Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Thailand

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Thailand

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Significant Advancement

In 2016, Thailand made a significant advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government adopted an amendment to the penal code that increases penalties for individuals who use children to commit crimes. Thailand also established a new taskforce to investigate crimes involving the commercial sexual exploitation of children perpetrated using the Internet. In collaboration with multiple stakeholders, the Government began implementing a new project to prevent and reduce child labor and forced labor in the fishing and seafood industry. In addition, the Government is working with the International Labor Organization to collect data and produce nationally representative child labor estimates. However, children in Thailand engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in fishing and shrimp and seafood processing, and in commercial sexual exploitation. An insufficient number of inspectors and inadequate training on child labor issues hampered the labor inspectorate's capacity to enforce child labor laws, particularly in the informal sector and home-based workplaces. Some children in Thailand face challenges in accessing education, which increases their vulnerability to the worst forms of child labor.

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Children in Thailand engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in fishing and shrimp and seafood processing, and in commercial sexual exploitation.(1-4) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Thailand.

Table 1. Statistics on Children's Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

13.0 (1,302,267)

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

96.3

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

14.4

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

93.3

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2015, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(5)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children's Work Project's analysis of statistics from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 3, 2005–2006.(6)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children's Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Processing shrimp and seafood† (2, 7-10)

Fishing, including work performed on sea vessels† (11, 12)

Planting and harvesting sugarcane (13, 14)

Production of rubber, roses, oranges, pineapples, and various vegetables (15, 16)

Industry

Manufacturing, including garment production (10, 17, 18)

Work in poultry factories (19)

Construction, including transporting cement and bricks (7, 10, 20)

Services

Domestic work (17, 21)

Muay Thai paid fighters (17, 22-25)

Work in restaurants, motorcycle repair shops, and gas stations (17, 26)

Street work, including begging and vending (12, 27, 28)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, including use in the production of pornography, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1, 3, 14, 29)

Forced labor in vending, begging, and domestic work, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (4, 21, 27)

Forced labor in the production of garments, in agriculture, and in shrimp and seafood processing (2, 3, 9, 30)

Fishing as a result of human trafficking (31, 32)

Use in the production and trafficking of drugs (3, 12)

Forced recruitment of children by non-state armed groups for use in armed conflict (14)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Children from Thailand, Burma, Laos, Cambodia, and ethnic minority communities are exploited in trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation in Thai massage parlors, bars, karaoke lounges, hotels, and private residences. The Internet and social media are increasingly used to lure children through less visible channels.(14, 33) In 2016, there continued to be limited reports that children were recruited by insurgent groups in southern Thailand to commit arson or act as scouts or informants.(14)

Although the Government has implemented a policy to provide education for all children in Thailand since 2005, some children, particularly migrants and ethnic minorities, struggle to access basic education due to a lack of awareness of migrant children's right to public education, language barriers, and insufficient transportation to schools.(3, 12, 34)

Thailand has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Thailand's legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Chapter 4, Section 44 of the Labor Protection Act (35)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Chapter 4, Sections 49 and 50 of the Labor Protection Act (35)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Chapter 4, Sections 49 and 50 of the Labor Protection Act; Clause 4 of the Ministerial Regulation concerning Labor Protection in Sea Fishery Work (35, 36)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Sections 312, and 312 bis of the Penal Code; Sections 4 and 6 of the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act (37, 38)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Sections 282–283 of the Penal Code; Section 6 of the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act (37, 38)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Section 8 of the Prevention and Suppression of Prostitution Act; Section 6 of the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act; Sections 282 and 285–287 of the Penal Code; Article 26 of the Child Protection Act; Amendment to the Penal Code Act No. 24 (37-41)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 26 of the Child Protection Act; Section 93 of the Narcotics Act; Section 84 of the Penal Code (40, 42, 43)

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

Yes

21

Section 25 of the Military Service Act (44)

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Section 25 of the Military Service Act (44)

Non-state Compulsory

No

 

 

