Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Senegal

Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Senegal

2014 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Minimal Advancement

In 2014, Senegal made a minimal advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Government convened a tripartite workshop to revise its laws concerning the worst forms of child labor, and the National Task Force Against Trafficking in Persons (CNLTP) designed a national database to collect data on human trafficking. However, children in Senegal continue to engage in child labor in agriculture and in the worst forms of child labor in forced begging. Senegalese laws do not fully protect children from child labor, and enforcement agencies lack adequate resources to effectively carry out their work. Furthermore, the responsibility for enforcing child labor laws is spread over several ministries, and redundancy among interagency bodies impedes effective implementation of efforts.

 

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Children in Senegal are engaged in child labor, including in agriculture. Children are also engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including in forced begging.(1-4) Table 1 provides key indicators on children's work and education in Senegal.

Table 1. Statistics on Children's Work and Education

Working children, ages 5 to 14 (% and population):

10.3 (377,148)

Working children by sector, ages 5 to 14 (%)

 

Agriculture

85.9

Industry

3.2

Services

10.9

School attendance, ages 5 to 14 (%):

54.8

Children combining work and school, ages 7 to 14 (%):

5.2

Primary completion rate (%):

60.5

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2012, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2015.(5)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children's Work Project's analysis of statistics from Deuxième Enquête de Suivi de la Pauvreté au Sénégal (ESPS-II) Survey, 2011.(6)

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children's work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children's Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Herding cattle* (2, 3)

Fishing,* activities unknown (1-3)

Farming,* including the production of millet,* corn,* and peanuts* (2, 7-9)

Industry

Washing ore and carrying water and heavy loads† while mining gold and salt,* and quarrying rock * (2, 7, 8, 10-14)

Services

Domestic work (1, 2, 7-10, 15)

Work in tailoring shops,* metal and woodworking shops,* and garages* (2, 3, 7)

Street vending (2, 9, 16-18)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Domestic work, mining gold,* and farming,* sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1, 8, 14, 15, 19, 20)

Commercial sexual exploitation as a result of human trafficking* (1, 8, 9, 20, 21)

Forced begging, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2, 7-10, 20, 22-25)

Used in illicit activities, including in the production of drugs* (18)

Forced labor in garbage collection* (2, 26, 27)

* Evidence of this activity is limited and/or the extent of the problem is unknown.
† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

In Senegal, it is a traditional practice to send boys to Koranic schools, called daaras, for education. However, instead of receiving an education, many students, known as talibés, are forced to beg by their teachers, known as marabouts.(2, 25, 28) The marabouts take the talibés' earnings and often beat those who fail to meet the daily quota.(8, 10, 25, 28) The talibés often live in overcrowded, unsanitary conditions; receive inadequate food and medical care; and are vulnerable to physical and sexual abuse.(25, 27) They typically come from rural areas within Senegal and from neighboring countries, sometimes as a result of human trafficking.(8, 25, 29, 30) A 2013 census of daaras in the Dakar region conducted by the Ministry of Justice found that almost 30,000 of the nearly 55,000 talibés are forced to beg.(7, 20, 31, 32) Both UNICEF and the Ministry of Labor, Social Dialogue, and Institutional Relations (MOL) stress the need to conduct assessments outside the Dakar region to determine whether an increase in daara enrollment has also led to an increase in forced begging.(7)

Access to education in Senegal may be limited by the unavailability of schools and the lack of resources, particularly in rural areas.(9, 18, 33) There are also not enough teachers in Senegal, and both students and teachers are frequently absent.(9, 33, 34) School-related fees and competing economic opportunities further undermine the incentives for poor families to send their children to school.(2, 9, 15) Additionally, students who do not have birth registration certificates are unable to take primary school exit exams.(34) Some girls reportedly leave school after being sexually harassed by school staff, or as a result of early pregnancy.(2, 9)

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Senegal has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

The Government has established laws and regulations related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 4).

