Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Serbia

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Serbia

2017 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Significant Advancement

In 2017, Serbia made a significant advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government of Serbia implemented the Regulation on Determining Hazardous Work of Children, which includes a list of hazardous occupations for children in the formal and informal economy. In addition, the Special Protocol of Labor Inspection for Protecting Children against Child Labor was adopted by labor inspectors, police, and social protection agencies, providing increased coordination on identifying and reporting all forms of child labor. Training on child labor was conducted for 81 labor inspectors, social workers, and police officers across 29 districts and the government passed the Strategy for Preventing and Suppressing Human Trafficking. In addition, Serbia published a labor force survey with data on children working between the ages of 15 and 18. However, children in Serbia engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in forced begging and commercial sexual exploitation, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Children also perform dangerous tasks in street work. The Criminal Code and Law on Public Peace and Order do not treat child beggars as victims and the Social Welfare Centers are overburdened, which limits efforts in combating child labor, including its worst forms.

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Children in Serbia engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in forced begging and commercial sexual exploitation, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Children also perform dangerous tasks in street work. (1; 2; 3; 4; 5) During the reporting period, the Government of Serbia published a labor force survey with data on children working between the ages of 15 and 18 from 2016. (6) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Serbia.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

15.1 (725,227)

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

94.7

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

17.4

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

98.8

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2016, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2018. (7)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 5, 2014. (8)

 

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Farming, activities unknown (5; 9)

Forestry (6)

Fishing (6)

Industry

Manufacturing, activities unknown (9)

Construction, activities unknown (9; 5; 10)

Mining and quarrying (9)

Services

Street work, including washing cars, collecting scrap material, vending, and begging (2; 11; 10; 12; 13)

Wholesale and retail trade (9; 5; 14; 6)

Repairing motor vehicles (9)

Working in food service, information and communication, and transportation and storage (9; 5)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1; 2; 3; 4; 10; 12; 15; 5)

Forced begging, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1; 2; 3; 4; 12; 5; 16)

Use in the production of pornography, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (12; 5)

Domestic work as a result of human trafficking (1; 4)

Use in illicit activities, including in petty crime (1; 2; 3; 4; 12; 16)

‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

 

Children from Serbia, particularly those from Roma communities, were trafficked internally to engage in the worst forms of child labor, including commercial sexual exploitation. (4; 16) Child trafficking victims, especially girls, Roma children, and children from low-income families in rural communities, are most vulnerable to child labor. (2; 17)

Asylum seekers and grantees are allowed to access free primary and secondary education in Serbia. (18; 2) In 2017, 3,950 at-risk children, including unaccompanied and separated children, were identified in the country. (19) Unaccompanied children and those of migrant and asylum-seeking families from Iraq (Kurds and Yazidis), Afghanistan, Syria, Cameroon, Pakistan, and Nepal are vulnerable to trafficking for labor and sexual exploitation, particularly if they are not enrolled in school. (2; 12; 20; 21; 5; 22; 14) Social programs assist migrant children with access to education. (23; 24; 18; 25)

Some Roma, Ashkali, and Balkan Egyptian children experience challenges in attaining birth registration, which may make school enrollment difficult for them and increase their vulnerability to engage in child labor. (13; 26; 20; 27; 28; 25) Although the government has instituted a program to increase the attendance of Roma children in preschool and the law allows children to be enrolled without required documentation, economic hardship, ethnic discrimination, language barriers, and placement in special, non-mainstream schools sometimes discourage some Romani children from attending school, especially girls. (13; 26; 29; 30; 27; 25) A technical working group exists to streamline complex registration procedures for undocumented minorities, including the registration of children of unregistered parents. (31) Government officials indicate that, as a result of these efforts, the number of undocumented minorities in Serbia decreased from 6,500 to 400 persons, including children. (23)

Constitutional and legal protections prohibit discrimination in education against individuals with disabilities. (26; 32; 33) However, some individuals with disabilities, especially Roma children, sometimes face difficulty accessing education due to social prejudices. (34; 33; 27; 28; 25)

