Child Labor and Forced Labor Reports

Senegal

Gold
Gold
Child Labor Icon
Senegal
2017 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor:

Minimal Advancement

In 2017, Senegal made a minimal advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The government drafted regulations for the Law for the Modernization of Daaras. However, children in Senegal engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in forced begging, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Children also perform dangerous tasks in gold mining. Criminal and labor law enforcement agencies lack adequate resources to carry out their work, and redundancy among coordinating bodies to combat child labor hinders effective collaboration. Furthermore, the types of hazardous work prohibited for children do not include domestic work and street work, areas where there is evidence of child involvement.

Children in Senegal engage in the worst forms of child labor, including in forced begging, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. Children also perform dangerous tasks in gold mining. (1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6; 7; 8; 9; 10) Table 1 provides key indicators on children’s work and education in Senegal.

Table 1. Statistics on Children’s Work and Education

Children

Age

Percent

Working (% and population)

5 to 14

22.3 (4,255,365)

Attending School (%)

5 to 14

53.0

Combining Work and School (%)

7 to 14

13.9

Primary Completion Rate (%)

 

58.9

Source for primary completion rate: Data from 2016, published by UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2018. (11)
Source for all other data: Understanding Children’s Work Project’s analysis of statistics from Demographic and Health Survey, 2015. (12)

 

Based on a review of available information, Table 2 provides an overview of children’s work by sector and activity.

Table 2. Overview of Children’s Work by Sector and Activity

Sector/Industry

Activity

Agriculture

Herding cattle (13; 14)

Fishing, activities unknown (13; 14)

Farming, including the production of cotton, rice, peanuts, and mangoes (2; 4; 14; 15)

Industry

Washing ore, crushing rocks, using mercury, and carrying heavy loads† while mining gold, iron, and salt, and quarrying rock (16; 14; 15; 17; 18; 19; 20; 8)

Welding and auto repair (14; 15; 21)

Services

Domestic work (2; 16; 14; 15; 22; 21)

Street work, including vending (2; 14; 23; 24)

Categorical Worst Forms of Child Labor‡

Forced domestic work, gold mining, fishing, and farming, each sometimes as a result of human trafficking (4; 7; 25; 26; 27)

Commercial sexual exploitation, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (2; 7; 20; 28; 29; 27)

Forced begging, sometimes as a result of human trafficking (1; 2; 16; 3; 4; 5; 6; 7) (9; 10; 14; 15; 25; 26; 30; 31; 32; 33)

Forced labor in garbage collection (34)

† Determined by national law or regulation as hazardous and, as such, relevant to Article 3(d) of ILO C. 182.
‡ Child labor understood as the worst forms of child labor per se under Article 3(a)–(c) of ILO C. 182.

 

Children in Senegal are exploited in domestic servitude, forced labor in gold mines, and trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation, particularly internal trafficking. (25; 26; 27) In Senegal, it is a traditional practice to send boys to Koranic schools, called daaras. However, instead of receiving an education, many students, known as talibés, are forced to beg by their teachers, known as marabouts. (5; 9; 26; 35; 36; 37) The marabouts take the talibés’ earnings and often beat those who fail to meet the daily quota. (5; 6; 10; 36; 37) This system enriches marabouts, bringing in over $10 million annually in Dakar alone, according to a recent study by UNODC. (38; 39) The talibés often live in overcrowded, unsanitary conditions, receive inadequate food and medical care, and are vulnerable to physical and sexual abuse. (5; 6; 9; 34; 37; 40) They typically come from rural areas in Senegal and from neighboring countries, sometimes as a result of human trafficking. (5; 6; 35; 37; 41) A 2014 daara-mapping study estimated that 30,000 of the estimated 54,800 talibés in Dakar are forced to beg, and a 2016 study found that 9,000 of the estimated 14,000 talibés in the St. Louis department are also forced to beg. (14; 42; 43; 44; 45; 46; 47; 48; 49; 50)

A variety of factors remain as barriers to education, forcing some students to quit school. These barriers include school-related fees, a lack of birth registration documents, and a lack of both teachers and rural schools. Some girls reportedly quit school due to sexual harassment, including by teachers, and because of early pregnancy. (2; 7; 51; 52; 53; 21)

Senegal has ratified all key international conventions concerning child labor (Table 3).

Table 3. Ratification of International Conventions on Child Labor

Convention

Ratification

ILO C. 138, Minimum Age

ILO C. 182, Worst Forms of Child Labor

UN CRC

UN CRC Optional Protocol on Armed Conflict

UN CRC Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography

Palermo Protocol on Trafficking in Persons

 

The government has established laws and regulations related to child labor (Table 4). However, gaps exist in Senegal’s legal framework to adequately protect children from the worst forms of child labor, including the prohibition of military recruitment by non-state armed groups.