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

16

Section 17 of the National Education Act (45)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Section 10 of the National Education Act (45)

In 2016, the Ministry of Labor (MOL) adopted a ministerial regulation prohibiting the use of children under age 18 to work in seafood processing factories and establishments.(46)  The Government also adopted the Human Trafficking Criminal Procedure Act, which establishes an inquisitorial system for human trafficking cases, allowing courts to take a more proactive role in investigating cases and ordering restitution for victims, including child victims.(12, 47) The Beggar Control Act, adopted in July 2016, establishes penalties to punish individuals who recruit and use others to beg and requires the Government to provide rehabilitation services for beggars.(12, 48) In addition, a new amendment to the Penal Code significantly increases the criminal penalties for procuring, offering, or using a child under age 18 to commit criminal offences.(12)

During the reporting period, the Cabinet approved a draft ministerial regulation specifying the types of work considered harmful for home-based workers under 15 years old.(14, 49) The Government revised the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act to impose stricter penalties on individuals who recruit, buy, sell, detain, or harbor children under age 15 to work or provide services that seriously harm the body and mind of a child.(12) The Government also revised the Labor Protection Act to increase penalties for using child labor.(3) At the close of the reporting period, both of these amendments were under review by the Office of the Council of State.(50) Furthermore, the National Council for Peace and Order issued Order No. 28/2559, which extends the number of years (12 to 15 years) that the Government will provide free public education in order to provide greater flexibility for children who may require more time to complete their education.(3)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor law and criminal law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Department of Labor Protection and Welfare (DLPW) of the Ministry of Labor (MOL)

Enforce child labor laws through workplace inspections.(26) Operate Hotline 1546 and staff 86 labor protection and welfare offices in every province to answer questions regarding working conditions and receive complaints from the public about child labor.(10, 51)

Provincial Coordination Center for Sea Fishery Workers (Operated jointly by DLPW, marine police, provincial administration, and fishers' association)

Compile registration records and work permit information for migrants working on fishing vessels and work with vessel owners to ensure that undocumented migrant workers are registered. Monitor and coordinate inspections of working conditions on fishing vessels.(10) Provide trainings on labor protection, receive human trafficking complaints, and coordinate with other agencies to provide assistance, remedy, and rehabilitation services for victims.(10)

Command Center for Combating Illegal Fishing

Coordinate government efforts to resolve cases of human trafficking and illegal fishing. Operate 32 Port In–Port Out Centers and 19 Forward Inspection Centers in every coastal province.(10) Carry out inspections in the fishing and seafood industry at port, at sea, and on land.(52) Agencies involved include the Royal Thai Navy, the ministries of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Transport, Interior, and Labor, and the Royal Thai Police.(52)

Anti-Trafficking in Persons Division of the Royal Thai Police

Enforce laws related to forced labor, human trafficking, child pornography, and commercial sexual exploitation of children. Operate Hotline 1191 to receive complaints on human trafficking and violence against children.(10)

Department of Special Investigations (DSI) in the Ministry of Justice

Investigate complicated human trafficking crimes, including those related to government officials' complicity and transnational or organized crime.(53, 54)

Anti-Human Trafficking Department under the Office of the Attorney General

Enforce criminal laws against human trafficking.(10) Investigate or co-investigate human trafficking offenses and monitor cases to improve the quality of prosecution of human trafficking cases.(55)

Anti-Trafficking in Persons Division under the Criminal Court of Justice

Enforce the Anti-Human Trafficking Act.(10) Prosecute human trafficking cases, focusing specifically on sex trafficking, forced labor, slavery, and the illegal trade of human organs.(55)

In 2016, the Government institutionalized the Thailand Internet Crimes Against Children Taskforce, a team comprising police officers and Department of Special investigation (DSI) agents, to investigate cases of online commercial sexual exploitation of children.(33)

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, labor law enforcement agencies in Thailand took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$690,844 (10)

$1,001,168 (3)

Number of Labor Inspectors

592 (10)

880 (3)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (10)

Yes (3)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (56)