Table 4. Laws and Regulations Related to Child Labor

Standard

Yes/No

Age

Related Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Article L. 145 of the Labor Code (35)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 1 of Ministerial Order N° 3749 Determining and Prohibiting the Worst Forms of Child Labor; Article 1 of Ministerial Order N° 3750 Determining the Types of Hazardous Work Prohibited for Children and Youth; Article 1 of Ministerial Order N° 3751 Determining the Categories of Business and Work Prohibited to Children and Youth (36-38)

Prohibition of Hazardous Occupations and/or Activities for Children

Yes

 

Article 2 of Ministerial Order N° 3749 Determining and Prohibiting the Worst Forms of Child Labor; Article 2 of Ministerial Order N° 3750 Determining the Types of Hazardous Work Prohibited to Children and Youth; and Article 2 of Ministerial Order N° 3751 Determining the Categories of Business and Work Prohibited to Children and Youth (36-38)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article L. 4 of the Labor Code; Article 2 of Ministerial Order N° 3749 Determining and Prohibiting the Worst Forms of Child Labor (35, 38)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 1 of Law N° 2005-06 Concerning the Fight Against Trafficking in Persons and Similar Practices and the Protection of Victims (39)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 2 of Ministerial Order N° 3749 Determining and Prohibiting the Worst Forms of Child Labor; Articles 323 and 324 of the Penal Code (38, 40)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 2 of Ministerial Order N° 3749 Determining and Prohibiting the Worst Forms of Child Labor (38)

Minimum Age for Compulsory Military Recruitment

No*

 

 

Minimum Age for Voluntary Military Service

Yes

18

Article 19 of Law N° 2008-28 (41, 42)

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

16

Article 3 of Law N° 2004-37 (43)

Free Public Education

Yes

 

Article 3 of Law N° 2004-37; Articles 21 and 22 of the Constitution (43, 44)

* No conscription (42)

The laws governing hazardous work, Ministerial Orders N° 3750 and 3751, allows boys under age 16 to work in underground mines and quarries if they are doing "light work," such as sorting and loading ore, handling and hauling trucks within specified weight limits, or handling ventilation equipment.(17, 36, 37, 45).

Article 245 of the Penal Code prohibits begging, with the exception of individuals who solicit alms as part of their religious traditions. Law N° 2005-06 Concerning the Fight Against Trafficking in Persons and Similar Practices and the Protection of Victims criminalizes profiting from forcing others to beg.(39, 40) There is currently a draft law to improve regulation of daaras, and a draft amendment to the Labor Code before the national assembly.(22, 25, 27, 46) The revision of the Labor Code includes an amendment raising the minimum age of work from 15 to 16, establishes harsher penalties for subjecting children to the worst forms of child labor, and extends protections of trade unions to children.(42, 47) Additionally, the Government convened a tripartite workshop to revise Ministerial Orders N° 3749 — 3751 concerning the worst forms of child labor.(16)

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The Government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 5).

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor, Social Dialogue, Professional Organizations, and Institutional Relations (MOL)

Enforce child labor laws in the formal sector, which include state-owned corporations, private enterprises, and cooperatives, through the Labor Inspections Office and by using social security inspectors.(7, 26, 30) In the case of the Child Labor Unit, maintain a database of child labor violations, and monitor and evaluate child labor activities.(3, 29)

Ministry of Justice

Enforce all laws, including those on child trafficking and forced labor, and prosecute violations.(7) Houses the Department of Correctional Education and Social Protection, which provides legal protection to children, organizes prevention initiatives, and oversees rehabilitation of children who are in conflict with the law. Operates protection centers, social rehabilitation centers, and multipurpose centers.(1)

Ministry of the Interior and Public Security

Arrest perpetrators of the worst forms of child labor.(7) In the case of the Children's Unit, specialize in child protection within the city of Dakar. In the case of the Vice Squad, combat the commercial sexual exploitation of children, particularly related to tourism.(1) In the case of the local police and national police, intervene in cases of forced labor and report cases involving children to the Children's Unit.(1, 7, 42)

