Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Somalia

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Somalia

2014 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Moderate Advancement

In 2014, Somalia made a moderate advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Federal Government of Somalia ratified ILO C. 182 on the Worst Forms of Child Labor, participated in the "Children, Not Soldiers" campaign to prevent the recruitment and use of children by national armed forces, and participated in a program to strengthen the national criminal justice response to trafficking in persons. However, children in Somalia are engaged in child labor, including in street work and in the worst forms of child labor, including in armed conflict. The terrorist organization al-Shabaab remained the main perpetrator of the abduction and use of child soldiers in Somalia. The Somalia National Army also continued to use child soldiers. There are reports that the Ahlu Sunnah Wal Jama'a militia, which has not yet integrated into the Somalia National Security Forces, also used child soldiers. Somalia continued to lack many necessary mechanisms to effectively address the worst forms of child labor, including established labor and criminal law enforcement systems.

 

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Children in Somalia are engaged in child labor, including in street work. Children are also engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in armed conflict.(1-11) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Somalia. Data on some of these indicators are not available from the sources used in this report.

Table 1. Statistics on Children's Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

39.8 (1,012,863)

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

48.9

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

20.2

Primary completion rate (%):

Unavailable

Primary completion rate was unavailable from UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(12)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children's Work Project's analysis of statistics from Multiple indicator Cluster 3 Survey, 2006.(13)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children's Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Threshing grain* (2)

Digging* (7)

Herding livestock* (1, 3, 14)

Fishing,* activities unknown (7)

Industry

Working in construction, including digging (1, 2, 4, 7, 14)

Working in mines and quarries, including breaking rock for gravel (1, 2, 4, 7, 14)

Services

Street work, including begging,* transporting goods,* shining shoes, washing cars,* conducting minibuses, and selling cigarettes,* khat (a legal, amphetamine-like stimulant), sweets,* and toothbrushes* (1-5, 7)

Domestic work (1-4)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Used in armed conflict, sometimes as a result of forced recruitment, including to plant explosive devices, operate checkpoints, serve as human shields and suicide bombers, conduct assassinations, transport weapons, and provide intelligence and logistical support (1, 6-11)

Forced labor in domestic service, agriculture,* livestock herding,* breaking rock for gravel,* selling or transporting khat,* and construction work,* each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (5-8, 15-18)

Commercial sexual exploitation sometimes as a result of human trafficking (5-7, 15, 19, 20)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Due to high poverty levels of poverty and the inability to provide care for all family members, some Somalis willingly surrender custody of their children to people with whom they share familial ties and clan linkages. Some of these children become victims of forced labor or commercial sexual exploitation.(8) Research also found that children were trafficked into Europe and North America, including as child brides.(7, 8)

The terrorist organization al-Shabaab engages in the widespread and systematic conscription and recruitment of children and is the main perpetrator of using child soldiers in Somalia.(11) Boys as young as age 8 were bribed or forcibly taken from their homes, schools, and the streets to serve as soldiers. Girls were recruited through bribery or by force for sexual servitude and domestic labor.(6, 7)

Research found that the Ahlu Sunnah Wal Jama'a militia, which to date has not yet integrated into the Somali National Army (SNA), has recruited children. Research also found that Somalia's numerous clan militias use child soldiers.(11) The Federal Government of Somalia (FGS) condemns the use of child soldiers; however, there were reports of children associated with the SNA and its allied militia during the reporting period.(1, 7, 11)

In Somalia, protracted violence has led to the breakdown of all basic services, including public education.(21, 22) In addition, the volatile security situation has led to the displacement of more than 80,000 people.(11) These constraints, as well as the forced recruitment of children from schools by non-state terrorist and militia groups, have limited children's access to education, as schools are either unavailable or unsafe.(11, 21-23) Additionally, the lack of educational infrastructure hinders children's access to school.(7, 22)

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Somalia has ratified one key international convention concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

 

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

 

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

 

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

 

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

In March 2014, Somalia ratified ILO C.182 on the Worst Forms of Child Labor.(24)

Somalia lacks a coherent central legal system.(21, 25, 26) The FGS does not have effective control over some parts of the country, and most essential governance functions were provided by regional administrations, including the self-declared Republic of Somaliland in the northwest and the semi‑autonomous region of Puntland in the northeast.(1, 6, 23, 25, 27) Only the laws of the internationally recognized FGS are discussed in this section. The FGS has not ratified the UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict; the UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography; or the Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons.

