Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

South Sudan

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South Sudan
2018 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

No Advancement – Efforts Made But Complicit in Forced Child Labor

In 2018, South Sudan is receiving an assessment of no advancement. Although South Sudan made some efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor, government officials were complicit in the forcible recruitment of children to fight opposition groups. The government acceded to the UN CRC Optional Protocols on Armed Conflict and Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, and signed the Revitalized Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan. The South Sudan Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration Commission also secured the release of 934 children from armed groups and launched several new policies, which may have an impact on child labor. However, despite new initiatives to address child labor, South Sudan is receiving an assessment of no advancement because its national army—the South Sudan People’s Defense Forces—recruited children, sometimes forcibly, to fight opposition groups. Children in South Sudan engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in armed conflict and cattle herding. The labor inspectorate also does not have sufficient resources to conduct labor inspections and did not hold accountable perpetrators of child labor. In addition, the government has yet to ratify the Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons and police continued to indiscriminately arrest and imprison children engaged in commercial sexual exploitation rather than treating them as victims. 

Children in South Sudan engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in armed conflict and cattle herding. (1-9) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in South Sudan.

Table 1. Statistics on Children's Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

10 to 14

45.6 (463,624)

Working children by sector

10 to 14

 

Agriculture

 

60.2

Industry

 

38.2

Services

 

1.6

Attending School (%)

6 to 14

31.5

Combining Work and School (%)

10 to 14

10.9

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

25.7

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2011, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2019. (10)

Source for all other data: International Labor Organization's analysis of statistics from Fifth Housing and Population Census, 2008. (11)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children's Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Farming activities, including planting and harvesting crops (9,12)

Cattle herding† (9)

Gathering firewood (9)

Industry

Construction,† including building and transporting materials (13,14)

Rock breaking† (13,14)

Making bricks (1,9)

Gold mining,† including carrying soil, and panning (2,9)

Services

Domestic work (15)

Street work, including vending, polishing shoes, preparing tea, selling black market gasoline, and ticket-taking for group transport companies (9)

Cooking and cleaning in restaurants or food stands (9)

Scrap metal and empty bottle collection (14,16)

Work in slaughterhouses, including transporting livestock and meat (14)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Forced labor in brickmaking, cattle herding, gold mining, and market vending (13,17)

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2,9,13)

Forced recruitment of children by state and non-state armed groups for use in armed conflict (3,4,16,18,19)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Salva Kiir Mayardit, the President of South Sudan, Riek Machar, the leader of the Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Army in Opposition (SPLA-IO), and other rebel factions and parties signed a peace deal in September 2018, but violent conflict continued throughout the year due to weak chains of command, mistrust, and fighting over natural resources. (4,5,20) Since the onset of conflict in 2013, over 4.3 million people have been internally displaced or have fled the country, and UNICEF has registered 11,731 unaccompanied minors, who are particularly vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor. (6-8,13,21) Detailed information about sectors in which child labor occurs is unavailable as there has not been a comprehensive child labor survey in South Sudan. (16)

In 2018, armed groups from all sides continued to recruit and use children as young as age 12, with the highest levels of recruitment, use, and re-recruitment of children documented in Unity, Greater Equatoria area, Upper Nile, and Jonglei. (3,5,7-9,13,21,22) The national army of South Sudan—the South Sudan People's Defense Forces (SSPDF), previously known as Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA)—and opposition groups, including the pro-Machar SPLA-IO, pro-Taban Deng SPLA-IO, and the South Sudan National Liberation Movement (SSNLM), forcibly abducted children from their homes, schools, and communities. (4,5,8,9,15,23) UNICEF suspects the use of children in armed conflict increased in 2018, as commanders were incentivized to enlarge their ranks ahead of the implementation of the peace agreement in order to receive reintegration bonuses. (9,23) An even greater number of children fight as part of local community defense forces, during which they are used by their communities to perpetuate inter- and intra-communal violence. (15) Although some children voluntarily joined armed groups, they were later unable to leave the groups at will. (7,9,19,22,24) Children affiliated with armed groups performed active combat roles, perpetuated violence against civilians, and recruited other children. They also collected firewood, manned checkpoints, and carried out other support roles, including as cooks, porters, spies, and bodyguards to senior officers. (4,7,8,13,24,25) Girls were frequently coerced into performing sex acts and becoming concubines for male combatants. (4,8,9,23,25)

