Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Senegal

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Senegal

2016 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Minimal Advancement

In 2016, Senegal made a minimal advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. In June, the Government launched an initiative to remove tailbés from the street and prosecute marabouts that perpetrate crimes against their students; however, no marabouts were prosecuted during the reporting period. Children in Senegal perform dangerous tasks in gold mining. Children also engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in forced begging, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Criminal and labor law enforcement agencies lack adequate resources to effectively carry out their work, and redundancy among coordinating bodies to combat child labor hinders effective collaboration. Further, types of hazardous work prohibited for children do not include domestic work and street work, areas where there is evidence of harm to children engaged in child labor.

Expand All

Children in Senegal perform dangerous tasks in gold mining.(1-13) Children in Senegal also engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in forced begging, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Senegal.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

22.3 (4,255,365)

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

53.0

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

13.9

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

57.2

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2015, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2016.(14)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Demographic and Health Survey, 2015.(15) Data on working children, school attendance, and children combining work and school are not comparable with data published in the previous version of this report because of differences between surveys used to collect the data.

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Herding cattle (16-18)

Fishing, activities unknown (16-18)

Farming, including the production of cotton, rice, peanuts, and mangoes (2, 7, 17-19)

Industry

Washing ore, crushing rocks, and carrying heavy loads† while mining gold, iron, and salt, and quarrying rock (4, 17-23)

Welding and auto repair (17-19)

Services

Domestic work (2, 4, 11, 17-19, 24)

Street work, including vending (2, 18, 25)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Forced domestic work, gold mining, fishing, and farming, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (7, 10, 11, 22, 26, 27)

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2, 10, 11, 23, 28)

Forced begging, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1, 2, 4-13, 17-19, 26, 27, 29)

Forced labor in garbage collection (30)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

Senegalese boys and girls are subjected to domestic servitude, forced labor in gold mines, and sex trafficking. Internal trafficking is more prevalent than transnational trafficking.(11, 26, 27) In Senegal, it is a traditional practice to send boys to Koranic schools, called daaras, for education. However, instead of receiving an education, many students, known as talibés, are forced to beg by their teachers, known as marabouts.(8, 12, 27, 31-34) The marabouts take the talibés’ earnings and often beat those who fail to meet the daily quota.(4, 8, 9, 13, 31, 33, 34) The talibés often live in overcrowded, unsanitary conditions, receive inadequate food and medical care, and are vulnerable to physical and sexual abuse.(8, 9, 12, 30, 34, 35) They typically come from rural areas in Senegal and from neighboring countries, sometimes as a result of human trafficking.(8, 9, 32, 34, 36, 37) In June 2016, President Macky Sall announced and launched an initiative to remove tailbés from the street and prosecute marabouts that perpetrate crimes against their students; however, in 2016, no marabouts were prosecuted. As of November, the Government conducted 57 operations, removing 1,186 children from the streets and reuniting 1,086 of them with their families, although some of these children were eventually returned by their parents to daaras.(18, 38-41) A 2014 daara-mapping study estimated that 30,000 of the estimated 54,800 talibés in Dakar are forced to beg, and a 2016 study found that 9,000 of the estimated 14,000 talibés in the St. Louis department are also forced to beg.(18, 38-47)

A variety of factors remain as barriers to education, forcing some students to quit school. These barriers include school-related fees, a lack of birth registration documents, a lack of teachers and rural schools. Some girls reportedly quit school due to sexual harassment, including by teachers, and as a result of early pregnancy.(2, 10, 17, 45, 48, 49)

Senegal has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Senegal’s legal framework to adequately protect children from child labor.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Article L. 145 of the Labor Code; Article 6 of the Decree Establishing the Scale of Penalties for Violations of the Labor Code and Associated Rules for Application (50, 51)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 1 of the Ministerial Order Determining and Prohibiting the Worst Forms of Child Labor; Article 1 of the Ministerial Order Determining the Types of Hazardous Work Prohibited for Children and Youth; Article 1 of the Ministerial Order Determining the Categories of Business and Work Prohibited to Children and Youth (52-54)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Article 2 of the Ministerial Order Determining and Prohibiting the Worst Forms of Child Labor; Article 2 of the Ministerial Order Determining the Types of Hazardous Work Prohibited to Children and Youth; Article 2 of the Ministerial Order Determining the Categories of Business and Work Prohibited to Children and Youth (52-54)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article L. 4 of the Labor Code; Article 2 of the Ministerial Order Determining and Prohibiting the Worst Forms of Child Labor; Article 1 of the Law Concerning the Fight Against Trafficking in Persons and Similar Practices and the Protection of Victims (50, 54, 55)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 1 of the Law Concerning the Fight Against Trafficking in Persons and Similar Practices and the Protection of Victims (55)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 2 of the Ministerial Order Determining and Prohibiting the Worst Forms of Child Labor; Articles 323 and 324 of the Penal Code (52, 56)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 2 of the Ministerial Order Determining and Prohibiting the Worst Forms of Child Labor (54)