Children ages 6 to 17 from Serbia are being recruited to participate in military training camps in Russia. (35; 36) The military training includes teaching them how to use weapons and other basic paramilitary skills. (37)

Serbia has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Serbia’s legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor, including the hazardous occupation of child begging.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Article 24 of the Labor Law; Article 66 of the Constitution (32; 38)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 25 of the Labor Law; Article 66 of the Constitution (32; 38)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Articles 25, 84, and 87–88 of the Labor Law; Regulation on Hazardous Labor of Children (39; 38)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 390 of the Criminal Code; Article 26 of the Constitution (32; 40)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 388 of the Criminal Code; Article 26 of the Constitution (32; 40)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 112 and 183–185 of the Criminal Code (40)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 388 of the Criminal Code (40)

Prohibition of Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

N/A*

 

Article 4 of the Law on Military, Labor, and Material Obligation (41)

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Article 39 of the Law on the Army (42)

Non-state

Yes

18

Article 4 of the Law on the Ratification of the Optional Protocol Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict (43)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

15‡

Article 71 of the Constitution; Articles 94 and 98 of the Law on the Foundations of the Education System (32; 44)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 71 of the Constitution; Article 91 of the Law on the Foundations of the Education System (32; 44)

* No conscription (41)
‡ Age calculated based on available information (32; 44)

 

In 2017, the government adopted the Regulation on Hazardous Labor of Children which went into effect in January 2018. (5; 39) The Regulation includes prohibited occupations, which are deemed to be hazardous for children in the formal economy, including in vocational education, such as mining, construction, collecting hazardous waste, and animal production. (39) The Regulation designates responsible agencies for combatting child labor. It also directs the labor inspectorate to collect data on child labor. (5; 45) In addition, the Instruction on Conduct of Labor Inspection in the Protection of Children from Child Labor directs inspectors to specifically look for child labor and report on it when it is found. (5; 39; 45)

The law provides heightened penalties for the use of children in illicit activities; however, the Criminal Code and Law on Public Peace and Order do not treat child beggars as victims, but rather as perpetrators and offenders. (40; 18; 46; 47; 14)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the operations of the Ministry of Labor, Employment, Veteran, and Social Affairs (MOLEVSA) that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor, Employment, Veteran, and Social Affairs (MOLEVSA)

Inspect businesses, receive and investigate child labor complaints through the Labor Inspectorate. (48) Through the Center for Human Trafficking Victims’ Protection (CPTV), identify and rescue child trafficking victims and potential victims, conduct needs assessments, and refer victims to social services. Maintain records and contribute to trafficking research projects. (1) The CPTV is divided into two parts: the Agency for Coordination of Protection of Trafficking Victims and the future Urgent Reception Center. (2; 16) The MOLEVSA has internal teams for the protection of children with disabilities and children working on the street. (49) These teams provide children with homes, food programs, and relocation from harmful family situations. (49)

Ministry of the Interior (MOI)

Enforce laws prohibiting commercial sexual exploitation and human trafficking through the Organized Crime Police and Border Police Force. Oversee the General Police Directorate, which consists of 17 local police directorates with dedicated anti-trafficking units. (1; 50; 51; 16)

Social Work Centers (SWCs)

Assist street children by tracking them. There are 115 SWCs and they work with the MOLEVSA. (2)

Republic Public Prosecutor’s Office

Lead investigations on human trafficking cases and exchange information through a network of 27 local prosecutors and NGOs. (50) Provide financial support to the CPTV. (52)

Parliamentary Committee on Children

Review all draft legislation pertinent to children’s rights. Monitor the implementation of the child-related provisions of all laws. (17)

Deputy Ombudsman for Children’s Rights, Office of the Protector of Citizens

Monitor and conduct research on the situation of children’s rights in Serbia. Produce reports on child begging, promote inclusive education and legal prohibition of corporal punishment, and manage draft laws on children’s rights for parliamentary approval. (53)

 

Throughout the reporting period, the Center for Human Trafficking Victims’ Protection (CPTV) worked with state institutions, international organizations, and NGOs on anti-human trafficking. In addition, the government appointed a new director to lead the CPTV in August 2017. (3; 23; 31)

