Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Swaziland

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Swaziland

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

No Advancement – Efforts Made But Complicit in Forced Child Labor

In 2016, Swaziland made efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor, but was also complicit in the use of forced child labor. While the Government continued its Free Public Education Program by paying school fees for children up to grade seven, Swaziland is receiving an assessment of no advancement because local chiefs continued to force children to engage in agricultural and domestic work. Penalties for refusing to perform this work included evicting families from their village and confiscating livestock. Children in Swaziland are also engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in forced domestic work and livestock herding. Significant gaps in laws remain, including the lack of a compulsory education age, and social programs do not adequately address child labor in domestic work and livestock herding.

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Children in Swaziland engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in forced domestic work and livestock herding.(1-4) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Swaziland.

Table 1. Statistics on Children's Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

11.7 (35,368)

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

92.5

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

13.0

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

79.0

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2013, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(5)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 4, 2010.(6)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children's Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Growing corn, picking cotton, and harvesting sugarcane (1, 3, 4, 7)

Herding cattle and other livestock (1, 3, 4, 7-9)

Services

Domestic work (1, 3, 4, 7, 8)

Street work, including as vendors, bus attendants, taxi conductors, portering, and washing cars (2-4, 7, 8, 10, 11)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Forced labor in livestock herding, domestic work, farming, and market vending, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2, 9, 12)

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1, 2, 12)

Use in illicit activities, including growing, manufacturing, and selling drugs (7, 13)

‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Due to a lack of law enforcement, local chiefs continue to operate under Act No. 6 of the 1998 Administrative Order that was declared null and void by the Swaziland High Court in 2000.(14) The Administrative Order gave local chiefs the authority to force residents to perform agricultural work and other essential tasks.(9, 15) In 2016, local chiefs and their inner councils continued to force residents, including children, to perform agriculture and domestic work.(9, 15-17) Residents who refused to perform this work were threatened by the local chiefs with eviction and confiscation of livestock.(18, 19)

Swazi children, especially girls and orphans, are trafficked within and outside the country to neighboring countries like South Africa for commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor in agriculture and domestic work.(9, 20) Some Mozambican boys migrate to Swaziland and become victims of human trafficking and are subsequently forced to conduct street work and herd livestock.(20) In addition, local NGOs identified regions such as Lubombo and Manzini where children are most vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor.(9) To compound the issue, Swazi children have become increasingly vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor due to the high prevalence of HIV, low economic growth, and high poverty levels.(20-24) Children, especially those with disabilities, have difficulty accessing education due to top-up fees or stigmatization by the public.(14, 24) The Government has yet to collect comprehensive data on child labor to inform policies and social programs.

Swaziland has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Swaziland’s legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

No

15

Article 234 of the Children's Protection and Welfare Act (25)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 236 of the Children's Protection and Welfare Act (25)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Articles 16, 233, 236, and 237 of the Children's Protection and Welfare Act (25)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 17 of the Constitution; Article 75 of the Children's Protection and Welfare Act; Article 13 of the People Trafficking and People Smuggling (Prohibition) Act (25-27)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 75 of the Children's Protection and Welfare Act; Article 13 of the People Trafficking and People Smuggling (Prohibition) Act (25, 27)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Sections 43–46 of the Crimes Act; Sections 1–5 and 7 of the Obscene Publications Act; (10, 28)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Articles 16 and 49 of Children's Protection and Welfare Act (25)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

N/A*

 

 

State Compulsory

N/A*

 

Section 17(3) of the Umbutfo Swaziland Defence Force Order (29)

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Section 17(3) of the Umbutfo Swaziland Defence Force Order (29)

Non-state Compulsory

No

 

Umbutfo Swaziland Defence Force Order (29)

Compulsory Education Age

No

 

 

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Section 3 of the Free Primary Education Act (30)

* No conscription (29)

The Sexual Offenses and Domestic Violence Bill is still under review in Parliament and has yet to be passed into law. Sections 13–15 and 23–28 of the bill would criminalize using, procuring, and offering a child for commercial sexual exploitation.(28) Section 97 of the Employment Act applies minimum age protections to children working in industrial undertakings, but it does not cover children working in domestic and agricultural work.(31) Under Articles 233, 236, and 237 of the Children's Protection and Welfare Act, children are prohibited from engaging in hazardous work in industrial undertakings, including in mining, manufacturing, and electrical work; however, these prohibitions do not extend to children in domestic and agricultural work. Evidence indicates that children may be working long hours, using dangerous machines, carrying heavy loads, exposed to harmful pesticides, and working alone in remote areas.(4, 25)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor law and criminal law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor and Social Security (MLSS)