Yes (3)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Yes (10)

Yes (14)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (10)

Yes (14)

Number of Labor Inspections

42,606 (10)

39,350 (3)

Number Conducted at Worksite

42,606 (10)

39,350 (3)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

N/A (10)

N/A (3)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

67 (10, 57)

71 (50)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

11 (10)

71 (3)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

11 (10)

Unknown (50)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (10)

Yes (3)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (10)

Yes (3)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (10)

Yes (3)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (10)

Yes (3)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (10)

Yes (3)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (10)

Yes (3)

Labor inspection duties are carried out by 592 Department of Labor Protection and Welfare (DLPW) civil servants, 101 contract employees employed by DLPW, and 187 officials from other agencies.(14, 50) The number of labor inspectors is insufficient for the size of Thailand's workforce, which includes over 38.45 million workers. According to the ILO recommendation of 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in industrializing economies, Thailand should employ roughly 2,563 labor inspectors.(58-60) During the reporting period, the DLPW provided training for labor inspectors on various topics, including on the enforcement of laws related to child labor, forced labor, and human trafficking. However, only 336 labor inspectors received training, and officials reported that the quality of instruction was inadequate.(3) Additional training is needed on effective child labor inspection techniques in the informal sector, where child labor in Thailand is reported to commonly occur.(12)

Under the Home Workers Protection Act, the DLPW has the authority to inspect home-based workplaces, but in practice, it is challenging for labor inspectors to safely access an individual's property to monitor the welfare of child domestic workers or other children in home-based employment.(53, 61) Despite efforts to increase the number of interpreters available to interview migrant workers, including children, during labor inspections, there continued to be a shortage of trained interpreters in areas with high concentrations of migrant workers.(12) There also continued to be concerns that penalties for child labor violations are infrequently applied in accordance with the parameters prescribed by law.(10)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in Thailand took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (10)

Yes (3)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Yes (10)

Yes (33)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (52)

Yes (12)

Number of Investigations

2,606 (10, 62)

3,040‡ (12)

Number of Violations Found

2,587 (10, 52)

3,252‡ (3, 12)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown (10)

1, 484‡ (3)

Number of Convictions

Unknown (10)

Unknown (12)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (10)

Yes (12)

‡ Data are from October 1, 2015 to September 30, 2016.

In 2016, the Government employed approximately 400 Anti-Trafficking in Persons Division police officials, 40 DSI officials, 30 public prosecutors, and 29 administrative staff in the Office of the Attorney General to enforce laws against the worst forms of child labor. Around 3,328 government law enforcement officials, prosecutors, social workers, and interpreters participated in training on trafficking in persons, including child trafficking.(12) During the reporting period, the Government increased efforts to hold government officials suspected of complicity in child sex trafficking crimes accountable, including by investigating 10 police officers and seizing assets from 2 officials. However, there continued to be reports that some corrupt officials allegedly take bribes to protect brothels and karaoke bars employing children.(12, 14)

The Government collects data on the number of investigations, violations, and prosecutions related to the use of children in the production and trafficking of drugs and on the number of investigations conducted and violations found for child pornography; however, there are not comprehensive data disaggregated by age available for other worst forms of child labor.(12)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Committee to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Coordinate implementation of child labor policies, facilitate cooperation among relevant ministries, and report annually to the Thai Cabinet on child labor issues.(10) Chaired by MOL, with representation from other government agencies, employer and worker associations, and civil society groups.(63) Administer subcommittee responsible for monitoring the National Policy and Plan to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor.(3, 64) In 2016, convened three times.(50)

National Policy Committee on Anti-Trafficking in Persons and Illegal, Unreported, and Unregulated Fishing

Coordinate anti-trafficking in persons policies and activities. Oversee five subcommittees, including the Subcommittee on Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Migrant Workers. Chaired by MOL.(3, 65)

National Operation Center for the Prevention and Suppression of Human Trafficking

