Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Sri Lanka

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Sri Lanka

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2016, Sri Lanka made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government raised the compulsory age for education from 14 to 16. For the first time, the Department of Labor targeted for inspection establishments with a high risk of hazardous child labor. The Government also collected data for the Child Activity Survey during the reporting period. Children in Sri Lanka perform dangerous tasks in domestic work. Children also engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation. There are no laws regulating employment in third-party households, which leaves children ages 14 to 18 employed as domestic workers vulnerable to exploitation. Children also face barriers to education, including lack of transportation and inadequate number of teachers.

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Children in Sri Lanka perform dangerous tasks in domestic work. Children in Sri Lanka also engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation.(1, 2) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Sri Lanka.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

9.2 (302,865)

Working children by sector

5 to 14

 

Agriculture

 

67.0

Industry

 

16.0

Services

 

17.1

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

97.8

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

10.4

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

98.0

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2014, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(3)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Child Activity Survey, 2008–2009.(4)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Farming, activities unknown (1, 2, 5)

Fishing (2, 5)

Industry

Manufacturing, activities unknown (1, 2)

Mining,† including gem mining† (2, 6)

Construction, activities unknown (2)

Services

Domestic work (2, 7)

Transportation, activities unknown (2)

Street vending and begging (2)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1, 2, 8, 9)

Forced labor in domestic work, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2, 9)

Forced labor in farming, fish-drying, and begging (10)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

There are reports of children from tea estates being trafficked internally to perform domestic work in Colombo; their payments are withheld and their movements are restricted.(2, 9) Children, predominantly boys, are also forced into commercial sexual exploitation in coastal areas as part of the sex tourism industry.(2, 9)

In addition, some children in rural areas face barriers to accessing education, including difficulties traveling to school in some regions, lack of sanitation and clean water in schools, and an inadequate number of teachers.(11, 12)

In 2016, the Department of Census and Statistics collected data for the Child Activity Survey, which includes data on child labor and hazardous child labor. The results of the survey will be published in 2017.(12, 13)

Sri Lanka has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). However, a gap exists in Sri Lanka’s legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

No

14

Section 13 of the Employment of Women, Young Persons, and Children Act (14)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Section 20A of the Employment of Women, Young Persons, and Children Act (14)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Sections 20A and 31 of the Employment of Women, Young Persons, and Children Act; Hazardous Occupations Regulation No. 47 (14, 15)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Sections 358A, 360C, 360A(2), and 360A(4) of the Penal Code (16)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Sections 360C, 360A(2), and 360A(4) of the Penal Code (16)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Sections 286A, 360B, 360A(2), and 360A(4) of the Penal Code (16)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Sections 288, 288A, 288B, and 360C of the Penal Code (16)

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

N/A*

 

 

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Sections 20A and 31 of the Employment of Women, Young Persons, and Children Act; Section 2(xviii) of the Hazardous Occupations Regulation No. 47 (14, 15)

Non-state Compulsory

Yes

18

358(1)(d) of the Penal Code; Sections 20A and 31 of the Employment of Women, Young Persons, and Children Act; Section 2(xviii) of the Hazardous Occupations Regulation No. 47 (14-16)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

16

Section 43 of the Education Ordinance; Compulsory Attendance of Children at Schools Regulation (17, 18)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Section 47 of the Education Ordinance (17)

*No conscription (19)

In 2016, Sri Lanka raised the compulsory age of education from 14 to 16 years.(17, 18)

There are no laws regulating employment in third-party households, leaving children ages 14 to 18 who are employed as domestic workers vulnerable to exploitation.(7)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor law and criminal law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Department of Labor, Ministry of Labor and Trade Union Relations (MOLTUR)

Enforce child labor laws and receive public complaints of child labor filed in national and district-level offices. Refer cases involving the worst forms of child labor to the police and National Child Protection Authority (NCPA).(12) Conduct special investigations in relation to child labor through the Women and Children’s Affairs Division.(20)

Children and Women’s Bureau of the Sri Lankan Police (CWBSLP)

Enforce laws on child labor, child trafficking, commercial sexual exploitation of children, and the use of children in illicit activities.(12)

NCPA Special Police Investigation Unit

Inspect premises, interrogate people, and seize property suspected to be involved with child abuse, including unlawful child labor.(21, 22)