Minimum Age for Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

N/A*

 

 

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Article 19 of Law N° 2008-28 (57, 58)

Non-state Compulsory

No

 

 

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

16

Article 3 of Law N° 2004-37 (59)

Free Public Education

Yes

18

Article 3 of Law N° 2004-37; Articles 21 and 22 of the Constitution (59, 60)

* No conscription (18)

A revision of the Labor Code that is still under consideration by the National Assembly includes an amendment to raise the minimum age of work from age 15 to age 16 and to establish harsher penalties for subjecting children to the worst forms of child labor.(58, 61) Further, a law was drafted in 2013 to improve the regulation of daaras as part of the voluntary Daara Modernization Program, which would require participating schools to submit to state inspections, adhere to a basic education curriculum, and, as a condition for receiving subsidies, formally halt the practice of forced begging; however, the impact of this measure on forced child begging remains uncertain due to its voluntary implementation.(9, 11, 30, 34, 40, 41, 62, 63) Legislation is also pending to establish a Children’s Ombudsman and a Children’s Code.(47) Government officials, the UNODC, UNICEF, and local NGOs have stated that these measures may not be severe enough to deter employers from exploiting children, particularly because the penalties are rarely enforced.(3) Further, the types of hazardous work prohibited for children do not include domestic work and street work, areas where there is evidence of potential harm to children engaged in child labor. Senegalese law does not criminally prohibit the recruitment of children under 18 into non-state armed groups.(18, 52-54)

The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5). However, gaps in labor law and criminal law enforcement remain and some enforcement information is not available.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor, Social Dialogue, Professional Organizations, and Institutional Relations (MOL)

Enforce child labor laws through the Labor Inspections Office and by using social security inspectors.(3, 64)

Ministry of Justice (MOJ)

Enforce all laws, including those on child trafficking and forced labor, and prosecute violations.(19) Train police and judiciary on laws related to human trafficking and forced begging.(9) Through its Department of Correctional Education and Social Protection, help develop draft texts in the field of social protection and juvenile delinquency; strengthen the capacity of stakeholders to care for children; and share responsibility with the Ministry of Women, Family, and Children (MWFC) to provide services to vulnerable children.(29, 63, 65, 66)

Ministry of the Interior and Public Security

Oversee all law enforcement agencies, including the local and national police officials who intervene in cases of human trafficking, and arrest perpetrators of the worst forms of child labor. Refer cases to social services providers.(19, 26, 58, 67) House the Children’s Unit, located in Dakar, which employs three officers who specialize in child protection, victim identification, and reinsertion.(26, 29, 58) Through its Children’s Unit, receive assistance from the Vice Squad in child protection cases.(68)

Ministry of Women, Family, and Children (MWFC)

Contribute to the creation and implementation of child protection policies, and provide services to victims of exploitative child labor.(69) Operate the Ginddi center for vulnerable children and a toll-free child protection hotline through which the public can report child labor abuses.(29, 30)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2016, labor law enforcement agencies in Senegal took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$90,000 (19)

$143,000 (18)

Number of Labor Inspectors

90 (19)

99 (18)

Number of Child Labor Dedicated Inspectors

 

2 (18)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (19)

Yes (18)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (19)

Yes (18)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

Yes (19)

N/A (18)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (19)

No (41)

Number of Labor Inspections

Unknown

1,931 (41)

Number Conducted at Worksite

Unknown

1,931 (18)

Number Conducted by Desk Reviews

Unknown

0 (18)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown (19)

Unknown (18)

Number of Child Labor Violations for Which Penalties Were Imposed

Unknown (19)

Unknown (18)

Number of Penalties Imposed that Were Collected

Unknown (19)

0 (18)

Routine Inspections Conducted

No (19)

Yes (18)

Routine Inspections Targeted

N/A (19)

Yes (18)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (19, 50)

Yes (18)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (19)

Yes (18)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

Yes (70)

No (41)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

Yes (66)

No (18)

 

All new labor inspectors are trained at the National Administration School, which includes a module on the worst forms of child labor and a consultation with members of the National Committee Against Child Labor.(19, 26) All regional inspectorates also receive yearly refresher training from the Ministry of Labor, Social Dialogue, Professional Organizations, and Institutional Relations (MOL) Directorate General of Labor and Social Security.(19) The number of labor inspectors is insufficient for the size of Senegal’s workforce, which includes over 6 million workers. According to the ILO’s recommendation of 1 inspector for every 40,000 workers in less developed economies, Senegal should employ roughly 158 inspectors. The MOL acknowledged that the current number of labor inspectors is insufficient; it also noted that a high turnover rate and significant reduction in its funding level had further hindered the labor inspectorate’s capacity to enforce child labor laws.(18, 19, 71)

