Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

South Sudan

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South Sudan
2017 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

No Advancement – Efforts Made But Complicit in Forced Child Labor

In 2017, South Sudan made efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor, but it was also complicit in the use of forced child labor. After several years in draft form, the government enacted the Labour Act of 2017 that provides additional protections for children; however, the Act lacks clarity on prohibitions on the worst forms of child labor. The government also identified and registered child soldiers within armed groups. Despite these initiatives to address child labor, South Sudan is receiving an assessment of no advancement because its national army—the Sudan People’s Liberation Army—recruited, sometimes forcibly, children to fight opposition groups. Children in South Sudan are also engaged in other worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation. The government neither brought to justice those who recruited or used children in armed conflict, nor held accountable perpetrators of any other form of child labor. It also failed to convene its National Steering Committee on Child Labor or accede to the UN CRC’s two optional protocols.

Children in South Sudan engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in armed conflict and commercial sexual exploitation. (1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6; 7; 8) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in South Sudan.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

10 to 14

45.6 (463,624)

Working Children by Sector

10 to 14

 

Agriculture

 

60.2

Industry

 

38.2

Services

 

1.6

Attending School (%)

6 to 14

31.5

Combining Work and School (%)

10 to 14

10.9

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

25.7

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2011, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2018. (9)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Fifth Housing and Population Census, 2008. (10)

 

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Farming activities, including planting and harvesting (2; 11; 12; 6)

Cattle herding† (2; 4; 12; 13; 6)

Industry

Rock breaking† (14; 15; 6; 7)

Construction,† including building and transporting materials (11; 12; 15; 6; 16; 7)

Making bricks (4; 15; 17; 6; 7)

Gold mining,† including tunnel excavation, and artisanal gold mining, including digging holes, carrying soil, and panning (12; 6; 18)

Services

Domestic work (1; 12; 13; 19; 16; 7)

Street work, including vending, washing cars, polishing shoes, begging, selling beer, preparing tea, selling black market gasoline, ticket-taking for group transport companies, and pushing delivery carts (1; 4; 12; 15; 20; 21; 6; 17; 7)

Cooking and cleaning in restaurants or food stands (1; 15; 6)

Scrap metal, trash, empty bottle, and cow dung collection (13; 22; 6)

Work in slaughterhouses, including transporting livestock and meat (1; 11) 

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Forced labor in cattle herding, domestic work, construction, brick making, rock breaking, begging, shoe shining, car washing, delivery cart pushing, and market vending (15; 23; 6; 16)

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1; 4; 15; 24; 6; 16; 7; 25)

Forced recruitment of children by state and non-state armed groups for use in armed conflict (4; 5; 6; 7; 26; 27; 28; 29) (25; 8; 30)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

 

Violent conflict continued throughout 2017, increasing the number of internally displaced persons (IDPs) to 1.9 million and the number of refugees in neighboring states to nearly 2.43 million; the estimated 20,000 unaccompanied minors in IDP camps across the country were particularly vulnerable to recruitment by armed groups or abduction for other types of forced labor or commercial sexual exploitation. (6; 7)

In 2017, armed groups from all sides of the ongoing conflict continued to recruit and use children, with more than 19,000 children estimated to have been associated with government and opposition forces. (6; 25; 30; 31; 32) An even greater number of children fight as part of local community defense forces, during which they are used by their communities to perpetuate inter- and intra-communal violence. (6; 25) Recruitment and use of children was reported throughout the country, including in legacy Unity, Jonglei, Warrap, Upper Nile, Western and Northern Bahr el Ghazal, and Central and Eastern Equatoria states. As in previous years, the highest levels of recruitment, use, and re-recruitment of children were documented in Unity state. (25)

The national army—the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA)—and its aligned forces recruited child soldiers as young as age 12, sometimes forcibly or with the aid of senior politicians and community leaders, to fight against armed groups. (6; 7; 8) In 2017, UNICEF verified 140 incidents of recruitment and use of children, affecting at least 1,221 children (1,057 boys and 164 girls). About 65 percent of these incidents were attributed to the SPLA and other government security forces, with the remaining attributed to the SPLA-In Opposition (SPLA-IO) (First Vice President Taban Deng Gai), the SPLA-IO (Riek Machar), the South Sudan National Liberation Movement, and the South Sudan Democratic Army-Cobra Faction. (25; 30)