Department of Probation and Child Care Services

Coordinate services for child victims of forced labor, human trafficking, and commercial sexual exploitation who have been referred to the Department of Probation and Child Care Services by the police and the court. Refer children to centers that provide shelter, medical and legal services, psychological counseling, and life and vocational skills training.(12, 23, 24)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, labor law enforcement agencies in Sri Lanka took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Labor Inspectors

389 (20)

391 (12)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (14)

No (12)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (20)

Unknown

Number of Labor Inspections

57,265 (20)

24,778† (12)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown

Unknown

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

129 (20)

Unknown

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

2 (20)

Unknown

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

Unknown

Unknown

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (25)

Yes (25)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (25)

Yes (25)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (14)

Yes (14)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (26)

Yes (12)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (27)

Yes (27)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (27)

Yes (27)

† Data are from January 2016 to September 2016.

The number of labor inspectors is insufficient for the size of Sri Lanka’s workforce, which includes over 9 million workers. According to the ILO’s recommendation of 1 inspector for every 20,000 workers in transitioning economies, Sri Lanka should employ roughly 453 inspectors.(28-30)

In 2016, for the first time, the Department of Labor targeted establishments with a high risk of hazardous child labor by conducting 380 inspections at 450 establishments.(12)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in Sri Lanka took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Investigations

Unknown

147 (12)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown

3 (12)

Number of Convictions

Unknown

Unknown

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (31)

Yes (31)

 

The Children and Women’s Bureau of the Sri Lankan Police (CWBSLP) is staffed by 45 officers in 36 of the country’s 460 police stations. In police stations without CWBSLP representation, the officer in charge oversees all the functions of the CWBSLP.(22) In addition, the National Child Protection Authority (NCPA) Special Police Investigating Unit has approximately 40 police officers who investigate complaints involving children, including child labor. The agency also has approximately 300 child protection officers based in the districts who are tasked with preventing child exploitation and victim protection.(12) However, both the CWBSLP and the NCPA face a shortage of funds that affects their ability to carry out their mandates.(22)

Research has found no evidence that the Government of Sri Lanka has investigated, prosecuted, or convicted individuals from non-state armed groups who recruited children in the past for use in armed conflict.(32-35)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Steering Committee on Child Labor

Coordinate the implementation of the Roadmap to End the Worst Forms of Child Labor, the Government’s key policy document for the elimination of the worst forms of child labor. Chaired by the Secretary of MOLTUR, includes representatives from key government agencies, employer and workers’ organizations, ILO, UNICEF, and NGOs.(36).

NCPA

Coordinate and monitor activities related to the protection of children, including activities to combat the worst forms of child labor. Consult with the relevant government ministries, local governments, employers, and NGOs, and recommend policies and actions to prevent and protect children from abuse and exploitation.(37)

National Anti-Trafficking Task Force

Coordinate interagency efforts to address all human trafficking issues, including commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor. Led by the Ministry of Justice and includes representatives from a range of government agencies, including the Ministry of Social Services, Ministry of Women and Child Affairs, Labor Secretariat, NCPA, Department of Probation and Child Care, Police Criminal Division, and Bureau for the Prevention of Abuse to Women and Children.(38, 39)

The Government has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor‡

Policy

Description

Sri Lanka’s Roadmap 2016 on the Worst Forms of Child Labor
(2011–2016)

Specifies time-bound goals to develop or strengthen the management, coordination, implementation, resource mobilization, and reporting of programs that will lead to the elimination of the worst forms of child labor by 2016.(40) Provide district-level mainstreaming strategies to address specific sectors of child labor, including armed conflict, plantations, fisheries, and tourism. Outlines strategies to include child labor issues in social protection and education goals.(40)

National Strategic Plan to Monitor and Combat Human Trafficking (2015–2019)

Aims to combat human trafficking by raising stakeholder awareness, improving victim protection services, increasing prosecution of human trafficking cases, and conducting research and data collection. Seeks also to improve coordination among the Anti-Trafficking Task Force members.(39, 41)

‡ The Government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor.(31, 42, 43)

