Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Serbia

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Serbia

2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Minimal Advancement

In 2015, Serbia made a minimal advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government adopted changes to the Inspection Surveillance Law, which grants the Labor Inspectorate broader and increased authority to inspect unregistered business entities. However, children in Serbia are engaged in child labor, including in begging. Children are also engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation as a result of human trafficking. The Government lacks a national policy to combat child labor. The Council for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings did not meet during the reporting period and, although the National Council for Children’s Rights held two meetings, these did not result in substantive action to reduce child labor in the country.

Expand All

Children in Serbia are engaged in child labor, including in begging. Children are also engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in commercial sexual exploitation as a result of human trafficking.(1-3) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Serbia.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

6.0 (54,045)

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

92.5

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

6.7

Primary completion rate (%):

101.9

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2014, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(4)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 3, 2005.(5)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Farming,* activities unknown (6, 7)

Industry

Manufacturing,* activities unknown (8)

Construction,* activities unknown (8)

Mining* and quarrying* (8)

Services

Street work, including washing cars, collecting scrap material,* vending,* and begging (7, 9-12)

Wholesale and retail trade* (8)

Repairing motor vehicles* (8)

Working in food service,* information and communication,* and transportation and storage* (8)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Commercial sexual exploitation as a result of human trafficking (1-3, 10, 11, 13, 14)

Forced begging, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2, 3, 7, 11, 13)

Use in the production of pornography* as a result of human trafficking* (1, 11)

Domestic work as a result of human trafficking* (2, 3)

Use in illicit activities, including in petty crime* (3, 11)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

In 2015, more than 500,000 irregular migrants and asylum seekers, of whom the Ministry of the Interior (MOI) reported 96 percent were Syrians, Afghans, and Iraqis, transited through Serbia.(3, 15, 16) The Government identified one migrant as a victim of human trafficking and received anecdotal reports of child migrants being trafficked and subjected to commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor.(3, 11) Asylum seekers and individuals granted asylum are allowed to access primary and secondary education for free; however, asylum-seeking children residing in the Asylum Centers were not being enrolled in school during the reporting period.(12) Children of migrant and asylum-seeking families and unaccompanied children were vulnerable to trafficking for labor exploitation, including child labor, particularly if they were not enrolled in school.(11, 15) Serbian child trafficking victims, particularly those from Roma communities, were trafficked internally, often by family members, to engage in the worst forms of child labor.(2) Other than child trafficking victims, children who are most vulnerable to child labor include children from the Roma population; those from low-income families, particularly in poor, rural communities; and those who the Government has placed into foster care because they are at risk of re-engaging in child labor in the future.(17)

Individuals at risk of statelessness, particularly Romani parents and their children, often lack birth registration and documentation, which restricts their access to basic social services such as health care and education.(7, 12, 18) Economic hardship; ethnic discrimination against minorities; language barriers; and placement in special, non-mainstream schools discourage some children from attending school, especially Romani girls.(7, 12, 18) Although a technical working group exists to streamline complex registration procedures for undocumented minorities, including the registration of children whose parents are not registered, judges, registrars, and social workers still need to be trained to implement the revised procedures properly.(7, 19)

Constitutional and legal protections prohibit discrimination in education against individuals with disabilities.(7, 18, 20) However, individuals with disabilities remained one of the most vulnerable social groups in Serbia and faced difficulty accessing education, partly due to deeply entrenched social prejudices. More than 50 municipalities in the country lacked adequate funding to support inclusive education for children with disabilities.(7, 18) Children who do not have access to education are at an increased risk of exploitation in the worst forms of child labor.