Research indicates that the lack of enforcement in the informal sector, in which most children are employed, hampers the labor inspectorate’s enforcement of child labor laws.(11, 19, 45, 64) Although Article L. 241 of the Labor Code grants inspectors the authority to assess penalties for all offenses, they typically do so only for minor offenses and refer the more serious infractions to the courts for determination of penalties.(19, 50, 61) Courts may require violations to be resolved through conciliation at the labor inspectorate or refer cases to a tribunal for judgment.(19) During the reporting period, the Ginddi Center’s child protection hotline was operational; however, the total number of calls was unknown. Furthermore, it is not clear how many cases of child labor were identified as a result of these calls.(11)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2016, criminal law enforcement agencies in Senegal took actions to combat the worst forms of child labor (Table 7).

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2015

2016

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (19)

Yes (18)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Yes (19)

N/A (18)

Refresher Courses Provided

Yes (19, 26, 72)

No (18)

Number of Investigations

Unknown (19)

Unknown (18)

Number of Violations Found

14 (19)

Unknown (18)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

1 (9)

Unknown (18)

Number of Convictions

1 (9, 26)

Unknown (18)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

Yes (19)

No (18)

 

The entities responsible for enforcing laws against the worst forms of child labor are primarily concentrated in Dakar and Thiès, so enforcement is limited outside of the capital.(9, 73) Although police stations in Senegal are expected to report cases involving children to the Ministry of the Interior and Public Security's Children's Unit, research found no evidence that this occurs regularly.(68, 73)

The Government reported that existing laws are sufficient to effectively prosecute and punish individuals who use talibés for personal profit.(1, 9, 26, 30, 74) However, the courts have had limited success in prosecuting cases related to forced begging, partly due to a perceived lack of political support, cultural norms, and pressure from influential Koranic teachers who support this practice, particularly in rural areas, along with a lack of coordination and resource constraints.(26, 61, 72, 75-77) In addition, police rarely investigated cases of forced begging or brought them to the courts for prosecution.(41) Further, some courts and law enforcement officials are not aware that the Law Concerning the Fight Against Trafficking in Persons, which prohibits forced begging, does not conflict with the Penal Code, which permits begging for religious purposes on specific days.(56, 61, 72)

The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Committee Against Child Labor

Coordinate initiatives, policies, and partnerships with civil society organizations to address child labor, including the National Action Plan on the Prevention and Abolition of Child Labor in Senegal (PCNPETE). Chaired by the MOL and includes representatives from three ministries, the police, and elected officials.(26, 78-80)

Inter-Ministerial Commission

Coordinate implementation of the National Strategy on Child Protection and its related action plan.(3)

National Task Force Against Trafficking in Persons (CNLTP)

Report on human trafficking in Senegal, with a focus on women and children; coordinate the implementation of the National Action Plan on Combating Trafficking in Persons and other efforts to prevent human trafficking; prosecute perpetrators; and protect victims.(58, 63, 81-83) Chaired by the MOJ and employs five staff members.(9, 26, 63)

Office of the President’s Childhood Protection Unit

Coordinate government efforts related to child protection, including through the implementation of the National Strategy on Child Protection.(63, 84) Reports directly to the President of Senegal.(68, 84) Contribute to the creation and implementation of child protection policies, and develop a national system for collecting and disseminating data about vulnerable children. Advocate on behalf of all entities working on issues related to child begging, violence against children, and child labor.(84)

 

Funding for the National Task Force Against Trafficking in Persons and a lack of support from all levels of the Government remained unresolved. Redundancy among the activities of the coordinating bodies also creates confusion and obstructs effective collaboration and implementation of efforts.(26, 27, 41, 58, 67, 80)

The Government has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 9).

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor‡

Policy

Description

National Action Plan on the Prevention and Abolition of Child Labor in Senegal (2012–2016)

Aims to raise awareness of child labor issues; reinforce the capacity of law enforcement officials and civil society organizations; increase educational and training opportunities for youth; and improve the legal framework on child labor, including its worst forms.(1, 16, 25, 85-87) In 2016, research was unable to determine whether any actions were undertaken.(41)

National Strategy on Child Protection

Aims to establish an integrated national social protection system and specifically identifying the issue of child begging through an action plan with a recommended budget of $18 million.(16, 30) Implemented through Child Protection Committees (CDPEs), currently established in 24 prefectures, which refer victims to social services, assist law enforcement with reintegrating child trafficking victims.(16, 26, 29) In 2016, the Government maintained 40 CDPEs.(40)

National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Human Beings (2015–2017)

Aims to strengthen the legal framework to prevent human trafficking, build capacity by training enforcement officials and working with religious leaders, provide protection and judicial remediation for victims, and improve monitoring and evaluation of the National Action Plan.(26, 88) Implemented by the CNLTP.(28) In 2016, the Partnership for the Rescue and Rehabilitation of Street Children and the National Framework Plan for the Eradication of Child Begging were merged into this plan.(1, 16, 29, 30, 41, 74, 83)

‡ The Government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor.(26)

The Government has not included child labor elimination and prevention strategies in both the Plan Sénégal Emergent and the Program to Improve the Quality, Equality, and Transparence of the Education Sector (2013–2025).