The FGS has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Article 93 of the Labour Code (28)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

16, 18

Article 94 of the Labour Code; article 29 of the Provisional Constitution (28, 29)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Article 94 of the Labour Code; article 29 of the Provisional Constitution (28, 29)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 14 of the Provisional Constitution; article 464 of the Penal Code (29, 30)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 14 of the Provisional Constitution (29)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 403 and 407 of the Penal Code (30)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

No

 

 

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

Yes

18

Article 29 of the Provisional Constitution (29)

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

18

Article 29 of the Provisional Constitution (29)

Compulsory Education Age

No

 

 

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 30 of the Provisional Constitution (29)

In April 2014, Parliament issued a public statement on a commercial contract in which it cited pre-1991 laws, suggesting that the FGS continued to recognize relevant historic laws; however, no official determination has been issued.(31)

The Provisional Constitution states that a child under age 18 may not perform work or provide services that are not suitable for the child's age or create a risk to the child's health or development.(29) The Labour Code, however, prescribes a range of minimum ages for certain hazardous activities. For example, the minimum age for construction is 16, and the minimum age for work underground is 18.(28) These prohibitions, however, are not specific enough to facilitate enforcement.

Prohibition of the commercial sexual exploitation of children is included in the 1962 Penal Code; however, the Penal Code requires extensive updating. Many fines in the Code equal less than $1 today.(5, 32) Furthermore, it appears that under article 405 of the Penal Code, children involved in prostitution would not be protected from criminal charges for prostitution under Somali law.(30)

While the Provisional Constitution states that a person may not be subjected to trafficking, there are no prohibitions against recruitment, harboring, transportation, transfer, or receipt of a person for domestic or international human trafficking. During the reporting period, the FGS drafted a Sexual Offences Bill that would criminalize human trafficking; the bill has not yet been submitted to the Parliament for approval.(8)

The law does not prohibit the use of children in illicit activities.

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The FGS has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministries of Labor and Social Affairs, Gender, and Family Affairs

Enforce laws related to the worst forms of child labor.(1)

Somali National Police

Investigate and enforce laws related to the worst forms of child labor, including forced labor, human trafficking, commercial sexual exploitation, and the use of children in illicit activities.(5)

Law enforcement agencies in Somalia did not take actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms.

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2014, the FGS did not employ any labor inspectors and conducted no inspections related to child labor.(7, 33)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2014, the Somali National Police Force, which remained understaffed and undertrained, lacked the capacity to investigate or enforce laws on the worst forms of child labor.(5, 7) No child labor related investigations, prosecutions, or convictions were made.(7, 33)

The Federal Government of Somalia, in partnership with UNICEF, has a referral procedure for the reception and handover of children identified to have been associated with al-Shabaab.(6) However, the SNA continues to detain children for alleged association with armed groups. Many of the children arrested by government security forces were released a few days after the arrest.(11) Research did not find referral mechanisms for children found in other worst forms of child labor such as forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation.

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Although the FGS has established Child Protection Units, research found no evidence of mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including all its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

Child Protection Units under the Ministry of Defense*

Raise awareness on the issues of child soldiers, work with UNICEF to implement the Standard Operating Procedures of protecting children associated with armed conflict, and work closely with Somali National Army (SNA) military focal points to monitor troops for cases of child soldiers. Between June and December 2014, the six Child Protection Units conducted three site assessments of the Jazeera Training Camp in Mogadishu to monitor for child soldiers.(7, 8, 33)

* Mechanism to coordinate efforts to address child labor was created during the reporting period.

In 2014, the FGS also had two SNA military focal points who communicated claims of children being present in military barracks. The FGS plans to add four more similar positions in more remote regions.(1, 33)

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The FGS has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 7).

