Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - South Sudan

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

South Sudan

2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

No Advancement – Efforts Made But Complicit in Forced Child Labor

In 2015, South Sudan made efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor, but was also complicit in the use of forced child labor. Despite new initiatives to address child labor, South Sudan is receiving an assessment of no advancement because its national army —the Sudan People’s Liberation Army—recruited, sometimes forcibly, children to fight the opposition group led by former Vice President Riek Machar. Otherwise, the Government made efforts by removing soldiers from the grounds of 26 schools, demobilizing child soldiers from an armed group during its reintegration with the national army, and acceding to the UN CRC. Children in South Sudan are also engaged in other worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation. The Government neither brought to justice those who recruited or used children in armed conflict, nor held accountable perpetrators of any other form of child labor. It also failed to convene its National Steering Committee on Child Labor, conduct any labor inspections, or demobilize children from the national army. 

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Children in South Sudan are engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in armed conflict and commercial sexual exploitation.(1-8) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in South Sudan.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Working children, ages 10 to 14 (% and population):

45.6 (463,624)

Working children by sector, ages 10 to 14 (%)

 

Agriculture

60.2

Industry

1.6

Services

38.2

School attendance, ages 6 to 14 (%):

31.5

Children combining work and school, ages 10 to 14 (%):

10.9

Primary completion rate (%):

36.7

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2011, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(9)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Fifth Housing and Population Census, 2008.(10)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Farming activities,* including planting* and harvesting* (3, 11, 12)

Cattle herding† (3, 12, 13)

Industry

Breaking rocks to make gravel*† (1, 14, 15)

Construction,† including building* and transporting materials* (1, 11, 12, 16)

Making bricks* (1, 16)

Mining,*† activities unknown (12, 17)

Services

Domestic work (2, 12, 13, 18)

Street work, including vending, washing cars, polishing shoes, begging, collecting empty bottles,* preparing tea,* and pushing delivery carts (1, 2, 12, 16, 19-22)

Cooking and cleaning in restaurants or food stands* (2)

Scrap metal collection* (23)

Cow dung collection* (13)

Work in slaughterhouses,* including transporting livestock* and meat* (2, 11)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Forced labor in cattle herding, domestic work,* construction,* brick making,* rock breaking,* begging,* shoe shining,* car washing,* delivery cart pushing,* and market vending* (1, 8, 16, 24)

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1, 2, 16, 25, 26)

Use in hostility-related activities as border patrols,* community police officers,* and bodyguards* to military commanders (4, 27)

Use in armed conflict, sometimes as a result of forced recruitment (3-7, 27-30)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Women recruit girls from poor rural areas, with promises of work in Juba, but they subsequently place the girls in brothels for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation. Girls are also recruited, abducted, and purchased from non-UN internally displaced persons camps for the same purpose.(1) Children from Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo migrate to South Sudan with the promise of work in hotels and restaurants, but instead they are subjected to commercial sexual exploitation. Kenyan and Ugandan children are also subjected to forced labor in construction, street vending, and domestic work.(1)

In 2015, the national army—the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA)—and its aligned forces recruited child soldiers as young as age 13, sometimes forcibly or with the aid of community leaders, to fight against the SPLA-In Opposition (SPLA-IO)—led by former Vice President Riek Machar—and its aligned militias.(4-7, 30) A total of 15,000 to 16,000 children are estimated to have been recruited since the conflict began in December 2013; as of December 2015, between 13,000 to 15,000 child soldiers were still being used by parties to the conflict, including 500 to 1,500 children within SPLA forces and 10,000 to 15,000 children within the SPLA-IO and its aligned militias.(1, 4, 7, 27, 31, 32) Although most recruitment during the reporting period occurred in Jonglei, Lakes, Unity, and Upper Nile states, more recent violence in Western Equatoria state has also led to the recruitment of boys into militia groups; these groups, known as the Arrow Boys, are engaged in fighting against the SPLA.(1, 7, 27, 30) In October 2015, the SPLA-IO recruited an estimated 400 South Sudanese children from Kharasana refugee camp, which is located in Sudan’s Western Kordofan state.(30)