In 2016, the Government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms (Table 10).

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Project to Fight Against Trafficking and the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2013–2019)†

MWFC program that aims to raise awareness about forced begging and assist victims of child labor.(29, 36) During the reporting period, the program was renewed until 2019.(41)

National Program of Family Assistance Bursaries (2013–2017)†

Part of PCNPETE, a social safety net program that provides conditional cash transfers to vulnerable families who keep their children in school.(19, 25, 83, 89-92) In 2016, research indicated that the program continued activities.(41)

Daara Modernization Program†

$18.5 million Government-funded voluntary program implemented by Tostan andLa Rencontre Africaine pour la Défense des Droits d’Homme (RADDHO) that aims to regulate, inspect, and fund daaras and eliminate forced begging.(41, 93, 94) A mapping of daaras in the Dakar region in 2014 registered 1,006 daaras with 54,837 talibés, including 38,079 boys and 16,758 girls.(46) A mapping of Senegal's northern Saint-Louis department in 2016 counted more than 200 daaras and 14,000 talibés, with more than 9,000 children compelled to beg.(47) The Ministry of Education signed an accord with the Senegalese Association of Koranic Schools to rehabilitate and equip 90 daaras; its Funds for Koranic Schools program also developed a secular curriculum and works with religious institutions to remove children from street begging and exploitative situations.(29, 64) In 2016, a legal framework was established and the Islamic Development Bank pledged funds.(41)

Ginddi Center†

The MWFC-run shelter serves abused and vulnerable children, including runaway talibés, street children, and child trafficking victims.(5, 29, 30, 64, 65, 67) Provides food, education, vocational training, family mediation, and medical and psychological care.(5, 26, 65, 67) In 2016, research indicated that the center continued activities.(41)

Government of Senegal-funded centers to address child trafficking†

The MOJ runs transit houses in Dakar, Pikine, and Saint-Louis that provide monitoring, education, and rehabilitation and reintegration services for victims of child trafficking.(26) In 2016, research indicated that the centers continued activities.(41)

† Program is funded by the Government of Senegal.
‡ The Government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms.(18)

Although the Government of Senegal has implemented programs to address child trafficking and forced begging, research found no evidence that the Government has carried out programs to assist children in domestic work, agriculture, or mining.(10, 19, 30, 67, 86)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Senegal (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that penalties for child labor violations, including the worst forms, are stringent enough to serve as a deterrent.

2014 – 2016

Ensure that the types of hazardous work prohibited for children are comprehensive.

2016

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under 18 by non-state armed groups.

2016

Enforcement

Publish information on labor law enforcement efforts related to child labor, including the number of violations found and penalties imposed.

2013 – 2016

Increase the number of labor inspectors responsible for enforcing laws related to child labor to meet the ILO recommendation, and ensure adequate labor inspectorate funding.

2010 – 2016

Strengthen the labor inspectorate by proactively planning labor inspections, including in the informal economy.

2014 – 2016

Ensure that law enforcement officials and judges know how to appropriately apply the Law Concerning the Fight Against Trafficking in Persons, and that all penalties are applied according to the law, including those against forced begging.

2010 – 2016

Establish a mechanism to log all calls to the MWFC child protection hotline and track cases of child labor for referral to law enforcement or social services providers.

2014 – 2016

Ensure that criminal law investigators and labor inspectors receive refresher training on laws related to the worst forms of child labor.

2016

Establish a formal and reciprocal referral mechanism between labor law enforcement and criminal law enforcement agencies and social services.

2016

Publish information on the criminal enforcement of child labor laws, including the number of investigations, violations found, prosecutions initiated, and convictions.

2016

Coordination

Ensure the effectiveness of coordinating mechanisms on child labor by providing adequate resources, support, and distinct scopes of responsibility.

2010 – 2016

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the Plan Sénégal Emergent and the Program to Improve the Quality, Equality, and Transparence of the Education Sector.

2013 – 2016

Take steps to implement National Action Plan on the Prevention and Abolition of Child Labor in Senegal (PCNPETE).

2016

Social Programs

Ensure that all children have access to education by eliminating school-related fees, building schools in rural areas, training additional teachers, ensuring that all children have access to birth registration, and ensuring that schools are free from sexual abuse.

2011 – 2016

Institute programs to address child labor in domestic work, agriculture, and mining, and ensure that adequate funding is available to support existing programs targeting the worst forms of child labor, including forced begging.