Serbia has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Article 24 of the Labor Law of the Republic of Serbia; Article 66 of the Constitution of the Republic of Serbia (20, 21)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 25 of the Labor Law of the Republic of Serbia; Article 66 of the Constitution of the Republic of Serbia (20, 21)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Articles 25, 84, 87, and 88 of the Labor Law of the Republic of Serbia (21)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article 26 of the Constitution of the Republic of Serbia (20)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 388 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Serbia; Article 26 of the Constitution of the Republic of Serbia (20, 22)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Articles 112 and 183–185 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Serbia (22)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 388 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Serbia (22)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

Yes

18

Article 4 of the Law on Military, Labor, and Material Obligation (23)

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

18

Article 39 of the Law on the Army (24-26)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

15‡

Article 71 of the Constitution of the Republic of Serbia; Articles 94 and 98 of the Law on the Foundations of the Education System (20, 27)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 71 of the Constitution of the Republic of Serbia; Article 91 of the Law on the Foundations of the Education System (20, 27)

‡ Age calculated based on available information.

In 2015, the Government amended the Inspection Surveillance Law to broaden and increase the Labor Inspectorate’s authority to conduct inspections of unregistered business entities.(11)

According to Article 84 of the Labor Law, all children under age 18 are prohibited from strenuous physical work underground, underwater, or at excessive heights, work that may expose them to toxic substances or other health hazards, and activities that are judged by a competent health authority to be harmful. In addition, all children under age 18 may not work longer than 35 hours per week or during the night, with some exceptions.(21)

Article 71 of the Constitution makes primary education mandatory for all children. As defined by the Law on the Foundations of the Education System, primary education lasts eight years, beginning between age 6 and 8.(20, 27) Because children most commonly begin school at age 7, compulsory education is typically completed at age 15.(28)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor, Employment, Veteran and Social Affairs Labor Inspectorate

Enforce labor laws and conduct inspections, including those related to child labor.(29)

Ministry of the Interior (MOI)

Enforce laws prohibiting commercial sexual exploitation and human trafficking through the Organized Crime Police Force and the Border Police Force. Oversee the General Police Directorate, which consists of 27 local police directorates, all of which have dedicated anti-trafficking units.(3, 30, 31)

State Prosecutor’s Office

Lead investigations on human trafficking cases and exchange information through a network of 27 local prosecutors and two NGOs.(30) Provide financial support to the Center for Human Trafficking Victims’ Protection by collecting fees from defendants in minor criminal cases.(32)

Ministry of Labor, Employment, Veteran and Social Affairs’ Center for Human Trafficking Victims’ Protection

Identify and rescue child trafficking victims and children at risk of being trafficked, conduct needs assessments, and refer victims to social services. Maintain records on its beneficiaries and the services they received through a database, and contribute to research projects that relate to trafficking.(3) Includes the Agency for Coordination of Protection of Trafficking Victims and the Urgent Reception Center for Trafficking Victims. In 2015, this center distributed new indicators of trafficking in persons to social protection providers and criminal law enforcement personnel.(3) The Center for Human Trafficking Victims’ Protection resolved a legal dispute over physical property of the Urgent Reception Center, although the timeline for when its planned renovation will be completed and availability to human trafficking victims remains unclear. When fully operational, the Urgent Reception Center will provide temporary accommodations for child trafficking victims; however, it is not a specialized shelter for children.(3)

Parliamentary Committee on Children

Review all draft legislation pertinent to children’s rights to ensure that legislation is aligned with international norms and standards. Monitor the implementation of the child-related provisions of all laws.(17) Report to the UN CRC.(17)

Deputy Ombudsman for Children’s Rights, Office of the Protector of Citizens

Monitor and conduct research on the situation of children’s rights in Serbia. Produce reports on child begging, promote inclusive education of children and legal prohibition of corporal punishment, and manage the drafting of a comprehensive law on children’s rights for parliamentary approval.(25)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2015, labor law enforcement agencies in Serbia took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Labor Inspectorate Funding

Unknown* (29)

Unknown* (11)

Number of Labor Inspectors

241 (33)

238 (11)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (30)

Yes (11)

Training for Labor Inspectors

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown (34)

No (3)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Unknown (34)

No (3)

Refresher Courses Provided

Unknown (34)

No (3)

Number of Labor Inspections

52,863 (33)

55,396 (11)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown (34)

Unknown (11)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown (34)

Unknown (11)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

25 (33)

36 (11)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown* (34)

Unknown* (11)

Number of Penalties Imposed That Were Collected

Unknown (34)

Unknown (11)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (29)

Yes (29)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Unknown (34)

Unknown (11)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Unknown (34)

Unknown (11)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Unknown (34)

Unknown (11)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (29)

Yes (29)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (34)

Yes (11, 34)

* The Government does not make this information publicly available.