Boys were forcibly recruited for use in armed conflict, including through abduction from their homes and schools and as a result of coercive threats to confiscate their family’s cattle. (7; 25; 33) UNICEF estimates 3,200 children have been abducted since 2013, many of whom have been subsequently forced into combat roles. (6; 7; 25) Children who joined willingly to protect their communities, after the loss of family members or shelter, or with promises of food or money for their families, were ultimately unable to leave the groups at will and instead were forced into combat roles. (7; 25; 30) Children also cooked, collected firewood, herded cattle, washed clothes, carried water and ammunition, manned checkpoints, carried out patrols, stole cattle, served as escorts and bodyguards to senior officers, perpetuated violence against civilians, or recruited other children. (6; 25; 33; 34)

The SPLA, other government security services, and armed groups forcibly recruited girls to serve as child soldiers and carry out support roles, during which time they were often coerced into performing sex acts. (34; 6) In 2017, UNICEF and ceasefire monitors noted an increase in the use of girls in armed forces. With worsening economic conditions due to the ongoing conflict, families also increasingly placed girls into prostitution to augment household income. (6; 7)

Ongoing conflict continued to impair the government’s ability to deliver aid, provide education, and address the worst forms of child labor. (6) Approximately 2.2 million – 72 percent of the school-age population – are not attending school. (35; 6) Although the Constitution and the Child Act provide for free primary education, in practice, many families cannot afford to send their children to school because parents often must pay teachers’ salaries—a prohibitive cost for many families. (4; 36) Uniform costs, chronic food insecurity, and low levels of birth registration also impede access to education in South Sudan. (4; 1; 36; 37; 38; 39; 40; 41) Many children, particularly those in rural areas, do not have access to schools, often because of the lack of infrastructure, such as roads and school buildings. (35, 36) Other barriers to education include unpaid teacher salaries, high truancy rates among teaching staff, and a shortage of qualified teachers. (4; 36; 6)

In 2017, there were 70 incidents of attacks on schools across the country. The UN also verified 27 new incidents of occupancy and use of schools for military purposes by the SPLA, the SPLA-IO (Riek Machar), and the SPLA-IO (Taban Deng Gai) in the regions of Equatoria, Unity, and Upper Nile. Despite some schools being vacated by armed groups during the year, many schools were still being used for military purposes at year’s end. The lack of access to education may increase the risk of children’s involvement in the worst forms of child labor. (42) In addition, there has not been a comprehensive child labor survey in South Sudan. (4; 43; 6)

South Sudan has ratified some key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

 

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

 

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

 

The government did not deposit the necessary documents to accede to the UN CRC's two optional protocols, despite the national Legislative Assembly’s passage of a bill in 2013 allowing it to do so. (4; 44; 6)

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in South Sudan’s legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor, including the minimum age for work and the compulsory education age.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

No

14

Section 12 of the Labour Act; Article 25(3) of the Child Act (45; 46)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Section 12 of the Labour Act; Articles 22(3), 24(1), and 25(1) of the Child Act (45; 46)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Article 25(2) of the Child Act; (45)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Section 10 of the Labour Act; Articles 276–278 of the Penal Code; Article 13 of the Constitution (47; 48; 46)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 13(2) of the Labour Act; Article 22(3)(b) of the Child Act; Articles 276 and 278–281 of the Penal Code (45; 47; 46)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 13(2)(b) of the Labour Act; Articles 22(3)(c)–(d) and 22(4) of the Child Act; Articles 258 and 276 of the Penal Code (45; 47; 46)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 13(2)(c) of the Labour Act; Article 24(1) of the Child Act; Article 383(3)(d) of the Penal Code (45; 47; 46)

Prohibition of Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

Yes

18

Article 31(1) of the Child Act; Sections 20, 22(2), and (7) of the Sudan People’s Liberation Army Act (45; 49)

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Article 31(1) of the Child Act; Section 22 of the Sudan People’s Liberation Army Act (45; 49)

Non-state

Yes

18

Article 31(1) of the Child Act (45)

Compulsory Education Age

No

13

Article 9.1(b) of the General Education Act (50)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 6(a) of the General Education Act; Article 14(1) of the Child Act; Article 29.2 of the Constitution (45; 48; 50)

 