Office of the President's Coordination Unit for the Fight Against Child Labor

Contribute to the creation and implementation of child protection policies, and develop a national system for collecting and disseminating data about vulnerable children.(1, 7)

Ministry of Women, Family, and Children

Contribute to the creation and implementation of child protection policies, and implement services to victims of exploitative child labor practices.(48) Operate a toll-free child protection line through which the public can report child labor abuses.(1, 8, 25, 49)

Law enforcement agencies in Senegal took actions to combat child labor, including its worst forms.

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2014, the MOL employed 80 labor inspectors and investigators, which is insufficient to adequately enforce labor laws throughout the country. None of the inspectors are dedicated solely to child labor issues and they are not required to check for child labor violations during inspections.(7) New inspectors received training in international labor standards, including child labor issues, and Regional Inspectorates received a refresher training from the Directorate General of Labor and Social Security during the reporting period. ILO officials; UNICEF; and the Ministry of Women, Family, and Children have indicated that the training is adequate.(3, 7) Article L. 197 of the Labor Code permits inspectors to conduct unannounced visits to establishments under their purview, which excludes private homes and private farms.(7, 35) Article L. 241 of the Labor Code grants inspectors the authority to assess penalties for minor offenses.(35, 42) However, inspectors rarely assess penalties due to a lack of detailed legislation on enforcement; judges typically determine penalties for violations.(47) Inspections are not proactively planned and are focused primarily on the formal sector, while most children are employed in the informal sector. No inspections were conducted during the reporting period for the purpose of enforcing child labor laws.(7) No violations were found, nor were there any penalties issued or fines collected during the reporting period. Child labor violations are resolved through conciliation at the Labor Inspectorate or are referred to a tribunal for judgment.(7) Government officials, UNODC, UNICEF, and local NGOs have stated that existing penalties may not be severe enough to deter employers from exploiting children in the workplace, particularly since penalties are rarely enforced.(7) The number of calls related to child labor made to the Ministry of Women, Family, and Children's hotline is not known.

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2014, the Children's Unit within the police force employed three agents and its territorial jurisdiction was limited to Dakar.(1, 42) In addition, the Ministry of Education's daara inspectorate employs eight full-time staff, including two inspectors.(27) Although other police stations in Senegal are expected to report cases involving children to the Children's Unit, research found no evidence that this occurs regularly; the number of dedicated inspectors is also insufficient, given the scope of the problem.(1, 49) The National Task Force Against Trafficking in Persons (CNLTP) partnered with other organizations to provide several training sessions for law enforcement and judicial officials, to improve the enforcement of Law N°2005-06 Concerning the Fight Against Trafficking in Persons and Similar Practices and the Protection of Victims.(20) However, the CNLTP did not have the resources to fund training sessions themselves.(47) During the reporting period, 100 boys were withdrawn from situations of forced begging and were reunited with their families.(7) Additionally, the Government convicted three individuals for human trafficking.(20) No statistics are available on the total number of investigations, prosecutions, convictions, or penalties assessed as a result of these crimes. There is no formal referral mechanism between law enforcement and social service providers, although the Minors Brigade frequently places children in police custody in shelters.(50)

With few exceptions, daaras are not subject to government regulation or inspection, since they are private institutions. The Government has been reluctant to create legislation to regulate daaras for fear of losing the support of powerful Muslim leaders or appearing to attack Islamic education.(22, 25, 27, 46) The Government reports that existing laws are sufficient to effectively prosecute and punish individuals who use talibés for personal profit.(22, 25, 27, 46) However, the courts have had limited success in applying existing laws prohibiting forced begging, partly because some courts and law enforcement officials are not aware that applying Law N° 2005-06 is not in conflict with the Penal Code.(47) Prosecutions under Law N° 2005-06 have been almost nonexistent, despite widespread evidence of forced begging by talibés.(22, 25, 27, 46) Criminal laws related to child labor are rarely enforced in practice, especially those against forced begging.(3, 22, 49)

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The Government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor, including its worst forms (Table 6).