Also, according to the MOLEVSA, the Social Welfare Centers (SWCs) are significantly overburdened. (31)

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2017, labor law enforcement agencies in Serbia took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the operations of MOLEVSA that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including human resource allocation and labor inspector training.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$2,987,698 (2)

$3,472,634 (5)

Number of Labor Inspectors

240 (2)

248 (5)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (2)

Yes (5; 54)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

N/A (23)

No (5)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A (2)

Yes (5)

Refresher Courses Provided

No (2)

No (31)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

53,069 (55)

46,066‡ (5)

Number Conducted at Worksites

Unknown (2)

44,568‡ (5)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

0 (2)

10 (31)

Number of Child Labor Violations for which Penalties were Imposed

N/A

2 (5)

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that were Collected

N/A

Unknown (5)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (2)

Yes (5)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (2)

Yes (5)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (2)

Yes (5)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (2)

Yes (5)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (2)

Yes (5)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (2)

Yes (5)

‡ Data are from January 2017 to November 2017.

 

Labor inspectors are responsible for inspecting registered and unregistered businesses, but not businesses within the agricultural sector. (2; 5; 54) The Labor Inspectorate has a general work plan with planned inspections, which is drafted at the beginning of each year; however, the work plan is general in nature and does not specifically target high-risk sectors in which child labor is known to occur, such as in agriculture on farms. (5; 56) In 2017, the CPTV and the MOLEVSA coordinated labor inspections to target specific companies and industries with child labor. (16)

As of September 2017, through the Special Protocol of Labor Inspection for Protecting Children against Child Labor, if children are identified in situations of exploitative labor, labor inspectors and police are required to inform the SWCs. (5) Labor inspectors found 26 children between the ages of 15 and 18 working. Of that number, 10 child labor violations were found due to absence of work contracts in legal occupations. (31) In working with employers, the Labor Inspectorate was able to secure work contracts for eight of those cases. (5; 31)

Also in 2017, the Labor Inspectorate’s jurisdiction was expanded through the Special Protocol of Labor Inspection for Protecting Children against Child Labor, which gives instruction on how to inspect for child labor. (5; 54) During the year, although the funding and number of inspectors was reported sufficient by the Labor Inspectorate, the Labor Inspectorate indicated that additional technical equipment, such as laptops and cars, would improve the efficiency of detecting child labor. (5; 54) In 2017, 66 labor inspectors were trained on human trafficking prevention, funded by the Council of Europe. However, the Labor Inspectorate officials noted that the existing training is not sufficient. (57; 49; 5)

The CPTV now frequently accompanies the MOLEVSA on inspections and provides cross-training to labor inspectors on human trafficking-related issues, including child labor. (23)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2017, criminal law enforcement agencies in Serbia took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the operations of the criminal enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including financial resource allocation and prosecution planning.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown (5)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown

Yes (18)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (3)

Yes (5)

Number of Investigations

Unknown

Unknown (5)

Number of Violations Found

21 (3)

21 (31)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown

Unknown (5)

Number of Convictions

Unknown

Unknown (5)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (3)

Yes (5)

 

Human trafficking training is provided as a part of the general police curriculum given to law enforcement officials who process immigration cases. (3) During the reporting period, the CPTV provided training for 60 professionals on how to identify trafficking victims among refugees and migrants, including children victims of trafficking. (16) A source indicated that agencies responsible for investigations of trafficking in persons investigations lack funding. (5) In addition, according to the Republic Public Prosecutor’s Office, data on violations, prosecutions, and convictions are difficult to determine and collect because child labor cases are not assigned to any specific agency. (5)

During the reporting period, the SWCs, the primary provider of social services to human trafficking victims, assisted child trafficking cases. (1) However, NGOs reported that CPTVs lacked specialized care and procedures for child victims. (1; 3; 23) Furthermore, criminal law enforcement personnel dedicated the majority of their resources to cases of human smuggling related to the migration crisis, which diminished their ability to investigate and prosecute human trafficking cases. (1; 3; 22)

In 2017, the government, NGOs, and national shelters implemented the Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for immigrant and migrant children. (58; 31) The SOPs aid in the identification of children at risk of being trafficked, while keeping the child’s best interests in mind. (58; 59)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including efficacy in accomplishing mandates of the Council for Children’s Rights.