In 2015, the Labor Inspectorate completed 36,841 labor inspections and 18,555 security and health inspections, totaling 55,396 inspections. According to the Serbian Business Registers Agency, Serbia has 338,186 business entities, which means that each inspector covers 1,398 business entities.(11) Research found that the Labor Inspectorate generally lacked funding to provide specialized training and the necessary equipment, such as computers and vehicles, to facilitate adequate enforcement of laws prohibiting child labor.(6, 11, 35)

The Labor Inspectorate reported 36 child labor violations involving children between age 15 and 18 who were working without required parental or guardian approvals or health certificates. Research did not determine whether these children were involved in hazardous work.(11) If children are identified in situations of exploitative labor, they may be referred to receive social services at a center for social work, found in every locality.(11, 31)

Research found that inspectors were sometimes denied the right to enter a workplace to conduct inspections, especially in new private enterprises.(36)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2015, criminal law enforcement agencies in Serbia took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2014

2015

Training for Investigators

   

Initial Training for New Employees

Unknown

Unknown

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Unknown

Unknown

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (31, 32)

Yes (3)

Number of Investigations

128 (14)

Unknown

Number of Violations Found

13 (34)

19 (11)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

13 (14)

Unknown

Number of Convictions

Unknown

21 (37)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Unknown

Unknown

 

The curriculum for internal police training programs and seminars, which includes basic police training, incorporates information on combating human trafficking. Police officers and consular and border officials who process immigration cases are also provided with training on human trafficking.(3) In 2015, the Center for Human Trafficking Victims’ Protection partnered with the IOM to provide training on human trafficking to professionals assisting migrants in Presevo, Miratovac, and other parts of the country, training a total of 445 officials.(3)

Criminal law enforcement personnel responsible for investigating cases of human trafficking dedicated the majority of their time and resources to cases of human smuggling related to the migration crisis, which diminished their ability to investigate and prosecute human trafficking cases.(3) Although 17 of the 27 police directorates in the country have established teams comprising police, prosecutors, social workers, health workers, and local NGOs to combat human trafficking and to provide support to potential victims, a source reported that many of these teams were inactive during the reporting period.(3, 38)

The Center for Human Trafficking Victims’ Protection worked to formally identify child trafficking victims. Social Welfare Centers, the primary provider of social services to human trafficking victims, had mandatory involvement in cases of child trafficking victims.(3)  Both entities worked together to draft a protection plan in consultation with the victim. However, a source reported that both the Center for Human Trafficking Victims’ Protection and the Social Welfare Centers lacked specialized care for child victims.(3)

In 2015, the Center for Human Trafficking Victims’ Protection either returned child trafficking victims to their families, placed these children into foster care, or provided accommodations to them in one of two Centers for Children without Parental Care, based in Belgrade and Novi Sad. In practice, Social Welfare Centers were unable to remove children from their families, even in cases where there was evidence that the child had been trafficked or exploited by family members.(3)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

Council for Children’s Rights

Coordinate government efforts to address and prioritize children’s issues in Serbia, including child labor, by monitoring and evaluating government institutions’ activities; providing monthly reports to the government on child labor and other children’s rights issues; and suggesting policy solutions. The Council includes representatives from international organizations and various government ministries.(33)