Coordinate anti-human trafficking activities, including those involving forced child labor, child trafficking, and commercial sexual exploitation. Operates under the Ministry of Social Development and Human Security.(3) Monitor 76 Provincial Operation Centers for the Prevention and Suppression of Human Trafficking.(3, 10, 53)

The Government has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor‡

Policy

Description

National Policy and Plan to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor Phase II (2015–2020)

Seeks to eliminate the worst forms of child labor in Thailand in accordance with international labor standards. Focuses on (a) preventing the worst forms of child labor, (b) rescuing and protecting children from the worst forms of child labor, (c) developing and enforcing relevant laws, (d) enhancing interagency cooperation, and (e) developing management and monitoring systems.(64) In 2016, implemented various activities, such as providing training to local volunteers to monitor for child labor at the community level.(50)

The National Policy, Strategy, and Measures for the Prevention and Suppression of Trafficking in Persons (2011–2016)

Set forth priority strategies to address human trafficking, including prevention, prosecution, protection and assistance, policy development, and improved information management.(66)

National Child and Youth Development Plan (2012–2016)

Seeks to advance the wellbeing of children and youth, including promoting access to quality education and protecting children from exploitation. Focuses  on vulnerable children, such as children of migrant workers, ethnic minorities, and child laborers.(3)

‡ The Government has other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor.(12, 67, 68)

In 2016, Thailand ratified the ASEAN Convention on Trafficking in Persons and signed the ASEAN Plan of Action against Trafficking in Persons.(33)

In 2016, the Government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor‡

Program

Description

National and Provincial Operation Centers for Providing Assistance to Women and Child Laborers†

DLPW program that provides assistance to women and child laborers, and collects and disseminates information on the worst forms of child labor. Reports to the National Committee to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor.(69)

From Protocol to Practice: A Bridge to Global Action on Forced Labor (2015–2019)

USDOL-funded global project implemented by ILO to support global and national efforts aimed at combating forced labor of adults and children under the 2014 ILO Protocol and supporting Recommendation to C.29 on Forced Labor.(70) In Thailand, supports the design and implementation of the 2017 National Working Children Survey in Thailand.(3, 71) Additional information is available on the USDOL Web site.(71)

Government Shelters for Trafficking Victims†

Ministry of Social Development and Human Security program that operates 76 temporary shelters to provide emergency assistance and protection to human trafficking victims, including children.(52) Operates nine long-term shelters that offer medical care, psychosocial services, education, and life skills education.(52, 57) In 2016, provided services to 232 child victims of commercial sexual exploitation, 38 child victims of forced labor, and 12 child victims of forced begging.(12)

Asia-Australia Program to Combat Trafficking in Persons (2013–2018)

5-year, $45 million, Australian Aid-funded, ASEAN regional- and national-level project to build capacity and strengthen access to criminal justice for trafficking victims.(26) In Thailand, focuses on creating specialized investigative units; increasing interagency cooperation among public prosecutors, police, and DSI; and developing training curriculum for law enforcement, prosecutors, and judges.(26)

Combatting Unacceptable Forms of Work in the Thai Fishing and Seafood Industry* (2016–2019)

3.5 year, EU and ILO-funded project implemented by ILO, the Government of Thailand, and other stakeholders to prevent and reduce forced labor and child labor in the Thai fishing and seafood processing sectors, including by withdrawing children engaged in the worst forms of child labor and enhancing their access to support services.(72, 73)

Migrant Learning Centers†

NGO-operated centers that provide basic education to children in migrant communities. Ministerial regulations under the National Education Act specify that these centers are permitted to operate and are eligible to receive government subsidies and accreditation.(10) However, many Migrant Learning Centers rely on donor funding, and although in some cases migrant students can take an exam provided by the Thai government or by the origin country government to acquire certification of education, this process can be challenging.(12)

Child Support Grant (2015–2016)†

Government program that provides low-income parents or caretakers with a monthly stipend of approximately $17 (600 baht) per newborn baby. As of September 30, 2016, includes 154,855 households.(3)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Thailand.
‡ The Government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms.(64, 74)