Table 4. Laws and Regulations on Child Labor

Standard

Meets International Standards: Yes/No

Age

Legislation

Minimum Age for Work

Yes

15

Article L. 145 of the Labor Code; Article 6 of the Decree Establishing the Scale of Penalties for Violations of the Labor Code and Associated Rules for Application (54; 55)

Minimum Age for Hazardous Work

Yes

18

Article 1 of the Ministerial Order No. 3749 Determining and Prohibiting the Worst Forms of Child Labor; Article 1 of the Ministerial Order No. 3750 Determining the Types of Hazardous Work Prohibited for Children and Youth; Article 1 of the Ministerial Order No. 3751 Determining the Categories of Business and Work Prohibited to Children and Youth (56; 57; 58)

Identification of Hazardous Occupations or Activities Prohibited for Children

Yes

 

Article 2 of the Ministerial Order No. 3749 Determining and Prohibiting the Worst Forms of Child Labor; Ministerial Order No. 3750 Determining the Types of Hazardous Work Prohibited to Children and Youth; Article 2 of the Ministerial Order No. 3751 Determining the Categories of Business and Work Prohibited to Children and Youth (56; 57; 58)

Prohibition of Forced Labor

Yes

 

Article L. 4 of the Labor Code; Article 2 of the Ministerial Order No. 3749 Determining and Prohibiting the Worst Forms of Child Labor; Article 1 of the Law Concerning the Fight Against Trafficking in Persons and Similar Practices and the Protection of Victims (54; 58; 59)

Prohibition of Child Trafficking

Yes

 

Article 1 of the Law Concerning the Fight Against Trafficking in Persons and Similar Practices and the Protection of Victims (59)

Prohibition of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Yes

 

Article 2 of the Ministerial Order No. 3749 Determining and Prohibiting the Worst Forms of Child Labor; Articles 323 and 324 of the Penal Code (60; 58)

Prohibition of Using Children in Illicit Activities

Yes

 

Article 2 of the Ministerial Order No. 3749 Determining and Prohibiting the Worst Forms of Child Labor (58)

Prohibition of Military Recruitment

 

 

 

State Compulsory

N/A*

 

 

State Voluntary

Yes

18

Article 19 of Law No. 2008-28 (61)

Non-state

No

 

 

Compulsory Education Age

Yes

16

Article 3 of Law No. 2004-37 (62)

Free Public Education

Yes

18

Article 3 of Law No. 2004-37; Articles 21 and 22 of the Constitution (62; 63)

* No conscription (14)

 

In 2017, application decrees were drafted as part of the voluntary Daara Modernization Program to improve regulation of daaras through the Law on the Modernization of Daaras drafted in 2013. (6; 64; 34; 37; 44; 45; 65; 66; 21) Legislation is also pending to establish a Children’s Ombudsman and a Children’s Code; the law has been drafted and presented to the Ministry of Good Governance and Child Protection for revision. (50; 21)

Furthermore, two distinct laws treat issues related to forced begging in a way that may create ambiguity. Although the Law Concerning the Fight Against Trafficking in Persons broadly prohibits forced begging, a provision of the Penal Code permits the seeking of alms for religious purposes on specific days. (8; 58; 67; 68) Government officials, the UNODC, UNICEF, and local NGOs have stated that penalties for child labor violations may not be severe enough to deter employers from exploiting children, particularly because the penalties are rarely enforced. (69) Further, the types of hazardous work prohibited for children do not include domestic work or street work, areas where there is evidence of potential harm to child workers. (14; 56; 57; 58) The light work provisions are also not specific enough to prevent children from involvement in child labor because they do not limit the number of hours per week for light work, determine the activities in which light work may be permitted, or specify the conditions in which light work may be undertaken. (57; 54)

The government has established institutional mechanisms for the enforcement of laws and regulations on child labor (Table 5). However, gaps exist within the operations of the Ministry of Labor, Social Dialogue, Professional Organizations, and Institutional Relations that may hinder adequate enforcement of their child labor laws.

Table 5. Agencies Responsible for Child Labor Law Enforcement

Organization/Agency

Role

Ministry of Labor, Social Dialogue, Professional Organizations, and Institutional Relations (MOL)

Enforce child labor laws through the Directorate General of Labor and Social Security and by using social security inspectors. (69; 70)

Ministry of Justice (MOJ)

Enforce all laws through judicial role, including those on child trafficking, forced child begging, and forced labor, and prosecute violations. (15) Train police and judiciary on laws related to human trafficking and forced begging. (6) Through its Department of Correctional Education and Social Protection, help develop draft texts in the field of social protection and juvenile delinquency; strengthen the capacity of stakeholders to care for children; and share responsibility with the Ministry of Women, Family, and Children (MWFC) to provide services to vulnerable children. (30; 66; 71; 72)

Ministry of the Interior and Public Security

Oversee all law enforcement agencies, including the local and national police officials who investigate cases of human trafficking and forced child begging, and arrest perpetrators of the worst forms of child labor. (15; 25; 73; 74) House the Children’s Unit, located in Dakar, which employs three officers who specialize in child protection, victim identification, and reinsertion. (25; 30; 73) Through its Children’s Unit, receive assistance from the Vice Squad in child protection cases. (75)

Ministry of Women, Family, and Children (MWFC)

Contribute to the creation and implementation of child protection policies, and provide services to victims of exploitative child labor. (76) Operate the Ginddi Center for vulnerable children and a toll-free child protection hotline through which the public can report child labor abuses. (30; 34)

 

Labor Law Enforcement

In 2017, labor law enforcement agencies in Senegal took actions to combat child labor (Table 6). However, gaps exist within the operations of the Ministry of Labor, Social Dialogue, Professional Organizations, and Institutional Relations that may hinder adequate labor law enforcement, including the lack of a formal and reciprocal referral mechanism between labor law enforcement and criminal law enforcement agencies and social services.