Table 7. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

Children, Not Soldiers Campaign†

Aims to end and prevent the recruitment and use of children by national security forces by 2016. Launched jointly by the Special Representative for the Secretary General for Children and Armed Conflict and UNICEF. Supports eight countries through negotiating and implementing action plans.(34) During the reporting period, more than 8,000 national army soldiers were trained on child protection issues.(11)

Child Soldier Action Plan

Addresses the recruitment and use of child soldiers by armed groups and the Somali security forces.(1, 35) In February 2014, the FGS signed the Standard Operating Procedures for the reception and handover of children separated from armed groups in Somalia.(6, 11)

Action Plan to End the Killing and Maiming of Children in Contravention of International Law

Addresses the killing and maiming of children as a result of conflict in Somalia.(35)

General Order Number One

Prohibits commanders from employing child soldiers, requires training on the protection of children's rights in armed conflict, and authorizes UNICEF to inspect all military camps to verify that child soldiers are not present. Issued by the Chief of Defense Forces.(5)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.

The Children Associated with Armed Conflict Working Group coordinates implementation of the Child Soldier Action Plan and the Action Plan to End the Killing and Maiming of Children in Contravention of International Law. During the reporting year, the group met bimonthly in conjunction with the United Nations Assistance Mission to Somalia, UNICEF, and Child Protection Units.(8, 33)

Despite the Provisional Constitution calling for free education to the secondary level, a universal free education system in Somalia is not in place.(6, 32) Furthermore, there is no compulsory age for education. The lack of standards in this area may increase the risk of children's involvement in child labor.

Although the FGS has adopted policies on children in armed conflict, research found no evidence of a policy on other worst forms of child labor.

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In 2014, the FGS participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms. The FGS has other programs that may have an impact on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Children in Armed Conflict Program

$388, 890 European Commission-funded, 2-year project implemented by ILO-IPEC to prevent child recruitment and reintegrate children associated with armed forces and groups in south central Somalia.(36) Collaborated with UNICEF to focus on economic reintegration of former child soldiers through vocational and entrepreneurship training and assistance with starting a business or accessing wage employment.(37) Two hundred children associated with armed forces and groups gained adequate life and technical skills that have helped them become productive and integrated community members.(36)

UNICEF Country Program (2011–2015)

In cooperation with the Federal Government of Somalia, aims to equitably increase school enrollment, construct schools, develop curriculum, and train teachers. Also works to prevent the recruitment of children into armed groups and to place former child soldiers into rehabilitation programs.(1, 23) As of August 2014, 500 children have benefitted from the reintegration programs for children associated with armed groups.(38)

Go-2-School Initiative*

$117 million European Union, USAID, and UK Department for International Development (DFID)-funded, 3-year project implemented by UNICEF, WFP, UNESCO, and International NGOs in partnership with the Federal Government of Somalia.(39) Seeks to enroll 1million children who are not currently in school.(39, 40) Launched in September 2013, nearly 40,000 children in Central South Somalia have started formal primary education.(39) In 2014, the Federal Government of Somalia opened two public schools in Mogadishu, and the regional governments of Puntland and Somaliland operated other public schools.(7)

SNA Soldiers Pay Screening Plan†

Program funded by the Governments of the United States and Italy that establishes a screening process whereby soldiers' identity and age are verified before they receive their pay. Screening teams comprising African Union officers, local Somali tribal elders, and high-ranking SNA officers verify the identity and age of each soldier before they receive payment.(5, 33)

Serendi Rehabilitation Center

Norwegian and Danish-operated center in partnership with the Federal Government of Somalia that rehabilitates children formerly associated with armed groups before reintegrating them into society.(17, 33) By August 2014, approximately 55 children had been directed to the center by the National Intelligence Security Agency.(17)

Strengthening the National Criminal Justice Response to Trafficking in Persons through Legislative Assistance and Capacity Building in Somalia†

$750,000 USDOS-funded, 3-year project implemented by UNODC to enhance the criminal justice response to trafficking in persons within the territories of Somaliland and the Federal Government of Somalia. Aims to strengthen legal frameworks to meet international requirements. Develops and delivers multidisciplinary training programs on victim identification, victim-centered investigations, and prosecution of trafficking cases.(41)

* The impact of this program on child labor does not appear to have been studied.
† Program was launched during the reporting period.