Although the Government is drafting a new Child Labor Policy, Sri Lanka does not currently have a national policy to address child labor.(12, 44). The National Education Sector Development Framework and Program (2013-2017), which seeks to improve children’s access to the school system, does not explicitly include child labor elimination and prevention strategies. (12, 45)

In 2016, the Government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Child Labor Free Zone by 2016†

Local government initiatives that seek to eliminate child labor through the identification of children engaged in child labor, a rehabilitation program, assistance to families of children at risk of engaging in child labor, and an awareness-raising campaign. Operated by the district secretariats, with assistance from MOLTUR, and with technical and financial support from the ILO.(46) During 2016, the program was extended to the remaining 19 districts in Sri Lanka.(12)

‘1929’ Childline Sri Lanka†

NCPA-funded and operated 24-hour toll-free emergency telephone service for vulnerable and abused children. Connects children in need of help to direct assistance and rehabilitation services.(47)

Shelter for Victims of Human Trafficking

Ministry of Women and Child Affairs shelter provides female victims of human trafficking and children with safe shelter and access to medical, psychological, and legal assistance.(31, 38)

Country Level Engagement and Assistance to Reduce Child Labor (CLEAR)

USDOL-funded capacity-building project implemented by the ILO in at least 10 countries to build local and national capacity of the government to address child labor.(44) In 2016, worked with MOLTUR to finalize the National Child Labor Policy and implemented the Rapid Assessment of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children.(44) For additional information, please see our Web site.

Supporting the Roadmap to 2016 Through Expanding the Evidence Base and Reinforcing Policy Research for Scaling-up and Accelerating Action Against Child Labor

USDOL-funded research project implemented by the ILO in seven countries, including Sri Lanka, to accelerate country level actions to address child labor by collecting new data, analyzing existing data, building capacity of governments to conduct research in this area, and supporting governments, social partners, and other stakeholders to identify areas of policy intervention against child labor. In 2016, data were collected and analyzed for Sri Lanka’s Child Activity Survey.(13) For additional information, please see our Web site.

Decent Work Country Program (2013–2017)

ILO technical assistance project detailing the policies, strategies, and results required to make progress toward the goal of decent work for all. Includes four strategies to reduce the worst forms of child labor: (1) capacity-building for mainstreaming worst forms of child labor into sectorial plans and programs, (2) area-based integrated approach within districts, (3) strengthening institutional mechanisms for improved coordination and monitoring, and (4) development of a knowledge base for tracking progress.(48)

† Program is funded by the Government of Sri Lanka.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Sri Lanka (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that the legal framework includes protections for children engaged in domestic work.

2010 – 2016

Enforcement

Publish information on labor law enforcement, including funding for the labor inspectorate and number of child labor violations, penalties imposed, and penalties collected. Publish information on criminal law enforcement actions, including the number of violations and convictions related to the worst forms of child labor.

2014 – 2016

Authorize the labor inspectorate to assess penalties for labor law violations.

2015 – 2016

Hire a sufficient number of labor inspectors for the size of Sri Lanka's workforce.

2016

Provide additional funding for the CWBSLP and the NCPA to adequately investigate forced labor, child trafficking, and the commercial sexual exploitation of children.

2011 – 2016

Prosecute individuals who have violated laws related to children’s exploitation in armed conflict.

2009 – 2016

Government Policies

Adopt a national child labor policy.

2016

Ensure that child labor elimination and prevention strategies are explicitly integrated into existing education policies.

2014 – 2016

Social Programs

Eliminate barriers to education, including difficulties with transportation to schools, lack of sanitation and clean water in rural schools, and an inadequate number of teachers.

2012 – 2016

1.           ILO Committee of Experts. Observation Concerning Worst Forms of Child Labor Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Sri Lanka (ratification: 2001) Published 2014; accessed March 12, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID,P11110_COUNTRY_ID,P11110_COUNTRY_NAME,P11110_COMMENT_YEAR:3142614,103172,Sri%20Lanka,2013

2.           U.S. Department of State. "Sri Lanka," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2015. Washington, DC; April 13, 2016; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/253187.pdf.

3.           UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). [accessed December 16, 2016] http://www.uis.unesco.org/pages/default.aspx?SPSLanguage=EN. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. The calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age). Therefore, the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.