Table 6. Labor Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Labor Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Labor Inspectorate Funding

$143,000 (14)

$143,020 (21)

Number of Labor Inspectors

99 (14)

99 (21)

Inspectorate Authorized to Assess Penalties

Yes (14)

Yes (21)

Training for Labor Inspectors

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (14)

Yes (21)

Training on New Laws Related to Child Labor

N/A (14)

N/A (21)

Refresher Courses Provided

No (45)

No (21)

Number of Labor Inspections Conducted

1,931 (45)

Unknown (21)

Number Conducted at Worksites

1,931 (14)

Unknown (21)

Number of Child Labor Violations Found

Unknown (14)

Unknown (21)

Number of Child Labor Violations for which Penalties were Imposed

Unknown (14)

Unknown (21)

Number of Child Labor Penalties Imposed that were Collected

0 (14)

Unknown (21)

Routine Inspections Conducted

Yes (14)

Unknown (21)

Routine Inspections Targeted

Yes (14)

Unknown (21)

Unannounced Inspections Permitted

Yes (14)

Yes (21)

Unannounced Inspections Conducted

Yes (14)

Yes (21)

Complaint Mechanism Exists

No (45)

No (21)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Labor Authorities and Social Services

No (14)

No (21)

 

All new labor inspectors are trained at the National Administration School, which provides a module on the worst forms of child labor and a consultation with members of the National Committee Against Child Labor. (15; 25) The number of labor inspectors is likely insufficient for the size of Senegal’s workforce, which includes over 6 million workers. According to the ILO’s technical advice of a ratio approaching 1 inspector for every 40,000 workers in less developed economies, Senegal should employ roughly 174 inspectors. (77; 78) The MOL acknowledged that the current number of labor inspectors is insufficient; it also noted that a high turnover rate and significant reduction in its funding level had further hindered the labor inspectorate’s capacity to enforce child labor laws. (14; 15)

Research indicates that there is a lack of child labor law enforcement in the informal sector, where most children are employed. This is especially true in the artisanal gold mining sector as most activities take place in the far southeast of the country in the Kédougou region, far from the capital. (64; 15; 51; 70) The entities responsible for enforcing laws against child labor are primarily concentrated in Dakar and Thiès, so enforcement is limited outside of the capital. (6; 79) Article L. 241 of the Labor Code grants inspectors the authority to assess penalties for all offenses; however, they typically do so only for minor offenses and refer the more serious infractions to the courts for determination of penalties. (15; 54; 68) Courts may require violations to be resolved through conciliation at the labor inspectorate or refer cases to a tribunal for judgment. (15) Although the Ginddi Center’s child protection hotline was operational during the reporting period, the total number of calls was unknown. Furthermore, it is not clear how many cases of child labor were identified as a result of these calls. (27)

Criminal Law Enforcement

In 2017, criminal law enforcement agencies in Senegal took actions to combat child labor (Table 7). However, gaps exist within the authority and operations of the criminal law enforcement agencies that may hinder adequate criminal law enforcement, including the lack of knowledge by law enforcement officials and judges on the application of the Law Concerning the Fight Against Trafficking in Persons, and associated penalties including those against forced begging.

Table 7. Criminal Law Enforcement Efforts Related to Child Labor

Overview of Criminal Law Enforcement

2016

2017

Training for Investigators

 

 

Initial Training for New Employees

Yes (14)

Yes (21)

Training on New Laws Related to the Worst Forms of Child Labor

N/A (14)

N/A (21)

Refresher Courses Provided

No (14)

No (21)

Number of Investigations

Unknown (14)

Unknown (21)

Number of Violations Found

Unknown (14)

Unknown (21)

Number of Prosecutions Initiated

Unknown (14)

Unknown (21)

Number of Convictions

Unknown (14)

Unknown (21)

Reciprocal Referral Mechanism Exists Between Criminal Authorities and Social Services

No (14)

No (21)

 

UNODC delivered a training workshop on techniques to investigate human trafficking in March that was attended by 30 judiciary police officers of the criminal investigations division. (29)

The government reported that existing laws are sufficient to prosecute and punish individuals who use talibés for personal profit. (1; 6; 25; 34) However, the courts have had limited success in prosecuting cases related to forced begging, partly due to a perceived lack of political support, cultural norms, and pressure from influential Koranic teachers who support this practice, particularly in rural areas, along with a lack of coordination and resource constraints. (25; 68; 67; 80; 81; 82) In addition, police rarely investigated cases of forced begging or brought them to the courts for prosecution. (45) Finally, although police stations in Senegal are expected to report cases involving children to the Ministry of the Interior and Public Security's Children's Unit, research found no evidence that this occurs regularly. (75; 79)

The government has established mechanisms to coordinate its efforts to address child labor (Table 8). However, gaps exist that hinder the effective coordination of efforts to address child labor, including regard to clarity of institutional mandates.