National Council for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings

Chaired by the MOI, this council sets government policies against trafficking in persons. The National Coordinator for Combating Trafficking in Persons (National Anti-Trafficking Coordinator) acts as the Secretary of the Council and manages the work of the Implementation Team.(3) Members of this team include the Ministers of the Interior; Finance; Labor, Employment, Veteran, and Social Affairs; Health; Justice; Economics; Education, Science, and Technical Development; and Youth and Sport, as well as other government representatives from the Republic Public Prosecutor’s Office, the Office for Human and Minority Rights, the Security Information Agency, the Commissariat for Refugees and Migration, the Social Inclusion and Poverty Reduction Team, and the Center for Human Trafficking Victims’ Protection. The Government intends for civil society organizations to participate as equal partners in the work of the Implementation Team through the appointment of five NGO officials and one Serbian Red Cross official.(3) In 2015, the Government appointed a new president for this council.(11, 16)

National Anti-Trafficking Coordinator

Implement the policies of the Council for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings and coordinate the day-to-day efforts of the Implementation Team to combat human trafficking. Based in the MOI.(3, 30)

Office for the Coordination against Trafficking in Persons*

Created by the MOI, this office will be a part of the General Police Directorate. Although the Government did not hire staff, provide resources, or outline the office’s mandate during the reporting period, it intends to appoint the National Anti-Trafficking Coordinator to be this office’s director.(3)

* Mechanism to coordinate efforts to address child labor was created during the reporting period.

During the reporting period, the Council for Children’s Rights was ineffective in coordinating government efforts to address child labor. The two meetings this body held in 2015 did not lead to substantive action on reducing child labor in the country.(11) In addition, while the Council established a working group in November 2014 that would be responsible for developing an action plan to address the issue of children who beg on the streets, this working group did not hold any meetings during the reporting period.(11, 33) The Council for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings also did not meet in 2015.(3)

Research found that the National Anti-Trafficking Coordinator was not provided with a budget or a formal work plan and also holds a position as the head of migration for the MOI’s Border Police Department. Although the Coordinator was active throughout the reporting period, these constraints on time and financial resources limited the scope of work and prevented the Coordinator from addressing issues such as police investigations, prosecutions, or the protection of trafficking victims.(3, 30)In addition, as an MOI official, the National Anti-Trafficking Coordinator’s independence is limited because the Cabinet of the Minister of the Interior must provide approval before the Coordinator can work or meet with non-Serbian government officials or organizations.(3, 30)

The Government of Serbia has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

Strategy for the Improvement of the Status of Roma in the Republic of Serbia (2009–2015)*

Aimed to improve the status of Roma people in Serbia in housing, education, employment, and health.(39) Sought to include representatives from Roma communities in the process of policy implementation. Resulted from the signing of the Declaration of the Decade of Roma Inclusion (2005–2015) in 2005.(39)

Anti-Discrimination Strategy and Action Plan (2013–2018)

Seeks to prevent discrimination and improve the situation of nine vulnerable groups, including children and ethnic minorities. Targets children subjected to multiple forms of discrimination, such as Roma children, refugees and internally displaced children, and victims of human trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation, including those used in the production of pornography.(40, 41) In 2015, the Government formed a council for monitoring the Action Plan, and established and trained key points of contact for this work at the ministry- and local-level.(38)

Special Protocol on the Treatment of Trafficking Victims by Judicial Authorities

Aims to provide judicial officials with clear guidance to facilitate adequate treatment of trafficking victims.(42)

National Plan of Action for Children and General Protocol on Child Protection from Abuse and Neglect (2005–2015)*

Established policies to promote a quality education for all children and to protect children from abuse, neglect, exploitation, and violence. Associated protocols included the Special Protocol on Behavior of Law Enforcement Officers in Protecting Juvenile Persons from Abuse and Neglect and the Special Protocol on Protection of Children Accommodated in Social Care Institutions.(25)

* Child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy.