Ongoing conflict continued to impair the government's ability to deliver aid, provide education, and address the worst forms of child labor. (16,22) In 2018, the SSPDF and other armed groups carried out at least 18 attacks on schools across the country and the UN verified 26 new incidents of occupancy and use of schools for military purposes. (8,23,26) Despite some schools being vacated by armed groups during the year, many schools were still being used for military purposes at year's end, affecting education for 32,500 children. (8,23,27)

As many as 2.4 million children—72 percent of the school-age population—are not attending school, and only an estimated 1 in 13 children will complete a full cycle of primary education if the current situation persists. (7,21,22) Although the Constitution and the Child Act provide for free primary education and the education budget significantly increased for the 2018/2019 school year, in practice, many families must contribute school fees to pay teacher salaries and other related costs, which may be prohibitive. (9,21,22,28) Other barriers to education include low levels of birth registration, chronic food insecurity, poor infrastructure, social reintegration for demilitarized youth, ongoing insecurity, fear of abduction or violence in route to schools, long distances to schools in rural areas, unpaid teacher salaries which leads to truancy by teaching staff, and a shortage of qualified teachers. (7-9,21,22,24,27,28)

South Sudan has ratified most key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

In 2018, the Government of South Sudan acceded to the UN CRC's two optional protocols. (29,30)

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in South Sudan's legal framework to adequately protect children from the worst forms of child labor, including the compulsory education age.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

14

Section 12 of the Labour Act; Article 25(3) of the Child Act (31,32)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Sections 12 and 13 of the Labour Act; Articles 22(3),24(1), and 25(1) of the Child Act (31,32)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Article 25(2) of the Child Act (31)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 10(1) and 13(2)(a) of the Labour Act; Articles 277–279 of the Penal Code; Article 13 of the Constitution (32-34)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 13(2) of the Labour Act; Article 22(3)(b) of the Child Act; Articles 276 and 278–282 of the Penal Code (31-33)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 13(2)(b) of the Labour Act; Articles 22(3)(c)–(d), 22(4), and 25(2)(m) of the Child Act; Articles 258 and 276 of the Penal Code (31-33)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 13(2)(c) of the Labour Act; Article 24(1) of the Child Act; Article 383(3)(d) of the Penal Code (31-33)

Minimum Age for Voluntary State Military Recruitment

Yes

18

Article 31(1) of the Child Act; Section 22 of the Sudan People's Liberation Army Act (31,35)

Prohibition of Compulsory Recruitment of Children by (State) Military

Yes

 

Article 31(1) of the Child Act; Sections 20, 22(2) and (7) of the Sudan People's Liberation Army Act (31,35)

Prohibition of Military Recruitment by Non-state Armed Groups

Yes

 

Article 31(1) of the Child Act (31)

Compulsory Education Age

No

13

Article 9.1(b) of the General Education Act; Article 14(1) of the Child Act (31,36)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 6(a) of the General Education Act; Article 13(4)(b) of the Labour Code; Article 14(1) of the Child Act; Article 29.2 of the Constitution (31,32,34,36)

In 2018, the Government of South Sudan passed the Civil Registry Act , which will improve access to birth registration and facilitate age verification needs. (6) The Labour Act appears to have two contradictory standards for prohibiting children from engaging in hazardous work: Article 13 prohibits hazardous work, which constitutes the worst forms of child labor, for children under the age of 18 in line with international standards, while Article 12(2) only prohibits children under the age of 14 from engaging in the worst forms of child labor, which is a violation of international standards. (32) In accordance with the Labour Act, the Ministry of Labor, Public Service, and Human Resource Development (MOL) must draft and issue regulations to implement key elements related to child labor, including the number of hours and conditions for light work, the exceptions under which 16-year-old children may perform hazardous work, and a complete hazardous work list. (9,32)