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role and Description

Council for Children’s Rights

Coordinate government efforts to address child labor by monitoring and evaluating government activities. The Council includes representatives from international organizations and government ministries, including the MOLEVSA. (60) It had regular meetings in 2017 and established a new council. (5; 18)

National Council for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings

Set government trafficking in persons policies, chaired by the MOI. The National Coordinator for Combating Trafficking in Persons acts as the Secretary of the Council and manages the work of the implementation team. (1) It met in 2017. (61)

Refugee Protection Working Group (RPWG)

Address refugee child protection and non-food needs. Co-chaired by UNHCR and the MOLEVSA with the participation of NGOs, local governments, and international organizations. (24) The RPWG meets monthly, is the main mechanism for coordinating services to refugees, and has three sub-working groups, including a group on child protection. (24) Continued to meet in 2017. (31)

 

In 2017, the National Coordinator for Combating Trafficking in Persons (National Coordinator) was elevated to a full-time position and an independent office with five employees was created under the MOI. (5; 22) However, constraints on time and financial resources limited the National Coordinator’s ability to address police investigations, prosecutions, and the protection of trafficking victims. (1; 3; 50) The Cabinet of the MOI must provide approval before the National Coordinator can work or meet with non-Serbian government officials or organizations, which may limit the coordination efficiency on child labor. (16)

In June 2017, the Council for Children’s Rights established a working group of 17 members for the drafting of the Strategy for Prevention and Protection of Children from Violence. (27; 31) However, the working group failed to meet during the reporting period. (31)

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including mainstreaming child labor issues into relevant Roma policies.

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

Special Protocol of Labor Inspection for Protecting Children Against Child Labor†

Requires labor inspectors to use a child labor checklist to identify child labor during inspections. (5; 45) Designates responsible agencies for child labor cases and establishes actions to be taken when child labor is found. (5; 45) Mandates that police and labor inspectors inform the SWCs on cases of child labor, which creates a referral mechanism among the three entities. (5; 45)

Strategy for Preventing and Suppressing Human Trafficking and Action Plan (2017–2022)†

Creates a legislative framework, budget, benchmarks, and strategic areas in need of improvement to combat trafficking in persons. (5; 62) The government has allocated $76,000 for 2017–2019. (5; 62)

Protocol on Rules and Procedures for the Institutions and Organizations Working with Children Involved in Life and Work on the Streets of Belgrade†

Aims to enhance institutional cooperation among the MOI, the Criminal Police Directorate, Communal Police, City SWCs, the City Secretariat for Education, the City Secretariat for Health, and civil society organizations. (63) Defines street children, worst forms of child labor, child work, and child trafficking. (2; 63) Stipulates lead institutions, rules, and procedures for interacting with street children. Save the Children is funding the first round of trainings. (2)

National Strategy for Roma Inclusion (2016–2025)*

Aims to improve access to education for Roma population in Serbia in education, including access to preschool. Seeks to include representatives from Roma communities in policy implementation. (64) The project was active in 2017 and contributed to an increase in Roma pupils in secondary schools. (29) In addition, the government adopted the Action Plan for the Strategy for Social Inclusion of Roma Men and Women for 2017–2018†, which mandates the inclusion of Roma in education and employment. (18)

Anti-Discrimination Strategy and Action Plan (2013–2018)

Seeks to prevent discrimination and improve the situation of children and ethnic minorities, including Roma, refugees, internally displaced children, and victims of human trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation, including those used in the production of pornography. (65)

Decree on Dedicated Transfers

Aims to allocate funds to local governments for the development of social services for people with disabilities, including children. (66) Active in 2017 with funds transferred to municipalities. (31)

Development Partnership Framework (2016–2020)