2010 – 2016

1.         ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation Concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Senegal (ratification: 2000) Published: 2014; accessed April 8, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3142838:YES.

2.         UNICEF. Situation des Enfants au Sénégal: Une Analyse des Évolutions Récentes pour une Société plus Équitable pour les Enfants. May 2013. [Source on file].

3.         U.S. Embassy- Dakar. reporting, January 20, 2015.

4.         Diatta, JM. "Afrique: Mendicité des enfants, emploi domestique, exploitation dans les mines - Les pires formes de traite des êtres humains." allafrica.com [online] July 31, 2014 [cited January 15, 2015]; http://fr.allafrica.com/stories/201407311310.html.

5.         ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation Concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Senegal (ratification: 2000) Published: 2013; accessed December 2, 2013; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3080733:YES.

6.         UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 9 of the Convention: Concluding Observations: Senegal. Geneva; August 31, 2012. Report No. CERD/C/SEN/CO/16-18. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CERD/C/SEN/CO/16-18&Lang=Sp.

7.         Brandt, S. Trafficking in Child Labor in Ghana and Senegal; 2015. http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1010&context=humtrafcon6.

8.         Anadolu Agency. Begging among children growing problem in Senegal, dailysabah.com, [online] September 15, 2015 [cited November 4, 2015]; http://www.dailysabah.com/life/2015/09/16/begging-among-children-growing-problem-in-senegal.

9.         Human Rights Watch. Senegal: Decade of Abuse in Quranic Schools. online; November 4, 2015. https://www.hrw.org/news/2015/04/20/senegal-decade-abuse-quranic-schools.

10.       UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women. Concluding Observations on the Combined Third to Seventh Periodic Reports of Senegal; July 28, 2015. Report No. CEDAW/C/SEN/CO/3-7. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CEDAW/C/SEN/CO/3-7&Lang=En.

11.       U.S. Department of State. "Senegal," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016. Washington, DC; June 30, 2016; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2016/index.htm.

12.       Traoré, K. "Sénégal : la mort d’un jeune talibé relance le débat sur le sort des enfants de la rue." afrik.com [online] July 29, 2015 [cited June 10, 2017]; http://www.afrik.com/senegal-la-mort-d-un-jeune-talibe-relance-le-debat-sur-le-sort-des-enfants-de-la-rue.

13.       Monégier, P. "Sénégal : les enfants talibés des rues de Dakar," Envoyé spécial. Paris: Francetv info; June 12, 2015; 01 min., 50 sec., television broadcast; [cited November 4, 2015]; http://www.francetvinfo.fr/replay-magazine/france-2/envoye-special/video-senegal-les-enfants-talibes-des-rues-de-dakar_948013.html.

14.       UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). [Accessed December 16, 2016] http://data.uis.unesco.org/. Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. This ratio is the total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population at the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary education. A high ratio indicates a high degree of current primary education completion. The calculation includes all new entrants to the last grade (regardless of age). Therefore, the ratio can exceed 100 percent, due to over-aged and under-aged children who enter primary school late/early and/or repeat grades. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

15.       UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Demographic and Health Survey, 2015. Analysis received April 13, 2017. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children's work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information, please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

16.       U.S. Embassy- Dakar. reporting, February 5, 2014.

17.       U.S. Department of State. "Senegal," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2015. Washington, DC; April 14, 2016; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2015&dlid=252721.

18.       U.S. Embassy- Dakar. reporting, March 10, 2017.

19.       U.S. Embassy- Dakar. reporting, January 16, 2016.

20.       UNODC official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. January 15, 2014.

21.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request Concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Senegal (ratification: 2000) Published: 2014; accessed April 8, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3142835:YES.

22.       Barroux, R. "Au Sénégal, l’enfer des mines d’or pour des centaines d’enfants." Le Monde, Paris, June 16, 2014; Planète. http://www.lemonde.fr/planete/article/2014/06/16/au-senegal-l-enfer-des-mines-d-or-pour-des-centaines-d-enfants_4438916_3244.html.

23.       U.S. Embassy- Dakar official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 11, 2016.

24.       Agence Nationale de la Statistique et de la Démographie, and ICF International. Enquête Démographique et de Santé Continue (EDS-Continue) 2014. Rockville, MD; May 2015. http://www.dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR305/FR305.pdf.

25.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation Concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Senegal (ratification: 1999) Published: 2014; accessed October 28, 2014; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:13100:0::NO::P13100_COMMENT_ID:3142787.

26.       U.S. Embassy- Dakar. reporting, February 29, 2016.

27.       Wane, M. Rapport Atelier de Planification Stratégique de Lutte Contre la Traite des Personnes 2015-2017. Dakar, Cellule Nationale de Lutte contre la Traite des Personnes; June 2015. [Source on file].