Children were forcibly recruited for use in armed conflict, including through abduction at gunpoint from their homes and schools. Children who joined willingly to protect their communities or after the loss of family members or shelter were ultimately unable to leave the groups at will and instead were used in combat roles.(1, 4, 31, 33) Some children were forced to march for days, while others were beaten or held captive as punishment or to prevent their escape.(4) Children were also directly ordered to kill civilians and loot homes.(30) Other boys did not fight, but cooked, collected firewood, herded cattle, washed clothes, carried water and ammunition, or served as bodyguards; some boys performed such roles for commissioners or other Government officials who were not members of fighting forces.(4, 5, 34) During Government offensives in opposition-held areas between April and September 2015, at least 1,600 women and children were abducted as a form of “wages” for members of government-allied militias in Unity state; as a result, some children were forced to carry looted property or herd stolen cattle and goats.(8, 29, 34, 35)

The ongoing conflict diminished the Government’s ability to deliver aid, provide education, and address the worst forms of child labor.(3) Although the Constitution and the Child Act provide for free primary education, in practice many families cannot afford to send their children to school as parents often pay teachers’ salaries, a cost that is prohibitive for many families.(36, 37) Uniform costs, chronic food insecurity, and low levels of birth registration may also impede access to education in South Sudan.(2, 38-42) Many children, particularly those in rural areas, do not have access to schools, often because of the lack of infrastructure, such as roads and school buildings.(36, 37, 43) During the reporting period, there were numerous incidents of attacks on schools in Jonglei, Upper Nile, Unity, and the three Equatoria states that resulted in lootings, destruction of learning materials and infrastructure, and military occupancy.(34, 44) The UN verified 10 attacks on schools by the SPLA in 2015 that involved destruction, damage, looting, or recruitment of children.(30) At least 45 schools have been used for military purposes by the SPLA, the South Sudan National Police Service, or Government-aligned militias since the conflict began, in addition to a number of schools being occupied by the SPLA-IO in opposition-held areas. Despite 36 schools being vacated during the year, in December 2015, 25 schools were still being used for military purposes.(4, 27, 30, 44, 45) Some schools were also rendered inoperable by the Government’s decision to stop paying teachers’ salaries in opposition-held areas, or as a result of displaced people taking up residence within the schools.(4) During the conflict, 70 percent of schools in Jonglei, Upper Nile, and Unity states were closed for months, resulting in some 413,000 children having no access to schooling.(4, 46) The lack of access to education may increase the risk of children’s involvement in the worst forms of child labor.(1) There has not been a comprehensive child labor survey in South Sudan.(47)

South Sudan has ratified some key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

 

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

 

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

 

In January 2015, the Government completed the accession formalities for the UN CRC; however, it did not deposit the necessary documents to accede to the two optional protocols, despite the national Legislative Assembly’s passage of a bill in 2013 allowing it to do so.(48-50)

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

14

Article 25(3) of the Child Act (51)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Articles 5, 22(3), and 25(1) of the Child Act (51)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Article 25(2) of the Child Act; Article 21(1) of the Sudan Labour Code (51, 52)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Articles 276–278 of the Penal Code; Article 13 of the Constitution (53, 54)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 22(3)(b) of the Child Act; Articles 276 and 278-281 of the Penal Code (51, 53)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 22(3)(c) and (d) of the Child Act; Articles 258 and 276 of the Penal Code (51, 53)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 24(1) of the Child Act; Article 383(3)(d) of the Penal Code (51, 53)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

Yes

18

Article 31(1) of the Child Act (51)

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

18

Article 31(1) of the Child Act; Section 22(2) of the Sudan People’s Liberation Army Act (51, 55)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

13

Article 9.1(b) of the General Education Act (49, 56, 57)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 6(a) of the General Education Act; Article 14(1) of the Child Act; Article 29.2 of the Constitution (51, 54, 56)

 