In 2016, the Government publicly released the results of Thailand's National Working Children Survey and conducted a survey on working children in the sugarcane sector.(3) However, there continued to be a need for nationally representative data on child labor that is generated using research methodology that is consistent with international resolutions and guidelines on child labor statistics and data collection.(12) During the reporting period, the Government began designing a new national working children survey that uses internationally recognized methodology.(12)

Although the Government is implementing programs that provide services to child victims of human trafficking and forced labor, especially in the fisheries sector, research did not find evidence that the Government has carried out programs specifically designed to address child labor in other relevant sectors, including agriculture, garment manufacturing, domestic work, and construction. Further, although the Government has some social programs targeted to assist children at high risk of exploitation in the worst forms of child labor, such as migrant and ethnic minority children, these programs are not sufficient to fully address the extent of the problem. Although public awareness of child labor issues in Thailand has increased in recent years, additional education is needed to help families distinguish between the types and conditions of work that are safe and acceptable for children under age 18, and those that are considered child labor or hazardous child labor.(12)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Thailand (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under 18 by non-state armed groups.

2016

Enforcement

Increase the number of labor inspectors responsible for enforcing laws related to child labor, especially in the informal sector.

2015 – 2016

Ensure that all labor inspectors receive adequate training on child labor and forced labor law enforcement, particularly on effective inspection techniques in the informal sector.

2016

Hire and train additional interpreters to assist labor inspectors in communicating with non-Thai speaking migrants and ethnic minorities, including children, during labor inspections.

2009 – 2016

Remove administrative barriers that impede inspections of home-based businesses.

2013 – 2016

Strengthen efforts to ensure that penalties applied for child labor violations adhere to the parameters prescribed by law.

2013 – 2016

Collect and publish comprehensive data, disaggregated by age, on the number of criminal investigations, violations, prosecutions and convictions for all crimes related to the worst forms of child labor.

2015 – 2016

Ensure that officials allegedly complicit in crimes related to the worst forms of child labor are prosecuted and convicted if found guilty.

2015 – 2016

Social Programs

Improve access to education, especially for ethnic minority and migrant children, including by raising awareness of migrant children's right to education, improving access to school transportation, and addressing language barriers for non-Thai speaking students.

2012 – 2016

Conduct and publish a survey on working children in Thailand using research methodology in line with internationally recognized resolutions and guidelines on child labor statistics.

2009 – 2016

Ensure that there are sufficient social programs to assist children at risk of or engaged in child labor, as well as their parents or guardians, in the relevant sectors of agriculture, garment manufacturing, domestic work, and construction.

2016

Ensure that there are sufficient social programs targeted to assist children from vulnerable groups, such as migrants and ethnic minorities, who are at high risk of the worst forms of child labor.

2016

Enhance public awareness on the distinction between safe and acceptable work for children and work that is considered child labor or hazardous child labor.

2016

1.         ILO Committee of Experts. General Report of the Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations. Geneva; 2013.

2.         EJF. The Hidden Cost: Human Rights Abuses in Thailand's Shrimp Industry. London; 2013. http://ejfoundation.org/sites/default/files/public/shrimp_report_v44_lower_resolution.pdf.

3.         Government of Thailand. Thailand's Progress on the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor: 2016. Bangkok; February 10, 2017.

4.         U.S. Department of State. "Thailand," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016 Washington, DC; June 30, 2016; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/258882.pdf.

5.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). [accessed December 16, 2016]; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary education. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. The calculation includes all new entrants to the last grade (regardless of age). Therefore, the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

6.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 3, 2005-06. Analysis received December 15, 2016. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information,  please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

7.         ILO-IPEC. Baseline Surveys on Child Labour in Selected Areas in Thailand. Bangkok; September 2013. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---asia/---ro-bangkok/documents/publication/wcms_222568.pdf.