Children are required to attend school only until age 13. This standard makes children between ages 13 and 14 particularly vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor because they are not required to be in school but are also not legally permitted to work. (9,31,36)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, the exceptionally low number of worksite inspections conducted at the national level in South Sudan may have impeded the enforcement of child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor, Public Service, and Human Resource Development (MOL)

Enforces child labor laws, identifies child labor violations, and conducts workplace inspections. (9,31,32,37)

Ministry of Gender, Child, and Social Welfare

Coordinates activities on children's rights and acts as the focal ministry for child protection. (9)

South Sudan's People's Defense Forces (SSPDF) Directorate for Child Protection

Prevents the recruitment of children into the army, monitors barracks, identifies child soldiers and assists with their release, investigates allegations of child soldiering, and provides training on children's rights to child protection officers and members of the SSPDF. Headed by a Brigadier General, serves as liaison between the SSPDF and the international community. (9,26) In 2018, agreed to receive training for 1,200 SSPDF child protection focal points who will respond to victims of abuse or exploitation, including children used in armed conflict. (15)

Ministry of Interior's South Sudan National Police Services

Enforces criminal laws related to the worst forms of child labor. (9)

Ministry of Justice

Oversees all courts and prosecute violations, including those related to child labor. (9)

Labor Law Enforcement
In 2018, the exceptionally low number of worksite inspections conducted at the national level in South Sudan may have impeded the enforcement of child labor laws (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2017

2018

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$32,000 (16)

Unknown (9)

Number of Labor Inspectors

8 (16)

9 (9)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (16)

Yes (9)

Initial Training for New Labor Inspectors

No (16)

Yes (9)

 

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

No (16)

No (9)

Refresher Courses Provided

No (16)

No (9)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

Unknown (16)

1 (38)

 

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown (16)

1 (38)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

0 (16)

18 (38)

 

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

0 (16)

0 (38)

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that Were Collected

N/A (16)

N/A

Routine Inspections Conducted

Unknown (16)

No (9)

 

Routine Inspections Targeted

Unknown (16)

N/A

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (16)

Yes (32)

 

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

No (16)

No (9)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

No (16)

Yes (31,32)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Unknown (16)

Yes (31)

Although the law requires child labor violations to be reported to the MOL, which is responsible for coordinating the appropriate response, this did not occur in 2018. (9,31) There was also high absenteeism among ministry staff and salaries for civil servants in nearly every ministry were not paid for several months, hindering the labor inspectorate's ability to enforce child labor laws. (9) In addition, officials from the Ministry of Labor, Public Service, and Human Resource Development reported that in 2018 they lacked sufficient resources, such as fuel and vehicles for transport, to conduct labor inspections. (9,37) Although statistics on the number of people in South Sudan's labor force are unavailable, it is unlikely that nine labor inspectors are sufficient to address the scope of the country's child labor problem. (9,39,40)

Criminal Law Enforcement
In 2018, criminal law enforcement agencies in South Sudan took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including training for criminal investigators.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2017

2018

Initial Training for New Criminal Investigators

Unknown (41)

No (9)

 

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A (41)

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown (41)

Yes (15,42)

Number of Investigations

0 (41)

Unknown (9)

Number of Violations Found

311 (41)

934 (9)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

0 (41)

0 (9)

Number of Convictions

0 (41)

0 (9)

Imposed Penalties for Violations Related to The Worst Forms of Child Labor

No (41)

No (9)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

No (41)

No (6,43)

In 2018, the South Sudanese government cooperated with UNODC to deliver the country's first workshop on identifying and investigating cases of human trafficking. (15) Despite this effort, South Sudan's justice system faces enormous challenges, such as low capacity, insufficient funding, interference by the government and the SSPDF, lack of training for law enforcement personnel, and a scarcity of judges, prosecutors, and defense attorneys. (9,13,26,27) Research indicates that prosecutors and law enforcement officials are not familiar with legal statutes regarding the worst forms of child labor. (9,13) As a result, police continued to indiscriminately arrest and imprison children engaged in commercial sexual exploitation rather than treating them as victims. (13)

The UN Mission in South Sudan conducted a number of investigations into reports of children in armed groups, but it is unknown how many total investigations were completed. (9) Although both the 2017 Agreement on the Cessation of Hostilities and the August 2013 Punitive Order commit the SSPDF to hold its military officers accountable for the recruitment or use of children, the government has neither investigated nor prosecuted officers who allegedly committed such crimes. (13,15,26,44,45)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including coverage of all relevant sectors.