Table 6. Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role & Description

National Committee Against Child Labor

Coordinate initiatives to address child labor, including the National Action Plan on the Prevention and Abolition of Child Labor in Senegal. Chaired by MOL and includes employers' organizations, 20 government ministries, religious leaders, international agencies, and governors of various regions.(7, 29, 49-52)

Inter-Ministerial Commission

Coordinate implementation of the National Strategy on Child Protection and its related action plan.(7)

National Task Force Against Trafficking in Persons, in Particular Women and Children (CNLTP)

Report on human trafficking in Senegal; coordinate the implementation of the National Action Plan on Combating Trafficking in Persons and other efforts to prevent human trafficking, prosecute perpetrators, and protect victims.(19, 42, 53, 54) In 2014, organized several public events to raise awareness of human trafficking issues, including an awareness campaign march in The Gambia; designed a national database to collect data on trafficking.(20)

Senegalese Human Rights Committee

Coordinate human rights entities and make recommendations on laws related to human rights.(1, 55) Independent advisory body that promotes human rights and evaluates the human rights situation in Senegal.(1) Operates with an annual budget of approximately $125,000 and coordinates government submissions to the UN and the African Union.(54) Composed of 29 members including government entities, private sector organizations, and NGOs.(1, 55)

The Inter-Ministerial Commission met in 2014, but its activities were limited by a lack of funding.(7, 20) Redundancy among the activities of the coordinating bodies also creates confusion and hinders effective collaboration and implementation of efforts.(1, 25) The National Committee Against Child Labor was inactive during 2014.(42, 52) The CNLTP, also faced funding constraints that limited the scope of their efforts.(20)

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The Government of Senegal has established policies related to child labor, including its worst forms (Table 7).

Table 7. Policies Related to Child Labor

Policy

Description

National Action Plan on the Prevention and Abolition of Child Labor in Senegal (PCNPETE) (2012–2016)

Aims to raise awareness of child labor issues, reinforce the capacity of law enforcement officials and civil society organizations, and improve the legal framework on child labor, including its worst forms.(3, 16, 22, 54, 56-58) Aims to increase educational and training opportunities for youth, implement pilot cash transfer program by 2016; includes a budget of approximately $2.7million.(13, 16, 56) In 2014, focused on strengthening the capacity of labor inspectors.(7, 16)

National Strategy on Child Protection

Addresses child protection through a national body to coordinate social policy with relevant ministries. Specifically identifies the issue of child begging and the need to enforce laws and policies to protect children from forced begging.(3, 27) Includes an action plan with a recommended budget of $18million.(3)

National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Human Beings (2012–2014)

Aims to strengthen the legal framework to prevent human trafficking, effectively implement laws, provide protection and care for victims, and strengthen social and educational initiatives for vulnerable children. Implemented by the CNLTP.(1, 20)

National Strategy for Economic and Social Development (SNDES) (2013–2017)*

Includes goals such as promoting youth employment and entrepreneurship, increasing access to social services such as education and health services, and improving the quality of education. Establishes a 10-year education cycle and commits to increasing employment opportunities for youth.(33) The 10-Year Education and Training Program (2012-2025) included in the SNDES aims to improve the education system by mobilizing human and financial resources to enhance educational quality, improve physical infrastructure, and promote vocational training.(9, 33)

National Framework Plan for the Eradication of Child Begging (2013–2015)

Aims to combat child begging by regulating daaras, providing services to children removed from the street, and enforcing penalties for individuals who force children to beg.(3, 22, 27, 54)

* Child labor elimination and prevention strategies do not appear to have been integrated into this policy.