In South Sudan, the minimum age provision for work in the Child Act does not apply to children outside of a formal employment relationship, such as to children performing domestic work.(51, 52) Laws related to forced labor are not sufficient, since debt bondage is not criminally prohibited. Further, the law does not sufficiently prohibit child commercial sexual exploitation, since the distribution, selling, and possession of child pornography is not prohibited. The laws related to illicit activities are not sufficient, since the offering or procurement of children for the production and trafficking of drugs is not criminally prohibited. Children are only required to attend school until age 13.(49, 56, 57) This standard makes children between ages 13 and 14 particularly vulnerable to the worst forms of child labor, considering they are not required to be in school but are not legally permitted to work either.(49) In 2013, the Government drafted an updated list of hazardous work for children, but the list has not yet been finalized.(58)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor, Public Service, and Human Resource Development (MOL)

Develop labor policies, enforce child labor laws, conduct workplace inspections, and oversee the operation of vocational training centers.(51, 59) Through its Child Labor Unit, investigate cases of child labor; however, the Unit was inactive throughout 2015.(1, 3)

Ministry of Gender, Child, and Social Welfare

Coordinate activities on children’s rights and act as the focal ministry for child protection.(60)

Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) Child Protection Unit

Headed by a Brigadier General. Prevent the recruitment of children into the army, monitoring barracks, identify and assist with the release of child soldiers, investigate allegations of child soldiering, and provide training on children’s rights to child protection officers and members of the SPLA.(1, 4, 61) Serve as liaison between the SPLA and the international community.(4) Despite ongoing conflict in 2015, between January and April, campaigned with Ministry of Defense funding and backing of UNICEF and the UN Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) to remove soldiers from schools, resulting in Government forces vacating the grounds of 26 schools in Central Equatoria, Eastern Equatoria, Lakes, Upper Nile, and Warrap states. Local commanders provided security escorts for the team in some areas.(4, 27)

Ministry of Interior

Enforce criminal laws to combat human trafficking and maintain a database on crime statistics.(62)

Ministry of Justice

Protect citizens’ rights and enforce the Comprehensive Peace Agreement and the Constitution, including child protection provisions in those laws.(63)

South Sudan Police Services

Enforce criminal laws related to the worst forms of child labor.(49)

Human Rights Commission

 

Raise awareness of human rights, monitor the application of human rights in the Constitution, and investigate complaints regarding human rights violations, such as human trafficking.(64, 65)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2015, labor law enforcement agencies in South Sudan took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown (47)

Unknown (3)

Number of Labor Inspectors

Unknown

Unknown (3, 66)

Number of Child Labor Dedicated Inspectors

2 (47)

Unknown (66)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Unknown

Unknown

Training for Labor Inspectors

   

Initial Training for New Employees

No (47)

No (3)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A (47)

N/A

Refresher Courses Provided

No (47)

No (3)

Number of Labor Inspections

0 (47)

0 (3, 66)

Number Conducted at Worksite

0 (47)

0 (3, 66)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

0 (47)

0 (3, 66)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

75 (47)

1,759 (4, 45, 67, 68)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

0 (47)

0 (3)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

N/A

N/A

Routine Inspections Conducted

No (47)

No (3)

Routine Inspections Targeted

N/A

N/A

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (52)

Yes (52)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

No (47)

No (3)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

No (47)

No (3)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

No (47)

No (3)

 

All child labor violations found in 2015 were related to the identification and removal of children associated with armed groups carried out by other Government entities, in partnership with the UN.(3, 67, 69) Officials from the Ministry of Labor, Public Service, and Human Resource Development (MOL) reported that they lacked sufficient resources, such as vehicles for transport, to conduct labor investigations during the reporting year.(3, 11)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2015, criminal law enforcement agencies in South Sudan did not take actions to combat the worst forms of child labor.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

No (47)

Unknown (3)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A (47)

N/A (3)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (47, 70)

Unknown (3)

Number of Investigations

0 (67)

0 (1)

Number of Violations Found

0 (47)

0 (1)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

0 (47)

0 (1, 3)

Number of Convictions

0 (47)

0 (1, 3)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Unknown (47)

No (3)

 

During the reporting period, the SPLA recruited children, at times by force, for use in armed conflict, even though the Child Act sets the minimum age for voluntary military recruitment at 18.(4-7, 51) Although both the Joint Action Plan to Combat the Use of Child Soldiers and the September 2014 Punitive Order commit the SPLA to holding its military officers accountable for the recruitment or use of children, research found no indication that the Government had neither investigated nor prosecuted the officers who had allegedly committed such crimes.(1, 4) SPLA commanders have received standing instructions to conduct yearly refresher training on child soldiering and human rights for their units, but that training likely has not occurred because of ongoing civil conflict, poor communication, and lack of capacity.(1)