Table 8. Key Mechanisms to Coordinate Government Efforts on Child Labor

Coordinating Body

Role and Description

National Committee Against Child Labor

Coordinate initiatives, policies, and partnerships with civil society organizations to address child labor. Chaired by the MOL and includes representatives from three ministries, the police, and elected officials. (25; 83; 84)

National Task Force Against Trafficking in Persons (CNLTP)

Report on human trafficking in Senegal, with a focus on women and children; coordinate the implementation of the National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Human Beings and other efforts to prevent human trafficking; prosecute perpetrators; and protect victims. (73; 66; 85; 86; 87) Chaired by the MOJ and employs five staff members. (6; 25; 66)

Inter-Ministerial Commission

Coordinate implementation of the National Strategy on Child Protection and its related action plan. (69)

Office of the President’s Childhood Protection Unit

Coordinate government efforts related to child protection, including through the implementation of the National Strategy on Child Protection. (66; 88) Reports directly to the President of Senegal. (75; 88) Contribute to the creation and implementation of child protection policies, and develop a national system for collecting and disseminating data about vulnerable children. Advocate on behalf of all entities working on issues related to child begging, violence against children, and child labor. (88)

 

The National Task Force Against Trafficking in Persons remains underfunded and research was unable to determine whether any coordinating bodies were active during the reporting period. Redundancy among the activities of the coordinating bodies also creates confusion and obstructs effective collaboration and implementation of efforts. (25; 26; 45; 73; 74; 84)

The government has established policies related to child labor (Table 9). However, policy gaps exist that hinder efforts to address child labor, including lack of policy implementation.

Table 9. Key Policies Related to Child Labor‡

Policy

Description

National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Human Beings (2018–2020)

Aimed to strengthen the legal framework to prevent human trafficking, build capacity by training enforcement officials and working with religious leaders, provide protection and judicial remediation for victims. (25; 89) Implemented by the National Task Force Against Trafficking in Persons (CNLTP) and merged with the Partnership for the Rescue and Rehabilitation of Street Children and the National Framework Plan for the Eradication of Child Begging. (1; 13; 30; 34; 45; 87; 28) In 2017, the government provided $142,265 in funding to CNLTP, an increase from last year’s budget of $88,915, and adopted a new action plan extending until 2020 with wide input from civil society and religious leaders. As part of the policy, trainings of magistrates and police on trafficking issues were also conducted.

National Strategy on Child Protection

Aims to establish an integrated national social protection system and specifically identifies the issue of child begging through an action plan with a recommended budget of $18 million. (13; 34) Implemented through Child Protection Committees (CDPEs), currently established in 24 prefectures, which refer victims to social services and assist law enforcement with reintegrating child trafficking victims. (13; 25; 30) In 2017, as part of the policy, trainings of magistrates and police on trafficking issues were conducted.

‡ The government had other policies that may have addressed child labor issues or had an impact on child labor. (25)

 

In 2017, the First Lady of Senegal, along with other leading figures, made a declaration in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire on child protection, including child trafficking, exploitation, child labor, and all other forms of violence against children. (90; 91)

In 2017, research was unable to determine whether any actions were undertaken to renew the National Action Plan on the Prevention and Abolition of Child Labor in Senegal, which expired in 2016. (1; 13; 23; 92; 93; 94; 45)

In 2017, the government funded and participated in programs that include the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor (Table 10). However, gaps exist in these social programs, including adequacy of programs to address the full scope of the problem.

Table 10. Key Social Programs to Address Child Labor‡

Program

Description

Project to Fight Against Trafficking and the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2013–2019)†

MWFC program that aims to raise awareness about forced begging and assist victims of child labor. (30) In 2017, research was unable to determine whether any actions were undertaken.

National Program of Family Assistance Bursaries (2013–2017)†

Social safety net program that provides conditional cash transfers to vulnerable families who keep their children in school. (15; 23; 87; 95; 96; 97; 98) In 2017, program activities continued.

Daara Modernization Program†

$18.5 million government-funded voluntary program implemented by Tostan and La Rencontre Africaine pour la Défense des Droits d’Homme (RADDHO) that aims to regulate, inspect, and fund daaras and eliminate forced begging. (45; 99; 100; 8) The Ministry of Education signed an accord with the Senegalese Association of Koranic Schools to rehabilitate and equip 90 daaras; its Funds for Koranic Schools program also developed a secular curriculum and works with religious institutions to remove children from street begging and exploitative situations. (30; 70) In 2017, research was unable to determine whether any actions were undertaken.

Ginddi Center†

The MWFC-run shelter serves abused and vulnerable children, including runaway talibés, street children, and child trafficking victims. (3; 30; 34; 70; 71; 74) Provides food, education, vocational training, family mediation, and medical and psychological care. (3; 25; 71; 74)(101) In 2017, research was unable to determine whether any actions were undertaken.

Centers to address child trafficking†

The MOJ runs transit houses in Dakar, Pikine, and Saint-Louis that provide monitoring, education, and rehabilitation and reintegration services for victims of child trafficking. (25) In 2017, research was unable to determine whether any actions were undertaken.

† Program is funded by the Government of Senegal.
‡ The government had other social programs that may have included the goal of eliminating or preventing child labor. (14; 102; 103)

 

Although the Government of Senegal has implemented programs to address child trafficking and forced begging, research found no evidence that the government has carried out programs to assist children in domestic work, agriculture, or mining. (7; 15; 34; 74; 93)

Based on the reporting above, suggested actions are identified that would advance the elimination of child labor in Senegal (Table 11).