During the reporting period, the Government continued to draft the National Strategy for Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Persons for 2014–2020 (National Strategy) and its accompanying Action Plan for 2014–2015; however, the National Assembly did not adopt either the National Strategy or the Action Plan in 2015.(3, 30, 32, 33) The Government reported that the new National Strategy and its Action Plan will incorporate policy positions from the previously proposed National Strategy to Prevent and Protect Children from Trafficking and Exploitation for Pornography and Prostitution (2012–2016).(8) There has not been an up-to-date National Strategy in place since 2011.(11)

According to census data from 2011, the most current data available, 147,604 individuals of Roma ethnicity, or 2.05 percent of the total population, reside in the country.(43) Research found that although the Government of Serbia has formulated strategies in the context of the Decade of Roma Inclusion, its commitment to implementation of these strategies has been low. In particular, the Strategy for the Improvement of the Status of Roma in the Republic of Serbia did not sufficiently address housing issues for Romani people in Serbia who have been forcibly evicted or are at risk of eviction from informal settlements.(33, 44-46)

National Plan of Action for Children and General Protocol on Child Protection from Abuse and Neglect (2005–2015) expired on December 31, 2015, and research found no indication that the Government started developing a new one during the reporting period.(11)

In 2015, the Government of Serbia funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Child Allowance Program†

Government cash benefits program for poor families, conditional on school enrollment for children ages 7 and older. Provides a regular allowance of approximately $25 per child, and $32 per child with single parents.  There is also an allotment for parents equal to $351 for single child families, $1,372 for families with two children, $2,471 with three, and $3,294 for four or more.(25, 38, 47)

Country Level Engagement and Assistance to Reduce Child Labor (CLEAR)*

USDOL-funded capacity building project implemented by the ILO in at least 10 countries to build local and national capacity of the Government to address child labor. Aims to improve legislation addressing child labor issues, including by bringing local or national laws into compliance with international standards; improve monitoring and enforcement of laws and policies related to child labor; develop, validate, adopt, and implement a National Action Plan on the elimination of child labor; and enhance the implementation of national and local policies and programs aimed at the reduction and prevention of child labor in Serbia.(48)

Global Research on Child Labor Measurement and Policy Development (MAP)

USDOL-funded research project implemented by the ILO in 10 countries, including Serbia, to increase the knowledge base around child labor by collecting new data, analyzing existing data, and building capacity of the Government to conduct research in this area.(49) In 2015, the project identified and provided training to an implementing partner in preparation for conducting a rapid assessment of child labor in the Roma community.(49)

Assistance to Roma Children in Education†

Ministry of Education program that seeks to improve the school attendance rate of Roma children. Includes a Serbian language training component to help Roma students integrate into the school environment.(25)

Programs Under the Social Security Law†

Government program that provides a range of social services, including assistance to trafficking victims.(50) Requires Social Services Centers in 140 communities to maintain 24-hour duty shifts in order to protect children from abuse and neglect, including Roma children.(8, 51)

Local Communities Against Trafficking†

$180,000 IOM and Swiss Development Agency-funded project, implemented by the MOI in collaboration with NGOs. Establishes multisector anti-trafficking teams to improve prevention and protection efforts at the local level.(52) Teams consist of representatives from local police departments, the Higher Public Prosecutor’s Office, the Social Welfare Center, the Red Cross, various health institutions, the local branch of the National Employment Agency, schools, civil society organizations, and other local authorities.(14, 31) There are 17 teams total throughout the country, however a source reported many of these teams were inactive in 2015.(38)

Strengthening the Identification and Protection of Victims of Trafficking

IOM, Center for Human Trafficking Victims’ Protection, and Ministry of Internal Affairs project that contributes to the implementation of the National Anti-Trafficking Strategy by improving mechanisms for the prevention and identification of victims of human trafficking. Establishes general and specific monitoring indicators.(14)