8.         Sonja Vartiala, Henri Purje, Andy Hall, Katarliina Vihersalo, and Anu Aukeala. Cheap Has a High Price. Helsinki, Finnwatch; January 21, 2013. http://www.finnwatch.org/images/cheap%20has%20a%20high%20price_exec%20summary_final.pdf.

9.         The Asia Foundation, and ILO. Migrant and Child Labor in Thailand's Shrimp and Other Seafood Supply Chains: Labor Conditions and the Decision to Study or Work. Bangkok; September 2015. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---asia/---ro-bangkok/documents/publication/wcms_402971.pdf.

10.       U.S. Embassy- Bangkok. reporting, January 29, 2016.

11.       ILO. Employment practices and working conditions in Thailand's fishing sector. Bangkok; 2013. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---asia/---ro-bangkok/documents/publication/wcms_220596.pdf.

12.       U.S. Embassy- Bangkok. reporting, March 8, 2017.

13.       Jaranya Wongprom, Thanjak Yenbamrung, Niramon Srithongchai, Nisit Sakayapan, and Moontri Sawai. Assessing the Situation of Selected Worst Forums of Child Labour in Udon Thani Province. Bangkok, Research and Development Institute, Khon Kaen University, supported by IPEC; June 2006.

14.       U.S. Department of State. "Thailand," in Human Rights Report- 2016 Washington, DC; March 3, 2017; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/258882.pdf.

15.       U.S. Embassy- Bangkok. reporting, February 6, 2013.

16.       Integrated Regional Information Networks. "Forced Labour in Thai Factory." IRINnews.org [online] January 22, 2013 [cited December 1, 2015]; http://www.irinnews.org/report/97302/in-brief-forced-labour-in-thai-factory.

17.       U.S. Department of State. "Thailand," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2015. Washington, DC; April 13, 2016; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/253015.pdf.

18.       Mekong Sub-regional Project to Combat Trafficking in Children and Women. The Mekong Challenge - Underpaid, Overworked and Overlooked: The realities of young migrant workers in Thailand. Bangkok, ILO; 2006. http://natlex.ilo.ch/wcmsp5/groups/public/---asia/---ro-bangkok/documents/publication/wcms_bk_pb_67_en.pdf.

19.       Bergbom, K. Trapped in the Kitchen of the World: The situation for migrant workers in Thailand's poultry industry. Stockholm, Swedewatch and Finnwatch; November 25, 2015. Report No. 76. http://www.swedwatch.org/sites/default/files/tmp/76_thaikyckling_151123_ab.pdf.

20.       Destination Unknown. "Thailand: Burmese Youth working on construction sites," Thailand: Terre des Hommes; February 2,, 2015; 7 min., 41 sec., film; [cited February 6, 2015]; http://destination-unknown.org/thailand-burmese-youth-working-on-construction-sites/.

21.       Thin Lei Win. "Burmese Child Slave Puts Spotlight on Abuse of Foreign Maids in Thailand." The Irrawaddy, August 9, 2014. http://www.irrawaddy.org/burma/burmese-child-slave-puts-spotlight-abuse-foreign-maids-thailand.html.

22.       Catsoulis, J. "Portrait of the Sad Life of Child Boxers in Thailand." New York Times, New York, November 13, 2012; Movie Reviews. http://movies.nytimes.com/2012/11/14/movies/buffalo-girls-on-thailands-child-boxing-circuit.html?_r=0.

23.       Malm, S. "Blood, sweat and tears: Muay Thai child fighters battle against each other to become the next generation of champions." dailymail.co.uk [online] July 8, 2012 [cited May 20, 2013]; http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2170513/Blood-sweat-tears-Muay-Thai-child-fighters-battle-generation-champions.html.

24.       Walker, C. "As Gamblers Gather, Thailand's child Boxers Slug It Out." npr.org [online] May 14, 2013 [cited May 17, 2013]; http://www.npr.org/blogs/parallels/2013/05/06/181647462/As-Gamblers-Gather-Thailands-Child-Boxers-Slug-It-Out.