28.       U.S. Embassy- Dakar. reporting, February 17, 2015.

29.       Government of Senegal. Communication sur la Protection et le Promotion des Droits des Enfants Migrants. Geneva, Embassy of the Republic of Senegal; June 23, 2014. http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Migration/GA69thSession/Senegal.pdf.

30.       Human Rights Watch. Exploitation in the Name of Education: Uneven Progress in Ending Forced Child Begging in Senegal. United States of America; March 2014. http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/senegal0314_ForUpload.pdf.

31.       Hussain, M. "Senegalese children forced to beg by renegade teachers' betrayal of principle." The Guardian, London, December 11, 2012; Global Development. http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2012/dec/11/senegalese-children-forced-beg-renegade-teachers.

32.       Daily Mail. "Guinea-Bissau smashes child trafficking ring: police." dailymail.co.uk [online] March 8, 2015 [cited June 14, 2017]; http://www.dailymail.co.uk/wires/afp/article-2985217/Guinea-Bissau-smashes-child-trafficking-ring-police.html.

33.       Elsen, W. "Talibé," Journeyman Pictures; December 4, 2015; 24 min., film; http://www.journeyman.tv/69416/short-films/talibe-hd.html.

34.       Cruz, M. "The Truth About Child Trafficking in Senegal." newsweek.com [online] February 17, 2016 [cited February 19, 2016]; http://www.newsweek.com/senegal-child-trafficking-koranic-boarding-school-daaras-427621.

35.       Mario Cruz, and Mirren Gidda. "Senegal: School of Knocks." Newsweek, Washington DC, June 8, 2016. http://newsweekme.com/senegal-school-of-knocks/.

36.       U.S. Embassy- Dakar. reporting, March 2, 2011.

37.       Diallo, A. "Trafic d'Enfants : Plusieurs Véhicules Transportant 48 Enfants Interceptés à la Frontière Guinéo-Sénégalaise." cridem.org [online] January 14, 2016 [cited June 10, 2017]; http://www.cridem.org/C_Info.php?article=679603.

38.       Agence France-Presse. "Senegal Cracks Down on Child Begging." enca.com [online] July 23, 2016 [cited October 27, 2016]; http://www.enca.com/africa/senegalese-authorities-aim-to-end-child-begging.

39.       Ba, M. "Sénégal : la Décision de Macky Sall de Retirer les Enfants Talibés des Rues sera Difficile à Mettre en Pratique." jeuneafrique.com [online] July 13, 2016 [cited October 27, 2016]; http://www.jeuneafrique.com/mag/340256/societe/senegal-decision-de-macky-sall-de-retirer-enfants-talibes-rues-sera-difficile-a-mettre-pratique/.

40.       U.S. Embassy- Dakar. reporting, February 15, 2017.

41.       U.S. Embassy- Dakar official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 5, 2017.

42.       Guilbert, K. "Can Senegal Stop Child Begging Trafficking By Islamic Teachers?" news.trust.org [online] November 16, 2016 [cited June 14, 2017]; http://news.trust.org/item/20161116095639-ejnrk/.

43.       Guilbert, K. "Sweeping Child Beggars Off Senegal's Streets." afreuters.com [online] July 4, 2016 [cited June 14, 2017]; http://af.reuters.com/article/commoditiesNews/idAFL8N19Q1Y5.

44.       Mateso, M. "Sénégal : le Président Macky Sall s’Attaque à l’Esclavage Moderne des Enfants." geopolitis.francetvinfo.fr [online] July 8, 2016 [cited October 27, 2016]; http://geopolis.francetvinfo.fr/senegal-le-president-macky-sall-s-attaque-a-l-esclavage-moderne-des-enfants-111527.

45.       U.S. Department of State. "Senegal," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2016. Washington, DC; March 2, 2017; https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265506.pdf.

46.       Government of Senegal. Cartographie des Écoles Coraniques de la région de Dakar. Ministry of Justicce, 2014. [Source on file].

47.       Human Rights Watch. "New Steps to Protect Talibés, Street Children." Human Rights Watch [online] July 28, 2016 [cited June 14, 2017]; https://www.hrw.org/news/2016/07/28/senegal-new-steps-protect-talibes-street-children.

48.       Sidy, A. "Pauvreté, Travail Précoce, Malnutrition, Exclusion du Systeme Éducatif, etc.: Le Sénégal Peine à Bercer ses Enfants." seneweb.com [online] March 13, 2013 [cited March 1, 2016]; http://seneweb.com/news/Societe/pauvrete-travail-precoce-malnutrition-exclusion-du-systeme-educatif-etc-le-senegal-peine-a-bercer-ses-enfants_n_90549.html.

49.       Maillard, M. "Les Enfants Fantômes du Sénégal." lemonde.fr [online] August 3, 2016 [cited October 27, 2016]; http://www.lemonde.fr/afrique/article/2016/08/03/un-combat-pour-la-vie-3-les-enfants-fantomes-du-senegal_4977772_3212.html.