Enforce child labor laws and promote relations between labor, government, and business through tripartite dialogue.(1, 32)

Royal Swaziland Police

Enforce child labor laws. The Domestic Violence and Protection Unit focuses primarily on addressing child labor by educating police officers on how to identify child labor violations and on their obligation to report violations.(1, 32)

Department of Social Welfare

Enforce child labor laws and protect the interests of vulnerable populations, including orphans, children, and elderly people.(1, 32)

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, labor law enforcement agencies in Swaziland took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown* (3)

Unknown* (14)

Number of Labor Inspectors

30 (3)

20 (14)

Number of Child Labor Dedicated Inspectors

3 (3)

1 (14)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (3)

No (14)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

N/A (3)

Yes (14)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A (3)

N/A (14)

Refresher Courses Provided

No (3)

Unknown* (14)

Number of Labor Inspections

Unknown* (3)

Unknown* (14)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown* (3)

Unknown* (14)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

0* (3)

0 (14)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

0* (3)

0 (14)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

0* (3)

N/A (14)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

0* (3)

N/A (14)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (3)

Yes (14)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (3)

Unknown* (14)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (3)

Yes (14)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (3)

Yes (14)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

No (3)

No (14)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (3)

Yes (14)

* The Government does not make this information publicly available.

The Ministry of Labor and Social Security (MLSS) and NGOs noted that labor inspectors lacked sufficient resources, such as vehicles to conduct inspections.(3) The number of labor inspectors is insufficient for the size of Swaziland's workforce, which comprises more than 446,000 workers. According to the ILO's recommendation of 1 inspector for every 15,000 workers in developing economies, Swaziland should employ roughly 30 labor inspectors.(33-35)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in Swaziland took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown (3)

N/A (14)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown (3)

Unknown (14)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (8)

Unknown (14)

Number of Investigations

Unknown (3)

Unknown (14)

Number of Violations Found

0 (3)

0 (14)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

0 (3)

0 (14)

Number of Convictions

0 (3)

0 (14)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (3)

Yes (14)

In 2016, the Government of Swaziland, in collaboration with UNODC, developed a Victim Identification Guidelines and Referral Mechanism to assist victims of trafficking. The guidelines are used by law enforcement agencies and include tips on identifying, protecting, investigating, documenting, and reuniting victims of trafficking.(36) During the reporting year, a Swazi man was arrested for trafficking three minors across the South African border.(37)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

Trafficking in Persons Secretariat

Coordinate, monitor, and implement programs to combat trafficking in persons, with the assistance of the Anti-Human Trafficking Task Force.(37)

Anti-Human Trafficking Task Force

Exchange information on cases of human trafficking between relevant stakeholders, including the police, immigration, social services, and prosecutors. Comprises a conglomerate of NGOs and government entities, including the Royal Swaziland Police, Director of Public Prosecutions, Attorney General's Office, Department of Social Welfare, Department of Health, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and MLSS.(1, 38)

Although the Government has coordinating mechanisms that focus on TIP, there are no coordination bodies that focus on child labor issues such as children working in agriculture and domestic work.

The Government has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Plan of Action for Children

Implements the Children's Protection and Welfare Act mandate by developing a plan to address child labor, especially in hazardous work.(38)

National Children's Policy

Represents the policy framework of the Children's Protection and Welfare Act.(38)

National Plan of Action for Orphans and Vulnerable Children

Supports strategic objectives, such as providing education, psychosocial support, child protection, research and monitoring, and support to help orphans and vulnerable children enroll in school. Identifies child laborers as a vulnerable group of children.(39)

National Strategic Framework and Action Plan to Combat People Trafficking

Assigns responsibilities to relevant government agencies on trafficking in persons.(40)

The Government's National Task Team developed a draft Action Program on the Elimination of Child Labor (APEC) in 2008, but it has yet to be approved. A new draft APEC was developed in 2014, but the MLSS has yet to present it to the tripartite body, the Labor Advisory Board, for consultations.(3, 14) Child labor elimination and prevention strategies are not included in the Education Sector Policy and National Social Development Policy.(38, 41)

In 2016, the Government participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues (2011–2017)

USDOL-funded project, implemented by the ILO in approximately 40 countries, to support the priorities of the Roadmap for Achieving the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor by 2016; established by the Hague Global Child Labor Conference in 2010. Aims to improve the evidence base on child labor through data collection and research in Swaziland.(41) During the year, IPEC-SIMPOC reviewed the data collected, in collaboration with the Swaziland national statistical office in preparing a report on the findings.(42) Additional information is available on the USDOL Web site.

