a Grant from the Education for All - Fast Track Initiative Catalytic Fund in the Amount of US$45 Million to the Republic of Togo for an Education and Institutional Strengthening Project (PERI). Washington, DC, World Bank; 2015. http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2015/11/09/090224b0831a5372/1_0/Rendered/PDF/Togo000Educati0ening0Project00PERI0.pdf.

25.       UN Human Rights Council. Summary prepared by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights in accordance with paragraph 15 (c) of the annex to Human Rights Council resolution 5/1 and paragraph 5 of the annex to Council resolution 16/21 - Togo. Geneva; August 17, 2016. Report No. A/HRC/WG.6/26/TGO/3. https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G16/183/12/PDF/G1618312.pdf?OpenElement.

26.       Associated Press. Togolese children suffer violence at school [News clip]: Youtube; July 30, 2015, 5 min., 31 sec., [accessed December 14, 2015]; [source on file].

27.       Togo Breaking News. "Education sensible au genre et sans violence: Plan international s’investit dans les régions Centrale et des Plateaux." togobreakingnews.com [online] September 23, 2015 [cited December 14, 2015]; http://togobreakingnews.com/nouvelles/education/education-sensible-au-genre-et-sans-violence-plan-international-s-investit-dans-les-regions-centrale-et-des-plateaux.html.

28.       Government of Togo. Code du travail, enacted December 5, 2006. www.droit-afrique.com/images/textes/Togo/Togo%20-%20Code%20du%20travail.pdf.

29.       Government of Togo. Code de l'enfant, Public Law Number 2007-017, enacted July 6, 2007. http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/population/fgm/togo.child.07.pdf.

30.       Government of Togo. Code pénal du Togo, enacted August 13, 1980, revised April 2000. http://www.wipo.int/edocs/lexdocs/laws/fr/tg/tg003fr.pdf.

31.       Government of Togo. Déterminant les travaux interdits aux enfants conformement au point 4 de l'article 151 de la loi No 2006-010 du 13 decembre 2006 portant code du travail, Arrete No. 1464, enacted November 12, 2007. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/MONOGRAPH/77627/82451/F-576214523/TGO-77627.pdf.

32.       Government of Togo. Relative au trafic d'enfants au Togo, Law No. 2005-009, enacted August 3, 2005. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/SERIAL/72058/72983/F1981134441/trafic%20enfants.pdf.

33.       Government of Togo. Portant Statut Général des Personnels Militaires des Forces Armées Togolaises, Law No. 2007-010, enacted February 2007. http://www.legitogo.gouv.tg/annee_txt/2007/Pages%20from%20jo_2007-011-19.pdf.

34.       Government of Togo. Constitution de la IVe République, enacted October 14, 1992. http://www.refworld.org/docid/48ef43c72.html.

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