50.       Government of Senegal. Code du Travail, Law No. 97-17, enacted December 1, 1997. http://www.droit-afrique.com/images/textes/Senegal/Senegal%20-%20Code%20du%20travail.pdf.

51.       Government of Senegal. Décret Fixant l’Échelle des Peines de Simple Police Applicables aux Auteurs de Contraventions aux Dispositions du Code du Travail et des Réglements Prévus pour son Application, Decret No. 62-017, enacted January 22, 1962. [Source on file].

52.       Government of Senegal. Arrêté Ministériel n° 3750 MFPTEOP-DTSS en date du 6 juin 2003, Fixant la Nature des Travaux Dangereux Interdits aux Enfants et Jeunes Gens, enacted June 6, 2003. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/SERIAL/64611/64953/F1229124862/SEN64611.pdf.

53.       Government of Senegal. Arrêté Ministériel n° 3751 MFPTEOP-DTSS en date du 6 juin 2003, enacted June 6, 2003. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/SERIAL/64612/64952/F364251671/SEN64612.pdf.

54.       Government of Senegal. Arrêté Ministériel n° 3749 MFPTEOP-DTSS en date du 6 juin 2003, enacted June 6, 2003. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/SERIAL/64610/64951/F2020269921/SEN64610.pdf.

55.       Government of Senegal. Loi n° 2005-06 du 10 mai 2005 Relatif à la Lutte Contre la Traite des Personnes et Pratiques Assimilées et à la Protection des Victimes, enacted May 10, 2005. http://www.centif.sn/Loi_2005_06.pdf.

56.       Government of Senegal. Code Penal, Law No. 65-60, enacted July 21, 1965. http://www.wipo.int/edocs/lexdocs/laws/fr/sn/sn010fr.pdf.

57.       Government of Senegal. Loi n° 2008-28 du 28 Juillet 2008, enacted July 28, 2008. http://www.jo.gouv.sn/spip.php?article7178.

58.       U.S. Embassy- Dakar official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 18, 2015.

59.       Government of Senegal. Loi n° 2004-37 du 15 Décembre 2004, enacted December 15, 2004. http://www.jo.gouv.sn/spip.php?article2689.

60.       Government of Senegal. Constitution of the Republic of Senegal, enacted January 22, 2001. [Source on file].

61.       U.S. Embassy- Dakar official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 27, 2015.

62.       Government of Senegal. Projet de Loi Portant Statut du «Daara». Dakar; 2013. http://www.slideshare.net/asfiyahi99/projet-de-loi-statut-daara.

63.       U.S. Embassy- Dakar official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 12, 2016.

64.       U.S. Department of State. "Senegal," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2014. Washington, DC; June 25, 2015; http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2014humanrightsreport/index.htm#wrapper.

65.       Faye, S. La problématique des enfants de rue au Sénégal. Chicoutimi, Université du Québec à Chicoutimi; March 2, 2015. http://classiques.uqac.ca/contemporains/Faye_Saliou/problematique_enfants_de_rue_senegal/problematique_enfants_de_rue_senegal.pdf.

66.       Government of Senegal. Demander le placement d'un enfant mineur dans les centres spécialisés, Ministère de la Justice, [online] [cited December 16, 2015]; http://www.servicepublic.gouv.sn/index.php/demarche_administrative/demarche/1/367/7/50.

67.       U.S. Embassy- Dakar official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. January 25, 2016.

68.       U.S. Embassy- Dakar official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 12, 2016.

69.       Government of Senegal. Décret n°2014-874 Relatif aux Attributions du Ministre de la Femme, de la Famille et de l'Enfance, enacted July 22, 2014. [Source on file].

70.       U.S. Department of State. "Senegal," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2015. Washington, DC; July 27, 2015; http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2015/index.htm.

71.       UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 Statistical Annex; 2012. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_current/2012country_class.pdf. For analytical purposes, the Development Policy and Analysis Division (DPAD) of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat (UN/DESA) classifies all countries of the world into one of three broad categories: developed economies, economies in transition, and developing countries. The composition of these groupings is intended to reflect basic economic country conditions. Several countries (in particular the economies in transition) have characteristics that could place them in more than one category; however, for purposes of analysis, the groupings have been made mutually exclusive. The list of the least developed countries is decided upon by the United Nations Economic and Social Council and, ultimately, by the General Assembly, on the basis of recommendations made by the Committee for Development Policy. The basic criteria for inclusion require that certain thresholds be met with regard to per capita GNI, a human assets index and an economic vulnerability index. For the purposes of the Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Report, "developed economies" equate to the ILO’s classification of "industrial market economies; "economies in transition" to "transition economies," "developing countries" to "industrializing economies, and "the least developed countries" equates to "less developed countries." For countries that appear on both "developing countries" and "least developed countries" lists, they will be considered "least developed countries" for the purpose of calculating a "sufficient number" of labor inspectors.