In November 2017, the Transitional National Legislative Assembly passed the Labour Act, which the president signed into law in December. (51; 6) The law prohibits forced labor and the worst forms of child labor and includes minimum ages for work, light work, and hazardous work. However, Article 12(2) allows children between ages 14 and 18 to engage in the worst forms of child labor, which is a violation of international standards. The law prescribes general penalties for infractions of up to 5 years of imprisonment, a fine, cancelation of business licenses, or closure of the premises for up to 2 years. In accordance with the law, the Minister of Labor must draft and issue regulations to implement key elements related to child labor, including the number of hours and conditions for light work, the exceptions under which 16-year-old children may perform hazardous work, and a complete hazardous work list. (46)

Children are required to attend school only until age 13. This standard makes children between ages 13 and 14 particularly vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor, because they are not required to be in school but are also not legally permitted to work. (52)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the operations of the Ministry of Labor, Public Service, and Human Resource Development that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor, Public Service, and Human Resource Development (MOL)

Develop labor policies, enforce child labor laws, conduct workplace inspections, and oversee the operation of vocational training centers. (4; 45; 53)

Ministry of Gender, Child, and Social Welfare

Coordinate activities on children’s rights and act as the focal ministry for child protection. (54)

Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) Directorate for Child Protection

Headed by a Brigadier General. Prevent the recruitment of children into the army, monitor barracks, identify child soldiers and assist with their release, investigate allegations of child soldiering, and provide training on children’s rights to child protection officers and members of the SPLA. (15; 55; 56) Serve as liaison between the SPLA and the international community. (55)     

Ministry of Interior

Enforce criminal laws to combat human trafficking and maintain a database on crime statistics. (57)

Ministry of Justice

Protect citizens’ rights and enforce the Comprehensive Peace Agreement and the Constitution, including child protection provisions in those laws. (58)

South Sudan Police Services

Enforce criminal laws related to the worst forms of child labor. (52)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2017, it is unknown whether labor law enforcement agencies in South Sudan took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the operations of the Ministry of Labor, Public Service, and Human Resource Development that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including financial and human resource allocation.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown (4)

$32,000 (51)

Number of Labor Inspectors

6 (4)

8 (51)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (4)

Yes (51)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

N/A (4)

No (51)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A

No (51)

Refresher Courses Provided

No (4)

No (51)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

0 (4)

Unknown (51)

Number Conducted at Worksites

0 (4)

Unknown (51)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

0 (4)

0 (51)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties were Imposed

0 (4)

0 (51)

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that were Collected

N/A

N/A (51)

Routine Inspections Conducted

No (4)

Unknown (51)

Routine Inspections Targeted

N/A

Unknown (51)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (4)

Yes (51)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

No (4)

No (51)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

No (4)

No (51)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Unknown (4)

Unknown (51)

 

Officials from the Ministry of Labor, Public Service, and Human Resource Development reported that in 2017 they lacked sufficient resources, such as fuel and vehicles for transport to conduct labor inspections. In addition, there was high absenteeism among ministry staff and salaries for civil servants in nearly every ministry were not paid for several months. (4; 6) Although statistics regarding the number of people in South Sudan’s labor force are unavailable, it is unlikely that eight labor inspectors are sufficient to address the scope of the country’s child labor problem. (4; 59; 60; 61; 6)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2017, criminal law enforcement agencies in South Sudan took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including training for criminal investigators.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown (4)

Unknown (7)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A (4)

N/A (7)

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown (4)

Unknown (7)

Number of Investigations

0 (4)

0 (7)

Number of Violations Found

177 (4)

311 (7)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

0 (4)

0 (7)

Number of Convictions

0 (4)

0 (7)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Unknown (4)

No (7)

 

Although both the Joint Action Plan to Combat the Use of Child Soldiers and the September 2014 Punitive Order commit the SPLA to holding its military officers accountable for the recruitment or use of children, the government has neither investigated nor prosecuted officers who allegedly committed such crimes. (31) On the contrary, David Yau Yau, a commander whose recruitment of children is well-documented, was integrated into the government in 2016 and subsequently served as Deputy Minister of Defense, then Deputy Minister of Labor, and is now Governor of Jonglei state. Regulations under the SPLA Act of 2013 and the White Paper on Defense instruct commanders to conduct annual refresher training on child soldiering and human rights; most units did not hold their annual session in 2017 because of ongoing conflict, poor communication, and general lack of capacity. (7)