4.           UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Child Activity Survey, 2008-2009. Analysis received December 18, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children's work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more iniformation on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

5.           Perera, MM. "Child labour is another painful legacy of Sri Lanka’s civil war." AsiaNews.it [online] June 17, 2015 [cited December 11, 2015]; http://www.asianews.it/news-en/Child-labour-is-another-painful-legacy-of-Sri-Lanka%E2%80%99s-civil-war-34538.html.

6.           Union of Catholic Asian New. "Education key to ending child labor in Sri Lanka's gem mines." Bangkok, October 18, 2013. http://www.ucanews.com/news/education-key-to-ending-child-labor-in-sri-lankas-gem-mines/69505.

7.           Wage Indicator Foundation. Domestic Work in Sri Lanka, Salary.lk, [online] [cited February 14, 2014]; http://www.salary.lk/home/labour-law/domestic-work-in-sri-lanka.

8.           Wijesiri, L. "Child-sex tourism ruins Sri Lanka's image." Daily News (Sri Lanka), August 1, 2016. http://dailynews.lk/2016/08/01/features/89077.

9.           U.S. Department of State. "Sri Lanka," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016. Washington, DC; June 30, 2016; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/258881.pdf.

10.        U.S. Department of State. "Sri Lanka," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015. Washington, DC; July 27, 2015; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/index.htm.

11.        UNICEF Sri Lanka. Out-of-School Children in Sri Lanka: Country Study. Colombo; February 2013. http://www.unicef.org/srilanka/2013_OSS.pdf.

12.        U.S. Embassy- Colombo. reporting, December 30, 2016.

13.        ILO-IPEC. Supporting the Roadmap to 2016 through Expanding the Evidence Base and Reinforcing Policy Research for Scaling-up and Accelerating Action Against Child Labour. Technical Progress Report. Geneva; October 2016. [source on file].

14.        Government of Sri Lanka. Employment of Women, Young Persons and Children Act, No. 47 of 1956, enacted 2010. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/travail/docs/1651/Employment%20Of%20Women5.pdf.

15.        Government of Sri Lanka. Hazardous Occupations Regulations, 2010, No. 47, enacted August 17, 2010. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex_browse.details?p_lang=en&p_country=LKA&p_classification=04&p_origin=COUNTRY&p_sortby=SORTBY_COUNTRY.

16.        Government of Sri Lanka. Penal Code, enacted January 1, 1885. http://www.refworld.org/docid/4c03e2af2.html.

17.        Government of Sri Lanka. Education Ordinance, enacted 1939. http://www.commonlii.org/lk/legis/consol_act/e381147.pdf.

18.        Government of Sri Lanka. Compulsory Attendance of Children at Schools Regulation No. 1 of 2015, enacted 2016. [source on file].

19.        Government of Sri Lanka. Army Act, enacted http://www.defence.lk/main_pub.asp?fname=armyact.

20.        Government of Sri Lanka. US Department of Labor's Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Ministry of Labor and Trade Union Relations; March 23, 2016. source on file.

21.        Sri Lanka. National Child Protection Authority Act, No. 50 of 1998, enacted 1998. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/WEBTEXT/52618/65161/E98LKA01.htm.

22.        U.S. Embassy- Colombo. reporting, February 27, 2014.

23.        Department of Probation and Child Care Services. Counselling Centre, [online] March 5, 2013 [cited 2013]; http://www.probation.gov.lk/web/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=50&Itemid=37&lang=en.

24.        U.S. Department of State. "Sri Lanka," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2012. Washington, DC; June 19, 2012; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/192597.pdf.

25.        ILO. Sri Lanka: Labor Inspection Structure and Organization, [Online] [cited February 23, 2016]; http://www.ilo.org/labadmin/info/WCMS_209369/lang--en/index.htm.

26.        Ministry of Labour and Trade Union Relations. Meeting Notes from Labor Affairs Committee, U.S. – Sri Lanka Trade and Investment Framework AgreementUSDOL; April 27, 2016. [source on file].

27.        Department of Labor. Trainee Guide Book to Create Awareness among the Social Partners on Employment of Children and Young Person. Colombo; 2012. [source on file].

28.        CIA. The World Factbook, CIA, [online] [cited February 21, 2017]; https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131. Data provided is the most recent estimate of the country’s total labor force. This number is used to calculate a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors based on the country’s level of development as determined by the UN.