In August 2015, the SPLA and SPLA-IO signed the Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in South Sudan, in which they committed to immediately and unconditionally release all child soldiers under their command or influence to UNICEF; however, neither group released any associated children in 2015.(1, 71) In mid-2015, the SPLA denied the UN Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) access to two SPLA training camps in Eastern Equatoria state to monitor for the presence of child soldiers.(32) Between January and April 2015, David Yau Yau’s South Sudan Democratic Movement/Army-Cobra Faction released 1,755 children—1,750 boys and 5 girls—in the Greater Pibor Administrative Area in Jonglei state as part of its integration process with the SPLA.(4, 45, 67, 68) Prior to each release, UNICEF and the National Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration Commission (NDDRC) screened and verified each child before transporting the children to an interim care center, tracing the children’s families, and reuniting the children with their families.(45, 67, 69) However, many children were subsequently witnessed carrying out military functions in the Greater Pibor Administrative Area, having been newly recruited or recruited anew to supervise checkpoints and serve as bodyguards to their commanders.(27, 34) David Yau Yau transferred four boys between ages 2 and 4 who had been abducted by the Murle tribe to the Ministry of Gender, Child and Social Welfare; the Ministry was able to reunite three of the children Owith their families.(34)

Criminal law enforcement officials failed to investigate any other violations related to the worst forms of child labor and, in some cases, perpetrated such crimes themselves. Some Government officials subjected girls to domestic servitude.(1) The Government continued to indiscriminately arrest and imprison child victims of human trafficking for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation; however, one NGO service provider reported that the police informally referred for care at least 15 girls arrested for criminal prostitution during the reporting period.(1) Girls rescued from brothels in Juba reported that the police had provided security for the brothels, and that SPLA soldiers or other Government officials were frequent clients of child victims of commercial sexual exploitation.(1) It is unclear whether service providers referred the suspected cases of child labor violations to law enforcement officials for investigation.

South Sudan’s justice system faces enormous challenges such as low capacity, funding shortages, interference by the Government and SPLA, and a scarcity of judges, prosecutors, and defense attorneys.(1, 4) Prosecutors and law enforcement officials are not familiar with the Child Act’s prohibitions on the worst forms of child labor, since the Act has not been adequately disseminated.(49, 60, 72)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Steering Committee on Child Labor

Coordinate efforts to combat the worst forms of child labor across government ministries; led by the MOL.(3)

National Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration Commission (NDDRC)

Oversee and coordinate the implementation of the Joint Action Plan to Combat the Use of Child Soldiers and reintegrate children formerly engaged in armed conflict.(73) In 2015, the Government signed an extension to its 2014 recommitment to the Joint Action Plan. The NDDRC and UNICEF partnered to release child soldiers from a militia faction.(45, 69) Despite this, neither the Government nor the SPLA-In Opposition (SPLA-IO) has made significant progress in honoring commitments to release child soldiers from armed conflict.(1, 71)

 

The National Steering Committee on Child Labor did not convene or coordinate activities to combat child labor in 2015.(1, 3)

The Government of South Sudan has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

Joint Action Plan to Combat the Use of Child Soldiers

Requires the SPLA to demobilize children within its ranks.(74) Aims to improve efforts to verify the age of new recruits and provide reintegration services, such as vocational training, to demobilized children.(16, 75, 76) In June 2014, the Government signed an agreement of recommitment to the implementation of the Joint Action Plan, followed by a work plan in August 2014 detailing the implementation steps for the agreement, which were to be completed by July 2015.(70, 77) Since the Government took no action to stop recruiting or to release its child soldiers after signing the recommitment agreement, in mid-2015, the National Technical Committee and the Country Task Force for Monitoring and Reporting adopted an extension of the agreement and strategy that includes screening and registration, disarmament and release, interim care, family tracing and reunification, and community reintegration.(1, 45) In December 2015, the SPLA-IO signed an action plan with the UN but did not immediately appoint an official to work with the UN to monitor and end child recruitment.(1, 4, 30)

Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in the Republic of South Sudan

Establishes the structure of a Transitional Government of National Unity and outlines actions to be taken by signatories. Article 1.7.3 prohibits the recruitment and use of child soldiers by armed forces or militias. Article 1.10 requires warring parties to immediately and unconditionally release all child soldiers under their command or influence.(78)

MOL’s Policy Framework and Strategic Plan (2012–2016)

Aims to eliminate child labor and support workplace best practices in occupational safety and health.(79, 80)

UNDAF (2012–2016)

Seeks to improve access to and quality of education; includes provisions for social protection and the reintegration of child ex-combatants.(11, 81)

 

In 2015, the Government of South Sudan participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues Project (2011–2017)
 

USDOL-funded ILO project in approximately 40 countries to support the priorities of the Roadmap for Achieving the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor by 2016 established by the Hague Global Child Labor Conference in 2010. Aims to build the capacity of the national Government and develop strategic policies to address the elimination of child labor and forced labor in South Sudan.(82) Activities suspended in December 2013 due to the security situation, but resumed in mid-2015 with the hiring of a consultant to review national laws and regulations on child and forced labor.(82)

UNICEF Country Program (2012–2015)

UNICEF-funded program implemented by the Government that aimed to develop child protection systems, with an emphasis on birth registration, a child-sensitive justice system, and reintegration services for children affected by armed conflict.(83, 84) Reunified 3,883 unaccompanied, separated, or missing children with their families since December 2013. Continues to provide financial support to over 80 percent of these children.(85)

Children, Not Soldiers Campaign

 

Ministry of Defense program to raise public and SPLA awareness of child protection principles, and to hold perpetrators accountable for recruiting child soldiers. Also aims to end the recruitment and use of children in armed conflict by the end of 2016.(74) No activities carried out under this program in 2015.(66)

Transition Center

Ministry of Social Development-administered, UNICEF-funded center in Yambio that provides interim care and support to children and mothers rescued from the Lord’s Resistance Army.(1) Unclear whether it was operational during the year, given the deteriorated security situation in the area.(66)

Although South Sudan has programs that target child labor, the scope of these programs is insufficient to fully address the scope or extent of the problem, including in commercial sexual exploitation and child soldiering. Reports suggest that the reintegration and rehabilitation services provided to child soldiers are insufficient to meet the total need.(1, 3)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in South Sudan (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Complete ratification of the UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict and UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography by delivering the necessary documents to the UN. Ratify the Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons.

2013 – 2015

Extend the protection for minimum age of work to all children.

2012 – 2015

Ensure that the compulsory education age is equivalent to the minimum age for work.

2013 – 2015

Ensure that debt bondage, child commercial sexual exploitation, and the use of children for illicit activities are sufficiently defined and criminalized in relevant laws.

2015

Enforcement

Ensure the Child Act’s minimum age of 18 years for voluntary military recruitment is enforced by ending all recruitment and use of children under age 18 by the SPLA, the SPLA-IO, or associated militias. Stop providing weapons or other assistance to armed groups, including local militias that conscript or use children under age 18.

2012 – 2015

Ensure that the NDDRC and the SPLA Child Protection Unit are able to screen SPLA and SPLA-IO barracks and other military sites to remove child soldiers from the army.

2014 – 2015

Cease all military use of schools and school compounds.

2015

Provide sufficient human and financial resources, as well as train personnel for effective inspection and enforcement efforts. Ensure that prosecutors and law enforcement officials are familiar with the Child Act‘s prohibitions on the worst forms of child labor and are trained in implementing all laws related to child labor. Institutionalize training for labor inspectors and criminal law enforcement personnel, as well as new employees.

2012 – 2015

Strengthen the inspectorate’s role to include onsite investigations of worksites, conducting unannounced inspections, and initiating targeted inspections based on analysis of data related to risk-prone sectors and patterns of serious incidents. Make publicly available information on the number of labor inspectors, whether inspections are conducted routinely, and whether the inspectorate is authorized to assess penalties.