South Sudan’s justice system faces enormous challenges, such as low capacity, inadequate funding, interference by the government and the SPLA, lack of training for law enforcement personnel, and a scarcity of judges, prosecutors, and defense attorneys. (15; 36; 55; 7) Prosecutors and law enforcement officials are not familiar with the Child Act’s prohibitions on the worst forms of child labor because the Act has not been adequately disseminated. (52; 54) Law enforcement capacity in general is weak, even against violent crimes. In 2017, police continued to indiscriminately arrest and imprison children engaged in commercial sexual exploitation rather than treating them as victims. (7)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including coordination among agencies.

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role and Description

National Steering Committee on Child Labor

Coordinate efforts to combat the worst forms of child labor across government ministries; led by the MOL. (2) The National Steering Committee on Child Labor did not convene or coordinate activities to combat child labor in 2017. (6)

National Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration Commission (NDDRC)

Oversee and coordinate the implementation of the Joint Action Plan to Combat the Use of Child Soldiers and reintegrate children formerly engaged in armed conflict. (62) Responsible for the negotiation of the release, screening, and registration of child soldiers; reunification with family when possible; and educational placement or vocational training. The last formal demobilization of child soldiers from armed groups occurred in 2015. (7) In 2017, the NDDRC carried out an age-assessment exercise in Pibor, Jonglei, to verify the presence of children associated with the SPLA-IO (Taban Deng Gai). The exercise identified 313 boys and the commission began preparing for their release, along with children identified at other sites, to take place in 2018. (42)

 

The SPLA took steps in 2017 to prevent the recruitment of children. Formal enlistment procedures required an age assessment that was usually done through a dental exam, because many children do not know their birthdate. (7)

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including funding and implementation of relevant policies.

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

Joint Action Plan with the United Nations to Combat the Use of Child Soldiers

Requires the SPLA to release all children associated with government security forces. Provides services for their family reunification and reintegration, and investigates grave violations against children. (63; 7) Both the SPLA and the SPLA-In Opposition signed or recommitted to joint action plans as of December 2015, but they have yet to implement the plans and continued to recruit child soldiers, at times by force. (7)

Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan

Establishes the structure of a Transitional government of National Unity and outlines actions to be taken by signatories. Article 1.7.3 prohibits the recruitment and use of child soldiers by armed forces or militias. Article 1.10 requires warring parties to immediately and unconditionally release all child soldiers under their command or influence. (64) Although the release of some child soldiers occurred in 2015, evidence suggests that the signatories have continued to recruit or re-recruit children. (7)

In 2017, the government participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including the adequacy to address the problem in all sectors.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

UNICEF Country Program (2016–2018)

$115.4 million UNICEF-funded program implemented by the government that aims to develop child protection systems, with an emphasis on birth registration; develop a child-sensitive justice system; provide basic social services to conflict-affected children and communities (including demobilized children); and provide return, reintegration, and resettlement services for children affected by armed conflict. (36)

Children, Not Soldiers Campaign

Ministry of Defense program to raise public and SPLA awareness of child protection principles, and to hold perpetrators accountable for recruiting child soldiers. Also aims to end the recruitment and use of children in armed conflict. (63)

Emergency Education Program (2014 – 2017)

$3 million USAID-funded program implemented by UNICEF that supports children at risk for being recruited into armed groups. Monitors child recruitment in and around schools through work documenting attacks on schools; provides psychological first aid and child protection activities; and allows re-integration for children who were associated with armed groups back into learning opportunities, especially through Alternative Learning Programs. (65) In 2017, provided psychosocial support and other services to an unknown number of former child soldiers.

Interim Care Center

State Ministry of Education, Gender, and Social Welfare-administered, UNICEF-funded center in Yambio that provides temporary housing to released child soldiers, as well as children and mothers rescued from the Lord’s Resistance Army. This center requires improved fencing, access to water, a generator, and training for staff on child protection case management to better care for released children. (7; 32)

 

Although South Sudan has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the scope or extent of the problem, including in commercial sexual exploitation and child soldiering. The reintegration and rehabilitation services provided to child soldiers are insufficient to meet the existing needs. (2; 15; 6; 7)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in South Sudan (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Complete ratification of the UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict and UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography by delivering the necessary documents to the UN.

