Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Sri Lanka

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Sri Lanka

2017 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2017, Sri Lanka made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The government published the 2016 Child Activity Survey, launched the National Policy on Elimination of Child Labor in Sri Lanka, and drafted a revised list of hazardous work prohibited for children. In addition, the number of labor inspectors in Sri Lanka is now sufficient for the size of the workforce. Although the government made meaningful efforts in all relevant areas during the reporting period, the law related to the minimum age for work does not meet international standards. However, children in Sri Lanka engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation. Children also perform dangerous tasks in domestic work. The hazardous work list is not comprehensive because it does not include domestic work. Children also face barriers to education, including lack of transportation and inadequate number of teachers.

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Children engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation. Children also perform dangerous tasks in domestic work. (1; 2; 3; 4) In 2017, the government published the 2016 Child Activity Survey. (5) However, the definition of child labor used in the survey does not align with international standards. For example, 5-11 year olds working less than 15 hours per week and 12-14 year olds working less than 25 hours per week in agriculture are not counted as child laborers. In addition, terms such as “contributing family worker” and “related person” are unclear. These issues may have led to an underestimation of the population of children in child labor in the Child Activity Survey. Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Sri Lanka.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

0.8 (28,515)

Working children by sector

5 to 14

 

Agriculture

 

42.1

Industry

 

21.9

Services

 

36.0

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

98.0

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

0.9

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

100.6

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2016, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2018. (6)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Child Activity Survey, 2016. (7)

 

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Farming, activities unknown (5; 8)

Fishing, including deep sea fishing, processing fish, and selling fish (5; 8; 9; 10)

Forestry, activities unknown (4)

Animal husbandry (4; 5; 10)

Industry

Manufacturing, textiles and garments (1; 4; 5)

Mining,† including gem mining (4; 5; 11)

Construction, activities unknown (4; 5; 12)

Food processing, sorting, drying, and packaging food (10)

Services

Domestic work (5; 13)

Transportation, carrying and handling goods (5)

Vending, in stores and on the streets, and begging (5; 9)

Work in hotels, restaurants, and offices (4; 5; 12)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1; 2; 14; 15)

Forced labor in domestic work, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2)

Use in illicit activities, including drug trafficking (4)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

 

There are reports of children from tea estates being trafficked internally to perform domestic work in Colombo; their payments are withheld and their movements are restricted. (2) Children, predominantly boys, are also forced into commercial sexual exploitation in coastal areas as part of the sex tourism industry. (2; 15)

Though the government provides free education to all school children, some children in rural areas face barriers to accessing education, including difficulties traveling to school in some regions, lack of sanitation and clean water in schools, and an inadequate number of teachers. (4; 16; 17)

Sri Lanka has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Sri Lanka’s legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor, including with protections for children engaged in domestic work.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

14

Sections 7, 9, 13 and 34 of the Employment of Women, Young Persons, and Children Act (18)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Section 20A of the Employment of Women, Young Persons, and Children Act (18)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Hazardous Occupations Regulation No. 47 (18; 19)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Sections 358A, 360C, 360A(2), and 360A(4) of the Penal Code (20)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Sections 360C, 360A(2), and 360A(4) of the Penal Code (20)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Sections 286A, 360B, 360A(2), and 360A(4) of the Penal Code (20)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Sections 288, 288A, 288B, and 360C of the Penal Code (20)

Prohibition of Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

N/A*

 

 

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Sections 20A and 31 of the Employment of Women, Young Persons, and Children Act; Section 2(xviii) of the Hazardous Occupations Regulation No. 47 (18; 19)

Non-state

Yes

18

358(1)(d) of the Penal Code; Sections 20A and 31 of the Employment of Women, Young Persons, and Children Act; Section 2(xviii) of the Hazardous Occupations Regulation No. 47 (18; 19; 20)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

16

Section 43 of the Education Ordinance; Compulsory Attendance of Children at Schools Regulation (21; 22)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Section 47 of the Education Ordinance (21)

* No conscription (23)

 