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In 2014, the Government of Senegal funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor, including its worst forms. The Government has other programs that may have an impact on child labor, including its worst forms (Table 8).

Table 8. Social Programs to Address Child Labor

Program

Description

Project to Fight Against Trafficking and the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2002–2016)‡

Ministry of Women, Family, and Children program that aims to enhance government capacity to design and implement local initiatives to address child trafficking and other worst forms of child labor, particularly forced begging and commercial sexual exploitation.(29) Technical monitoring committees at the local level that are composed of public and private stakeholders oversee implementation of the project, which includes the creation of a support fund to finance activities proposed by local committees.(1, 29)

National Program of Family Assistance Bursaries (2013–2017)*‡

Part of PCNPETE, a government social safety net program that provides $200 annually to 250,000 vulnerable families with children ages 6 to 12 throughout Senegal to strengthen livelihoods and improve educational outcomes.(16, 54, 59) Total budget for this program was approximately $18 million in 2014, an increase of $8 million since 2013.(3, 7)

Daara Mapping Project‡

Project led by the Ministry of Justice and the CNLTP, that seeks to map all daaras located in Dakar to determine which need to be shut down as part of the effort to modernize daaras.(19, 20, 22, 27) Implemented under the auspices of the National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Human Beings.(22) Results were presented and validated in 2014.(20)

Partnership for the Rescue and Rehabilitation of Street Children

Government and NGO program that aims to integrate Koranic schools into the public education system and discourage children from begging through a pilot program for 2011-2014.(22) Partners comprising government officials, NGOs, private-sector entities, religious organizations, and the media provide social services to vulnerable children, particularly talibés, and conduct awareness-raising campaigns.(23, 25, 46)

Interagency Program for Improving the Situation of At-Risk Children in Senegal (2009–2014)

$1.8 million ILO and UNICEF-funded, 5-year program that provides school supplies, vocational training, and assistance with school enrollment directly to victims of the worst forms of child labor.(57, 60, 61) Conducts awareness-raising activities and provides information and training on relevant ILO conventions to local authorities. Also includes a pilot system for observing and monitoring child labor in the rural community of Ngoudiane.(57, 60)

Eliminating the Worst Forms of Child Labor in West Africa and Strengthening Sub-Regional Cooperation through ECOWAS I & II

USDOL-funded regional projects that supported ECOWAS to strengthen its role in combating the worst forms of child labor in the West Africasubregion by providing policy and capacity-building support for all ECOWAS states.(62, 63)

ECOWAS Regional Action Plan on Child Labor (2012–2015)

Aims to eliminate worst forms of child labor in West Africa by 2015 through the implementation of a regional action plan with 14 other ECOWAS countries.(64) In 2014, met to discuss actions taken since Ghana's 2013 Peer Review, progress of the Regional Action Plan's implementation, and the ILO's Study on "Child Labor and Educational Marginalization in West Africa."(65, 66)

Ginndi Center‡

Ministry of Women, Family, and Children-run shelter that serves abused and vulnerable children, including runaway talibés, street children, and child trafficking victims, with an annual operating budget of approximately $73,000.(1, 27, 49) Provides shelter, food, education, vocational training, family mediation, and medical and psychological care.(1, 8, 20, 23)

Prevention and Elimination of Child Labor in West Africa (2009–2014)

$5.4 million Government of Spain-funded, 5-year program in four countries in West Africa that aims to contribute to the progressive elimination of child labor, and to the prevention and immediate elimination of the worst forms of child labor through a systemic and sustainable response by the public and private sectors and by civil society.(61)

Education and Family Life‡

Government project in daaras, which trains Koranic teachers and talibés on the rights of the child and focuses on improving living conditions and quality of education in daaras.(1)

* The impact of this program on child labor does not appear to have been studied.
‡ Program is funded by the Government of Senegal.