2013 – 2017

Ratify the Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons.

2013 – 2017

Ensure that the compulsory education age is consistent with the minimum age for work.

2013 – 2017

Amend Article 12(2) of the Labour Act to clarify that the worst forms of child labor are prohibited for all children under 18 years of age.

2017

Draft and finalize implementing regulations for the Labour Act that provide a list of hazardous work for children, the number of hours and conditions for light work, and the exceptions under which 16 year old children may perform hazardous work.

2017

Enforcement

Ensure that the Child Act’s minimum age of 18 years for voluntary military recruitment is enforced by ending all recruitment and use of children under age 18 by the SPLA, the SPLA-IO, or associated militias.

2012 – 2017

Cease all military use of schools and school compounds.

2015 – 2017

Increase the number of labor inspectors to meet the ILO’s technical advice.

2016 – 2017

Provide sufficient human and financial resources and train personnel for effective inspection and enforcement efforts.

2012 – 2017

Ensure that prosecutors and law enforcement officials are familiar with the prohibitions on the worst forms of child labor in the Child Act and the Labour Act and are trained in implementing all laws related to child labor.

2012 – 2017

Institutionalize training for labor inspectors and criminal law enforcement personnel, as well as new employees.

2012 – 2017

Strengthen the Inspectorate’s role to include investigating worksites (onsite), conducting unannounced inspections, and initiating targeted inspections based on analysis of data related to high-risk sectors and patterns of serious incidents.

2015 – 2017

Establish a mechanism to receive child labor complaints.

2015 – 2017

Establish referral mechanisms for labor inspectors, criminal law enforcers, and social services providers to facilitate effective enforcement of labor and criminal laws and to implement social programs that address child labor issues.

2014 – 2017

Prosecute perpetrators of child labor violations, including government officials.

2015 – 2017

Track and make publicly accessible information on investigations, citations, penalties, prosecutions, and convictions for crimes involving child labor, including its worst forms.

2012 – 2017

Investigate, prosecute, and punish with adequate penalties that constitute an effective deterrent to officers in all former warring parties responsible for the recruitment or use of children in armed conflict.

2013 – 2017

Pending investigations, suspend from their positions any commanders who are credibly alleged to have recruited and used child soldiers or who have allowed soldiers to occupy schools.

2013 – 2017

Coordination

Ensure that the National Steering Committee on Child Labor convenes and is able to coordinate activities to combat child labor.

2013 – 2017

Government Policies

Ensure that policies, such as the Joint Action Plan to Prevent the Use of Child Soldiers, Article 1.10 of the Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in South Sudan, and the MOL’s Policy Framework and Strategic Plan, are implemented.

2012 – 2017

Social Programs

Strengthen efforts to lessen the potential impact of food insecurity and the high cost of living on the ability of rural populations to educate children.

2012 – 2017

Improve access to education by addressing the lack of school infrastructure in rural areas and registering all children at birth.

2012 – 2017

Ensure that children complete their primary education by subsidizing or covering the cost of school uniforms and teachers’ salaries.

2014 – 2017

Resume paying teacher salaries in areas that have been under the control of opposition forces during the conflict.

2014 – 2017

Conduct a national child labor survey, including research to determine the activities carried out by children, to inform policies and social programs.

2013 – 2017

Cooperate with child protection agencies, pursuant to Article 1.10 of the Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in South Sudan, to disarm and immediately release children in armed forces and aligned militias, and transfer them to appropriate civilian rehabilitation and reintegration programs that include education and vocational training, as well as necessary counseling. Ensure that the rehabilitation services provided to child soldiers are sufficient.

2014 – 2017

Improve the security, water access, and training for staff at the Interim Care Center for former child soldiers in Yambio.

2017

Increase the scope of social programs to reach more children at risk of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation and child soldiering.

2012 – 2017

1. Confident Children Out of Conflict. Child Exploitation in Juba: A Study on Street Children and Child Labour in Juba, South Sudan. September 2013.

2. U.S. Embassy- Juba. Reporting, February 3, 2016.

3. —. Reporting, October 20, 2015.

4. —. Reporting, January 20, 2017.