Although the Federal Government of Somalia has implemented programs to address child soldiers, research found no evidence that it has carried out programs to assist children in other forms of child labor, including other worst forms of child labor.

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Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Somalia (Table 9).

Table 9. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

 

Ratify the UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict; the UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography; and the Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons.

2013–2014

Clarify whether the Labor Code is still in effect under the Federal Government of Somalia. Ensure a legal framework on child labor is in place that includes a minimum age for work and hazardous work, and that hazardous activities and occupations prohibited for children are specific enough to facilitate enforcement.

2009–2014

Update the Penal Code to ensure that penalties for the commercial sexual exploitation of children are sufficiently stringent to deter violations.

2013–2014

Ensure that the laws protect children involved in forced prostitution from criminal charges.

2011–2014

Adopt laws prohibiting child trafficking and the use of children in illicit activities.

2009–2014

Enforcement

Establish an infrastructure to enforce laws relating to child labor, including its worst forms, and ensure adequate funding, human resources, and training for law enforcement agencies.

2009–2014

Ensure that criminal investigations on the worst forms of child labor take place, and that violators are prosecuted and convicted in accordance with the law.

2012–2014

Establish mechanisms between the Somali National Police and social welfare services to refer children found in all worst forms of child labor.

2014

Coordination

Establish coordinating mechanisms to combat child labor, including in all its worst forms.

2009–2014

Government Policies

Adopt a comprehensive policy and national action plan to provide free, compulsory education for all children. Establish a compulsory education age that is equal to or higher than the minimum age for work.

2009–2014

Adopt a policy that addresses all relevant worst forms of child labor, including forced labor and commercial sexual exploitation.

2014

Social Programs

Take steps to provide sufficient schools and facilities for children to access school.

2013–2014

Assess the impact of the Go-2-School Initiative on child labor.

2014

Develop programs to prevent and address child labor, including in agriculture, and other worst forms of child labor, including forced labor.

2009–2014

 

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1.U.S. Department of State. "Somalia," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2013. Washington, DC; February 27, 2014; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2013&dlid=220158.

2.Reydab Association for Social Development (REASD). The List of the Interviewed Children Involved in Child Labour in Baidoa from 16th-19th July 2011. Baidoa; 2011. [source on file].

3.ILO-IPEC. Child Labour in Somaliland: A rapid assessment in Hargeisa, Burao and Borama. Geneva; December 2011 http://www.ilo.org/ipecinfo/product/viewProduct.do?productId=20635.

4.Reydab Association for Social Development (REASD). A Rapid Assessment on Child Labour in Baidoa from 16-19 July 2011; July 27, 2011. [source on file].

5.U.S. Embassy- Nairobi. reporting, January 27, 2014.

6.U.S. Department of State. "Somalia " in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2014. Washington, DC; 2014; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2014/index.htm

7.U.S. Embassy- Nairobi. reporting, January 13, 2015.

8.U.S. Embassy- Nairobi. reporting, February 17, 2015.

9.Human Rights Watch. "Somalia," in World Report- 2014. New York; 2014; http://www.hrw.org/world-report/2014/country-chapters/somalia

10.Amnesty International. No Place Like Home. London; 2014. http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/AFR52/001/2014/en/109361a7-4d78-493c-94ed-7d76d81faa6b/afr520012014en.pdf.

11.United Nations Security Council. Report of the Secretary-General on Children and Armed Conflict (A/69/926 — S/2015/409); June 5, 2015. http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/69/926&Lang=E&Area=UNDOC.

12.UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed January 16, 2015]; http://www.uis.unesco.org/Pages/default.aspx?SPSLanguage=EN. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. For more information, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.

13.UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 3, 2006. Analysis received January 16, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children's work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.

14.U.S. Embassy- Nairobi. reporting, February 4, 2011.

15.IRIN. "Somalia: Human Trafficking on the Increase." http://IRINnews.org [online] April 2, 2010 [cited February 20, 2013]; http://www.irinnews.org/report.aspx?reportid=88668.

16.Human Rights Watch. No Place for Children: Child Recruitment, Forced Marriage, and Attacks on Schools in Somalia. New York; 2012. http://www.hrw.org/reports/2012/02/19/no-place-children.