Given the rising number of talibés engaged in forced begging, the scope of current government programs and shelters is insufficient to fully address the extent of the problem.(25, 27, 57) Additionally, research found no evidence that the Government has carried out programs to assist children in domestic work, agriculture, or mining during the reporting period.

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Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor, including its worst forms, in Senegal (Table 9).

Table 9. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor, Including its Worst Forms

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that all children under age 18 are prohibited from engaging in hazardous occupations or activities, including in underground mines and quarries.

2009–2014

Enforcement

Strengthen enforcement of child labor laws by:

  • Increasing the number of labor inspectors responsible for enforcing laws related to child labor in order to provide adequate coverage of the workforce;

  • Expanding the territorial jurisdiction of the Children's Unit and training additional agents as necessary to enforce child labor laws throughout the country; and

  • Disaggregate the number of calls related to child labor that are made to the child protection hotline.

2010–2014

Ensure that penalties are severe enough to deter violations of child labor laws, and that all the laws related to the worst forms of child labor are adequately and evenly enforced, including those against forced begging.

2010–2014

Make statistics regarding the enforcement of child labor laws publically available, including the number of inspections, prosecutions, violations, and citations/penalties.

2013–2014

Establish a formal referral mechanism between law enforcement and social service providers.

2014

Ensure that judges and law enforcement officials receive training in how to apply the laws regarding forced begging.

2014

Coordination

Ensure the effectiveness of coordinating mechanisms on child labor by:

  • Defining distinct scopes of responsibility;

  • Providing adequate funding and resources to relevant bodies; and

  • Reactivating the National Committee Against Child Labor.

2010–2013

Government Policies

Integrate child labor elimination and prevention strategies into the National Strategy for Economic and Social Development (SNDES).

2013–2014

Social Programs

Ensure all children have access to education, including by:

  • Increasing educational opportunities in rural areas by building schools and training additional teachers;

  • Eliminating school-related fees or expand the National Program of Family Assistance Bursaries program to offset the cost of education for a greater number of families;

  • Ensuring all children have access to birth registration; and

  • Expanding programs to address the issues that serve as a barrier to girls' education, such as sexual harassment in schools and early pregnancy.

2011–2014

Assess the impact that existing programs may have on child labor.

2013–2014

Establish additional shelters and develop or expand programs to combat the worst forms of child labor, including in domestic work, agriculture, and mining.

2010–2014

 

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1.UN Special Rapporteur on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution, and Child Pornography. Mission to Senegal. New York, UN Human Rights Council; December 28, 2010.

2.U.S. Department of State. "Senegal," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2013. Washington, DC; February 27, 2014;.

3.U.S. Embassy- Dakar. reporting, February 5, 2014.

4."Le rapport 2012 sur le travail des enfants au Sénégal publié." [online] February 2013 [cited December 2, 2013];.

5.UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary. Total. [accessed January 16, 2015] . Data provided is the gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary school. This measure is a proxy measure for primary completion. For more information, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.

6.UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Deuxième Enquête de Suivi de la Pauvreté au Sénégal (ESPS-II), 2011. Analysis received January 16, 2015. Reliable statistical data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms. As a result, statistics on children's work in general are reported in this chart, which may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on sources used, the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" section of this report.

7.U.S. Embassy - Dakar. reporting, January 20, 2015.

8.U.S. Department of State. "Senegal," in Trafficking in Persons Report- 2014. Washington, DC; June 20, 2014;.

9.UNICEF. Situation des enfants au Sénégal: Une analyse des évolutions récentes pour une société plus équitable pour les enfants.; May 2013.

10.Diatta, JM. "Afrique: Mendicité des enfants, emploi domestique, exploitation dans les mines - Les pires formes de traite des etres humains." [online] July 31, 2014 [cited January 15, 2015];.

11.UNODC official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. January 15, 2014.

12.UNODC official. reporting, January 15, 2014.