The hazardous work list is not comprehensive because it does not include domestic work, for which there is evidence that children are subject to abuse. (2) However, the government is considering including domestic work in a revised hazardous work list. (4) This revised list of hazardous work prohibited for children was drafted in 2017, but the government has not yet finalized the regulation. (24) In November 2017, at the IV Global Conference on the Sustained Eradication of Child Labor, the government pledged to raise the minimum age for employment to 16 before the end of 2018 and eradicate the worst forms of child labor by 2022. (4)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the Department of Labor of the Ministry of Labor, Trade Union Relations and Sabaragamuwa Development (MLTRS) that may hinder adequate child labor enforcement.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Department of Labor, Ministry of Labor, Trade Union Relations and Sabaragamuwa Development (MLTRS)

Enforce child labor laws and receive public complaints of child labor filed in national and district-level offices. Refer cases involving the worst forms of child labor to the police and National Child Protection Authority (NCPA). (17) Conduct special investigations in relation to child labor through the Women and Children’s Affairs Division. (25)

Children and Women’s Bureau of the Sri Lankan Police (CWBSLP)

Enforce laws on child labor, child trafficking, commercial sexual exploitation of children, and the use of children in illicit activities. (17)

NCPA Special Police Investigation Unit

Inspect premises, interrogate people, and seize property suspected to be involved with child abuse, including unlawful child labor. (26; 27)

Department of Probation and Child Care Services

Coordinate services for child victims of forced labor, human trafficking, and commercial sexual exploitation who have been by the police and the court. Refer children to centers that provide shelter, medical and legal services, psychological counseling, and life and vocational skills training. (17; 28)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2017, labor law enforcement agencies in Sri Lanka took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the Department of Labor’s MLTRS that may hinder adequate child labor enforcement, including the Inspectorate’s authority to assess penalties.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Labor Inspectors

391 (17)

524 (4)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

No (17)

No (4)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Yes (4)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown

Yes (4)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

24,778† (17)

49,907 (4)

Number Conducted at Worksites

Unknown

Unknown (4)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown

7 (10)

Number of Child Labor Violations for which Penalties were Imposed

Unknown

3 (10)

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed That were Collected

Unknown

Unknown

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (29)

Yes (4)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (29)

Yes (4)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (18)

Yes (4)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (17)

Yes (4)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (4)

Yes (4)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (4)

Yes (4)

† Data are from January 2016 to September 2016.

 

In 2017, the government of Sri Lanka recruited 179 new labor inspectors who are trained on all aspects of labor laws, including those on child labor. The government completed 250 inspections in sectors vulnerable to hazardous child labor but did not find children working in the selected establishments. (4)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2017, criminal law enforcement agencies in Sri Lanka took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Investigations

147 (17)

Unknown

Number of Violations Found

Unknown

Unknown

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

3 (17)

Unknown

Number of Convictions

Unknown

Unknown

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (30)

Yes (30)

 

The Children and Women’s Bureau of the Sri Lankan Police (CWBSLP) monitors and works closely with Children and Women’s Bureau desks operated in each of the 488 police stations in the country. (27) In addition, the CWBSLP supervises the National Child Protection Authority (NCPA) Special Police Investigating Unit, which has approximately 40 police officers who investigate complaints involving children, including child labor. (10) The agency also has approximately 300 child protection officers based in the districts who are tasked with preventing child exploitation and victim protection. (4; 17)

In 2017, a former member of the non-state armed group Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam was sentenced to life imprisonment for recruiting a child into the group during the past armed conflict. (31)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role and Description

National Steering Committee on Child Labor

Coordinate efforts to eliminate child labor, including the National Policy on Elimination of Child Labor in Sri Lanka, the government’s key policy document for the elimination of the worst forms of child labor. Chaired by the Secretary of the MLTRS, includes representatives from key government agencies, employer and workers’ organizations, ILO, UNICEF, and NGOs. (4; 32)

National Child Protection Authority (NCPA)

Coordinate and monitor activities related to the protection of children, including activities to combat the worst forms of child labor. Consult with the relevant government ministries, local governments, employers, and NGOs, and recommend policies and actions to prevent and protect children from abuse and exploitation. (33) Research was unable to determine whether this coordinating body was active during the reporting period.