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

South Sudan Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration Commission (NDDRC)

Oversees and coordinates all DDR activities with the assistance of UN bodies by convening regular meetings with DDR stakeholders. (43) Responsible for the negotiation of the release, screening, and registration of child soldiers; reunification with family when possible; and educational placement or vocational training. (15) In 2018, facilitated 4 formal DDR ceremonies resulting in the release and reintegration of 934 children. (6,9)

Although South Sudan has the South Sudan Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration Commission (NDDRC) to coordinate efforts to address children in armed conflict, it does not have coordinating mechanisms to address other forms of child labor, as the National Steering Committee on Child Labor has not been active since it was first constituted in 2012. (9)

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including funding and implementation of relevant policies.

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

Revitalized Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan (R-ARCSS)†

Replaces all components of the Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan signed in 2015, including the Joint Action Plan with the UN to Combat the Use of Child Soldiers, and reaffirms commitments made under the 2017 Agreement on the Cessation of Hostilities. (20,44) Establishes the structure of a Revitalized Transitional Government of National Unity and outlines actions to be taken by signatories, including prohibiting the recruitment and use of child soldiers by armed forces or militias, and stipulates that all civilian areas, including schools, shall be immediately demilitarized. (20) Although the release of some child soldiers occurred in 2018, evidence suggests that the signatories have continued to recruit or re-recruit children. (4,5,8,9)

General Education Strategic Plan (2017–2022)†

Aims to improve access and quality of education by providing capitation grants, teacher salaries, and cash transfers to girls in upper primary and secondary schools. In 2017 and 2018, the Ministry of General Education and Instruction (MOGEI) focused on disseminating and enforcing the General Education Act of 2012, advocating for the redeployment of teachers to underserved areas, and improving girls' enrollment and retention. (45) In 2018, the MOGEI reopened some schools previously closed due to conflict, especially in the Greater Upper Nile Region. (9)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

In December 2018, the government announced plans to enact an immigration policy in consultation with IOM to counter child trafficking, which officials acknowledge is a significant problem. (15) The education sector of South Sudan is heavily dependent on donor funding, and sufficient funding was not allocated for the full 5-year period of the General Education Strategic Plan. (9,45)

In 2018, the government participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including the adequacy to address the problem in all sectors.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

UN Joint Program for Recovery and Resilience in Yambio*

Joint agreement between donors, UN agencies, Yambio leaders, and NGOs that aims to re-establish access to basic services including psycho-social support, education, and economic alternatives for children separated from armed groups. (4,46,47)

UNICEF Country Program (2016–2018)

$115.4 million UNICEF-funded program implemented by the government that sought to develop child protection systems, with an emphasis on birth registration; developed a child-sensitive justice system; provided basic social services to conflict-affected children and communities (including demobilized children); and provided return, reintegration, and resettlement services for children affected by armed conflict. (27) In 2018, conducted at least 4 formal release ceremonies in Jonglei and Western Equatoria State, provided psycho-social care to 198,775 children, and assisted the Government of South Sudan with passing into law the Civil Registry Act of 2018. (6)

Transition Center

Ministry of Women, Child, and Social Welfare-administered, UNICEF-funded interim care center in Yambio that provides interim care and support to children and mothers rescued from extremist organizations and situations of human trafficking. (9,13)

Measurement, Awareness-Raising, and Policy Engagement (MAP 16) Project on Child Labor and Forced Labor

USDOL-funded project implemented by the ILO to conduct research and develop new survey methodologies, improve awareness, strengthen policies and government capacity, and promote partnerships to combat child labor and forced labor. For additional information, please see our website. (48) In 2018, completed work on a 3-country study of forced child labor in conflict zones. (49)