17.UN Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict. UN Special Representative for Children and Armed Conflict Calls for Full Implementation of Action Plans by Federal Government of Somalia; August 22, 2014. https://childrenandarmedconflict.un.org/press-release/special-representative-calls-for-full-implementation-action-plans-somalia/.

18.UNICEF. Teenage girl held captive by Al Ashabaab starts a new life. March 13, 2014. http://www.unicef.org/esaro/5440_somalia2014_teenage-girl.html.

19.UN. Somalia UN Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict, [online] May 15, 2014 [cited October 28, 2014]; https://childrenandarmedconflict.un.org/countries/somalia/?contentonly=1

20.Human Rights Watch. "The Power These Men Have Over Us"; 2014. http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/somalia0914_ForUploadR.pdf.

21.UN General Assembly Human Rights Council. Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review: Somalia; July 11, 2011. Report No. A/HRC/18/6. http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G11/145/90/PDF/G1114590.pdf?OpenElement.

22.Somalia Education Cluster. Joint Rapid Education Needs Assessment Central and Southern Somalia; August 2011. [source on file].

23.UNICEF. Somalia: Country Programme Document 2011-2015. New York; February 11, 2011. http://www.unicef.org/about/execboard/files/Somalia_CPD_-_revised_11_February_2011.pdf.

24.ILO. "Somalia ratifies ILO Convention No. 182." http://ilo.org [online] March 24, 2014 [cited February 8, 2014]; http://www.ilo.org/ipec/news/WCMS_239612/lang--en/index.htm.

25.Child Rights Information Network. Inhumane Sentencing of Children in Somalia: Universal Periodic Review. London; March 2011. http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=somali%20penal%20code&source=web&cd=31&ved=0CCMQFjAAOB4&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.crin.org%2Fdocs%2FSomalia_final.doc&ei=W21XT8iyBMXl0QHNgZGWDw&usg=AFQjCNGNy6dGU_k6NHzyYpk1txOG5T1iZQ.

26.ILO. Success Africa III - Realising a New Era of Social Justice through Decent Work: Success Stories from Africa. Geneva; 2011. http://www.ilo.org/addisababa/information-resources/publications/WCMS_166742/lang--en/index.htm.

27.U.S. Department of State official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 4, 2013.

28.Government of Somalia. Law No. 65 to Promulgate the Labour Code, enacted October 18, 1972. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_protect/---protrav/---ilo_aids/documents/legaldocument/wcms_127639.pdf.

29.Government of Somalia. Constitution of the Federal Republic of Somalia, enacted August 2012. http://unpos.unmissions.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=BoBdMxtErhc%3d&tabid=9744&language=en-US.

30.Government of Somalia. Penal Code, enacted December 1962. http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/country,LEGAL,,LEGISLATION,SOM,,4bc5906e2,0.html.

31.U.S. Embassy- Nairobi official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 29, 2014.

32.U.S. Embassy- Nairobi. reporting, February 14, 2014.

33.U.S. Embassy- Nairobi official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. April 10, 2015.

34.U.S. UN New York. reporting, September 15, 2014.

35.UN Security Council. Report of the Secretary-General on Somalia; September 3, 2013. Report No. S/2013/521. http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/2013/521.

36.ILO-IPEC Geneva official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. January 9, 2015.

37.ILO. Prevention of child recruitment and reintegration of children associated with armed forces and groups in south central Somalia. Nairobi; 2014. http://www.ilo.org/addisababa/information-resources/publications/WCMS_239787/lang--en/index.htm.

38.UNICEF. Somalia Humanitarian Situation Report; 2014. http://www.unicef.org/appeals/files/UNICEF_Somalia_Humanitarian_SitRep_8_-_August_2014.pdf.

39.UNICEF. First year of Somalia's Go 2 School Campaign sees thousands of children in class for the first time; September 8, 2014. http://www.unicef.org/somalia/reallives_15403.html.

40.UN General Assembly. Report of the Independent Expert on the Situation of Human Rights in Somalia; August 16, 2013. Report No. A/HRC/24/40. http://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/A_HRC_24_40.pdf.

41.U.S. Department of State. reporting, October 8, 2014.

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