72.       U.S. Embassy- Dakar official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. December 9, 2015.

73.       Government of Senegal. Cartographie et Analyse des Systèmes de Protection de l'Enfance au Senegal. Dakar, Ministère de la Famille, des Groupements Féminins et de la Protection de l’Enfance; Ministère de la Justice; and Cellule d’Appui à la Protection de l’Enfance; 2011. http://www.unicef.org/wcaro/english/Senegal_Carto_Analyse_Systemes_Prot_Enfant.pdf.

74.       UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. Concluding Observations Concerning the Sixteenth, Seventeenth and Eighteenth Periodic Reports of Senegal as Adopted by the Committee at its Eighty-first Session, Held from 6 to 31 August 2012. Geneva; October 24, 2012. Report No. CERD/C/SEN/CO/16-18. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CERD%2fC%2fSEN%2fCO%2f16-18&Lang=en.

75.       Child Rights International Network. Senegal: First steps taken to eradicate forced child begging in Quranic schools. London; August 7, 2015. https://www.crin.org/sites/default/files/senegal_talibes_case_study.pdf.

76.       U.S. Embassy- Dakar official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 5, 2016.

77.       U.S. Embassy- Dakar official. Email Communication to USDOL official. June 23, 2016.

78.       U.S. Embassy- Dakar. reporting, January 31, 2012.

79.       U.S. Embassy- Dakar. reporting, February 5, 2013.

80.       U.S. Embassy- Dakar official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 18, 2014.

81.       U.S. Embassy- Dakar. reporting, February 15, 2013.

82.       U.S. Embassy- Dakar. reporting, February 14, 2014.

83.       UN Human Rights Council. National Report Submitted in Accordance with Paragraph 5 of the Annex to Human Rights Council Resolution 16/21, October 21 - November 1, 2013. Geneva; 2013. https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G13/157/12/PDF/G1315712.pdf?OpenElement.

84.       Government of Senegal. "Présentation de la CAPE." [online] March 1, 2016 [cited http://www.cape.gouv.sn/-Decouvrir-la-CAPE-.html.

85.       Government of Senegal. Plan Cadre National de Prévention et d'Élimination du Travail des Enfants au Sénégal (2012-2016). Dakar, Ministère de la Fonction Publique, du Travail et des Relations avec les Institutions, Direction Générale du Travail et de la Sécurité Sociale, and Direction des Relations de Travail et des Organisations Professionnelles; October, 2012. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/94517/110939/F962833257/SEN-94517.pdf.

86.       ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request Concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Senegal (ratification: 2000) Published: 2013; accessed December 02, 2013; http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3080730:YES.

87.       EnQuete+. "Lutte Contre le Travail des Enfants au Sénégal; 37% des Enfants sont Économiquement actifs." enqueteplus.com [online] July 6, 2013 [cited January 15, 2015]; http://www.enqueteplus.com/content/lutte-contre-le-travail-des-enfants-au-s%C3%A9n%C3%A9gal-37-des-enfants-sont-%C3%A9conomiquement-actifs.

88.       Government of Senegal. Matrice : Plan d’Action National 2015-2017. Dakar, Cellule Nationale de Lutte Contre la Traite des Personnes; 2015. [Source on file].

89.       Government of Senegal. La bourse de sécurité familiale. Dakar; April 8, 2013. https://www.gouv.sn/La-bourse-de-securite-familiale.html.

90.       World Bank. Project Paper on a Proposed Project Restructuring of the Social Safety Net Project to the Republic of Senegal. Washington, DC; August 11, 2016. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/804591472263248395/pdf/IDAR2016-0211-PP-08122016.pdf.

91.       World Bank. Senegal Safety Net operation (P133597). Implementation Status & Results Report. Washington, DC; June 22, 2016. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/660321468294658949/pdf/PIDISDS-APR-Print-P156160-05-13-2016-1463164581224.pdf.

92.       Government of Senegal. Senegal Bourse Familiale. General Delegation for Social Protection, 2016. https://transfer.cpc.unc.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/27-Senegal-Bourse-Familiale.pdf.

93.       Norris, C. Mid-term Review of Civil Society Challenge Fund project 518: Project to end forced Child begging in Senegal. London, Anti-Slavery International; 2013. http://www.antislavery.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/talibes-project-midterm-review-2013.pdf.

94.       Anti-Slavery International. Project on Forced Child Begging of Talibés in Senegal, [Web page] [cited December 22, 2015]; http://www.antislavery.org/english/what_we_do/child_slavery/forced_child_begging_in_senegal.aspx.

Download ILAB's Sweat & Toil app today. #endChildLabor