Donor-Funded Education Programs

Programs aimed to improve educational access in areas affected by conflict. Includes: Emergency Education Program (2014–2018), $3 million USAID-funded program that supported children at risk for being recruited into armed groups, which transitioned into the Integrated Essential Emergency Education Services program in July 2018; Back to Learning,* State Ministry of Education, Gender, and Social Welfare-administered, UNICEF-funded program in Yambio and Bentiu which aims to address educational needs in conflict-afflicted areas and insecure states; and Girls' Education South Sudan (GESS) (2013–2018), a State Ministry of Education, Gender, and Social Welfare-administered, UK Aid-funded program that provided $12 monthly cash transfers to girls in public schools. (6,22,28,50) In 2018, Back to Learning provided 514,803 children with access to education, rehabilitated or established 193 classrooms, and trained 5,440 teachers and parent-teacher association members to provide life skills and psychosocial support. (50) GESS increased the number of girls enrolled in school from 4,000 in 2014 to 290,000 by November 2018, and distributed cash transfers to 295,145 girls. (9,28)

Dallaire Initiative (2018–2021)*

$2.2 million project funded by Romeo Dallaire Child Soldiers Initiative. Aims to train 1,200 South Sudanese soldiers, police, and prison personnel on combating the use of children in armed conflict through behavior change. (51)

Alternative Education System†

Aims to improve literacy and provide out-of-school populations an alternative to formal education. Includes: the Accelerated Learning Program (ALP) targeting older teens; Community Girls' Schools (CGS) located in closer proximity to rural communities; and the Pastoralist Education Program (PEP) targeting children and adults in pastoral settings. In 2018, provided education to 111,000 students. (45)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.

† Program is funded by the Government of South Sudan.

‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. (9,13)

In 2018, the Ministry of General Education and Instruction worked with UNICEF and education stakeholders to develop and submit a proposal for the Education Sector Plan Implementation Grant that aims to reduce the number of out-of-school children. The grant would operate from 2019–2021 and requires $35.7 million in funding. (50)

Although South Sudan has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the scope or extent of the problem, including in commercial sexual exploitation and child soldiering. In addition, the reintegration and rehabilitation services provided to child soldiers are insufficient to meet the existing needs. (9,21,46,52)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in South Sudan (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ratify the Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons.

2013 – 2018

Ensure that the compulsory education age is consistent with the minimum age for work.

2013 – 2018

Amend Article 12(2) of the Labour Act to clarify that the worst forms of child labor are prohibited for all children under age 18.

2017 – 2018

Draft and finalize implementing regulations for the Labour Act that provide a list of hazardous work for children, the number of hours and conditions for light work, and the exceptions under which children age 16 may perform hazardous work.

2017 – 2018

Enforcement

Ensure that the Child Act's minimum age of 18 years for voluntary military recruitment is enforced by ending all recruitment and use of children under age 18 by the South Sudan Peoples' Defense Forces (SSPDF), the Sudan Peoples' Liberation Movement/Army in Opposition (SPLA-IO), or associated militias.

2012 – 2018

Investigate, prosecute, and punish with penalties that constitute an effective deterrent officers in all former warring parties responsible for the recruitment or use of children in armed conflict.

2013 – 2018

Cease all military use of schools and school compounds.

2015 – 2018

Institutionalize training for labor inspectors, criminal law enforcement personnel, and new employees.

2012 – 2018

Provide sufficient human and financial resources to ensure labor inspectors carry out routine and unannounced inspections, including targeted inspections based on analysis of data related to high-risk sectors and patterns of serious incidents. Publish information on funding for the labor inspectorate.

2012 – 2018

Prosecute perpetrators of child labor violations.

2015 – 2018

Ensure the Ministry of Labor is able to actively receive and respond to child labor complaints.

2015 – 2018

Establish referral mechanisms for labor inspectors, criminal law enforcers, and social services providers to facilitate effective enforcement of labor and criminal laws and to implement social programs that address child labor issues.

2014 – 2018

Increase the number of labor inspectors to meet the ILO's technical advice.

2016 – 2018

Ensure that prosecutors and law enforcement officials are familiar with the prohibitions on the worst forms of child labor, are trained in implementing all laws related to child labor, and do not treat victims of commercial sexual exploitation as offenders.