Anti-Trafficking Efforts†

Government programs that provide support to victims of human trafficking, including through maintaining a national anti-trafficking Web site and hotline; providing foreign and domestic trafficking victims with access to social services and medical care, as well as witness and victim protection services; and providing accommodation for child trafficking victims in two Centers for Children Without Parental Care.(17, 31, 53) Government officials reported that during 2015, migrants in Asylum Centers in Presevo and Subotica received informational materials on their rights and ways to report violations, including those involving human trafficking, from the Ministry of Labor, Employment, Veteran, and Social Affairs, and the Center for Human Trafficking Victims’ Protection.(11)

Protection for Street Children†

Government programs that establish teams within local centers for social services to provide protection for children living and working on the streets.(29) Teams include representatives from the MOI, health care professionals, educators, and social workers.(29) A total of 32 local governments established 92 teams; preparations for an additional 35 teams were ongoing.(29)

† Program is funded by the Government of Serbia.

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Serbia (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Enforcement

Ensure that labor inspectors have the necessary training, tools, and equipment to conduct thorough investigations on laws related to child labor.

2010 – 2015

Make information regarding child labor and criminal law enforcement, including the amount of funding for the Labor Inspectorate, the number of child labor violations for which penalties were imposed, whether unannounced inspections are permitted or conducted, the number of criminal law investigations conducted, and the number of criminal prosecutions initiated, publicly available.

2015

Ensure that the Labor Inspectorate has the ability to enter and inspect any registered or unregistered workplace for child labor violations, as guaranteed by law.

2014 – 2015

Ensure that local teams of police, prosecutors, social workers, health workers, and local NGOs to combat human trafficking are used in the police directorates in which they have been established.

2015

Ensure that staff members at the Center for Human Trafficking Victims’ Protection and Social Welfare Centers have sufficient capacity to address the specific needs of child trafficking victims.

2015

Coordination

Ensure that coordinating mechanisms to combat child labor, including its worst forms, such as the Council for Children’s Rights and the Council for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings, fulfill their mandate.

2013 – 2015

Ensure that the National Anti-Trafficking Coordinator has sufficient resources to effectively address key coordination issues such as police investigations, prosecutions, and the protection of trafficking victims, and increase the National Anti-Trafficking Coordinator’s independence.

2015

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into existing policies.

2013 – 2015

Adopt a new national strategy and action plan for preventing and combating human trafficking in Serbia.

2013 – 2015

Social Programs

Conduct comprehensive research to describe the specific work activities carried out by children in the agriculture, industry, and informal sectors to inform policy and program design.

2013 – 2015

Address barriers to education, including problems with safety; access and discrimination for children with disabilities; and access for migrant and minority populations, particularly unaccompanied minors, asylum seekers, and Roma, due in part to a lack of birth registration documentation, to reduce these children’s vulnerability to trafficking and labor exploitation.

2014 – 2015

Improve methods of educating and guiding families in need about the requirements for proper registration and documentation in order to receive social assistance; ensure that the revised registration procedures are implemented efficiently and properly.

2011 – 2015

Complete the necessary steps to make the Urgent Reception Center to protect child victims of human trafficking operational; ensure that it is fully funded to carry out its mission; and develop and implement procedures to address the specific needs of child trafficking victims.

2013 – 2015

Ensure that the Center for Human Trafficking Victims’ Protection and  Social Welfare Centers have adequate capacity to address the specialized needs of child trafficking victims, including  the ability to remove children from their families in cases when family members have participated in trafficking or exploiting a child.

2015

Implement the commitments of the Decade of Roma Inclusion by providing for basic needs, such as adequate housing for Roma families that face eviction or have been evicted.

2011 – 2015

 

 

1.         ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Serbia (ratification: 2003) Published: 2012; accessed January 13, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:11003:0::NO:::.

2.         U.S. Department of State. "Serbia," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015. Washington, DC; July 27, 2015; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2015/243523.htm.