Government of Serbia and UN strategic planning document for the achievement of the UN’s sustainable development goals, including inclusive education, especially for the most vulnerable, and strengthening social welfare for families. (67)

† Policy was approved during the reporting period.
*Child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy. (14)

 

In 2017, at the Argentina Global Conference on the Sustained Eradication of Child Labor, the Government of Serbia pledged to implement regulations on hazardous work for children, improve monitoring and implementation of laws related to child labor, and create A National Roadmap for the Elimination of Child Labor for 2018 to 2022. (68)

During the reporting period, the Decree on Dedicated Transfers was active, allocating funds to municipalities. However, it was unclear whether the funds were used appropriately to assist children with disabilities. (31)

In 2017, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs including with adequacy of programs to address the full scope of the problem.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor‡

Program

Description

USDOL-Funded Programs

Country Level Engagement and Assistance to Reduce Child Labor (CLEAR) is a USDOL-funded capacity-building project implemented by the ILO in 11 countries to build local and national capacity of governments to address child labor. (69) In 2017, in Serbia, 81 labor inspectors, social workers, and police officers were trained in child labor prevention and identification. Inspectors were also given 26 computers and training on child labor was provided to police in 29 districts across Serbia. (5) The Global Research on Child Labor Measurement and Policy Development (MAP) is a USDOL-funded, 2-year project implemented by the ILO that aims to increase the knowledge based on child labor in Serbia. (69; 70) Additional information is available on the USDOL website.

Child Allowance Program†

Government cash benefits program for poor families, conditional on school enrollment for children ages 7 and older. (53; 71)

Assistance to Roma Children in Education†

Ministry of Education, Science, and Technological Development Program that seeks to improve the school attendance rate of Roma children. (53) Includes the Law on the Foundations of the Education System, which encompasses affirmative measures to improve participation and performance of Roma children in the education system. (31)

Inclusive Early Childhood Education and Care*†

World Bank, Ministry of Finance, and Ministry of Education, Science, and Technological Development project that aims to improve access to early childhood education for socially disadvantaged children. (72)

Strengthening the Identification and Protection of Victims of Trafficking†

Implemented by the IOM, the CPTV, and the MOI. The project contributes to the implementation of the National Anti-Trafficking Strategy by improving mechanisms for the prevention and identification of victims of human trafficking. (31) In July 2017, the MOLEVSA issued an instruction on the implementation of indicators for the preliminary identification of victims of trafficking in the social protection system, making the application of these indicators binding and mandatory for all MOLEVSA employees. (31; 73)

* Program was launched during the reporting period.
† Program is funded by the Government of Serbia.
‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. (3; 74; 16)

 

Although the Government of Serbia has implemented programs on child labor and inclusive education, research found no evidence that it has carried out programs specifically designed to assist children living and working on the streets, including child begging. (18) In addition, research could not determine if the Child Allowance Program was active in 2017.

In 2017 the CPTV was still looking for donors to complete the Urgent Reception Center. (2) During the past 2 years, it has been unclear when the Urgent Reception Center would be completed due to funding. (5) When fully operational, the Urgent Reception Center will provide temporary accommodations for child trafficking victims; however, it is not intended to be a specialized shelter for children. (1; 31)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Serbia (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that the law does not treat child beggars as criminals.

2017

Enforcement

Train new labor inspectors and criminal investigators on child labor and make information regarding child labor law enforcement publicly available, including the number of penalties imposed that were collected, the number of criminal law investigations conducted, and the number of criminal prosecutions initiated and the number of convictions.

2015 – 2017

Ensure that staff members at the CPTV and SWCs have sufficient capacity, such as personnel and funding, to address the specific needs of child trafficking victims.

2015 – 2017

Ensure that labor inspectors and criminal investigators have the necessary training, tools, and equipment to conduct thorough investigations on laws related to child labor and increase funding for agencies combating trafficking in persons.

2010 – 2017

Ensure that criminal law enforcement personnel dedicate time and resources to human trafficking cases.

2016 – 2017

Coordination

Ensure that the National Coordinator for Combatting Trafficking in Persons has sufficient resources to address coordination with police investigations, prosecutions, and the protection of trafficking victims.