25.       Karlinsky, N. "Thailand's Child Boxers Compete in Brutal Fights for Money, Better Future." abcnews.go.com [online] January 21, 2014 [cited April 15, 2014]; http://abcnews.go.com/International/thailands-child-boxers-compete-brutal-fights-money-future/story?id=21613303&singlePage=true.

26.       U.S. Embassy- Bangkok. reporting, January 26, 2015.

27.       Integrated Regional Information Networks. "Thailand: Children Trafficked to Sell Flowers and Beg." IRINnews.org [online] June 4, 2012 [cited October 24, 2012]; http://www.irinnews.org/Report/95566/THAILAND-Children-trafficked-to-sell-flowers-and-beg

28.       Keenapan, N. Helping Children Living and Working on the Streets in Thailand, UNICEF, [online] March 7, 2012 [cited November 3, 2014]; http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/Thailand_61806.html.

29.       Federal Bureau of Investigation. Report from Thailand, Part 3: It Takes a Village. Washington, DC; October 6, 2016. https://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/report-from-thailand-part-3.

30.       U.S. Embassy- Bangkok. reporting, February 15, 2015.

31.       Campbell, C. "Child slaves may have caught the fish in your freezer." Time, March 8, 2014. http://time.com/12628/human-trafficking-rife-in-thai-fishing-industry/.

32.       Urbina, I. "Forced labor for cheap fish." The New York Times, New York, July 27, 2015. http://www.nytimes.com/images/2015/07/27/nytfrontpage/scan.pdf.

33.       U.S. Embassy- Bangkok. reporting, February 17, 2017.

34.       Human Rights Watch. Stateless at Sea: The Moken of Burma and Thailand; June 2015. https://www.hrw.org/report/2015/06/25/stateless-sea/moken-burma-and-thailand.

35.       Government of Thailand. Labour Protection Act, enacted 1998. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/WEBTEXT/49727/65119/E98THA01.htm.

36.       Government of Thailand. Ministerial Regulation concerning Labour Protection in Sea Fishery Work B.E. 2557, enacted 2014. [source on file].

37.       Government of Thailand. Penal Code, enacted November 13, 1956. http://thailaws.com/law/t_laws/tlaw50001.pdf.

38.       Government of Thailand. Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act, enacted January 30, 2008. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex4.detail?p_lang=en&p_isn=100444&p_country=THA&p_count=420&p_classification=03&p_classcount=11.

39.       Government of Thailand. Prevention and Suppression of Prostitution Act, enacted October 14, 1996. [Source on file].

40.       Government of Thailand. Child Protection Act, enacted 2003. http://www.refworld.org/docid/46b2f91f2.html.

41.       New Amendments to Thailand's Penal Code, South Asia Law, [online] [cited February 5, 2106]; http://www.southasia-law.com/newsdetail.php?id=12.

42.       Government of Thailand. Narcotics Act, enacted April 22, 1979. http://www.asean.org/storage/images/archive/Narcotics%20Act%20B.E.%202552%20(1979)%20-%20Thailand.doc.

43.       Government of Thailand,. Amendment to the Penal Code No. 25, amending the Penal Code, enacted April 8, 2016.

44.       Government of Thailand,. Military Services Act, enacted 1954. [source on file].

45.       Government of Thailand. National Education Act, enacted 1999. http://www.onesqa.or.th/en/publication/nation_edbook.pdf.

46.       Government of Thailand. Ministerial Regulation Prohibiting Employment of Children Under Age 18, enacted January 14, 2016. http://www.ratchakitcha.soc.go.th/DATA/PDF/2559/A/005/1.PDF.

47.       Government of Thailand,. Human Trafficking Criminal Procedures Act, enacted May 24, 2016. http://www.krisdika.go.th/wps/wcm/connect/7faae400408ef84e9440ddfeeefd7ecd/PROCEDURES+FOR+HUMAN+TRAFFICKING+CASES+ACT%2C+B.E.+2559+%282016%29.pdf?MOD=AJPERES&CACHEID=7faae400408ef84e9440ddfeeefd7ecd.