5. Human Rights Watch. World Report 2017. January 2017. https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2017.

6. U.S. Embassy- Juba. Reporting, January 16, 2018.

7. —. Reporting, February 12, 2018.

8. Human Rights Watch. South Sudan: Warring Parties Break Promises on Child Soldiers. February 5, 2018. https://www.hrw.org/news/2018/02/05/south-sudan-warring-parties-break-promises-child-soldiers.

9. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed March 3, 2018. http://data.uis.unesco.org/. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

10. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 5, 2014. Analysis received January 12, 2018. Please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

11. U.S. Embassy- Juba official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 16, 2015.

12. U.S. Embassy- Juba. Reporting, November 2, 2015.

13. ILO-IPEC. Child labour and education in pastoralist communities in South Sudan. October 23, 2013. http://www.ilo.org/ipec/Informationresources/WCMS_IPEC_PUB_24057/lang--en/index.htm.

14. Taban Kuich, B. Unity state: Women crush stones to fight poverty. May 10, 2013. http://www.sudantribune.com/spip.php?article46524.

15. U.S. Embassy- Juba. Reporting, February 8, 2016.

16. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2017: South Sudan. Washington, DC. June 27, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2017/index.htm.

17. —. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015: South Sudan. Washington, DC. July 27, 2015. http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2015/index.htm.

18. Cordaid. MINING IN SOUTH SUDAN: OPPORTUNITIES AND RISKS FOR LOCAL COMMUNITIES. January 2016.

19. Mori, Keji. Situation of Child Domestic Workers in Juba, South Sudan: World Day Against Child Labour. June 25, 2013. [Source on file].

20. Nakimangole, P. L. Child Labour Rampant In South Sudan Major Towns. November 30, 2013. http://www.gurtong.net/ECM/Editorial/tabid/124/ctl/ArticleView/mid/519/articleId/13964/Child-Labour-Rampant-In-South-Sudan-Major-Towns.aspx.

21. World Vision. FEAR AND WANT: Children Living in Crisis in South Sudan. December 2014. http://www.wvi.org/sites/default/files/South%20Sudan%20Policy%20Report_LowRes-FINAL.pdf.

22. BBC News. South Sudan child scrap metal diggers blown up in Juba. October 17, 2013. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-24563786.

23. Human Rights Watch. "They Burned It All" - Destruction of Villages, Killings, and Sexual Violence in Unity State, South Sudan. July 2015. https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/report_pdf/southsudan0715_web_0.pdf.

24. U.S. Embassy- Juba. Reporting, March 6, 2014.

25. —. Reporting, January 30, 2018.

26. UNMISS and OHCHR. A Report on Violations and Abuses of International Human Rights Law and Violations of International Humanitarian Law in the Context of the Fighting in Juba, South Sudan, in July 2016. January 2017. http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Countries/SS/ReportJuba16Jan2017.pdf.

27. Hatcher-Moore, Phil, and Jason Burke. 'If you are old enough to carry a gun, you are old enough to be a soldier'. July 24, 2017. https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2017/jul/24/south-sudan-child-soldiers.

28. Onyulo, T. In South Sudan, every male child is a soldier in devastating civil war. July 5, 2017. https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/world/2017/07/05/south-sudan-civil-war/103041540/.

29. The Roméo Dallaire Child Soldiers Initiative. South Sudan Country Report: Children & Security. January 31, 2017. https://www.childsoldiers.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/South-Sudan-January-2017-Report-1.pdf.

30. Ceasefire & Transitional Security Arrangements Monitoring Mechanism (CTSAMM). CHILD SOLDIERS REPORT 2018/02. January 15, 2018. http://ctsamm.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/CTSAMM-REPORT-201802-CHILD-SOLDIERS.pdf.

31. U.S. Embassy– Juba. Reporting, February 13, 2018.

32. U.S. Embassy- Juba. Reporting, March 22, 2018.

33. UN. Reporting, July - September 2017.

34. —. Reporting, April - June 2017.

35. UNICEF Press Centre. Six years after independence: South Sudan’s children wait for peace and prosperity. July 8, 2017. https://www.unicef.org/media/media_96614.html.

36. UN Economic and Social Council. Country programme document: South Sudan. April 18, 2016: E/ICEF/2016/P/L.9. https://www.unicef.org/about/execboard/files/2016-PL9-South_Sudan_CPD-18Apr16.pdf.

37. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. A third of South Sudanese now severly food insecure due to ongoing conflict. May 10, 2014. http://www.fao.org/news/story/en/item/231502/icode/.

38. World Food Programme. South Sudan: Overview, WFP. Accessed January 14, 2014. http://www.wfp.org/countries/south-sudan/overview.

39. UN. South Sudan: Consolidated Appeal 2014-2016. November 14, 2013. https://docs.unocha.org/sites/dms/CAP/CAP_2014-2016_South_Sudan.pdf.

40. World Health Organization. Neonatal and Child Health Profile. 2014. [Source on file].

41. UNICEF Press Centre. Children under attack at shocking scale in conflicts around the world, says UNICEF. December 28, 2017. https://www.unicef.org/media/media_102357.html.

42. UN Security Council Working Group on Children and Armed Conflict. Global Horizontal Note for July - September 2017. July - September 2017.

43. U.S. Embassy- Juba. Reporting, January 8, 2015.

44. UN Mission in South Sudan. Parliament passes bill to ratify child rights convention. November 20, 2013. http://reliefweb.int/report/south-sudan-republic/parliament-passes-bill-ratify-child-rights-convention.

45. Government of the Republic of South Sudan. THE CHILD ACT 2008/Act 10. Enacted: February 10, 2009. http://www.crin.org/Law/instrument.asp?InstID=1395.

46. —. Labour Act, 2017/Act No. 64. Enacted: October 24, 2017. [Source on file].

47. —. The Penal Code Act. Enacted: February 10, 2009. [Source on file].

48. —. The Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan, 2011. Enacted: 2011. http://www.gurtong.net/ECM/Editorial/tabid/124/ctl/ArticleView/mid/519/articleId/5133/The-Transitional-Constitution-Of-The-Republic-Of-South-Sudan-2011.aspx.

49. —. THE SUDAN PEOPLE'S LIBERATION ARMY ACT, 2009. Enacted: 2009. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/MONOGRAPH/98164/116700/F1105592601/SSD98164.pdf.

50. —. General Education Act, 30. Enacted: 2012. [Source on file].

51. U.S. Embassy- Juba. Reporting, January 19, 2018.

52. —. Reporting, March 11, 2014.

53. Government of the Republic of South Sudan. Labour and Public Service. Accessed November 6, 2012. [Source on file; previously online].

54. Child Protection Working Group. Child Protection in Emergencies Desk Review: South Sudan. March 13, 2013. [Source on file].

55. Human Rights Watch. "We Can Die Too": Recruitment and Use of Child Soldiers in South Sudan. December 2015. https://www.hrw.org/report/2015/12/14/we-can-die-too/recruitment-and-use-child-soldiers-south-sudan.

56. UN Mission in South Sudan. SPLA commanders trained in child protection. November 27, 2013 . http://reliefweb.int/report/south-sudan-republic/spla-commanders-trained-child-protection.

57. Government of the Republic of South Sudan. South Sudan Interior. Accessed November 6, 2012. [Source on file; previously online].

58. —. South Sudan Justice. Accessed November 6, 2012. [Source on file; previoulsy online].

59. ILO. Strategies and practice for labour inspection. November 2006. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/gb/docs/gb297/pdf/esp-3.pdf. Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

60. UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2017 Statistical Annex. 2017. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

61. CIA. The World Factbook. Accessed January 19, 2018. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2095rank.html. Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

62. Government of the Republic of South Sudan. South Sudan Disarmament Demobilization and Reintegration. Accessed November 6, 2012. [Source on file; previously online].

63. UN Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict. Government of South Sudan Recommits to Action Plan to End Recruitment and Use of Children. June 24, 2014: Joint Press Release OSRSG-CAAV/UNICEF/UNMISS. https://childrenandarmedconflict.un.org/press-release/gov-of-south-sudan-recommits-to-action-plan-to-end-recruitment-and-use-of-children/.

64. Intergovernmental Authority on Development. AGREEMENT ON THE RESOLUTION OF THE CONFLICT IN THE REPUBLIC OF SOUTH SUDAN. August 17, 2015. http://www.sudantribune.com/IMG/pdf/final_proposed_compromise_agreement_for_south_sudan_conflict.pdf.

65. U.S. Embassy– Juba. Reporting, February 16, 2018.