2015 – 2017

Ensure that the Council for Children’s Rights fulfills its mandate of a coordination body to monitor child labor issues in the country.

2017

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the National Strategy for Roma Inclusion.

2017

Social Programs

Address barriers to education, including access to birth registration documentation; access to education for children with disabilities; and access for minority populations, particularly Roma.

2014 – 2017

Ensure that the Child Allowance Program is active and fulfills its mandates.

2017

Complete the necessary steps to make the Urgent Reception Center to protect child victims of human trafficking operational and ensure that it is fully funded to carry out its mission.

2013 – 2017

1. U.S. Embassy- Belgrade. Reporting, February 1, 2016.

2. —. Reporting, January 13, 2017.

3. —. Reporting, February 13, 2017.

4. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2017: Serbia. Washington, DC. June 27, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2017/271273.htm.

5. U.S. Embassy- Belgrade. Reporting, January 8, 2018.

6. Government of Serbia. Labor Force Survey 2016. 2017. http://www.ilo.org/surveydata/index.php/catalog/1860.

7. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed January 4, 2018. http://data.uis.unesco.org/. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

8. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 5, 2014. Analysis received January 12, 2018. Please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

9. Government of the Republic of Serbia. Reporting, January 28, 2014.

10. Atina official. Interview with USDOL official. April 8, 2014.

11. Federico Sicurella. Belgrade and its street children. Osservatorio balcani e caucaso. April 10, 2013. https://www.balcanicaucaso.org/eng/Areas/Serbia/Belgrade-and-its-street-children-133529.

12. U.S. Embassy- Belgrade. Reporting, January 15, 2016.

13. UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. Concluding Observations on the Second Periodic Report of Serbia. July 10, 2014: Report No. E/C.12/SRB/CO/2. http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=E/C.12/SRB/CO/2.

14. ILO-IPEC Geneva official. E-mail communcation to USDOL official. April 10, 2018.

15. Government of the Republic of Serbia. Reporting, February 2, 2015.

16. U.S. Embassy- Belgrade. Reporting, February 8, 2018.

17. U.S. Embassy- Belgrade official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 1, 2013.

18. ILO-IPEC Geneva official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. October 2017.

19. UNICEF. Humanitarian Action for Children refugee and migrant crisis in Europe. 2017. https://www.unicef.org/appeals/refugee_migrant_europe.html.

20. Human Rights Watch. Serbia: Police Abusing Migrants, Asylum Seekers. HRW.org. April 15, 2015. https://www.hrw.org/news/2015/04/15/serbia-police-abusing-migrants-asylum-seekers.

21. Batul Hassan. Unknown and exploited: Europe's new arrivals. IRINnews.org. June 29, 2016. http://www.irinnews.org/feature/2016/06/29/unknown-and-exploited-europe%E2%80%99s-new-arrivals.

22. U.S. Embassy- Belgrade. US Embassy Belgrade and J/TIP Team Assess TIP Efforts. November 17, 2017.

23. U.S. Embassy- Belgrade official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 31, 2017.

24. UNHCR. Serbia: Inter-Agency Operational Update. October 2016. [Source on file].

25. U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2017: Serbia. Washington, DC. April 20, 2018. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/277459.pdf.

26. Belgrade Centre for Human Rights. Human Rights in Serbia 2014. 2015. http://www.bgcentar.org.rs/bgcentar/eng-lat/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/Human-Rights-in-Serbia-2014.pdf.

27. UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding observation on the combined second and third periodic reports of Serbia. March 7, 2017. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC%2fC%2fSRB%2fCO%2f2-3&Lang=en.

28. Human Rights Watch. World Report 2017: Serbia. 2017. https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/world_report_download/wr2017-web.pdf.

29. UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women. Fourth Periodic report submitted by Serbia under article 18 of the Convention, due in 2017. Periodic Reports of States Parties due in 2017: Serbia, Prepared by Government of Serbia, CEDAW/C/SRB/CO/2-3. October 18, 2017. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/Treaties/CEDAW/Shared%20Documents/SRB/CEDAW_C_SRB_4_7321_E.pdf.

30. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child. Committee on the Rights of the Child considers the report of Serbia. January 24, 2017. http://www.ohchr.org/en/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=21115&LangID=E.

31. U.S. Embassy- Belgrade official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 12, 2018.

32. Government of Serbia. Constitution of the Republic of Serbia. Enacted November 8, 2005. http://legislationline.org/documents/action/popup/id/8851/preview.

33. Human Rights Watch. Children with Disabilities in Serbian institutions. HRW.org. June 8, 2016. https://www.hrw.org/report/2016/06/08/it-my-dream-leave-place/children-disabilities-serbian-institutions.

34. UN Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 35 of the Convention: Concluding Observations: Serbia. May 23, 2016: Report No. CRPD/C/SRB/CO/1. http://disabilitycouncilinternational.org/documents/ConcObv/15/Serbia.pdf.

35. Radio Free Europe. Russian "military" model for Children from Serbia. April 4, 2018. https://www.slobodnaevropa.org/a/deca-obuka-rusija-vojni-srbija-/29142301.html.

36. Maja Zivanovic. Serbian Teens Taught ‘Military Patriotism’ at Russian Camp. May 9, 2017. http://www.balkaninsight.com/en/article/serbian-war-veterans-children-learned-patriotism-in-russian-camp-05-09-2017.

37. Grad Subotica. Children of military veterans are again residing in camps in Russia. September 29, 2017. http://www.gradsubotica.co.rs/deca-ratnih-veterana-ponovo-boravila-u-kampu-u-rusiji/.

38. Government of Serbia. Labor Law of the Republic of Serbia. Enacted March 15, 2005. http://www.elfak.ni.ac.rs/downloads/akta/zakon-o-radu.pdf.

39. —. Regulation on Hazardous Labour of Children. May 29, 2017. [Source on file].

40. —. Criminal Code of the Republic of Serbia. Enacted February 28, 2006. http://legislationline.org/documents/section/criminal-codes.

41. —. Law on Military, Labor and Material Obligation. Enacted December 15, 2010. http://www.paragraf.rs/propisi/zakon_o_vojnoj_radnoj_i_materijalnoj_obavezi.html.

42. —. Law on the Army. Enacted December 11, 2007. http://www.vs.rs/content/attachments/zakon_o_vojsci_srbije_sa_izmenama_i_dopunama.pdf.

43. —. Law on the Ratification of the Optional Protocol Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Official Gazette of the FRY - International Treaties, No. 7/2002. Enacted July 2002. http://www.ljudskaprava.gov.rs/sites/default/files/dokument_file/zakon_o_potvrdjivanju_fakultativnog_protokola_u_ucescu_dece_u_oruzanim_sukobima_uz_konvenciju_o_pravima_deteta.pdf.

44. —. The Law on the Foundations of the Education System. Enacted 2002. http://www.seio.gov.rs/upload/documents/ekspertske%20misije/protection_of_minorities/the_law_on_education_system.pdf.

45. —. Instruction on Conduct of Labor Inspection in the Protection of Children from Child Labor. 2017. [Source on file].

46. —. Annual Report of the Ombudsman 2016. June 2017. http://www.ombudsman.org.rs/attachments/article/134/Introduction_2016%20Annual%20Report.pdf.

47. —. Law on Public Order and Peace. 2016. http://www.parlament.gov.rs/upload/archive/files/cir/pdf/zakoni/2016/3710-15.pdf.

48. Government of the Republic of Serbia. Reporting, January 23, 2015.

49. Government of Serbia. Report on the worst forms of child labor overall in Serbia. Submitted in response to USDOL Federal Registrar Notice (September 30, 2016) Request for Information on Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor. November 14, 2016.

50. Ministry of Interior and Anti-trafficking Coordinator official. Interivew with USDOL official. April 8, 2014.

51. U.S. Embassy- Belgrade. Reporting, February 12, 2015.

52. —. Reporting, February 6, 2014.