Table 11. Suggested Government Actions to Eliminate Child Labor

Area

Suggested Action

Year(s) Suggested

Legal Framework

Ensure that penalties for child labor violations, including the worst forms, are stringent enough to serve as a deterrent.

2014 – 2017

Ensure that the types of hazardous work prohibited for children are comprehensive.

2016 – 2017

Ensure that the law criminally prohibits the recruitment of children under 18 by non-state armed groups.

2016 – 2017

Clarify ambiguity in forced begging provisions in the Penal Code and the Law Concerning the Fight Against Trafficking in Persons to explicitly guarantee that no exceptions can enable a child to be forced to beg.

2017

Ensure that the law’s light work provisions are specific enough to prevent children from involvement in child labor.

2017

Enforcement

Publish information on labor law enforcement efforts related to child labor, including the number of labor inspections conducted, including those at worksites, the number of violations found, penalties imposed and collected, and whether routine inspections are conducted and targeted.

2013 – 2017

Increase the number of labor inspectors responsible for enforcing labor laws, including laws related to child labor to meet the ILO’s technical advice, and ensure adequate labor inspectorate funding.

2010 – 2017

Ensure that labor law enforcement and inspections are carried out in the informal sector and areas outside of the capital region.

2014 – 2017

Establish a mechanism to receive child labor complaints, log all calls to the MWFC child protection hotline, and track cases of child labor for referral to law enforcement or social services providers.

2014 – 2017

Ensure that criminal law investigators and labor inspectors receive refresher training on laws related to the worst forms of child labor.

2016 – 2017

Establish a formal and reciprocal referral mechanism between labor law enforcement and criminal law enforcement agencies and social services.

2016 – 2017

Publish information on the criminal enforcement of child labor laws, including the number of investigations, violations found, prosecutions initiated, and convictions.

2016 – 2017

Coordination

Ensure the effectiveness of coordinating mechanisms on child labor by providing adequate resources, support, and distinct scopes of responsibility so that all coordinating bodies are able to carry out their intended mandates.

2010 – 2017

Government Policies

Adopt a national policy to address child labor.

2016 – 2017

Social Programs

Ensure that all children have access to education by eliminating school-related fees, building schools in rural areas, training additional teachers, ensuring that all children have access to birth registration, and ensuring that schools are free from sexual abuse.

2011 – 2017

Institute programs to address child labor in domestic work, agriculture, and mining, and ensure that adequate funding is available to support existing programs targeting the worst forms of child labor, including forced begging.

2010 – 2017

Undertake activities to support the Project to Fight Against Trafficking and the Worst Forms of Child Labor, Daara Modernization Program, the Ginddi Center, and Centers to address child trafficking.

2017

 

1. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Senegal (ratification: 2000) Published: 2014. Accessed April 8, 2014. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3142838:YES.

2. UNICEF. Situation des Enfants au Sénégal: Une Analyse des Évolutions Récentes pour une Société plus Équitable pour les Enfants. May 2013. [Source on file].

3. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Senegal (ratification: 2000) Published: 2013. Accessed December 2, 2013. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3080733:YES.

4. Brandt, Steven. Trafficking in Child Labor in Ghana and Senegal. 2015. http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1010&context=humtrafcon6.

5. Anadolu Agency. Begging among children growing problem in Senegal. Dailysabah.com. September 15, 2015. http://www.dailysabah.com/life/2015/09/16/begging-among-children-growing-problem-in-senegal.

6. Human Rights Watch. Senegal: Decade of Abuse in Quranic Schools. HRW.org. November 4, 2015. https://www.hrw.org/news/2015/04/20/senegal-decade-abuse-quranic-schools.

7. UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women. Concluding Observations on the Combined Third to Seventh Periodic Reports of Senegal. July 28, 2015: Report No. CEDAW/C/SEN/CO/3-7. http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CEDAW/C/SEN/CO/3-7&Lang=En.

8. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Senegal (ratification: 2000) Published: 2017. Accessed November 10, 2017. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3288698.

9. Traoré, Kardiatou. Sénégal : la mort d’un jeune talibé relance le débat sur le sort des enfants de la rue. Afrik. July 29, 2015. http://www.afrik.com/senegal-la-mort-d-un-jeune-talibe-relance-le-debat-sur-le-sort-des-enfants-de-la-rue.

10. Monégier, P. Sénégal : les enfants talibés des rues de Dakar. Envoyé spécial, Franceinfo. June 12, 2015. http://www.francetvinfo.fr/replay-magazine/france-2/envoye-special/video-senegal-les-enfants-talibes-des-rues-de-dakar_948013.html.

11. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, both sexes (%). Accessed April 18, 2018. http://data.uis.unesco.org/. For more information, please see “Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

12. UCW. Analysis of Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Statistics from National Household or Child Labor Surveys. Original data from Demographic and Health Survey, 2015. Analysis received January 12, 2018. Please see "Children's Work and Education Statistics: Sources and Definitions" in the Reference Materials section of this report.

13. U.S. Embassy- Dakar. Reporting, February 5, 2014.

14. —. Reporting, March 10, 2017.

15. —. Reporting, January 16, 2016.

16. Diatta, Jean Michel. Afrique: Mendicité des enfants, emploi domestique, exploitation dans les mines - Les pires formes de traite des êtres humains. Allafrica.com. July 31, 2014. http://fr.allafrica.com/stories/201407311310.html.