National Anti-Trafficking Task Force

Coordinate interagency efforts to address all human trafficking issues, including commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor. Led by the Ministry of Justice and includes representatives from a range of government agencies, including the Ministry of Social Services, Ministry of Women and Child Affairs, Labor Secretariat, NCPA, Department of Probation and Child Care, Police Criminal Division, and Bureau for the Prevention of Abuse to Women and Children. (34; 35) Research was unable to determine whether this coordinating body was active during the reporting period.

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that may hinder efforts to address child labor, including explicitly integrating child labor elimination and prevention strategies into existing education policies.

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor‡

Policy

Description

National Policy on Elimination of Child Labor in Sri Lanka

Aims to mainstream child labor issues into national development policies, increase the minimum age for employment, promote the implementation of hazardous work regulations, strengthen capacity to enforce child labor laws, and maintain a complaint procedure. The MLTRS is responsible for the implementation, monitoring, and reporting of the policy. (32) Policy was approved in 2016 but officially launched in 2017. (4; 24)

Let’s Protect Children†

Presidential Secretariat program that seeks to monitor child protection policies implemented by the Ministries of Education, Health, and Labor. Aims to ensure child safety and physical and psycho-social development. (10)

National Strategic Plan to Monitor and Combat Human Trafficking (2015–2019)

Seeks to combat human trafficking by raising stakeholder awareness, improving victim protection services, increasing prosecution of human trafficking cases, and conducting research and data collection. Seeks also to improve coordination among the Anti-Trafficking Task Force members. (35; 36) During the reporting period, established new anti-trafficking units and created a special police division for the protection of witnesses and victims of all crimes. (37)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.
‡ The government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor. (4; 30; 38; 39; 10)

 

The National Education Sector Development Framework and Program (2013–2017), which seeks to improve children’s access to the school system, does not explicitly include child labor elimination and prevention strategies. (17; 40)

In 2017, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including with adequately removing barriers to education for children in rural areas.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Child Labor-Free Zone by 2016†

Local government initiatives that seek to eliminate child labor through the identification of children engaged in child labor, a rehabilitation program, assistance to families of children at risk of engaging in child labor, and an awareness-raising campaign. Operated by the district secretariats, with assistance from the MLTRS, and with technical and financial support from the ILO. Initiative continued in 2017. (4; 41)

‘1929’ Childline Sri Lanka†

NCPA-funded and operated 24-hour toll-free emergency telephone service for vulnerable and abused children. Connects children in need of help to direct assistance and rehabilitation services. (42) From January to July 2017, the Childline received 102 child labor complaints. (43)

Shelter for Victims of Human Trafficking

Ministry of Women and Child Affairs shelter provides children and female victims of human trafficking with safe shelter and access to medical, psychological, and legal assistance. (30; 34) The Ministry continued to operate the shelter during the reporting period. (37)

Country Level Engagement and Assistance to Reduce Child Labor (CLEAR)

USDOL-funded capacity-building project implemented by the ILO in 11 countries to build local and national capacity of governments to address child labor. In 2017, conducted a legal review of laws pertaining to child labor in domestic work and provided analysis to the MLTRS. Also, worked with the ILO to finalize the Rapid Assessment of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children. (24) Additional information is available at the USDOL website.

Decent Work Country Program (2013–2017)

ILO technical assistance project detailing the policies, strategies, and results required to make progress toward the goal of decent work for all. Includes four strategies to reduce the worst forms of child labor: (a) build capacity to mainstream worst forms of child labor into sectorial plans and programs, (b) adopt an integrated area-based approach, (c) strengthen institutional mechanisms for coordination and monitoring, and (d) develop knowledge base to track progress. (44)

† Program is funded by the Government of Sri Lanka.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Sri Lanka (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that the hazardous occupations and activities prohibited to children are comprehensive, including domestic work.

2017

Enforcement

Publish information on labor law enforcement, including on inspectorate funding.

2014 – 2017

Collect and publish information on criminal law enforcement actions, including on training for investigators, the number of investigations, violations found, prosecutions initiated, and convictions related to the worst forms of child labor.

2014 – 2017

Authorize the Labor Inspectorate to assess penalties for labor law violations.