2012 – 2018

Coordination

Establish coordinating mechanisms to combat all worst forms of child labor.

2013 – 2018

Government Policies

Ensure that policies, such as the Joint Action Plan to Prevent the Use of Child Soldiers, Article 2.1.10 of the Revitalized Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in South Sudan, and the General Education Strategic Plan, are adequately funded and fully implemented.

2012 – 2018

Social Programs

Conduct a national child labor survey, including research to determine the activities carried out by children, to inform policies and social programs.

2013 – 2018

Ensure that children complete their primary education by resuming payment of teachers' salaries and subsidizing other school-related costs.

2014 – 2018

Improve access to education by addressing the lack of school infrastructure, lessening the impact of food insecurity, ensuring that schools are safe, and registering all children at birth.

2012 – 2018

Increase the scope of social programs to reach more children at risk of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation and child soldiering.

2012 – 2018

Cooperate with child protection agencies, pursuant to Article 2.1.10 of the Revitalized Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in South Sudan, to disarm, immediately release children in armed groups, and transfer them to appropriate social services providers. Ensure that the rehabilitation services provided to child soldiers are sufficient.

2014 – 2018

  1. Glinski, Stefanie. In South Sudan, civil war drives more children onto the streets, into work. February 13, 2018. 
    http://news.trust.org/item/20180213100021-ctxmr/.

  2. Cordaid. Mining in South Sudan: Opportunities and Risks for Local Communities. January 2016. 
    https://www.cordaid.org/en/publications/mining-south-sudan-opportunities-and-risks-local-communities-2/.

  3. The Roméo Dallaire Child Soldiers Initiative. South Sudan Country Report: Children & Security. April 3, 2018. 
    https://www.childsoldiers.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/South-Sudan-April-2018.pdf.

  4. UN Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS). Violations and Abuses Against Civilians in Gbudue and Tambura States (Western Equatoria) April-August 2018. October 18, 2018. 
    https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Countries/SS/ReportWesternEquatoria17Oct2018.pdf.

  5. UN Security Council. Letter dated 26 November 2018 from the Panel of Experts on South Sudan addressed to the President of the Security Council. S/2018/1049. November 26, 2018. 
    https://www.securitycouncilreport.org/un-documents/document/s20181049.php.

  6. UNICEF. Child Protection. October 2018. 
    https://www.unicef.org/southsudan/UNICEF-South-Sudan-Child-Protection-Briefing-Note-Oct-2018.pdf.

  7. UNICEF. Childhood under attack: The staggering impact of South Sudan’s crisis on children. December 15, 2017. 
    https://www.unicef.org/southsudan/UNICEF_South_Sudan_Report_Childhood_under_Attack_15Dec_FINAL.pdf.

  8. UN Security Council. Children and armed conflict in South Sudan Report of the Secretary General. S/2018/865. September 25, 2018 
    https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/N1829924.pdf.

  9. U.S. Embassy- Juba. Reporting. January 14, 2019. 

  10. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed March 16, 2019. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report. 
    http://data.uis.unesco.org/.

  11. ILO. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 5, 2014, Analysis received March 12, 2019. Please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report. 

  12. U.S. Embassy- Juba official. Email communication to USDOL official. April 16, 2015. 

  13. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report 2018: South Sudan. Washington, DC, June 28, 2018. 
    https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-trafficking-in-persons-report/south-sudan.

  14. U.S. Embassy- Juba official. Email communication to USDOL official. February 20, 2019. 

  15. U.S. Embassy- Juba. Reporting. February 22, 2019. 

  16. U.S. Embassy- Juba. Reporting. January 16, 2018. 

  17. Human Rights Watch. "They Burned It All" - Destruction of Villages, Killings, and Sexual Violence in Unity State, South Sudan. July 2015. 
    https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/report_pdf/southsudan0715_web_0.pdf.

  18. Human Rights Watch. South Sudan: Warring Parties Break Promises on Child Soldiers. February 5, 2018. 
    https://www.hrw.org/news/2018/02/05/south-sudan-warring-parties-break-promises-child-soldiers.