3.         U.S. Embassy- Belgrade. reporting, February 1, 2016.

4.         UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed December 16, 2015]; http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. Because the calculation includes all new entrants to last grade (regardless of age), the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

5.         UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 3, 2005. Analysis received January 16, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children’s work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor.  For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” section of this report.

6.         ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Serbia (ratification: 2000) Published: 2012; accessed November 26, 2013; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:11003:0::NO:::.

7.         U.S. Department of State. "Serbia," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2014. Washington, DC; June 25, 2015; http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/236786.pdf.

8.         Government of the Republic of Serbia. reporting, January 28, 2014.

9.         Sicurella, F. Belgrade and its street children. Rovereto, Osservatorio balcani e caucaso; April 10, 2013. http://www.balcanicaucaso.org/eng/Regions-and-countries/Serbia/Belgrade-and-its-street-children-133529.

10.       Atina official. Interview with USDOL official. April 8, 2014.

11.       U.S. Embassy- Belgrade. reporting, January 15, 2016.

12.       UN Committee on Economic, SaCR. Concluding Observations on the Second Periodic Report of Serbia. Geneva; July 10, 2014. Report No. E/C.12/SRB/CO/2. http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=E/C.12/SRB/CO/2.

13.       Tanjug. "Serbia Mulls Harsher Penalties for Human Trafficking." b92.net [online] October 15, 2012 [cited May 7, 2014]; http://www.b92.net/eng/news/society.php?yyyy=2012&mm=10&dd=15&nav_id=82667.

14.       Government of the Republic of Serbia. reporting, February 2, 2015.

15.       Human Rights Watch. Serbia: Police Abusing Migrants, Asylum Seekers. New York; April 15, 2015. https://www.hrw.org/news/2015/04/15/serbia-police-abusing-migrants-asylum-seekers.

16.       U.S. Embassy- Belgrade. reporting, December 9, 2015.

17.       U.S. Embassy- Belgrade official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 1, 2013.

18.       Belgrade Centre for Human Rights. Human Rights in Serbia 2014. Belgrade; 2015. http://www.bgcentar.org.rs/bgcentar/eng-lat/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/Human-Rights-in-Serbia-2014.pdf.

19.       U.S. Department of Labor. Roundtable on the worst forms of child labor. Travel notes. Washington, DC; April 8, 2014.

20.       Government of Serbia. Constitution of the Republic of Serbia, enacted November 8, 2006. http://legislationline.org/documents/action/popup/id/8851/preview.

21.       Government of Serbia. Labor Law of the Republic of Serbia, enacted March 15, 2005. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/travail/docs/2403/Labour%20Law%20Republic%20of%20Serbia.pdf.

22.       Government of Serbia. Criminal Code of the Republic of Serbia, enacted February 28, 2006. http://legislationline.org/documents/section/criminal-codes.

23.       Government of Serbia. Law on Military, Labour and Material Obligation, No. 88/2009, enacted 2009. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/MONOGRAPH/85340/95502/F1500276614/SRB85340%20English.pdf.

24.       Child Soldiers International. Louder than Words, An agenda  for action to end state use of child soldiers. London; 2012. http://www.child-soldiers.org/publications_archive.php.

25.       U.S. Embassy- Belgrade official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 9, 2014.

26.       Government of Serbia. Law on the Army, enacted December 11, 2007. http://www.vs.rs/content/attachments/zakon_o_vojsci_srbije_sa_izmenama_i_dopunama.pdf.

27.       Government of Serbia. The Law on the Foundations of the Education System, enacted 2002. http://www.seio.gov.rs/upload/documents/ekspertske%20misije/protection_of_minorities/the_law_on_education_system.pdf.

28.       World Bank. Official entrance age to primary education. June 22, 2016. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.PRM.AGES/countries/1W?display=default.

29.       Government of the Republic of Serbia. reporting, January 23, 2015.

30.       Government of Serbia, Ministry of Interior, and Anti-trafficking Coordinator official. Interview with USDOL official. April 8, 2014.