2015 – 2017

Determine whether the number of inspections per labor inspector is appropriate to ensure the quality and scope of inspections.

2017

Provide additional funding for the CWBSLP and the NCPA to adequately investigate forced labor, child trafficking, and the commercial sexual exploitation of children.

2011 – 2017

Coordination

Publish information about activities undertaken by coordinating bodies.

2017

Government Policies

Ensure that child labor elimination and prevention strategies are explicitly integrated into existing education policies.

2014 – 2017

Social Programs

Eliminate barriers to education, including difficulties with transportation to schools, lack of sanitation and clean water in rural schools, and an inadequate number of teachers.

2012 – 2017

 

Ensure that the definition of child labor used in the NCLS report clearly aligns with international standards.

2017

1. ILO Committee of Experts. Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labor Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Sri Lanka (ratification: 2001) Published: 2014. Accessed March 12, 2014. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID,P11110_COUNTRY_ID,P11110_COUNTRY_NAME,P11110_COMMENT_YEAR:3142614,103172,Sri%20Lanka,2013.

2. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2018: Sri Lanka. Washington, DC. June 28, 2018. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/271339.pdf.

3. Social Policy Analysis and Research Center. The Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in Sri Lanka: A Rapid Assessment. August 2017. [Source on file].

4. U.S. Embassy- Colombo. Reporting, January 12, 2018.

5. ILO and Department of Census and Statistics of Sri Lanka. Report on the Child Activity Survey 2016 - Sri Lanka. February 21, 2017. http://www.statistics.gov.lk/samplesurvey/Child%20Activity%20%20Survey%202016.pdf.

6. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed March 3, 2018. http://www.uis.unesco.org/pages/default.aspx?SPSLanguage=EN. For more information, please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the References Materials section of this report.

7. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Child Activity Survey, 2016. Analysis received April 20, 2018. Please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

8. Perera, Melanie Manel. Child labour is another painful legacy of Sri Lanka’s civil war. Asia News. June 17, 2015. http://www.asianews.it/news-en/Child-labour-is-another-painful-legacy-of-Sri-Lanka%E2%80%99s-civil-war-34538.html.

9. Vinodani, H.H.W, and S.W. Amarasinghe. Exploitation of Child Labour in the Informal Sector of Sri Lanka's Rural Economy; A Sociological Study in the Devinuwara Divisional Secretariat Area. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Humanities & Social Sciences. University of Ruhuna. 2017. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Pannilage_Upali/publication/317661438_Avenues_Peace_Reconciliation_and_Development/links/5947987faca27242cda1cbe9/Avenues-Peace-Reconciliation-and-Development.pdf#page=184.

10. U.S. Embassy Colombo official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. January 26, 2018.

11. News, Union of Catholic Asian. Education key to ending child labor in Sri Lanka's gem mines. October 18, 2013. http://www.ucanews.com/news/education-key-to-ending-child-labor-in-sri-lankas-gem-mines/69505.

12. Weerakoon, Rumesh and M.D.J.W. Wijesinghe. The Consequences of Child Labour in Sri Lanka. International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research Volume 6, Number 9. September 2017. http://www.ijstr.org/final-print/sep2017/The-Health-Consequences-Of-Child-Labour-In-Sri-Lanka.pdf.

13. Salary.lk, Wage Indicator 2018. Domestic Work in Sri Lanka. Accessed February 14, 2014. http://www.salary.lk/home/labour-law/domestic-work-in-sri-lanka.

14. Wijesiri, Lionel. Child-sex tourism ruins Sri Lanka's image. Daily News. August 1, 2016. http://dailynews.lk/2016/08/01/features/89077.

15. ECPAT International. Universal Periodic Review of Sri Lanka. March 18, 2017. http://www.ecpat.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/2017-%E2%80%93-Sri-Lanka-UPR-Report.pdf.

16. UNICEF Sri Lanka. Out-of-School Children in Sri Lanka. February 2013: Country Study. http://www.unicef.org/srilanka/2013_OSS.pdf.