29.        ILO. Strategies and Practice for Labour Inspection. Geneva, Committee on Employment and Social Policy; November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Article 10 of ILO Convention No. 81 calls for a “sufficient number” of inspectors to do the work required. As each country assigns different priorities of enforcement to its inspectors, there is no official definition for a “sufficient” number of inspectors. Amongst the factors that need to be taken into account are the number and size of establishments and the total size of the workforce. No single measure is sufficient but in many countries the available data sources are weak. The number of inspectors per worker is currently the only internationally comparable indicator available. In its policy and technical advisory services, the ILO has taken as reasonable benchmarks that the number of labor inspectors in relation to workers should approach: 1/10,000 in industrial market economies; 1/15,000 in industrializing economies; 1/20,000 in transition economies; and 1/40,000 in less developed countries.

30.        UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex. New York; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, “developed economies” equate to the ILO’s classification of “industrial market economies; “economies in transition” to “transition economies,” “developing countries” to “industrializing economies, and “the least developed countries” equates to “less developed countries.” For countries that appear on both “developing countries” and “least developed countries” lists, they will be considered “least developed countries” for the purpose of calculating a “sufficient number” of labor inspectors.

31.        IOM. Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) for the Identification and Protection of Trafficking Victims; 2015. [source on file].

32.        Lanka Standard. "Sri Lanka Faces Impatience in US Over Rights Record." lankastandard.com [online] May 19, 2012 [cited May 23, 2012]; www.lankastandard.com/2012/05/sri-lanka-faces-impatience-in-us-over-rights-record/.

33.        UN Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict. Children and Armed Conflict: Sri Lanka, UN Security Council [online ] April 26, 2012 [cited May 30, 2017]; http://childrenandarmedconflict.un.org/countries/sri-lanka/.

34.        Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. Promoting reconciliation and accountability in Sri Lanka. Geneva; February 24, 2014. http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/HRC/RegularSessions/Session25/Documents/A-HRC-25-23_AEV.doc.

35.        UN High Commissioner for Human Rights. Report of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on Sri Lanka. Geneva. Report No. A/HRC/34/20. http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/HRC/RegularSessions/Session34/Documents/A_HRC_34_20_EN.docx.

36.        U.S. Embassy- Colombo. reporting, March 13, 2013.

37.        National Child Protection Authority. Functions of the NCPA, Government of Sril Lanka, [online] 2015 [cited December 14, 2015]; http://www.childprotection.gov.lk/about-us/functions-of-the-national-child-protection-authority/.

38.        U.S. Embassy- Colombo. reporting, February 16, 2016.

39.        Government of Sri Lanka. National Strategic Plan to Monitor and Combat Human Trafficking (2015-2019). [source on file].

40.        Government of Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka's Roadmap 2016 on the Worst Forms of Child Labour. Colombo; June 2010. http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/viewProduct.do?productId=14876.

41.        U.S. Embassy- Colombo. reporting, March 3, 2014.

42.        Government of Sri Lanka. The National Human Resources and Employment Policy for Sri Lanka. Colombo; 2012. http://www.nhrep.gov.lk/images/pdf/nhrep_final.pdf.

43.        UN. United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) 2013-2017. Colombo; October 2012. http://un.lk/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/UNDAF-2013-to-2017.pdf.

44.        ILO. Country Level Engagement and Assistance to Reduce Child Labor. Technical Progress Report; October 2016.

45.        Government of Sri Lanka Ministry of Education. Education Sector Development Framework and Programme - II (ESDFP-II): 2012-2016. Colombo; 2012. http://www.moe.gov.lk/web/images/stories/branchnews/planning/tsep_esmf_2011.pdf.

46.        ILO. Ratnapura - A Child Labour Free Zone by 2016. Press Release. Colombo; June 2013. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---asia/---ro-bangkok/---ilo-colombo/documents/pressrelease/wcms_229824.pdf.

47.        Government of Sri Lanka. 1929 Childline Sri Lanka, National Child Protection Authority, [cited January 13, 2017]; http://www.childprotection.gov.lk/help/.

48.        ILO. Decent Work Country Programme 2013-2017. Project Document. Colombo; May 2013. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/bureau/program/dwcp/download/srilanka.pdf.

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