17. UNODC official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. January 15, 2014.

18. ILO Committee of Experts. Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Senegal (ratification: 2000) Published: 2014. Accessed April 8, 2014. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3142835:YES.

19. Barroux, Rémi. Au Sénégal, l’enfer des mines d’or pour des centaines d’enfants. LeMonde.fr. June 16, 2014. http://www.lemonde.fr/planete/article/2014/06/16/au-senegal-l-enfer-des-mines-d-or-pour-des-centaines-d-enfants_4438916_3244.html.

20. U.S. Embassy- Dakar official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 11, 2016.

21. U.S. Embassy- Dakar. Reporting, March 8, 2018.

22. Agence Nationale de la Statistique et de la Démographie, and ICF International. Enquête Démographique et de Santé Continue (EDS-Continue) 2014. Rockville. May 2015. http://www.dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR305/FR305.pdf.

23. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Observation concerning Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) Senegal (ratification: 1999) Published: 2014. Accessed October 28, 2014. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:13100:0::NO::P13100_COMMENT_ID:3142787.

24. Diallo, Mamadou Alpha. Stop au travail des enfants! DW. June 12, 2017. http://www.dw.com/fr/stop-au-travail-des-enfants/a-39206229.

25. U.S. Embassy- Dakar. Reporting, February 29, 2016.

26. Government of Senegal. Rapport Atelier de Planification Stratégique de Lutte Contre la Traite des Personnes 2015-2017. Dakar: Cellule Nationale de Lutte contre la Traite des Personnes. June 2015. [Source on file].

27. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Person Report- 2017: Senegal. Washington, DC. June 27, 2017. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/271344.pdf.

28. U.S. Embassy- Dakar. Reporting, February 17, 2015.

29. UNODC. Senegal is fighting human trafficking and smuggling of migrants. March 26, 2017. https://www.unodc.org/westandcentralafrica/en/2017_03_26_senegal-traite.html.

30. Government of Senegal. Communication sur la Protection et le Promotion des Droits des Enfants Migrants. Geneva: Embassy of the Republic of Senegal. June 23, 2014. http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Migration/GA69thSession/Senegal.pdf.

31. Bengel, Anna. 'Protect our Children' project prevents trafficking of three brothers in Senegal. Free the Slaves. June 6, 2017. https://www.freetheslaves.net/protect-our-children-project-prevents-trafficking-of-three-brothers-in-senegal/.

32. Guilbert, Kieran. Child begging rampant in Senegal despite state crackdown: activists. Reuters. July 11, 2017. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-senegal-trafficking-children/child-begging-rampant-in-senegal-despite-state-crackdown-activists-idUSKBN19W28O.

33. Human Rights Watch. "I still see the talibés begging": Government Program to Protect Talibé Children in Senegal Falls Short. 2017. https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/report_pdf/senegal0717_web_1.pdf.

34. —. Exploitation in the Name of Education: Uneven Progress in Ending Forced Child Begging in Senegal. March 2014. http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/senegal0314_ForUpload.pdf.

35. Daily Mail. Guinea-Bissau smashes child trafficking ring: police. Agence France Presse. March 8, 2015. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/wires/afp/article-2985217/Guinea-Bissau-smashes-child-trafficking-ring-police.html.

36. Elsen, Wouter. Talibé, Journeyman Pictures. December 4, 2015. http://www.journeyman.tv/69416/short-films/talibe-hd.html.

37. Cruz, Mario. The Truth About Child Trafficking in Senegal. Newsweek.com. February 17, 2016. http://www.newsweek.com/senegal-child-trafficking-koranic-boarding-school-daaras-427621.

38. Boutelier, Emile. Talibés: les enfants mendiants du Sénégal, de l'or pour les marabouts. L'Obs. August 15, 2017. https://tempsreel.nouvelobs.com/monde/20170731.OBS2779/talibes-les-enfants-mendiants-du-senegal-de-l-or-pour-les-marabouts.html.

39. Ndiaye, Zakaria. Sénégal: un programme contre la mendicité des enfants. Afrique Actualite. March 14, 2017. http://www.afriqueactualite.com/societe/societe/5945-senegal-un-programme-contre-la-mendicite-des-enfants#.WhMsxLT81E4.

40. Cruz, Mario, and Mirren Gidda. Senegal: School of Knocks. Newsweek.com. June 8, 2016. http://newsweekme.com/senegal-school-of-knocks/.

41. Diallo, Abdoul Malick. Trafic d'Enfants : Plusieurs Véhicules Transportant 48 Enfants Interceptés à la Frontière Guinéo-Sénégalaise. Cridem.org. January 14, 2016. http://www.cridem.org/C_Info.php?article=679603.

42. Agence France-Presse. Senegal Cracks Down on Child Begging. Enca.com. July 23, 2016. http://www.enca.com/africa/senegalese-authorities-aim-to-end-child-begging.

43. Ba, Mehdi. Sénégal : la Décision de Macky Sall de Retirer les Enfants Talibés des Rues sera Difficile à Mettre en Pratique. Jeuneafrique.com. July 13, 2016. http://www.jeuneafrique.com/mag/340256/societe/senegal-decision-de-macky-sall-de-retirer-enfants-talibes-rues-sera-difficile-a-mettre-pratique/.