17. U.S. Embassy- Colombo. Reporting, December 30, 2016.

18. Government of Sri Lanka. Employment of Women, Young Persons and Children Act, No. 47 of 1956. Enacted: 2010. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/travail/docs/1651/Employment%20Of%20Women5.pdf.

19. —. Hazardous Occupations Regulations, 2010, No. 47. Enacted: August 17, 2010. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex_browse.details?p_lang=en&p_country=LKA&p_classification=04&p_origin=COUNTRY&p_sortby=SORTBY_COUNTRY.

20. —. Penal Code. Enacted: January 1, 1885. http://www.refworld.org/docid/4c03e2af2.html.

21. —. Education Ordinance. Enacted: 1939. http://www.commonlii.org/lk/legis/consol_act/e381147.pdf.

22. —. Compulsory Attendance of Children at Schools Regulation No. 1 of 2015. Enacted: 2016. [Source on file].

23. —. Army Act. http://www.defence.lk/main_pub.asp?fname=armyact.

24. ILO. Country Level Engagement and Assistance to Reduce Child Labor. October 2017: Technical Progress Report. [Source on file].

25. Government of Sri Lanka. U.S. Department of Labor's Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Ministry of Labor and Trade Union Relations. March 23, 2016. [Source on file].

26. —. National Child Protection Authority Act, No. 50 of 1998. Enacted: 1998. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/WEBTEXT/52618/65161/E98LKA01.htm.

27. U.S. Embassy- Colombo. Reporting, February 27, 2014.

28. Department of Probation and Child Care Services. Counselling Centre. March 5, 2013. http://www.probation.wp.gov.lk/web/services/.

29. ILO. Sri Lanka: Labor Inspection Structure and Organization. Accessed February 23, 2016. http://www.ilo.org/labadmin/info/WCMS_209369/lang--en/index.htm.

30. IOM. Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) for the Identification and Protection of Trafficking Victims. 2015. [Source on file].

31. Adayaalam Centre for Policy Research. Tamil Political Prisoners: Suggestions for a Comprehensive Legal Policy Approach. May 7, 2018. http://adayaalam.org/issue-brief-no-3-tamil-political-prisoners-suggestions-for-a-comprehensive-legal-policy-approach/.

32. Government of Sri Lanka. National Policy on Elimination of Child Labor in Sri Lanka. 2016. [Source on file].

33. National Child Protection Authority. Functions of the NCPA, Government of Sril Lanka [online]. 2015. http://www.childprotection.gov.lk/about-us/functions-of-the-national-child-protection-authority/.

34. U.S. Embassy- Colombo. Reporting, February 16, 2016.

35. Government of Sri Lanka. National Strategic Plan to Monitor and Combat Human Trafficking (2015-2019). [Source on file].

36. U.S. Embassy- Colombo. Reporting, March 3, 2014.

37. U.S. Embassy Colombo official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 28, 2018.

38. Government of Sri Lanka. The National Human Resources and Employment Policy for Sri Lanka. 2012. http://www.nhrep.gov.lk/images/pdf/nhrep_final.pdf.

39. UN. United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) 2013-2017. October 2012. http://www.lk.undp.org/content/dam/srilanka/docs/general/UNDAF%202013%20to%202017.pdf.

40. Government of Sri Lanka Ministry of Education. Education Sector Development Framework and Programme - II (ESDFP-II): 2012-2016. 2012. http://www.moe.gov.lk/english/images/publications/ESMF/esmf_tesp.pdf.

41. ILO. Ratnapura - A Child Labour Free Zone by 2016. Press Release. June 2013. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---asia/---ro-bangkok/---ilo-colombo/documents/pressrelease/wcms_229824.pdf.

42. National Child Protection Authority. 1929 Childline Sri Lanka. Accessed January 13, 2017. http://www.childprotection.gov.lk/?page_id=291.

43. ColomboPage. Sri Lanka Child Protection Authority receives over 3700 child abuse complaints this year. July 18, 2017. http://www.ft.lk/news/child-protection-authority-receives-over-3700-child-abuse-complaints-this-year/56-629501.

44. ILO. Decent Work Country Programme 2013-2017. Project Document. May 2013. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/bureau/program/dwcp/download/srilanka.pdf.

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