Decent Work Country Program (2010–2017)

ILO program to raise awareness of and provide training programs on international labor standards, with the aim of developing national laws related to the ratified ILO conventions.(42, 43)

Free Primary Education Program†

Government program that provides free primary education to children up to grade seven.(3)

† Program is funded by the Government of Swaziland.

Government resources allocated to education, the fight against HIV/AIDS, and other social protection programs that may affect the worst forms of child labor are still limited. The Government, in collaboration with NGOs, provided trafficking victims with basic necessities, such as food, clothing, shelter, toiletries, counseling, and medical care.(14, 17) Although Swaziland has programs that target child labor, research found no evidence that it has carried out programs specifically designed to assist children working in livestock herding and domestic work.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Swaziland (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Establish a compulsory education age that is the same as the minimum age for work.

2009 – 2016

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under 18 by non-state armed groups.

2016

Ensure that the minimum age provisions in the law apply to children working in all industries, including in agriculture and domestic work.

2013 – 2016

Ensure that the hazardous occupations and activities prohibited for children are comprehensive and include agriculture and domestic work.

2012 – 2016

Enact the Sexual Offenses and Domestic Violence Bill to further protect children from commercial sexual exploitation.

2009 – 2016

Enforcement

Ensure that local chiefs are not illegally imposing Act No. 6 of the 1998 Administrative Order to force children to perform agricultural work.

2010 – 2016

Authorize the labor inspectorate to assess penalties.

2016

Increase the number of labor inspectors to meet the ILO recommendation.

2016

Provide adequate resources, including transportation, to conduct labor inspections.

2013 – 2016

Develop a system to record child labor complaints.

2009 – 2016

Make civil and criminal enforcement information publicly available on the number of inspections, violations, investigations, prosecutions, convictions, and penalties issued.

2013 – 2016

Coordination

Establish coordinating mechanisms that specifically address child labor issues such as children working in agriculture and domestic work.

2015 - 2016

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into relevant development and education policies.

2010 – 2016

Adopt a policy, such as APEC, that addresses the worst forms of child labor.

2012 – 2016

Social Programs

Collect data on child labor, including its worst forms.

2009 – 2016

Ensure that children are guaranteed access to free education, including by addressing top-up school fees.

2013 – 2016

Develop programs to mitigate the impact that HIV/AIDS may have on access to education and a child's vulnerability to the worst forms of child labor.

2010 – 2016

Develop social protection programs for the withdrawal from or prevention of children working in domestic work and livestock herding.

2014 – 2016

1.         U.S. Embassy- Mbabane. reporting, January 17, 2014.

2.         U.S. Embassy- Mbabane. reporting, February 17, 2015.

3.         U.S. Embassy- Mbabane. reporting, January 15, 2016.

4.         U.S. Department of State. "Swaziland," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2014. Washington, DC; June 25, 2015; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/236624.pdf.

5.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed December 16, 2016; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary education. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. The calculation includes all new entrants to the last grade (regardless of age). Therefore, the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

6.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from LFS Survey, 2010-2011. Analysis received December 15, 2016. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

7.         U.S. Department of State. "Swaziland," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2015. Washington, DC; April 13, 2016; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/252947.pdf.

8.         Swaziland Action Group Against Abuse. Interview with USDOL consultant. September 16, 2015.

9.         U.S. Department of State. "Swaziland," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016. Washington, DC; June 30, 2016; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/258876.pdf.

10.       U.S. Embassy- Mbabane. reporting, January 29, 2013.

11.       U.S. Department of State. "Swaziland," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015. Washington, DC; July 27, 2015; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/243561.pdf.

12.       U.S. Department of State. "Swaziland," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2014. Washington, DC; June 20, 2014; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/226848.pdf.

13.       U.S. Department of State. "Swaziland," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2013. Washington, DC; February 27, 2014; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2013&dlid=220167.

14.       U.S. Embassy- Mbabane. reporting, January 31, 2017.

15.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation Concerning Forced Labor Convention, 1930 (No. 29) Swaziland (ratification: 1978) Submitted: 2013; accessed February 16, 2016; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3148962.