44. U.S. Embassy- Dakar. Reporting, February 15, 2017.

45. U.S. Embassy- Dakar official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 5, 2017.

46. Guilbert, Kieran. Can Senegal Stop Child Begging Trafficking By Islamic Teachers? Reuters. November 16, 2016. http://news.trust.org/item/20161116095639-ejnrk/.

47. —. Sweeping Child Beggars Off Senegal's Streets. Afreuters.com. July 4, 2016. http://af.reuters.com/article/commoditiesNews/idAFL8N19Q1Y5.

48. Mateso, Martin. Sénégal : le Président Macky Sall s’Attaque à l’Esclavage Moderne des Enfants. Franceinfo. July 8, 2016. http://geopolis.francetvinfo.fr/senegal-le-president-macky-sall-s-attaque-a-l-esclavage-moderne-des-enfants-111527.

49. Government of Senegal. Cartographie des Écoles Coraniques de la région de Dakar. 2014. [Source on file].

50. Human Rights Watch. New Steps to Protect Talibés, Street Children. July 28, 2016. https://www.hrw.org/news/2016/07/28/senegal-new-steps-protect-talibes-street-children.

51. U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2016: Senegal. Washington, DC. March 2, 2017. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265506.pdf.

52. Wal Fadjri. Pauvreté, Travail Précoce, Malnutrition, Exclusion du Systeme Éducatif, etc.: Le Sénégal Peine à Bercer ses Enfants. Seneweb. March 13, 2013. http://seneweb.com/news/Societe/pauvrete-travail-precoce-malnutrition-exclusion-du-systeme-educatif-etc-le-senegal-peine-a-bercer-ses-enfants_n_90549.html.

53. Maillard, Matteo. Les Enfants Fantômes du Sénégal. Le Monde. August 3, 2016. http://www.lemonde.fr/afrique/article/2016/08/03/un-combat-pour-la-vie-3-les-enfants-fantomes-du-senegal_4977772_3212.html.

54. Government of Senegal. Code du Travail, Law No. 97-17. Enacted December 1, 1997. http://www.droit-afrique.com/images/textes/Senegal/Senegal%20-%20Code%20du%20travail.pdf.

55. —. Décret Fixant l’Échelle des Peines de Simple Police Applicables aux Auteurs de Contraventions aux Dispositions du Code du Travail et des Réglements Prévus pour son Application, Decret No. 62-017. Enacted January 22, 1962. [Source on file].

56. —. Arrêté Ministériel n° 3750 MFPTEOP-DTSS en date du 6 juin 2003, Fixant la Nature des Travaux Dangereux Interdits aux Enfants et Jeunes Gens. Enacted June 6, 2003. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/SERIAL/64611/64953/F1229124862/SEN64611.pdf.

57. —. Arrêté Ministériel n° 3751 MFPTEOP-DTSS en date du 6 juin 2003. Enacted June 6, 2003. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/SERIAL/64612/64952/F364251671/SEN64612.pdf.

58. —. Arrêté Ministériel n° 3749 MFPTEOP-DTSS en date du 6 juin 2003. Enacted June 6, 2003. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/SERIAL/64610/64951/F2020269921/SEN64610.pdf.

59. —. Loi n° 2005-06 du 10 mai 2005 Relatif à la Lutte Contre la Traite des Personnes et Pratiques Assimilées et à la Protection des Victimes. Enacted May 10, 2005. http://www.centif.sn/Loi_2005_06.pdf.

60. —. Code Penal, Law No. 65-60. Enacted July 21, 1965. http://www.wipo.int/edocs/lexdocs/laws/fr/sn/sn010fr.pdf.

61. —. Loi n° 2008-28 du 28 Juillet 2008. Enacted July 28, 2008. http://www.jo.gouv.sn/spip.php?article7178.

62. —. Loi n° 2004-37 du 15 Décembre 2004. Enacted December 15, 2004. http://www.jo.gouv.sn/spip.php?article2689.

63. —. Constitution of the Republic of Senegal. Enacted January 22, 2001. [Source on file].

64. U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report- 2016: Senegal. Washington, DC. June 30, 2016. http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2016/index.htm.

65. Government of Senegal. Projet de Loi Portant Statut du «Daara». 2013. http://www.slideshare.net/asfiyahi99/projet-de-loi-statut-daara.

66. U.S. Embassy- Dakar official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 12, 2016.

67. —. E-mail communication to USDOL official. December 9, 2015.

68. —. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 27, 2015.

69. U.S. Embassy- Dakar. Reporting, January 20, 2015.

70. U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2014: Senegal. Washington, DC. June 25, 2015. http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2014humanrightsreport/index.htm#wrapper.

71. Faye, Saliou. La problématique des enfants de rue au Sénégal. Chicoutimi: Université du Québec à Chicoutimi. March 2, 2015. http://classiques.uqac.ca/contemporains/Faye_Saliou/problematique_enfants_de_rue_senegal/problematique_enfants_de_rue_senegal.pdf.

72. Government of Senegal. Demander le placement d'un enfant mineur dans les centres spécialisés. Accessed December 16, 2015. http://www.servicepublic.gouv.sn/index.php/demarche_administrative/demarche/1/367/7/50.

73. U.S. Embassy- Dakar official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. March 18, 2015.

74. —. E-mail communication to USDOL official. January 25, 2016.