48.       Government of Thailand,. Beggar Control Act, enacted July 28, 2016. http://library2.parliament.go.th/giventake/content_nla2557/law38-290459-1.pdf.

49.       Government of Thailand,. Ministerial Regulation concerning types of work that may be harmful to safety and health of pregnant employees or children under the age of 15, enacted http://ratchakitcha.soc.go.th/DATA/PDF/2560/A/054/4.PDF.

50.       U.S. Embassy- Bangkok official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 26, 2017.

51.       Ministry of Labour. Ministry of Labour Holds Seminar on 1506 Hotline Service, Government of Thailand, [online] February 27, 2014 [cited April 16, 2014]; http://www.mol.go.th/en/anonymouse/news/35741.

52.       U.S. Embassy- Bangkok. reporting, February 19, 2016.

53.       U.S. Embassy- Bangkok. reporting, February 3, 2014.

54.       Government of Thailand. The Special Case Investigation Act, enacted 2004. https://www.unodc.org/tldb/pdf/Thailand_Special_Investigation_Act.pdf.

55.       U.S. Embassy- Bangkok. reporting, October 14, 2015.

56.       U.S. Embassy- Bangkok official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 4, 2016.

57.       U.S. Embassy- Bangkok official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 6, 2016.

58.       CIA. The World Factbook, [online] [cited March 18, 2017]; https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors based on the country’s level of development as determined by the UN.

59.       ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a “sufficient number” of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a “sufficient” number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

60.       UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex. New York; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies; “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies, and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

61.       Government of Thailand,. Home Workers Protection Act, enacted November 11, 2010. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/93545/109400/F-1826987314/THA93545%20Eng.pdf.

62.       Government of Thailand. Thailand's Progress Report on the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor: 2015. Bangkok; February 26, 2016.

63.       Government of Thailand. National Policy and Plan to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labour (2009-2014). Bangkok; 2009.

64.       Labour Protection Bureau. National Policy and Plan to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child labor for fiscal year 2015-2020. Bangkok, Department of Labour Protection and Welfare, Minstry of Labour; December 2015. [source on file].

65.       Government of Thailand. Thailand's Progress Report on Anti-Human Trafficking Efforts. Bangkok; March 31, 2015.

66.       UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 8 of the Convention: List of Issues: Thailand. [previously online]. Geneva; January 20, 2012. Report No. CRC/C/OPAC/THA/Q/1. http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G12/403/09/PDF/G1240309.pdf?OpenElement [source on file].

67.       ASEAN. ASEAN Convention Against Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children. Kuala Lumpur; November 21, 2015. http://www.asean.org/storage/2015/12/ACTIP.pdf.

68.       Government of Thailand. Action Plan on Drug Problems Preventive and Corrective. Bangkok,  2016. http://www.ppb.moi.go.th/midev03/upload/MX-M452N_20150902_171701.pdf

69.       U.S. Embassy- Bangkok. reporting, January 31, 2012.

70.       ILO. From Protocol to Practice: A Bridge to Global Action on Forced Labor. Statement of Work; 2015. [source on file].

71.       ILO. From Protocol to Practice: A Bridge to Global Action on Forced Labor Technical Progress Report. Geneva; October 2016.

72.       ILO. Fact sheet: Combatting Unacceptable Forms of Work in the Thai Fishing and Seafood Industry; March 17, 2016. http://www.ilo.org/global/meetings-and-events/regional-meetings/asia/aprm-15/media-centre/WCMS_460873/lang--en/index.htm.

73.       ILO. New ILO project to combat unacceptable forms of work in the Thai fishing and seafood industry. Press Release. Bangkok; March 16, 2016. http://www.ilo.org/asia/info/public/pr/WCMS_460488/lang--en/index.htm

74.       UNODC. Unique partnership started to tackle human trafficking to Thailand. Press Release. Bangkok; January 11, 2016. http://www.unodc.org/southeastasiaandpacific/en/2016/01/human-trafficking-thailand/story.html.

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