13.ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Senegal (ratification: 2000) Published: 2014; accessed April 8, 2014;.

14.Barroux, R. "Au Sénégal, l'enfer des mines d'or pour des centaines d'enfants." Le Monde, Khalakhéna, Sénégal, June 16, 2014.

15.Shryock, R. Senegalese girls forced to drop out of school and work as domestic help, UNICEF, [online] November 16, 2010 [cited March 18, 2013];.

16.ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Senegal (ratification: 1999) Published: 2014; accessed October 28, 2014;.

17.ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Senegal (ratification: 1999) Published: 2012; accessed February 3, 2014;.

18.ILO-IPEC. The Worst Forms of Child Labor in Conflict and Post Conflict Settings: Results from a research project. Geneva; 2010.

19.U.S. Embassy- Dakar. reporting, February 14, 2014.

20.U.S. Embassy- Dakar. reporting, February 17, 2015.

21.ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Senegal (ratification: 2000) Published: 2011; accessed February 6, 2013;.

22.ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Senegal (ratification: 2000) Published: 2014; accessed April 8, 2014;.

23.ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Senegal (ratification: 2000) Published: 2013; accessed December 2, 2013;.

24.UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 9 of the Convention: Concluding Observations: Senegal. Geneva; August 31, 2012. Report No. CERD/C/SEN/CO/16-18.

25.Human Rights Watch. Off the Backs of Children: Forced Begging and Other Abuses against Talibes in Senegal. New York; April 2010.

26.U.S. Embassy- Dakar. reporting, March 10, 2010.

27.Human Rights Watch. Exploitation in the Name of Education: Uneven Progress in Ending Forced Child Begging in Senegal; March 2014.

28.Hussain, M. "Senegalese children forced to beg by renegade teachers' betrayal of principle." The Guardian, London, December 11, 2012; Global Development.

29.U.S. Embassy- Dakar. reporting, March 2, 2011.

30.U.S. Embassy- Dakar. reporting, March 8, 2010.

31.Lazuta, J. "HRW: Senegal Must Crack Down on Quranic Schools' Forced Begging." [online] March 19, 2014 [cited 2014];.

32.Integrated Regional Information Networks. "Scant Progress on Senegal's Talibé Problem." [online] March 21, 2014 [cited October 28, 2014];.

33.IMF. Senegal: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper. Washington, DC; July, 2013. Report No. No. 13/194.

34.Sidy, A. "Pauvrete, travail precoce, malnutrition, exclusion du systeme educatif, etc. : Le Sénégal peine à bercer ses enfants." Walfadjiri, Dakar, March 13, 2013; En ville & en dehors.

35.Government of Senegal. Code du Travail, Loi n°97-17, enacted December 1, 1997..

36.Government of Senegal. Arrêté ministériel n° 3750 MFPTEOP-DTSS en date du 6 juin 2003, fixant la nature des travaux dangereux interdits aux enfants et jeunes gens, enacted June 6, 2003.

37.Government of Senegal. Arrêté ministériel n° 3751 MFPTEOP-DTSS en date du 6 juin 2003, enacted June 6, 2003.

38.Government of Senegal. Arrêté ministériel n° 3749 MFPTEOP-DTSS en date du 6 juin 2003, enacted June 6, 2003.

39.Government of Senegal. Loi n° 2005-06 du 10 mai 2005 relatif a la lutte contre la traite des personnes et pratiques assimilees et a la protection des victimes, enacted May 10, 2005. .

40.Government of Senegal. Code Penal, Loi No. 65-60, enacted July 21, 1965. http://www.justice.gouv.sn/droitp/CODE%20PENAL.PDF.

41.Government of Senegal. Loi n° 2008-28 du 28 juillet 2008, enacted July 28, 2008.

42.U.S. Embassy- Dakar official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 18, 2015.

43.Government of Senegal. Loi n° 2004-37 du 15 Décembre 2004, enacted December 15, 2004.

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