53. U.S. Embassy- Belgrade official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 9, 2014.

54. ILO-IPEC Geneva official. E-Mail Communication with USDOL official. April 17, 2018.

55. Government of Serbia. Labor Report. Belgrade, Ministry of Labor, Employment, Veterans, and Social Issues. 2016. http://www.minrzs.gov.rs/cir/dokumenti/inspekcija-rada/izvestaji-o-radu.

56. —. Labor Inspectorate Plan for 2017. https://www.minrzs.gov.rs/izvestaji-o-radu-plan-inspekci.html.

57. U.S. Embassy- Belgrade. Reporting, January 31, 2013.

58. Government of Serbia. Standard Operating Procedures, Protection for Immigrant/Migrant Children. Belgrade, Ideas Beograd. 2016. https://www.unicef.org/serbia/SOP-za-zastitu-dece-izbeglica-i-migranata.pdf.

59. Representative of the Republic of Serbia. Statement by the Representative of the Republic of Serbia at the Working Session 7 Human Dimension Implementation Meeting. September 21, 2016. http://www.osce.org/odihr/272111.

60. U.S. Embassy- Belgrade official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 26, 2015.

61. Government of Serbia. Systematic response of society regarding the problems of trafficking in persons. November 7, 2017. http://www.srbija.gov.rs/vesti/vest.php?pf=1&id=309455&url=%2Fvesti%2Fvest.php%3Fpf%3D1%26id%3D309455.

62. —. Strategy for Preventing and Supressing Human Trafficking and Action Plan (2017-2022). August 4, 2017. http://mup.gov.rs/wps/wcm/connect/cd2d35c1-10a0-4dae-b17e-4a376d55057a/Strategija+i+A.P.-Trgovina+ljudima+2017.pdf?MOD=AJPERES&CVID=lTGZ3bD&CVID=lTGZ3bD&CVID=lTGZ3bD&CVID=lTGZ3bD&CVID=lTGZ3bD&CVID=lTGZ3bD&CVID=lTGZ3bD&CVID=lTGZ3bD&CVID=lTGZ3bD&CVID=lTGZ3b.

63. —. The Protocol for Dealing with Street-Invovled Children by Authorities, Institutions and Organisations in the City of Belgrade. 2017. [Source on file].

64. —. National Strategy for Roma Inclusion 2016–2025. March 3, 2016. [Source on file].

65. —. Anti-Discrimination Strategy. Enacted 2013-2018. http://www.seio.gov.rs/upload/documents/ekspertske%20misije/2014/ad_strategzy.pdf.

66. —. Decree on Dedicated Transfers. Enacted March 4, 2016. http://www.komorasz.rs/vesti/obavestenja/196-uredba-o-namenskim-transferima-u-socijalno-zastiti.html.

67. Government of Serbia, and UN Country Team in Serbia. Development Partnership Framework 2016-2020. February 9, 2016. http://rs.one.un.org/content/unct/serbia/en/home/our-work/united-nations-development-assistance-framework--undaf-.html.

68. Government of Serbia. IV Global Conference on the Sustained Eradication of Child Labour: Pledges. November 10, 2017. http://childlabour2017.org/en/resources/updates/pledges.

69. ILO-IPEC. ILO-IPEC Technical Progress Report CLEAR Global Project. October 2015. [Source on file].

70. —. ILO-IPEC Technical Progress Report MAP Global Project. October 2015. [Source on file].

71. USAID. Promising Approaches - Addressing child trafficking in Europe and Eurasia - Final Report. February 2013. http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/pnaeb806.pdf.

72. World Bank. Inclusive Early Childhood Education and Care. June 15, 2017. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/684871497562657684/pdf/ISR-Disclosable-P157117-06-15-2017-1497562650233.pdf.

73. Government of Serbia. Preliminary indictors for victims of human trafficking. 2017. [Source on file].

74. UNDG. Backpacks and school supplies distributed to Jovan Ristic primary school pupils, including refugee and migrant children. September 4, 2017. http://rs.one.un.org/content/unct/serbia/en/home/presscenter/backpacks-and-school-supplies-distributed-to-jovan-ristic-primar.html.

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