16.       Swazi Media Commentary. "Swaziland: King Exploits Forced Child Labour." Allafrica.com [online] November 15, 2013 [cited May 27, 2014]; http://allafrica.com/stories/201311151200.html.

17.       U.S. Embassy- Mbabane official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 5, 2016.

18.       Swazi Media Commentary. "Swaziland: Kids Forced to Weed King's Fields " Allafrica.com [online] January 16, 2015 [cited March 15,2016]; http://allafrica.com/stories/201501191963.html.

19.       U.S. Department of State official. Interview with USDOL consultant. March 1, 2016.

20.       U.S. Embassy- Mbabane. reporting, March 3, 2017.

21.       UNICEF. Swaziland Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2010 Final Report; December 2011. [source on file].

22.       Nordtveit, B. "Schools as Agencies of Protection in Namibia and Swaziland: Can They Prevent Dropout and Child Labor in the Context of HIV/AIDS and Poverty?" Comparative Education Review, 54(no. 2):223–242 (2010); [source on file].

23.       Ulandssekretariatet, LO/FTF Council. Swaziland - Labour Market Profile 2012. Copenhagen; 2012. http://www.ulandssekretariatet.dk/sites/default/files/uploads/public/Afrika/Landeanalyser/labour_market_profile_2012_-_swaziland_web.pdf.

24.       Swazi Media Commentary. "Swaziland: Swazi Children's Rights Abused." AllAfrica.com [online] June 26, 2016 [cited November 12, 2016]; http://allafrica.com/stories/201607280287.html.

25.       Government of Swaziland. Children's Protection and Welfare Act, enacted 2012. [source on file].

26.       Government of Swaziland. An Act to provide for the Constitution of the Kingdom of Swaziland, enacted 2005. http://www.wipo.int/wipolex/en/text.jsp?file_id=217889.

27.       Government of Swaziland. The People Trafficking and People Smuggling (Prohibition) Act, Act No. 7, enacted November 10, 2009. [source on file].

28.       Government of Swaziland. Sexual Offenses and Domestic Violence Bill, enacted 2015. [source on file].

29.       Government of Zimbabwe. The Umbutfo Swaziland Defence Force Order, enacted 1977.

30.       Government of Swaziland. Free Primary Education Act, enacted 2010. [source on file].

31.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation Concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Swaziland (ratification: 2002) Submitted: 2013; accessed May 6, 2015; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:13100:0::::P13100_COMMENT_ID:3148631.

32.       U.S. Embassy- Mbabane official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 24, 2014.

33.       CIA. The World Factbook, [online] [cited March 18, 2017]; https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a "sufficient number" of labor inspectors based on the country's level of development as determined by the UN.

34.       UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex. New York; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies; “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies, and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

35.       ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a “sufficient number” of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a “sufficient” number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

36.       UNODC. Swaziland launches Victim Identification Guidelines and Referral Mechanism for assisting Victims of Human Trafficking, UNODC, [online] [cited November 13, 2016]; https://www.unodc.org/southernafrica/en/stories/swaziland-launches-victim-identification-guidelines-and-referral-mechanism-for-assisting-victims-of-human-trafficking.html.

37.       Nhlabatsi, S. "Swazi arrested in SA for trafficking three children." Swazi Observer, Mbabane, June 16, 2016. http://www.observer.org.sz/news/81249-swazi-arrested-in-sa-for-trafficking-three-children.html.

38.       Government of Swaziland. Progress Report on the Elimination of Child Labour in Swaziland; January 16, 2013. [source on file].

39.       Government of Swaziland. National Plan of Action for Orphans and Vulnerable Children. Mbabane; 2006–2010. http://www.socialserviceworkforce.org/system/files/resource/files/National%20Plan%20for%20Orphans%20and%20Vulnerable%20Children%20Swaziland.pdf.

40.       U.S. Embassy- Mbabane. reporting, February 13, 2014.

41.       United Nations Country Team. The United Nations Development Assistance Framework for The Kingdom of Swaziland 2011–2015. New York, United Nations Development Group; April 8, 2010. http://www.sz.undp.org/content/dam/swaziland/docs/documents/UNDP_SZ_UNDAF2011to2015.pdf.

42.       ILO. Decent Work Country Programme for Swaziland 2010 to 2014. Geneva; October 27, 2010. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/bureau/program/dwcp/download/swaziland.pdf.

43.       ILO. Decent Work Country Programmes, Programmes by country/subregion, [cited March 24, 2016] http://www.ilo.org/public/english/bureau/program/dwcp/countries/.

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