  19. Ceasefire & Transitional Security Arrangements Monitoring Mechanism (CTSAMM). Child Soldiers Report 2018/02. January 15, 2018. 
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  20. Intergovernmental Authority on Development. Revitalised Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan (R-ARCSS). Addis Ababa, September 12, 2018. 
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  21. UN General Assembly. Report of the Commission on Human Rights in South Sudan. February 18, 2019: A/HRC/40/69. 
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  22. UNESCO. Global Initiative on Out-of- School Children: South Sudan Country Study. May 2018. 
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  23. UN Security Council. Report of the Secretary-General on Children and Armed Conflict. June 20, 2019: A/73/907–S/2019/509. https://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/2019/509&Lang=E&Area=UNDOC.

  24. Savage, Rachel and Maura Ajak. In South Sudan, girls forced into war face gender double standards in peace. January 7, 2019. 
    http://www.irinnews.org/news-feature/2019/01/07/south-sudan-girls-child-soldiers-forced-war-face-gender-double-standards-peace.

  25. Campeanu, Andreea and Patricia Huon. Child soldiers of South Sudan. October 30, 2018. 
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  26. Human Rights Watch. "We Can Die Too": Recruitment and Use of Child Soldiers in South Sudan. December 14, 2015. 
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  27. UN Economic and Social Council. Country programme document: South Sudan. April 18, 2016: E/ICEF/2016/P/L.9. 
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  28. Buchanan, Elysia. Born to be Married: Addressing child, early and forced marriage in Nyal South Sudan. Juba, South Sudan: Oxfam, February 2019. 
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  29. UN CRC. 11. b Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict. Accessed February 16, 2019. 
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  30. UN CRC. 11. c Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography. Accessed February 16, 2019. 
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  31. Government of the Republic of South Sudan. The Child Act 2008/Act No. 10. Enacted: February 10, 2009. 
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  32. Government of the Republic of South Sudan. Labour Act, 2017/Act No. 64. Enacted: October 24, 2017. Source on file. 

  33. Government of the Republic of South Sudan. The Penal Code Act. Enacted: February 10, 2009. Source on file. 

  34. Government of the Republic of South Sudan. The Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan, 2011. Enacted: 2011. 
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  35. Government of the Republic of South Sudan. The Sudan People's Liberation Army Act, 2009. Enacted: 2009. 
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  36. Government of the Republic of South Sudan. General Education Act, 2012/Act No. 30. Enacted: 2012. Source on file. 

  37. U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2018: South Sudan. Washington, DC, March 13, 2019. 
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  38. Radio Tamazuj. Torit traders cautioned against employing children. November 7, 2018. 
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  39. ILO. Strategies and practice for labour inspection. November 2006. Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report. 
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  40. CIA. The World Factbook. Accessed January 19, 2018. Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report. 
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  41. U.S. Embassy- Juba. Reporting. February 12, 2018. 

  42. Sackitey, Gideon. Opposition Forces in Jonglei Receive Training from UNMISS to End Child Recruitment. November 30, 2018. 
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  43. Lamb, Guy and Theo Stainer. The Conundrum of DDR Coordination: The Case of South Sudan. February 8, 2018. 
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  44. Intergovernmental Authority on Development. Agreement on Cessation of Hostilities, Protection of Civilians and Humanitarian Access. December 21, 2017. 
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  45. Ministry of General Education and Instruction. The General Education Strategic Plan, 2017-2022. May 2017. 
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  46. UNICEF. More children released from South Sudanese armed groups. August 7, 2018. 
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  47. Logo, Janet Maya. Partnership for Recovery and Resilience launched in Yambio. October 12, 2018. 
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  48. ILO. Measurement, Awareness-Raising, and Policy Engagement (MAP 16) Project on Child Labor and Forced Labor Project Description. 2016. 
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  49. ILO. MAP 16 Technical Progress Report. October 2018. Source on file. 

  50. UNICEF South Sudan. Education Briefing Note. October 2018. 
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  51. Mednick, Sam. In South Sudan, a new approach in ending child soldiers' use. November 25, 2018. 
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  52. Child Soldiers International. Annual Report 2017-18. September 2018. 
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