75. —. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 12, 2016.

76. Government of Senegal. Décret n° 2014-874 Relatif aux Attributions du Ministre de la Femme, de la Famille et de l'Enfance. Enacted July 22, 2014. [Source on file].

77. CIA. The World Factbook. Accessed March 16, 2018. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2095.html#131. Please see “Labor Law Enforcement: Sources and Definitions” in the Reference Materials section of this report.

78. UN. World Economic Situation and Prospects 2017 Statistical Annex. 2017. https://www.un.org/development/desa/dpad/wp-content/uploads/sites/45/publication/2017wesp_full_en.pdf.

79. Government of Senegal. Cartographie et Analyse des Systèmes de Protection de l'Enfance au Senegal. Dakar, Ministère de la Famille, des Groupements Féminins et de la Protection de l’Enfance; Ministère de la Justice; and Cellule d’Appui à la Protection de l’Enfance. 2011. http://www.unicef.org/wcaro/english/Senegal_Carto_Analyse_Systemes_Prot_Enfant.pdf.

80. Child Rights International Network. Senegal: First steps taken to eradicate forced child begging in Quranic schools. London. August 7, 2015. https://www.crin.org/sites/default/files/senegal_talibes_case_study.pdf.

81. U.S. Embassy- Dakar official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. May 5, 2016.

82. —. E-mail communication to USDOL official. June 23, 2016.

83. U.S. Embassy- Dakar. Reporting, February 5, 2013.

84. U.S. Embassy- Dakar official. E-mail communication to USDOL official. February 18, 2014.

85. U.S. Embassy- Dakar. Reporting, February 15, 2013.

86. —. Reporting, February 14, 2014.

87. UN Human Rights Council. National Report Submitted in Accordance with Paragraph 5 of the Annex to Human Rights Council Resolution 16/21, October 21 - November 1, 2013. 2013. [Source on file].

88. Government of Senegal. Présentation de la CAPE. March 1, 2016. [Source on file].

89. —. Matrice : Plan d’Action National 2015-2017. Dakar, Cellule Nationale de Lutte Contre la Traite des Personnes. 2015. [Source on file].

90. Conference of the First Ladies of West Africa and the Sahel on the Fight Against Child Trafficking, Exploitation, Child Labor, and All Forms of Violence Against Children,. Decleration of the First Ladies of West Africa and the Sahel. October 18, 2017. [Source on file].

91. —. Final Communique. October 18, 2017. [Source on file].

92. Government of Senegal. Plan Cadre National de Prévention et d'Élimination du Travail des Enfants au Sénégal (2012-2016). October 2012. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/94517/110939/F962833257/SEN-94517.pdf.

93. ILO Committee of Experts. Individual Direct Request concerning Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Senegal (ratification: 2000) Published: 2013. Accessed December 2, 2013. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:13100:0::NO:13100:P13100_COMMENT_ID:3080730:YES.

94. EnQuete+. Lutte Contre le Travail des Enfants au Sénégal; 37% des Enfants sont Économiquement actifs. July 6, 2013. http://www.enqueteplus.com/content/lutte-contre-le-travail-des-enfants-au-s%C3%A9n%C3%A9gal-37-des-enfants-sont-%C3%A9conomiquement-actifs.

95. Government of Senegal. La bourse de sécurité familiale. April 8, 2013. https://www.gouv.sn/La-bourse-de-securite-familiale.html.

96. World Bank. Project Paper on a Proposed Project Restructuring of the Social Safety Net Project to the Republic of Senegal. August 11, 2016. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/804591472263248395/pdf/IDAR2016-0211-PP-08122016.pdf.

97. —. Senegal Safety Net operation (P133597). Implementation Status & Results Report. May 9, 2016. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/660321468294658949/pdf/PIDISDS-APR-Print-P156160-05-13-2016-1463164581224.pdf.

98. Government of Senegal. Senegal Bourse Familiale. General Delegation for Social Protection. 2016. https://transfer.cpc.unc.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/27-Senegal-Bourse-Familiale.pdf.

99. Norris, Carolyn. Mid-term Review of Civil Society Challenge Fund project 518: Project to end forced Child begging in Senegal. London, Anti-Slavery International. 2013. http://www.antislavery.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/talibes-project-midterm-review-2013.pdf.

100. Anti-Slavery International. Project on Forced Child Begging of Talibés in Senegal. Accessed December 22, 2015. http://www.antislavery.org/english/what_we_do/child_slavery/forced_child_begging_in_senegal.aspx.

101. VOA. Le combat sans fin pour arracher les enfants du Sénégal à la mendicité. July 27, 2017. https://www.voaafrique.com/a/la-combat-sans-fin-pour-arracher-les-enfants-du-senegal-a-la-mendicite/3961078.html.

102. SeneNews. Lutte contre l’exploitation sexuelle des enfants: le Sénégal et le Luxembourg unissent leurs forces. January 31, 2017. https://www.senenews.com/actualites/lutte-contre-lexploitation-sexuelle-des-enfants-le-senegal-et-le-luxembourg-unissent-leurs-forces_179242.html.

103. World Bank. Senegal Safety Net Operation Implementation Status & Results Report. June 5, 2017. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/161361496670468507/pdf/ISR-Disclosable-P133597-06-05-2017-1496670456135.pdf.