2015

Establish a mechanism to receive child labor complaints.

2015

Establish referral mechanisms for labor inspectors, criminal law enforcers, and social services providers to facilitate effective enforcement of labor and criminal laws and to implement social programs that address child labor issues.

2014 – 2015

Prosecute perpetrators of child labor violations, including Government officials. Stop incarcerating child victims of commercial sexual exploitation and human trafficking, protecting brothels that employ such children, and Government officials’ direct exploitation of children in commercial sexual exploitation.

2015

Track and make publicly accessible information on the number of child labor investigators; types of investigations; areas of investigations; and citations, penalties, prosecutions, and convictions for crimes involving child labor, including its worst forms.

2012 – 2015

Investigate, prosecute, and punish, as appropriate, officers in all former warring parties responsible for the recruitment or use of children in armed conflict. Pending investigations, suspend from their positions any commanders who are credibly alleged to have recruited and used child soldiers or who have allowed soldiers to occupy schools.

2013 – 2015

Coordination

Ensure that the National Steering Committee on Child Labor convenes and is able to coordinate activities to combat child labor.

2013 – 2015

Government Policies

Ensure that policies, such as the Joint Action Plan to Prevent the Use of Child Soldiers and Article 1.10 of the Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in South Sudan, are implemented.

2012 – 2015

Social Programs

Strengthen efforts to lessen the potential impact of food insecurity and the high cost of living on rural populations’ ability to educate children.

2012 – 2015

Improve access to education by addressing the lack of school infrastructure in rural areas and registering all children at birth.

2012 – 2015

Ensure that children complete their primary education by subsidizing or defraying the cost of school uniforms and teachers’ salaries. Resume paying teacher salaries in areas that have been under the control of opposition forces during the conflict.

2014 – 2015

Conduct a national child labor survey including research to determine the activities carried out by children, in order to inform policies and social programs.

2013 – 2015

Cooperate with child protection agencies, pursuant to Article 1.10 of the Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in South Sudan, to disarm and immediately release children within armed forces and aligned militias, and transfer them to appropriate civilian rehabilitation and reintegration programs that include education and vocational training, as well as necessary counseling. Ensure that the rehabilitation services provided to child soldiers are sufficient.

2014 – 2015

Increase the scope of social programs to reach more children at risk of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation.

2012 – 2015

 

 

1.         U.S. Embassy - Juba. reporting, February 8, 2016.

2.         Confident Children Out of Conflict. Child Exploitation in Juba: A Study on Street Children and Child Labour in Juba, South Sudan; September 2013.

3.         U.S. Embassy - Juba. reporting, February 3, 2016.

4.         Human Rights Watch. We Can Die Too: Recruitment and Use of Child Soldiers in South Sudan December 2015. https://www.hrw.org/report/2015/12/14/we-can-die-too/recruitment-and-use-child-soldiers-south-sudan.

5.         Human Rights Watch. South Sudan: Government Forces Recruiting Child Soldiers; 2015 February 16, 2015. https://www.hrw.org/news/2015/02/16/south-sudan-government-forces-recruiting-child-soldiers.

6.         Wheeler, S. In South Sudan, children on the battlefield,Human Rights Watch June 5, 2015. https://www.hrw.org/news/2015/06/05/south-sudan-children-battlefield.

7.         U.S. Embassy - Juba. reporting, October 20, 2015.

8.         Human Rights Watch. They Burned It All: Destruction of Villages, Killings, and Sexual Violence in Unity State, South Sudan July 2015. https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/report_pdf/southsudan0715_web_0.pdf.

9.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed December 16, 2015]; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. Because the calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age), the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and underaged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

10.       UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Fifth Housing and Population Census, 2008. Analysis received December 18, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

11.       U.S. Embassy-Juba official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 16, 2015.

12.       U.S. Embassy - Juba. reporting, November 2, 2015.

13.       ILO-IPEC. Child Labour and Education in Pastoralist Communities in South Sudan. Geneva; October 23, 2013. http://www.ilo.org/ipec/Informationresources/WCMS_IPEC_PUB_24057/lang--en/index.htm.

14.       USDOL-ILAB. Trip report. Washington, DC; March 2, 2012.

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