31.       U.S. Embassy- Belgrade. reporting, February 12, 2015.

32.       U.S. Embassy- Belgrade. reporting, February 6, 2014.

33.       U.S. Embassy- Belgrade official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 26, 2015.

34.       U.S. Embassy- Belgrade. reporting, January 12, 2015.

35.       U.S. Embassy- Belgrade. reporting, January 31, 2013.

36.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Labour Inspection Convention, 1947 (No. 81) Serbia (ratification: 2000) Published: 2012; accessed July 2, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID,P11110_COUNTRY_ID,P11110_COUNTRY_NAME,P11110_COMMENT_YEAR:2698523,102839,Serbia,2011.

37.       ASTRA. Position of Trafficking Victims in Court Proceedings: Analysis of judicial practice for 2015. Belgrade; June 2016.

38.       U.S. Embassy- Belgrade official. E-mail communication to official U. June 7, 2016.

39.       Government of Serbia. Strategy for Improvement of the Status of Roma in the Republic of Serbia. Belgrade; 2010. http://www.inkluzija.gov.rs/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/Strategija-EN-web-FINAL.pdf.

40.       Group of Experts on Action Against Trafficking in Human Beings (GRETA). Report Concerning the Implementation of the Council of Europe Convention on Action Against Trafficking in Human Beings by Serbia. Strasbourg; January 16, 2014. http://www.coe.int/t/dghl/monitoring/trafficking/Docs/Reports/GRETA_2013_19_FGR_SRB_public_en.pdf.

41.       Government of Serbia. Anti-Discrimination Strategy, enacted 2013-2018. http://www.seio.gov.rs/upload/documents/ekspertske%20misije/2014/ad_strategzy.pdf.

42.       Group of Experts on Action Against Trafficking in Human Beings (GRETA). Reply form Serbia to the Questionnaire for the evaluation of the implementation of the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings by the Parties. Strasbourg; February 4, 2014. http://www.coe.int/t/dghl/monitoring/trafficking/Source/Public_R_Q/GRETA_2013_3_RQ_SRB_public.pdf.

43.       Government of Serbia, OfHaMR. Questionnaire of the Special Rapporteur on minority issues to Member States. Belgrade; April 6, 2015. https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwj--fPorKDMAhVJGh4KHenmDDIQFggcMAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ohchr.org%2FEN%2FHRBodies%2FHRC%2FRegularSessions%2FSession29%2FDocuments%2FA_HRC_29_24_E.doc&usg=AFQjCNEt8SqncPU04jKHJyba6nYDRBiwdg.

44.       Amnesty International. Serbia: Submission to the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 52nd Session. London; May 2014. Report No. EUR 70/008/2014. https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/eur70/008/2014/en/.

45.       Serbia: Evicted Roma families finally granted access to water, Amnesty International, [online] July 19, 2012 [cited May 7, 2014]; http://www.amnestyusa.org/news/news-item/serbia-evicted-roma-families-finally-granted-access-to-water.

46.       Amnesty International. Serbia: Two years after Belvil forced evistion, Roma still wait for adequate housing. Public Statement. London; April 25, 2014. http://www.amnesty.nl/sites/default/files/public/eur700152012en.pdf.

47.       USAID. Promising Approaches - Adressing child trafficking in Europe and Eurasia - Final Report. Washington, DC; February 2013. http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/pnaeb806.pdf.

48.       ILO-IPEC. ILO-IPEC Technical Progress Report CLEAR Global Project; October 2015.

49.       ILO-IPEC. ILO-IPEC Technical Progress Report MAP Global Project; October 2015.

50.       U.S. Embassy- Belgrade. reporting, February 14, 2013.

51.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Serbia (ratification: 2003) Published : 2014; accessed November 24, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/english/iloquery.htm.

52.       U.S. Embassy- Belgrade. reporting, January 17, 2014.

53.       U.S. Embassy- Belgrade. reporting, February 22, 2012.

 

Related Content